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GiI THIU MN HC
Ging vin: ThS. Nguyn Minh Quang
Email: nguyenminhquang@hui.edu.vn
2
HNH THC NH GI
T
KHNG
T
KHNG T
Hc li
t u
KHNG T
KHNG
T
Hc
li
t
u
T
THI KT
THC MN
MN HC
Thng k
Xt vt
T
THI GIA
MN HC
Hoc
TIU LUN
Hoc
BI TP
TNG HP
3
Ni dung mn hc
STT Ni dung S tit
1 Chng 1: Nguyn l I Nhit ng hc 5
2 Chng 2: Nguyn l II Nhit ng hc 4
3 Chng 3: Cn bng ha hc 3
4 Chng 4: L thuyt cn bng pha 2
5 Chng 5: Cn bng pha h mt cu t 3
6 Chng 6: Cn bng lng hi 4
7 Chng 7: Cn bng lng rn 4
8 Chng 8: Ho keo 5
9 Tng 30
4
Ti liu tham kho
[1] Ch bin, L Th Thanh Hng, Ho l 1,
Trng HCN TpHCM, 12-2008.
[2] o Vn Lng, Ha l 1, NXBGD.
[3] Mai Hu Khim, Ha L 1- Ho keo, Trng
HBK TpHCM.
5
M U
Ho
Ho hu c
Ho v c
Ho phn tch
Ho l
6
M U
Hc ha l l hc ci g?
Nhit
ng
hc
ng
ha
hc
in
ha
hc
Ho
Keo

7
CHNG 1


NHIT NG HA HC
Ni dung
1.1. Khi nim c bn
1.2. Nguyn l 1 nhit ng hc
1.3. Cng v nhit ca cc qu trnh
1.4. i lng nhit dung
1.5. Hiu ng nhit
1.6. nh lut HESS
1.7. nh hng nhit n Hiu ng nhit phn
ng nh lut KIRCHHOFF
8
1.1.1. H
1.1.2. Trng thi
1.1.3. Qu trnh
1.1.4. Ni nng
1.1.5. Cng v nhit
1.1.6. Pha
1.1. Khi nim c bn
9
1.1.1. H
1.1. Khi nim c bn
Phn ng ha hc:
Zn + 2HCl = ZnCl
2
+ H
2
Kho st
Mi trng
Mi trng
Mi trng
Mi trng
10
Khi nim
H l phn vt cht gii hn nghin
cu v phng din trao i nng
lng v vt cht.
Phn vt cht xung quanh gi l mi
trng.
1.1.1. H
1.1. Khi nim c bn
11
Phn loi
H ng th
H d th
H c lp
H on nhit
H m
H kn
1.1.1. H
1.1. Khi nim c bn
12
H ng th
H c cc tnh cht ng nht v khng
c b mt phn chia pha.
Tc l h gm cc cu t cng pha
(trng thi)
V d:
Kho st hn hp khng kh, mt cc nc ng
1.1.1. H
1.1. Khi nim c bn
13
H d th
H c cc phn c cc tnh cht khc
nhau, gia cc phn c b mt phn
chia pha.
Tc l h gm cc cu t khc pha
(trng thi)
V d:
Kho st mt cc nc ang tan.
1.1.1. H
1.1. Khi nim c bn
14
H m (h h)
l h c th trao i c nng lng ln
vt cht vi mi trng ngoi.
V d:
Kho st mt phn ng ha hc trong bnh h:
Zn + 2HCl = ZnCl
2
+ H
2
|
1.1.1. H
1.1. Khi nim c bn
15
H ng (h kn)
l h ch trao i vi mi trng ngoi
nng lng, m khng trao i vt cht.
V d:
Kho st mt phn ng ha hc trong bnh y np:
Zn + 2HCl = ZnCl
2
+ H
2
|
1.1.1. H
1.1. Khi nim c bn
16
H c lp
l h khng trao i c nng lng ln
vt cht vi mi trng ngoi.
Th tch h lun khng i
1.1.1. H
1.1. Khi nim c bn
17
H on nhit
l h khng trao i nng lng vi
mi trng ngoi.
1.1.1. H
1.1. Khi nim c bn
18
Trng thi l tp hp tt c nhng tnh cht nhit
ng ca h.
Trng thi l mt t ni ln c im ca h ang
c kho st.
1.1.2. TRNG THI
1.1. Khi nim c bn
19
Nhit , th tch, p sut, khi lng, ni nng,
nhit dung ring...
Cc i lng ny c gi l bin s trng thi
ca h.
Trng thi h
Quy nh bi cc i lng, bao gm:
1.1.2. TRNG THI
1.1. Khi nim c bn
20
Trng thi ca h s thay i nu t nht c
mt trong nhng bin s trng thi thay i.
Trng thi h
1.1.2. TRNG THI
1.1. Khi nim c bn
21
L nhng thng s khng
ph thuc lng cht.

