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8.

8.

ISBN 978-86-7762- 188- 9


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n , n = V .
H

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n = V = V1
H H1


100m. ,
100. ,
7% .

5% . 10%
.
1.
, , 7%.
2.


:
) 100%;
) 25%;
) 10%.

3.
( ) :
) 9;
) 5;
) 15.
4.

50m
625m.
?

, ,
,
.
b c
p q B, B1, C C1:
b q = {B}, b p = {B1}, c q = {C}, c p = {C1},
BC = B1C1 BB1 = CC1.
, ,
.

b c, A,
p q B, B1, C C1:
b q = {B}, b p = {B1}, c q = {C}, c p = {C1}.
, AB AB1 b
AC AC1 c. , BC
B1C1 p q
.
.

.
A, B B1, C C1,
AB = AC = BC .
AB1 AC1 B1C1

,
624. . . . . 78. 58.
. ,

.
.

1. ABC AB = 8cm, BC = 6cm CA = 5cm.


AB P AP = 3cm.
BC. Q AC. O
AQ PQ.
AP = AQ = PQ .
AB AC BC
3 = AQ = PQ ,
8
5
6
AQ
3
PQ
3

=
= .
5
8
6
8
,
AQ = 1,875cm PQ = 2,25cm.
1.
ABC AB = 6cm, BC = 10cm CA = 7cm
BC P BP = 7cm. P
AB. Q AC. O CQ PQ.
2.

.
OA1 =
; OA2 =
; OA4 =
;
OA3
OA4
OA5
OA5 =
; OA4 =
; OA5 =
.
OA2
OA1
OA3
3.
.
)
)
)

10

4.
AD BC ABCD E. DE BE = 10cm,
AE = 15cm CE = 8cm.
.
! (. B2C2 B2C2 || BC,
A B B2, A C C2 AB1C1 AB2C2.)

AB = AC = BC
AB1 AC1 B1C1

5.
AD || BE || CF. :
) DE OF;
, AD =
, CF =
.
) AD =
BE
CF
BE

2. BC || DE || FG,
DE FG.
BC 5
(BC = AB2 + AC2). ,
AB = BC , 3 = 5 ,
AD DE
5 DE
DE = 25 . DE
3
. ?
, AB = BC 3 = 4 ,
AF FG
4 FG
FG = 16 .
3

11


1. BE || CF,
EF.
AB = AE ,
AC AF

5 = 6 , AF = 9,6. EF = AF AE,
8 AF
EF = 3,6.

AB = AE , ,
BC EF
.
AB = AC = BC
AB1 AC1 B1C1
.


AB = AB1 AB = AB1 .
AC AC1 BC B1C1

AB
kAC
, AB = AB1 = k, k, BB1 = AB1
= k = AB .
= kAC1
AC1 AC
CC1 AC1 AC
AC AC1
AC
AB = AC .
BB1 CC1
2. (BE || CF || DG)
.
AE =
AF
BE =
CF
CF =
DG

AB = 5 ,
AC 8
AB = 5 ,
AC 8
AC = 8 = 4 .
AD 10 5

AE =
EF
BE =
DG

AB = 5 ,
BC 3
AB = 5 = 1 ,
AD 10 2

1.
: AF , EF , AF , CF , AE , AE .
FG FG AG BE AG EG

12

.
,
.

2.
BB1 || CC1 || DD1 || EE1,
B1C1,
C1D1 D1E1.

3.
AD || BE || CF, .
OB = OE , OB = OE ,
BC
OC
OA = AD ,
= EF ,
BE OB OE
= DE , AD = OA ,
BC EF CF

OB =
,
OC CF
CF =
,
AD OD
OF =
.
OE OB

4.
.
.
.
5.
51cm 42,5cm. 40cm.
e ?

13

3. a, b, c, d p q, .
LM, MN, LB, MC.

LM MN ,
. KL = LM = MN, LM = 3 MN = 6.
AB BC CD
, LB MC .
A p. b, c, d L1, M1, N1.

, L1B = M1C = N1D . AB = 2, AC = 4, AD = 8 N1D =


AB
AC AD
L
B
M
C
16
, L1B = 4 M1C = 8. , LB = LL1 + L1B
16, 1 = 1 =
2
4
8
LB = 7, MC = MM1 + M1C MC = 11.
6.
AB CD ABCD 5cm 8cm,
BC DA 3cm 4cm. BC M N
.
M
N .
7.


?
.

14

80 cm

32 cm

32 cm

32 cm

1m

, .

