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Spirit AeroSystems.

We are the OEMs OEM.

When you need licensed spare parts, it makes sense to do what the OEM did
when the airplane was built: Turn to Spirit AeroSystems the same company
that built the part in the first place. Next time you need a spare part, go
straight to the source for affordable cost and assurance of original quality.
Visit us at or call our 24-hour AOG hotline at
+1 (866) 526-8929.
Same part number. Same tooling. Same process.
Lower price.

Spirit AeroSystems.
We are the OEMs OEM.
When you need licensed spare parts, it makes sense to do what the OEM did
when the airplane was built: Turn to Spirit AeroSystems the same company
that built the part in the first place. Next time you need a spare part, go
straight to the source for affordable cost and assurance of original quality.
Visit us at or call our 24-hour AOG hotline at
+1 (866) 526-8929.
Same part number. Same tooling. Same process.
Lower price.

Editor-In-Chief Joseph C. Anselmo
Executive Editor James R. Asker
Managing Editors Jen DiMascio, Jens Flottau, Graham Warwick
Assistant Managing Editor Michael Stearns
Art Director Lisa Caputo
Executive Editor, Data and Analytics Jim Mathews
Editors Jen DiMascio (Managing Editor), Jeferson
Morris (Associate Managing Editor), Michael Bruno,
Amy Butler, Michael Fabey, Sean Meade, Frank Morring, Jr.,
Bill Sweetman (Chief Editor, Defense Technology Edition)
Editors Jens Flottau (Managing Editor), Darren Shannon
(Associate Managing Editor), Sean Broderick, John Croft,
William Garvey, Fred George, Rupa Haria, Kerry Lynch, Guy
Norris, Bradley Perrett, Jessica Salerno, Adrian Schoeld,
Lee Ann Tegtmeier (Chief Editor, MRO Edition)
Chief Aircraft Evaluation Editor Fred George
For individual e-mail addresses, telephone numbers and more,
go to
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Bureau Chief Adrian Schoeld
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Phone: +86 (186) 0002-4422
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Phone: +44 (207) 176-2524
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Engagement Director Rupa Haria
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Phone: +7 (495) 626-5356; Fax: +7 (495) 933-0297
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Flat #223, Samachar Apartments,
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40 rue Courcelles, 75008 Paris, France
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Chief Executive Ofcer
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Chief Financial Ofcer/Executive Vice President
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President, Aviation Week
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Significant events of
Rockwell Collins first
three decades in China
Since 1983, Rockwell Collins has
collaborated with Chinas aviation
industry to offer a full spectrum of
cost-effective aviation systems
and services that provide
a foundation for tremendous
growth in Chinas future, including:
Airline avionics
In-ight entertainment
Simulation and training
Rockwell International opens
ofces in Beijing and Hong
Kong. CASC becomes our
rst customer, acting as
purchasing arm for all airlines
in China.
Rockwell Collins rst
partnership program in
China is the EFIS for the
K-8 jet trainer/light attack
aircraft, made at AVIC
Changfeng under license
from Rockwell Collins.
Y-8F 100 avionics for AVIC
Shaanxi Aircraft Company
MD-80/82 are delivered to
China Eastern Airlines and
China Northern Airlines.
Assembling and testing
of WXR and TCAS at AVIC
LETRI under license.
Y-12 Pro Line 2 avionics
for AVIC Harbin Aviation
Industry Group.
CATIC/Rockwell Collins
establishes software center
at AVIC CARERI in Shanghai.
Y-7 (MA60) EFIS and
navigation for AVIC Xian
Aircraft Company.
The rst Rockwell Collins
service center in China opens
in Shanghais Pudong
Waigaoqiao Free Trade Zone,
as a wholly- owned foreign
enterprise. It is converted in
2003 into a joint venture
with China Eastern Airlines.
University student exchange
program with AVIC.
CATIC/Rockwell Collins
establishes second software
center at AVIC ACTRI in Xian.
1983 84 85 86 87 88 89 90 91 92 93 94 95

Rockwell Collins.
Working together with China Aviation,
past, present and future.
China MoFA names
Rockwell Collins as its provider
for HF ground station equipment
and installation worldwide.
Commercial helicopter H425
(AC312) Pro Line 4 integrated
avionics for AVIC Harbin Aviation
Industry Group.
ARJ21 Pro Line 21 integrated
avionics for AVIC ACAC
(now COMAC).
CAAC ATMB awards
Rockwell Collins a contract
to upgrade its HF ground
radio stations.
MA600 Pro Line 21
integrated avionics for
AVIC Xian Aircraft Company.
PCB production outsourcing
starts with AVIC Shennan
Circuits Company.
Rockwell Collins begins joint
development of the future ight
simulator for the MA60/600
FFS with AVIC XASC, certied
by CAAC.
COMAC names Rockwell Collins
as supplier for the in-ight
entertainment, integrated
Communication, Navigation,
Surveillance and cabin core
systems for the C919.
Rockwell Collins opens its
China System Support Center
in Shanghai, its fth facility
in China.
Rockwell Collins establishes a
global asset management pool
in China to meet airline
customer needs.