V d:
- Nhit
- p sut
- Nhit dung
Phn loi thng s trng thi
Ph thuc lng cht

V d:
- Khi lng
- Th tch
- Ni nng
Thng s cng Thng s dung
1.1.2. TRNG THI
1.1. Khi nim c bn
22
Hm trng thi ph thuc vo trng thi u v
cui, khng ph thuc trng thi trung gian.
Hm trng thi
L hm c trng trng thi ca h,
cha cc thng s trng thi.
1.1.2. TRNG THI
1.1. Khi nim c bn
23
Trng thi 1
Trng thi 2
Thay i thng s trng thi
1.1.2. TRNG THI
1.1. Khi nim c bn
24
Khi nim
Khi trng thi ca h thay i ta ni
h thc hin mt qu trnh
1.1.3. QU TRNH
1.1. Khi nim c bn
25
Trng thi 1
Trng thi 2
Thay i
thng s
trng thi
Qu trnh kn hay chu trnh
1.1.3. QU TRNH
1.1. Khi nim c bn
26
Khi nim
Ni nng l tp hp ton b cc dng
nng lng tim tng trong h.
K hiu: U
Bin thin ni nng: AU
1.1.4. NI NNG
1.1. Khi nim c bn
27
Cng v nhit l hai hnh thc trao i nng lng
ca h vi mi trng.
K hiu: Cng A; nhit Q
n v: J hay kJ; Cal hay kCal
Cng v nhit khng phi l hm trng thi nn
ph thuc vo qu trnh m khng ph thuc trng
thi u v cui.
1.1.5. CNG V NHIT
1.1. Khi nim c bn
28
Cng
Thc hin cng v cng nh:
Thc hin cng bin thin th tch V
1
V
2
:
PdV A =
}
=
2
1
V
V
PdV A
1.1.5. CNG V NHIT
1.1. Khi nim c bn
29
Nhit lng Q cn dng a m gam cht A
tng ln mt khong nhit t T
1
n T
2
l:
Nhit
Trong :
c l nhit dung ring (cal/g.K hoc J/g.K)
Q = m.c.AT = m.c.(T
2
- T
1
)
1.1.5. CNG V NHIT
1.1. Khi nim c bn
30
nh ngha
H ng th: h ch c 1 pha
H d th: h gm 2 pha tr ln
Pha l tp hp nhng phn ng nht ca
h c cng tnh cht, cng thnh phn
mi im v c tch bit cc phn khc
bng b mt phn chia pha.
1.1.6. PHA
1.1. Khi nim c bn
31
1.2.1. Ni dung
1.2.2. Biu thc ton hc
1.2. Nguyn l 1 nhit ng hc
32
Ni dung
Trong qu trnh bin i nng lng t
dng ny sang dng khc, nng lng
khng t sinh ra cng khng t mt i, n
ch chuyn t dng ny sang dng khc.
1.2. Nguyn l 1 nhit ng hc
1.2.1. Ni dung nguyn l 1
33
Q = A + AU
Quy c du
H
Nhn nhit, Q > 0 Sinh nhit, Q < 0
Nhn cng, A < 0
Sinh cng, A > 0
1.2. Nguyn l 1 nhit ng hc
1.2.2. Biu thc ton hc
34
1.3.1. Biu thc tng qut
1.3.2. Qu trnh ng tch
1.3.3. Qu trnh ng p
1.3.4. Qu trnh ng nhit
1.3.5. Qu trnh on nhit
1.3. p dng nguyn l 1 cho mt
s qu trnh
35
1.3. p dng nguyn l 1 cho mt s qu trnh
1.3.1. Biu thc tng qut
Cng bin thin th tch V
1
V
2
:
}
=
2
1
V
V
PdV A
Nhit Q, tnh theo nguyn l 1:
Q = A + AU
36
V = hng s = const ng tch
dV = 0
}
=
2
1
V
V
PdV A
m
A = 0
Q
v
= A + AU = AU
1.3. p dng nguyn l 1 cho mt s qu trnh
1.3.2. Qu trnh ng tch
37
P = hng s = const
ng p
}
=
2
1
V
V
PdV A
m
A
p
= P. AV
Q
p
= A + AU = P.AV + AU = A(U + P.V)
H = U + PV: enthalpy
m
Q
p
= AH
1.3. p dng nguyn l 1 cho mt s qu trnh
1.3.3. Qu trnh ng p
38
PV = nRT
A
p
= PAV = An.R.T
Q
p
= AU + P.AV = AU + An.R.T
i vi kh l tng:
1.3. p dng nguyn l 1 cho mt s qu trnh
1.3.3. Qu trnh ng p
39
T = hng s = const
ng nhit
|
|
.
|