, .

, = p.
p p .
,
|| .

1.
.
.

. ,
.
1. ??
.
.
, ,

. ,
, . ??,
,
.

37

2. ABCDA1B1C1D1.
ABCD
ADD1A1 .
A D,
(A, B, D) (A, D, D1) = p(A, D).
ABCD
A1B1C1D1 , (A, B, C) || (A1, B1, C1).

p(A, A1) p(C, C1)

p(B, B1) p(D, D1).
ABCD
A1B1C1D1.
AA1, BB1,
B1C1, A1D1
p(A, B)
p(C1, D1).
2.
ABCDA1B1C1D1.
. , .
1) (A, B, C) (B, C1, D1);
2) (A, B, C) (A1, C, D);
3) (B, C, C1) (A1, D1, C1);
4) (A, B, A1) (C, C1, D1);
5) (A, D, A1) (B, B1, D1);
6) (C, D, C1) (A, A1, B1).
3.
,
.

4.
.
1) , .
2) , .
3) ,
.

38


.
p
.
p ,

p. A B
p AB p.

p.
p .

,
p
p. p p p.
. ,
,
.
.
.

,
.

.

.

- (. )
(. , ).



.

39

?
O p p. Oa
p p O Ob p p O.
aOb p.


.
O1 p
, a1O1b1 aOb.

.
1. ABCDA1B1C1D1. .
90.
45.

40

1.
.

2.
p. p A,
p B,
p O (O p).
AB
AO = 16cm BO = 20cm.
p p
A. O A p.
Oa p p,
AOp = 90, . , A
p p Oa, p p Oa p,
p.
AO
O p.
2. p. p
A, p B. O1
O2 A B
p AO1 = 3cm, BO2 = 2cm O1O2 = 1cm,
A B.

O1O2B O1B:
O1B = O1O22 + O2B2 =

= 3.

AO1B (?),
AO1B:
AB = AO12 + O1B2 =

= 12 = 23.

41

1.
p. p A, p B.
O1 O2 A B p. :
1) AB AO1 = 5cm, BO2 = 4cm O1O2 = 3cm;
2) BO2 AB = 13cm, AO1 = 12cm O1O2 = 3cm;
3) AO1 BO2 AB = 17cm, AO2 = 15cm O1O2 = 9cm;
4) O1O2 AB = 17cm, BO1 = 15cm AO2 = 4cm.


.
.
, .




.
.

, ,
.
.

.
, ,

.
, ,

.
1.
.
1) , .
2) , .
3) A p, , ,
p .
4)
.

42

.
1. x = 2 x + 7 = 9.


x+7=9
x=2
x = 9 7,

x = 2.
()
, x + 7 = 9
2.
2.
, x = 2 x + 7 = 9 .
,
.
, , .
x
x + b = 0, b .
,
0, .
?
,
,
.


,
x = 7 + 2. 7 + 2 = 9,
7 + 2 9 .
. x = 9
.
, 2(x + 2) 3 = 5 2(x + 2)
2x + 4,
.
2x + 4 3 = 5 .

66

,

(2 + 3)x 5 = 0? ,
2 + 3 = 5,
2 + 3 5 .
2 + 3 5
5x 5 = 0 .

( ). ,
, .

. ,
, A = B B = A. (
, ), .


,
()
.
, b, c = b + c = b +c c = b c.
18
9x 18 = 0 9x 18 + 18 = 0 + 18.

( ).
( ),
.

.

, , 9x = 18
.
18
, +18.
, . ,
, ?

67


, b, c, c 0, = b c = b c : c = b : c.
, 9x = 18 1 ,
9
9x 1 = 18 1 . , 9 (
9
9
).

( ).
() , 0, ,
.
,
( 0)
.

9x : 9 = 18 : 9?
1.
.

3x 9 = 4
3x 1 = 4
x = 1
2x 14 = 0

3x 5 + 4 = 4
3(x 3) = 4
3x + 1 = 2x
7x=x7

2.
.
) 3x = 5;

) x2 = 2;

1
=3 x;
x

) 5 5x = 3x + 6.

3.
,

8x + 5 = 3(4x 1). ? ?

68

8x + 5 = 3(4x 1)
8x + 5 = 12x 3
3 + 5 = 12x 8x
8 = 4x
x=4

8x + 5 = 3(4x 1)
8x + 5 = 12x 3
8x 12x = 3 + 5
4x = 2
x = 0,5



. ,
.

, , ,
().
1. 5x 8 = 0.

8. 8 + 8, 0 + 8 5x + 0
, 5
( 1 ),
5
x. ,
5x : 5 8 : 5 ,

.
, .
:

, ,
;


.
1.
:

) x 2 = 1 ;
3

) 2x = 3;

) 13 3x = 52.

x + b = 0,
0, b .

,
,

. ,

,
.

69

x + b = 0, 0, , b .
a
2.
e : ) 9x 2 = 25;

) 7 3x = 8.

2. 7x 8 = 4x + 4.

.
.

.
3.
:
) 5x + 3 = 3x + 9;
) 4 7x = 3x + 9 ;

) 2x 13 = 8 6x + 3.

3. x + 11 = 2 .
6
3
(
).
S(6, 3) = 6.
, ,


, .
4.
:
) 3 x = 1; ) 2 x 2 = 2 x;
4 7
3
5

a|b, S(a, b) = b.

) x x + 1 1 = x 1.
4 3
2
6

4. 5x = 5x + 1.
,
, x =
b.
,
0 x = 1.
0
0, 0 x = 1 .
0 x = b, b 0, .
0 x = 1.

70

5.
2 2x = 2x, 2x = 3x , 5x 3 = 3 5x 2 + x = 3 + x
.
5. 5x = 2x + 3x.
2x + 3x = (2 + 3)x = 5x,
2x + 3x 5x .
.
,

0 x = 0,
.
,
.
0 x = 0.
0 x = 0.
,
,
0 x = 0, 5.
, (
) , ,
.
6. (3 + 5x)2 = 32 + (5x)2.
x 0, 9 = 9.
,
x. , ,
.
x 1, 64 = 34
, .
6.
: ) 2 2x = 2(1 x); ) 2x + 1 = 3(3 x) x; ) (2 x)2 = 22 x2.




ax + b = 0,

a b.

71

7.
(x + 6)2 = x2 + 144.

. , ,
, .
,
(, , )
,
.

7.
(x 2) (x + 3) = (x 4)2 1 , .
8. 2(x + 3) 8 = 18 3(4(2 3(x 1)) 5) 8 = 1.
x . :
,

, .
. ,
.

2(x + 3) 8 = 18
.
.
.


3(4(2 3(x 1)) 5) 8 = 1
,
.
,
.

72


,
.

.

|a|=
(), (0) , |a| = |OA|.
1. |3x + 2| = 5.
|5| = 5 |5| = 5, x 3x + 2 = 5
3x + 2 = 5.
,
.
|3x + 2| = 5 , 1 7 .
3
!
1.
:
) |x| = 5;
) |5 5x| = 3;

) 3|x| + 6= 5|x| 4.

2. (x + 3) (6 x) = 0
(,
)

.
ab = 0, a = 0 b = 0.
2
3. x + 4x = 0.

x(x + 4) = 0

x,
x 0. , 0
.

ab + ac = a(b+c)

79

2
AB = 0, A = 0 B = 0.
2.
:
) (x 2)(x + 3) = 0;

) 28x 35x2 = 0;

) x3 = 4x2.

4.
x2 25 = 0 x2 2x + 1= 4
(, ) ,
2, .
2
2
b = (a + b)(a b)

3.
:
2
) x3 3x = 0;
) 9 x = 0;

x2 = a,
a > 0,
a
a.

2 +2ab + b2 = (a + b)2

) x2 + 6x + 4 = 0.

4.
. ?
5.
8 a . .
6.
75.
7.
16.
8.
1 , 7
.
.

a2 + b2 = c2

80

,
. .
,
.
,
.

.
. , . :
. ,
, , , .
: 2,
6 . .
2, 5. ,
. ?
?
. x
. (x),
2
A(x) = (x 2)((x 2) + 6) x + 5 x.
2
, :
2
2
2
A(x) = (x 2)((x 2) + 6) x + 5 x = x + 2x 8 x + 5 x = x 4 + 5 x = 1.
2
2
2
(x 2)((x 2) + 6) x + 5 x 1 ,
2
(x 2)((x 2) + 6) x2 + 5 x = 1
2
. ,
. ( ),
,
.

.
: ,
. 1,
3 .
. , . ,
, , .

81


<, , > .
. ,
x + 7 < 3, 5x 33 0, 6 2 x > 8, |x| < 5, x2 9.
3
,
(
), .
,
. ,
(, ), 5x 4y 6.
11 x + 7 < 3, 11 + 7 < 3, a 10
x + 7 < 3, 10 + 7 < 3 .