\
|
=
|
|
.
|

\
|
= = =
} }
2
1
V
V
1
2
V
V
P
P
ln nRT
V
V
ln nRT dV
V
nRT
PdV A
2
1
2
1
m
PV = nRT
AU = 0
1.3. p dng nguyn l 1 cho mt s qu trnh
1.3.4. Qu trnh ng nhit
40
Q = 0
on nhit
( )
2 2 1 1
V P V P .
1
1
A

=
1.3. p dng nguyn l 1 cho mt s qu trnh
1.3.5. Qu trnh on nhit
41
Bi tp
Bi tp 1
Tnh bin thin ni nng khi bay hi 10g nc
20
o
C. Xem kh l tng v th tch nc lng khng
ng k vi hi. Nhit ha hi ca nc 20
o
C l
2451,824 J/g.
1.3. p dng nguyn l 1 cho mt s qu trnh
42
Bi tp
Bi tp 1
Gii
Nhit cung cp bay hi 10g nc:
Q = m.
ha hi
= 10.2451,824 = 24518,24 (J)
Cng sinh ra ca qu trnh ha hi:
A = PAV = P(V
h
V
l
) = PV
h
= nRT =
= (10/18).8,314.293 = 1353,33 (J)
Bin thin ni nng:
AU = Q A = 23156 (J)
1.3. p dng nguyn l 1 cho mt s qu trnh
43
Bi tp
Bi tp 2 Cu 35, 36, 37, 38 trang 289-290
Cho 450g hi nc ngng t 100
o
C di p sut
1atm. Nhit ha hi ca nc nhit ny bng
539cal/g. Tnh Q, A v AU?
1.3. p dng nguyn l 1 cho mt s qu trnh
44
Bi tp
Gii
Nhit ta ra khi ngng t:
Q = m.
ngng t
= 450.(-539) = -242550 (cal)
Cng ca qu trnh:
A = PAV = P(V
l
V
h
) = -PV
h
= -nRT =
= (450/18).1,987.373 = -18529 (cal)
Bin thin ni nng:
AU = Q A = -224021 (cal)
1.3. p dng nguyn l 1 cho mt s qu trnh
Bi tp 2 Cu 35, 36, 37, 38 trang 289-290
45
Bi tp
Gii
Nhit ta ra khi ngng t:
Q = m.
ngng t
= 450.(-539) = -242550 (cal)
Cng ca qu trnh:
A = PAV = P(V
l
V
h
) = -PV
h
= -nRT =
= (450/18).1,987.373 = -18529 (cal)
Bin thin ni nng:
AU = Q A = -224021 (cal)
1.3. p dng nguyn l 1 cho mt s qu trnh
Bi tp 3 Cu 40, 41 trang 290-291
46
1.4.1. nh ngha
1.4.2. Cc loi nhit dung
1.4.3. Yu t nh hng nhit dung
1.4. NHIT DUNG C
47
Nhit dung ring: Lng cht tnh bng gam th n v l:
J/g.K hay cal/g.K
Nhit dung mol: Lng cht tnh bng mol th n v l:
J/mol.K hay cal/mol.K
L nhit lng cn thit nng nhit
mt lng cht tng ln 1 .
1.4. NHIT DUNG C
1.4.1. nh ngha
48
Biu thc tnh nhit dung thc:
Q
v
c
v
dT
o
=
Q
p
c
p
dT
o
=
Mi quan h: C
p
C
v
= R
Nhit dung ng p:
Nhit dung ng tch:
1.4. NHIT DUNG C
1.4.2. Cc loi nhit dung
Q
c
dT
o
= }
=
2
1
T
T
CdT Q
49
Lu
Cc gi tr thng gp ca R
- R = 0,082 l.atm/mol.K
- R = 1,987 cal/mol.K
- R = 8,314 J/mol.K
1.4. NHIT DUNG C
1.4.2. Cc loi nhit dung
50
[1] Nhit dung tnh theo bn cht cc cht:
- Kh n nguyn t: C
v
= 3/2R
- Kh hai nguyn t : C
v
= 5/2R
- Kh ln hn hai nguyn t: C
v
= 7/2R
- Cht rn v lng: C
v
= EC
i
n
i
C
i
: nhit dung nguyn t.
n
i
: s nguyn t
1.4. NHIT DUNG C
1.4.3. Cc yu t nh hng nhit dung
51
[2] nh hng nhit
- i = 0, 1, 2, -1, -2
- a
i
: hng s thc nghim
C
p
= Ea
i
.T
i
Vi
Tc l:
C
p
= a
0
+ a
1
.T + a
2
T
2
+ a
-1
T
-1
+ a
-2
T
-2
1.4. NHIT DUNG C
1.4.3. Cc yu t nh hng nhit dung
52
BI TP
Bi tp 1
Tnh lng nhit cn thit lm nng chy 90 gam nc 0
o
C v
sau nng ln 25
o
C. Bit nhit nng chy ca nc 0
o
C l
1434,6 cal/mol. Nhit dung nc lng ph thuc vo nhit theo
hm s: C
p
= 7,20 + 2,7.10
-3
T cal/mol.K.
Gii
M hnh qu trnh
90g H
2
O (R) 90g H
2
O (l) 90g H
2
O (l)
0
o
C 0
o
C 25
o
C
Q
1
Q
2
Q = Q
1
+ Q
2
1.4. NHIT DUNG C
53
Bi tp 1 Gii
Q
1
l nhit chuyn pha t rn (90 g nc ) sang lng (nc lng 90g):
Q
1
= m.
ngng t
= n.
ngng t
= (90/18).(1434,6) = 7173 (cal)
Q
2
l nhit nng nhit t 0oC ln 25oC 90g nc lng:
C = const Q
2
= m.C.AT (C = const)