.
1.
0, 3, 2
3
.
.
(, b), < b, x
< x < b.
[, b), < b, x
x < b.
(, b], < b, x
< x b.
[, b], < b, x
x b.
K , + .
.

82

(, +) x
x > a.
[, +), < b, x
x a.
(, ) x
x < a.
(, ] x
x a.
(, +), [, +), (, ), (, ]
x > a, x a, x < a, x a.


( ).

(16161703).


.
,
, .
, , .
x
x + b < 0, x + b 0, x + b > 0, x + b 0, b .
,
0. .

. ,
.

83

( ). ,
, .

, ,
, A < B. ,
, A B, A > B A B.
, . ,
B A < B, A < B
B > A.
1.
.
a
b
a < b?
1
2
3 4
0,5 0,1

a+2
3

b+2
4

a + 2 < b + 2?

a3
2

b3
1

a 3 < b 3?

, b, c < b + c < b + c c < b c .


,
,
.
.
( ).
(
)
.
1.
.

84

a
b
a < b?
1
2
3 4
0,5 0,1

2a
2

2b
4

2a < 2b?

3a
3

3b
6

3a < 3b?

c b < b
c < b c .
< b, c < 0
b > 0, c < 0
(b )c < 0
bc c < 0
c > bc
c b < b
c > b c .

. , , ,
.
, .
(
). ()
( )
.
() (
)

.
2.
.

x5<4
x + 5 < 4
5x < 45
5x < 45

x < 9
x<9
x > 9
x>9

3.
2x 3 7x 1 .
7

85




, .

, , ,
.
1. x 1 > 0.
3
7.
1 + 1, 0 + 1 x + 0 ,
3
3,
x. , x 3
3
1 3 , x > 3
.
(3, +).
Rx. Rx = (3, +).
,
.
, ,
( ) . ,

Rx.
, ,
, ,
.

x + b > 0,
, b
.
,
,
.

,
.

x + b > 0, > 0, b , + .
a

86

1.
:

) 3x + 21 5;

) 7 + 1,3x 3;

) x 1 < 2.
7

2. 5 x > 0.
7

5, 5 5, 0 + 1 0 x
7
.
7 .
, x (7) 5 (7)
7
, x < 35
.
(, 35), Rx = (, 35).
x + b > 0,
, b .
,
,
,

.

,
.


.

x + b > 0, < 0, , b .
a
2.
:

) x + 5 < 0;
3

) 13 3x 52;

) 5 3x 4.
3

87

3. 4x + 5 7 + 5x.
.
.
.

( )

. ( )

.
.
3.
:
) 11x 8 6 3x;

) 9 5x < 1 2x;

) x + 2 2 = x 1.
5
3
6

4. , 3(2 x) + 5 11,
e . ,
(
) ( ).

4.
:
) 5 2x > 3(1 + x);

88

) 3 x 2 (x 1) 0.
4
3

5. 3x > 3x 1.
,
.

0 x > 1.
0 0,
0 > 1 ,
, Rx = R.
0 x > b, b < 0,
.
5.
3x < 3x + 1,
0 x < b, b > 0.
6. 3x > 3x + 1.
, .


0 x > 1.
0 0,
0 > 1 ,
, Rx = .
0 x > b, b > 0, .
6.
3x < 1 3x,
0 x < b, b < 0.
7.
( ) 7m.
,
100m2?
7 x 100
x 100 : 7
x 100

7

2
14m.
x 14
7
7.
7cm 10cm.

2
50cm ? ?

89

8.
|x| < 3, |x| 3, |x| > 3 |x| 3.
7. |2x + 1| < 3 |2x+ 1| 3.
.

9.
:

) |5 4x| > 3;

) |3 5x| 9.


, |2x + 1| < 3x,
, ,
. ,
,

|2x + 1| =


2x + 1 < 3x, x 1 , 2x 1 < 3x, x < 1 .
2
2
x 1 ,
2
2x + 1 < 3x, x > 1.
x ,
x (1, +).

x < 1 ,
2
2x 1 < 3x, x > 1 .
5
x ,
x 1 , 1 .
5
2

,
Rx = 1 , 1 (1, +).
5
2
.
:

90

) |5x 4| 9x;

) |5 4x| > 4x.



.
,
.
.

(
, ). ,
.
.

.

()
. , ,
.

(
),
. ,
ABCDA1B1C1D1 ( BCDAB1C1D1A1).

92


, , n-
n- (: ).
, .
1.
1) , ?
2) , n- ?
.
.
.

, .
.

, .

. .

.
.
.


.

.
.

.
.

93

1. QRSTQ1R1S1T1. a, b c
. .

. .
, , RT1.
D .
RT1
RT1T T. ,
. , TT1 = c.
QRST
.
RT2 = d2 = a2 + b2.
D2 = RT2 + TT12 = d2 + c2 = a2 + b2 + c2. , D = a2 + b2 + c2.
,
.
. , RTT1 ,
, .
RTQ. ,
,
RTT1 . ,
RTQ . ,

.

a = b = c, :
D = a3.
a a3.
2.
9cm, 12cm 17cm.
.
3.
5cm.

94


, .
.
2. .
.
, () .
,
.

(D1)
(d1) . d1 = a3 (?)
a,
D1 = d12 + a2 =

= 4a2 = 2a.

(D2)
(d2) . d2 = 2a (?)
a,
D2 = d22 + a2 = (2a)2 + a2 = 5a2 = 5a.
4.
. a = 15cm , d1 = 18cm
H = 24cm a , .

.
5.
.

95



( ??). ,
.

.
.

( )
.
.
.
1.
:
1) ;

96

2) ;

3)
.

B , M ,
P :
P = 2B+M.

.

2.
1) a = 3cm, b = 2cm c = 5cm.
2) a = 4cm,
H = 10cm.
3) D = 3.
1. 1
3).

a = 4cm b = 2cm, c = 2cm. H = 4cm.

. ,

,
h = 3cm.
B = 4 + 2 3cm2 = 33cm2.
2

.
2
2
M = (4 4 + 2 4 + 2 4 + 2 4)cm = 40cm
,
P = 2B + M = (63 + 40)cm2.

97


x y
x + by + c = 0, , b, c , b
0 ( 0 b 0).
,
3x + 2y 1 = 0, x + y 2 = 0, 11x 7y 4 = 0
.

0, ,
.
(, , )
.
x + by + c = 0 (x0, y0)
x x0 y y0 .
, (1, 1) (3, 4) 3x + 2y 1 = 0,
3 1 + 2 (1) 1 = 0 3 3 + 2 (4) 1 = 0.
(0, 0) (5, 3) 3x + 2y 1 = 0,
3 0 + 2 0 1 0 3 (5) + 2 3 1 0.
x + by + c = 0 ( 0 b 0)
.
.
.
x + by + c = 0, 0 b 0, ,
x + by + c = 0, 0 b 0, .
1. , 25 .
x , y
, y = x + 25,
x 0.
( x 0) x y + 25 = 0.
.
y = x + 25,
x y + 25 = 0.
()
() ,
.

112

x
y = x + 25

1
26

5
30

1.
m n (2, m) (1, n)
5x 4y + 6 = 0.
2.
a :
) y = 3x 4;
) 2x + y = 3;
) x 5y + 8 = 0;
.


1. 30 .
?
x , y .

x y.

y = x + 30

y = 3x

,
.

y = x + 30
y = 3x

x y
1x + b1y = c1
2x + b2y = c2,
1, b1, c1, 2, b2, c2 .
(x0, y0) .
y0 = x0 + 30
y0 = 3x0

3x0 = x0 + 30
y0 = 3x0

x0 = 15
y0 = 45

45 = 15 + 30
45 = 3 15

, 15, 45 .
x y
(x0, y0) .
1.
.
(1, 4)
x + 2y = 8
2x y = 1

(2, 3)

(2, 3)

1, 1
2 2

5x + 4y = 11
2x + 3y = 10

xy=0
7x + 3y = 5

3x + y = 3
y=3

113




x y = 30
3x y = 0
.

y = x + 30 ,
y = 3x
.
(15, 45) P
.


1x + b1y = c1
2x + b2y = c2
1x + b1y = c1 2x + b2y = c2.
:
1. , ;
2. , , ;
3. , .
2.
3x y = 4
2x + y = 6.

3x y = 4 (y = 3x 4)

2x + y = 6 (y = 2x + 6)
, (2, 2). ,
(2, 2)
,
(2, 2), x = 2, y = 2.


, .

114

2.
:
) 7x y = 4
) x y = 2
) x 2y = 6
2x + y = 1;
6x y = 2;
x + y = 0;
.
3.
x+y=1
x + y = 5.

x + y = 1 (y = x + 1)

x + y = 5 (y = x + 5)
.
,
,
.