C ph thuc Q
2
=
Tng Q:
Q = Q
1
+ Q
2
= 7173 + 996,4= 8169,4 (cal)
) cal ( 4 , 996 dT ) T 10 . 7 , 2 2 , 7 (
18
90
dT C n
273 25
273 0
3
T
T
p
2
1
} }
+
+

= + =
BI TP
1.4. NHIT DUNG C
54
Bi tp 2
Cho 100g kh CO
2
(xem l tng) 0
o
C v 1,013.10
5
Pa. Xc nh
Q, A, AU v AH? bit C
p
= 37,1 J/mol.K cc trng hp sau:
a. Dn n ng nhit n 0,2m
3
b. Dn ng p ti 0,2m
3
c. un nng ng tch ti khi p sut bng 2,026.10
5
Pa.
Gii
BI TP
1.4. NHIT DUNG C
55
Bi tp 2 Gii
Dn n ng nhit T = const AU
T
= AH = 0
Tnh Q
T
:
a. Dn n ng nhit n 0,2m
3
nRT
PV
ln nRT
V
V
ln nRT A Q
2
1
2
T T
= = =
) J ( 7061
273 . 082 , 0
44
100
10 . 2 , 0 . 1
ln 273 . 314 , 8
44
100
3
= =
AU
T
= AH = 0
Q
T
= 7061 (J)
BI TP
1.4. NHIT DUNG C
56
Bi tp 2 Gii
Dn n ng p P = const
Tnh AH:
b. Dn n ng p n 0,2m
3
|
.
|

\
|
= = = A
nR
PV
nR
PV
nC ) T T ( nC Q H
1 2
p 1 2 p p
Thay vo tnh c: AH = Q
p
= 67469 (J)
A = P.AV = P(V
2
V
1
)
J 15120
1
273 . 082 , 0 .
44
100
10 . 2 , 0 . 1
P
nRT
V . P
3
2
=
|
|
|
|
.
|

\
|
= |
.
|

\
|
=
AU = Q
p
A = 67469 15120 = 42349 J
BI TP
1.4. NHIT DUNG C
57
Bi tp 2 Gii
un nng ng tch V = const
A = P.AV = P(V
2
V
1
) = P.0 = 0
c. un nng ng tch n p sut P = 2,026.10
5
Pa (2atm)

K 546 T .
P
P
T
T
P
T
P
nRT
nRT
V P
V P
1
1
2
2
2
2
1
1
2
1
2 2
1 1
= = = =
AU = Q
v
= n.C
v
(T
2
T
1
)
M C
p
- C
v
= R C
v
= C
p
R = 37,1 8,314 = 28,786 (J/mol.K)
AU = Q
v
= n.C
v
(T
2
T
1
) = 7859 (J)
AH = AU + PAV = 7859 (J)
BI TP
1.4. NHIT DUNG C
58
1.5.1. Khi nim hiu ng nhit phn ng
1.5.2. Phng trnh nhit ha
1.5.3. Hiu ng nhit ng p ng tch
1.5.4. Cc loi hiu ng nhit
1.5. Hiu ng nhit AH
59
L lng nhit trao i vi mi trng khi
phn ng xy ra trong iu kin nhit cht
u v cht cui bng nhau.
V d:
C + O
2
= CO
2
; AH
298
0
= -94,05kcal
1.5. HIU NG NHIT AH
1.5.1. Khi nim hiu ng nhit phn ng
60
L phng trnh ha hc c ghi y trng
thi ca cc cht v hiu ng nhit ca phn
ng.
V d:
C(r) + O
2
(k) = CO
2
(k); AH
298
0
= -94,05kcal
1.5. HIU NG NHIT AH
1.5.2. Phng trnh nhit ha
61
L hiu ng nhit xy ra trong iu kin ng
tch AU v ng p AH.
Quy
c
du
Phn ng thu nhit: AH > 0; AU > 0.
Phn ng ta nhit: AH < 0; AU < 0.
1.5. HIU NG NHIT AH
1.5.3. Hiu ng nhit ng p AH ng tch AU
62
iu
kin
chun
25
o
C, 1atm.
AH
298
0
AU
298
0
Cng thc quan h
H = U + PV AH = AU + PAV = AU + An.R.T
Quan h AH v AU
1.5. HIU NG NHIT AH
1.5.3. Hiu ng nhit ng p AH ng tch AU
63
Cng thc quan h
H = U + PV AH = AU + PAV
Kh: PV = nRT PAV = An.R.T

aA + bB = cC + dD
An = n
sau
n
trc
= (c+d) (a+b)
Quan h AH v AU
1.5. HIU NG NHIT AH
1.5.3. Hiu ng nhit ng p AH ng tch AU
64
Nhit
to
thnh

Mt s loi hiu ng nhit
Nhit
t
chy

Nhit
ha
tan

1.5. HIU NG NHIT AH
1.5.4. Cc loi hiu ng nhit
65
Nhit to thnh
L hiu ng nhit ca phn ng to thnh 1 mol cht t
n cht dng bn vng nhit ng KTC.
K hiu: AH
0
298 tt

n v: kcal/mol hoc kJ/mol
H
2
(k) + 1/2O
2
(k) = H
2
O (k)
V d
AH
0
298 tt
= -57,8 kcal/mol
c
1.5. HIU NG NHIT AH
1.5.4. Cc loi hiu ng nhit
66
Nhit t chy
Nhit t chy mt cht l hiu ng nhit ca phn ng
t chy 1 mol cht vi O
2
to sn phm t chy
KTC.
K hiu: AH
0
298 c

n v: kcal/mol hoc kJ/mol
CH
4
(k) + 2O
2
(k) = CO
2
+ 2H
2
O (k)
V d
AH
0
298 c
= -212,8 kcal/mol
c
1.5. HIU NG NHIT AH
1.5.4. Cc loi hiu ng nhit
67
Nhit ha tan
K hiu: AH
0
298 ht