, .
4.
xy=2
2x 2y = 4.

x y = 2 2x 2y = 4
(
2),
(y = x 2).

.
, .

, .
, , ,
, .

115

:
1. ;
2. ;
3. .
3.
:
) 3x y = 1
) 2x 4y = 1
) x + 2y = 6
3x + y = 1;
3x 6y = 1,5;
x + 2y = 6;
, , .
4.
:
) ;
) ;
) .


? ??. .

, .
, :
, ( ??).
.
1. .
2x 2y = 0
x+y=2

:2

xy=0
x+y=2


y = x.
y = x + 2. ,
.
(1 1) , .

(1, 1).
. 2 1 2 1 = 0
11=0
1+1=2
1+1=2

116

,
.
2. .
xy=0
x+y=2

+y

y=x

y=x

x+y=2

x+x=2

y=x
2x = 2

:2

y=x
x=1


.
, .
y x,

(y = x) .

.
( ) ()
.
(1, 1).
. 1 1 = 0
1=1
1+1=2
1=1

,
.
3. .
xy=0
x+y=2

y=x

xy=0
2x = 2

:2

x=1

y=1
x=1


.
. ,
(1, 1).
(1, 1).

, .

117


1. = 6cm. 3,14,
:
2
2
2
2
2
) 9,42cm ; ) 18,84cm ; ) 28,26cm ; ) 37,68cm ; ) 113,04cm .

2. 2cm je:
) 2cm; ) 22cm; ) 4cm; ) 42cm; ) 2cm.

3.
a :
) 3 a2;
4
) 3 a2;
36
) a2.
6

) a2;
4
) a2;
12

4. (
2
cm ):
) 16 + 2;
) 16 + 4;
) 16 + ;
) 16 + 3;
) 16 .

5. 63,7cm 2 000 ,
:
) 2km;
) 2,5km;
) 3km;
) 3,5km;
) 4km.

129



. ,
.

.


. ,
. .
.
.
. .
. ,
.

.

. .

130

kylindros,
. .
, , , ,
.

1. .
r = 1,5cm, H = 4cm,
.

.
(2r = 3cm),
(H = 4cm). ,
2
P = 2rH = 12cm .

.
.
1.
H = 35cm d = 37cm.
.
2.
2
196cm .
.
3.
. a = 3cm ,
.
4.
.
a = 4cm, H = 6cm,
.

131


,
. ,
. .
.

,
.
r , H . B
2
, M , B = r M = 2rH. ,
P = 2B + M = 2r2 + 2rH = 2r(r + H).
r H
P = 2r(r + H).
1. r = 3cm
H = 5,5cm.
,
2
2
P = 2r(r + H) = 2 3 (3 + 5,5)cm = 51cm .
3,14, P 160,14cm2.
1.
2r = 3,4cm H = 15,2cm.
2.
2
r = 5cm, P = 100cm .

132

3.
a = 5cm b = 7cm.

:
1) b;
2) a.

4.
2
12cm .
.
,
. ,
, .
2.
a = 4cm H = 52cm.

. PO
,
PO = 2 a2 a2 + H = 56cm2.
2
2
PU ,
PU = 2 a a + H = 4(2 + 52)cm2.
2
2
56
= 14 1,5.
, PO =
PU 4(2 + 52) 2 + 52
5.
a = 3cm H = 5cm.
.
6.

.

7.
7cm 3cm
, .
.

133



. B , H ,
V V = BH.
r H
V = r2H.

.
,
. ,


.

1. r = 3cm
H = 5,5cm.
,
V = r2H = 49,5cm3.
3,14, V 155,43cm3.
1.
2r = 3,4cm H = 5,2cm.
2.
a = 2cm b = 2,4cm.
:
1) b;
2) a.
3.
a = 6cm H = 9cm.
.

134

2.
9,42cm 12,56cm

.
.
.

.
?

Vc .
rc = 12,56cm : 2 2cm, Hc = 9,42cm,
Vc = rc2Hc 37,68cm3.
Vz .
rz = 9,42cm : 2 1,5cm, Hz = 12,56cm,
Vz = rz2Hz 28,26cm3.
, Vc > Vz.
4.
.

.

5.
( )
(
) 0,9m
1,6m
. ,
,
.

135

6.

.
( ,
.)
7.

.

8.

.

9.

.
7 860kg/m3.



. , ,
.
(
) .
,
.
(
, 1 400cm3, 1,4L). 4 6
1 000 2 000cm3, ,
1, 10 3 000cm3.

136