n v: kcal/mol hoc kJ/mol
Qu trnh ha tan thng thu nhit hoc ta nhit nn hiu ng nhit
ca qu trnh ny ph thuc vo nng ca dung dch.
Mt s khi nim qu trnh ho tan nh sau:
Nhit hoa tan ton phn (tch phn)
Nhit ha tan v cng long
Nhit ha tan vi phn.
1.5. HIU NG NHIT AH
1.5.4. Cc loi hiu ng nhit
68
Nhit ha tan
Nhit ha tan ton phn l nhit ha tan 1mol cht trong mt lng
dung mi xc nh.
Nhit ha tan v cng long l nhit ha tan 1mol cht khi nng
dung dch tin ti 0.
Nhit ha tan vi phn l nhit ha tan 1mol cht trong mt lng v
cng ln dung dch c nng xc nh.
AH
0
298

ht
(HCl.5H
2
O) = -15,308 (Kcal/mol)
V d
AH
0
298

,ht
(HCl/H
2
O) = -17,96 (Kcal/mol)
V d
1.5. HIU NG NHIT AH
1.5.4. Cc loi hiu ng nhit
69
1.6.1. Ni dung nh lut
1.6.2. H qu t nh lut
1.6.3. M rng p dng nh lut HESS
1.6. nh lut HESS
70
Trong qu trnh ng p hoc ng tch, nhit phn ng
ph thuc vo trng thi u v trng thi cui m khng
ph thuc vo cc trng thi trung gian.
Cht phn ng
Sn phm
AH
1
AH
2
AH
3
AH
1
= AH
2
= AH
3
1.6. NH LUT HESS
1.6.1. Ni dung nh lut
71
Cht phn ng
Sn phm
AH
3
AH

AH
4
AH = AH
1
+ AH
2
= AH
3
+ AH
4
+

AH
5
Sn phm 1
Sn phm 2
Sn phm 3
AH
2
AH
1
AH
5
1.6. NH LUT HESS
1.6.1. Ni dung nh lut
72
C (than ch)
CO
2
+ O
2
AH = AH
1
+ AH
2


CO
AH
2
AH
1
V d
AH

+ 1/2 O
2
+ 1/2O
2
AH = -94,05 kcal/mol
AH
1
= -26,42 kcal/mol
AH
2
= -67,63 kcal/mol

M
Vy
1.6. NH LUT HESS
1.6.1. Ni dung nh lut
73
Nhit phn ng nghch bng nhng tri du vi
nhit ca phn ng thun:
H
nghch
= - H
thun

[1] H qu 1
1.6. NH LUT HESS
1.6.2. H qu nh lut HESS
74
V d
Kho st phn ng:
Chiu thun:
H
2
(k) + O
2
(k) H
2
O (k) AH
0
298
= -57,80 kcal/mol
Chiu nghch:
H
2
O (k) H
2
(k) + O
2
(k) AH
0
298
= 57,80 kcal/mol
1.6. NH LUT HESS
1.6.2. H qu nh lut HESS
75
Hiu ng nhit phn ng bng tng nhit to thnh
ca cht cui (sn phm) tr i tng nhit to thnh
cc cht tham gia (c km h s ca phn ng).
H
phn ng
= EAH
tt(Sn phm)
- EAH
tt(cht u)
[2] Tnh hiu ng nhit theo nhit to thnh
1.6. NH LUT HESS
1.6.2. H qu nh lut HESS
76
Kho st phn ng:
aA + bB = cC + dD
H
phn ng
= EAH
tt(Sn phm)
- EAH
tt(cht u)
= [cAH
tt(C)
+ dAH
tt(D)
] - [aAH
tt(A)
+ bAH
tt(B)
]
[2] Tnh hiu ng nhit theo nhit to thnh
1.6. NH LUT HESS
1.6.2. H qu nh lut HESS
77
V d
Kho st phn ng:
CaCO
3
(r) = CaO(r) + CO
2
(k)
AH
tt298
0
, kJ/mol -1206,90 -635,10 -393,50
CaCO
3
CaO + CO
2
Ca + C + O
2
AH
phn ng
AH
ttCO2
AH
ttCaCO3
AH
ttCaO
1.6. NH LUT HESS
1.6.2. H qu nh lut HESS
78
V d
Kho st phn ng:
CaCO
3
(r) = CaO(r) + CO
2
(k)
AH
tt298
0
, kJ/mol -1206,90 -635,10 -393,50
H
phn ng
= EAH
tt(Sn phm)
- EAH
tt(cht u)
= [AH
tt(CO2)
+ AH
tt(CaO)
] - AH
tt(CaCO3)

= 178,3 kJ/mol
p dng cng thc:
1.6. NH LUT HESS
1.6.2. H qu nh lut HESS
79
Hiu ng nhit phn ng bng tng nhit chy
ca cc cht tham gia tr i tng nhit chy
ca cc cht to thnh (c km h s phn
ng).
[3] Tnh hiu ng nhit theo nhit t chy
H
phn ng
= EAH
c(cht u)
- EAH
c(sn phm)
1.6. NH LUT HESS
1.6.2. H qu nh lut HESS
80
V d
Tnh hiu ng nhit ca phn ng t chy sau:
C
2
H
4
+ H
2
O(k) = C
2
H
5
OH
AH
c298
0
, kcal/mol -337,23 0 -326,66
C
2
H
4
+ H
2
O

C
2
H
5
OH

2CO
2
+ 3H
2
O

AH
phn ng
AH
cC2H5OH
AH
cC2H4
1.6. NH LUT HESS
1.6.2. H qu nh lut HESS
81
V d
Tnh hiu ng nhit ca phn ng t chy sau:
C
2
H
4
+ H
2
O(k) = C
2
H
5
OH
AH
c298
0
, kcal/mol -337,23 0 -326,66
H
phn ng
= EAH
c(cht u)
- EAH
c(sn phm)
= AH
c(C2H4)
- AH
c(C2H5OH

= -10,57 kcal/mol
p dng cng thc:
1.6. NH LUT HESS
1.6.2. H qu nh lut HESS
82
T gi tr nhit ha tan tch phn c th tnh c
hiu ng nhit ca qu trnh pha long dung dch t
C
1
n C
2
.

[4] Tnh nhit ha tan v nhit pha long
1.6. NH LUT HESS
1.6.3. M rng p dng nh lut HESS
83
M hnh

[1] Tnh nhit ha tan v nhit pha long
DD C
1

DD C
2
+ dung mi

Cht tan
AH
ht2
AH
ht1
AH
pha long
+ dung mi

+ dung mi

AH
pha long
= AH
ht2
- AH
ht1
1.6. NH LUT HESS
1.6.3. M rng p dng nh lut HESS
84
V d
Tnh nhit pha long dung dch HCl.5H
2
O thnh HCl.10H
2
O? Bit
nhit ha tan ln lc l -15,308 v -16,608 kcal/mol
HCl.5H
2
O
HCl.10H
2
O

HCl
AH
ht2
AH
ht1
AH
pha long
AH
pha long
= AH
ht2
- AH
ht1
= -16,608 (-15,308) = -1,3 kcal/mol

p dng:
1.6. NH LUT HESS
1.6.3. M rng p dng nh lut HESS
85
Nng lng lin kt l nng lng ph v lin
kt. K hiu: E (kcal/mol hay kJ/mol).
Kho st phn ng:
A(k) + B(k) = AB(k)
Nng lng lin kt A B (E
A B
) l s bin i AH theo chiu
nghch.
Vy:
E
A B
= -AH
0
298
[5] Tnh hiu ng nhit qua nng lng lin kt
1.6. NH LUT HESS
1.6.3. M rng p dng nh lut HESS
86
[5] Tnh hiu ng nhit qua nng lng lin kt
M hnh theo nh lut HESS
Cht u
Sn phm

Cc nguyn t t do
EE
lk cui
AH
phn ng
AH
phn ng
= EE
lk u
- EE
lk cui
EE
lk u
1.6. NH LUT HESS
1.6.3. M rng p dng nh lut HESS
87
V d
Tnh hiu ng nhit theo NLLK ca phn ng sau:
C
2
H
4
+ H
2
= C
2
H
6
Bit: E
C=C
= 101,2; E
C-H
= 85,6;
E
H-H
= 103,2; E
C-C
= 62,8 kcal/mol.
AH
pha long
= EE
lk u
- EE
lk cui
= E
C=C
+ 4E
C-H
+ E
H-H
(E
C-C
+ 6E
C-H
) =
= -29,6 kcal/mol
p dng:
1.6. NH LUT HESS
1.6.3. M rng p dng nh lut HESS
88
Bi tp trc nghim
1.6. NH LUT HESS
82 83 90 91 97 98
106 117 118 125 126
133 134
89
1.7.1. nh lut Kirchhoff
1.7.2. ng dng nh lut
1.7. nh lut KIRCHHOFF
90
Xt phn ng nh sau:
aA + bB = dD
AH
phn ng
= H
2
H
1
= dH
D
- (aH
A
+ bH
B
)
Ly o hm hai v, ta c:
=
(
(

|
.
|

\
|
c
c
+ |
.
|

\
|
c
c
|
.
|

\
|
c
c
= |
.
|

\
|
c
A c
p p p p
T
H
. b
T
H
. a
T
H
. d
T
H
= dC
p(D)
- (a.C
p(A)
+ b.C
p(B)
)
1.7. NH LUT KIRCHHOFF
1.7.1. nh lut Kirchhoff
91
Suy ra:
H s nhit hiu ng
nhit ng p v ng tch
v
v
p
p
C
T
U
C
T
H
A =
|
.
|

\
|
c
A c
A =
|
.
|

\
|
c
A c
Pht
biu
nh
lut
H s nhit hiu ng nhit ca phn ng
bng bin thin nhit dung ca phn ng trong
qu trnh .
1.7. NH LUT KIRCHHOFF
1.7.1. nh lut Kirchhoff
92
2
2 1
1
T
T T p
T
H H C dT A = A + A
}
Ngi ta thng ly T
1
= 298K
Cng thc ng dng nh lut Kirchhoff
AC
p
= EC
p(sn phm)
- EC
p(cht u)
Tnh AC
p
1.7. NH LUT KIRCHHOFF
1.7.2. ng dng nh lut Kirchhoff
93
Bi tp
1.7. nh lut KIRCHHOFF
Bi tp 1
25
o
C phn ng tng hp NH
3
nh sau:
N
2
(k) + 3H
2
(k) = 2NH
3
(k)
AH
298
0
tt
, kcal/mol 0 0 -11,04
Cho nhit dung cc cht:
C
p
(N
2
) = 6,65 + 10
-3
T cal/mol.K
C
p
(H
2
) = 6,85 + 0,28.10
-3
T cal/mol.K
C
p
(NH
3
) = 5,92 + 9,96.10
-3
T cal/mol.K
Tnh AH
0
1000
ca phn ng?
94
Bi tp
2
2 1
1
T
T T p
T
H H C dT A = A + A
}
1.7. nh lut KIRCHHOFF
Bi tp 1
Gii
Tnh AH
0
298
: AH
0
298
= 2AH
0
298 (NH3)
(AH
0
298(N2)
+3AH
0
298(H2)
)= -22,08 kcal
Tnh AC
p
: AC
p
= 2C
p(NH3)
(Cp
(N2)
+3C
p(H2)
)= -15,36 + 18,08.10
-3
T.
( )
}

+ + A = A
1000
298
3 0
298 1000
dT T 10 . 08 , 18 36 , 15 H H
AH
0
T
= -22,08 - 15,36.T + 8,04.10
-6
.T
2
(kcal)
T = 1000K AH
0
1000
= (kcal)
95
Bi tp
1.7. nh lut KIRCHHOFF
Bi tp 2
Kho st phn ng p sut khng i sau:
2H
2
(k) + CO(k) = CH
3
OH(k)
AH
298
0
, kJ/mol 0 -110,5 -201,2
Cho nhit dung cc cht:
C
p
(H
2
) = 27,28 + 3,26.10
-3
T J/mol.K
C
p
(CO) = 28,41 + 4,1.10
-3
T J/mol.K
C
p
(CH
3
OH) = 15,28 + 105,2.10
-3
T J/mol.K
Xc nh AH
0
T
298K v 500K?
96
Bi tp
2
2 1
1
T
T T p
T
H H C dT A = A + A
}
1.7. nh lut KIRCHHOFF
Bi tp 2
Gii
Tnh AH
0
298
: AH
0
298
= AH
0
298 (CH3OH)
(AH
0
298(H2)
+AH
0
298(CO)
)= -90,07 kJ
Tnh AC
p
: AC
p
= AC
p(CH3OH)
(ACp
(CO)
+AC
p(H2)
)= -67,69 + 94,58.10
-3
T (J/K)
( )
}

+ + A = A
500
298
3 0
298 500
dT T 10 . 58 , 94 69 , 67 H H
T = 1000K AH
0
1000
= -96,75042 (kJ)
97
Bi tp trc nghim
1.7. nh lut KIRCHHOFF
95 96 101 102 119 120
121 127 128 129 135
136 137