C919 engineering FFS joint
development with AVIC XASC
for COMAC to support aircraft
design activities.
Rockwell Collins and China Eastern
Airlines sign a 10-year agreement
to renew their MRO joint venture.
Rockwell Collins signs C919 joint
venture contract for integrated
Communication, Navigation,
Surveillance systems with AVIC
AVIC Leihua Rockwell Collins Avionics
Company opens in Wuxi. The new
joint venture with AVIC LETRI will
develop and manufacture integrated
surveillance system products for
COMACs C919 aircraft in China.
MOA with AVIC Bluesky establishes
commercial simulation joint venture
in China.
2011 2013
2013 2010 2011
96 97 98 99 00 01 02 03 04 05 06 07 08 09 10 11 12 2013

7 Letter from the President
10 Feedback
11 Whos Where
12-14 The World
18 Up Front
20 Leading Edge
22 Reality Check
24 Airline Intel
26 In Orbit
27 Washington Outlook
63 Classied
64 Contact Us
65 Aerospace Calendar
12 Boeing satellite engineers prepare
rst Inmarsat-5 mobile broadband
satellite for launch by year-end
12 Controllers readying another AEHF
spacecraft for satcom operation
after launch on an Atlas V
14 RAF retiring last of its VC10 tankers
to museums or collections this week
as service looks to A330 MRTT
28 Initial ight for CSeries, Bombar-
diers largest aircraft and its rst
with y-by-wire ight controls
30 Debut of 787-9 a milestone for
the program as Boeing continues
to ramp up deliveries of the -8
31 USAF chief places top priorities
among new programs followed by
replacements for JStars and T-38
34 Netherlands to purchase the
JSF, but at a greatly diminished
number than originally envisaged
35 Shared situational awareness and
decision-making aids now the
targets of refocused PCAS demo
58 Hawk T2 jet trainer, modern syn-
thetic training aids have dramatic
efect on jet crews preparedness
60 European countries invited to qualify
their combat aircraft to refuel from
Italys new Boeing KC-767 tanker
61 Sikorsky Seahawks proving to
be the saving graces of the U.S.
Navys Littoral Combat Ship
36 Orion takes rst step toward demon-
strating a 120-hr. ight at 20,000 ft.,
carrying a 1,000-lb. payload
62 Unmanned aircraft beginning to
play key role in monitoring climate
changes in vast Arctic areas
38 More milestones line up for NASA
Commercial Crew program con-
tenders as concept tests continue
40 SpaceX modifying Dragon capsule
to aford more payload capacity for
NASA cargo runs to and from ISS
41 Orbital engineers already looking
for another rocket engine to power
the Antares medium-lift launcher
First ight of Bombardiers CSeries narrowbody jet lasted about
2.5 hr., operating from Mirabel airport near Montreal in middle-of-the-
envelope conditions, taking of at mid-weight and reduced thrust.
This week, Aviation Week publishes two editions. On the far left cover, Bombardiers
CSeries test aircraft FTV1 makes its rst ight from Mirabel, near Montreal, on Sept. 16.
The CSeries is the rst all-new competitor to the Airbus A320 and Boeing 737 in the
narrowbody market and its success is crucial for Bombardier, but certication and
delivery in 12 months will be a challenge (page 28). The cover of our MRO edition shows
a laser drilling holes in a second-stage high-pressure turbine blade from a GE CF6-80C2
during a repair. The article discusses how surplus parts are being used to reshape
decisions on whether to repair or replace an aircraft component (page MRO4). CSeries
photo by Rick Radell/Bombardier. MRO photo courtesy of General Electric.

& S P A C E T E C H N O L O G Y
Digital Extras Tap this icon in articles
in the digital edition of AW&ST for exclusive
features. If you have not signed up to
receive your digital subscription, go to
Winner 2013
September 23, 2013 Volume 175 Number 33

Youve probably heard the news that Aviation Week has
been purchased by Penton Media, becoming one of Pentons
agship industry brands with a high-quality comprehensive
portfolio of B2B Media, Events and Data/Analytics serving
the growing global aviation, aerospace and defense mar-
We join forces with Penton Aviations top brands in com-
mercial/MRO and business aviation, while maintaining our core strength with deep
technology expertise across the the industry. Inclusive to this partnership, Aviation
Week continues to serve the defense, space and security market with industry-leading
intelligence across the air, sea and land segments, including our monthly Defense
Technology Edition.
In commercial aviation and MRO, our portfolio now includes Aviation Week & Space
Technology, and its monthly MRO Edition; Air Transport World;; Avia-
tion Daily; ShowNews; SpeedNews; the global MRO Event series; the commercial/MRO
channels on; and the Aviation Week Intelligence Network (AWIN),
along with new custom eet data and MRO forecasting tools.
I have been asked to lead the combined and expanded Aviation Week group at Pen-
ton, and my management and editorial department heads are now working closely
with their new colleagues from Penton Aviation. This is an extraordinary merger of
editorial, management, and analytical teams and talent in this sector.
We are now uniquely positioned to deliver even more essential news, analysis, busi-
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Our commitment and investment in commercial aviation has never been stronger!
The synergies of exciting content and direct connections have only just begun.
Best regards,
Letter From The President
Aviation Week
Expands Content

56 NASA and SLS partners pull out
the stops to reduce costs as
hardware testing surges ahead
42 Europe will be at the heart of nego-
tiations at the ICAO Assembly, not
just on emissions but in all areas
43 Progress shows on deal that would
commit ICAO to develop a method
for tackling carbon emissions
44 Lufthansa CEOs resig-
nation begs question of
whether the airline will
continue with reforms
45 Lufthansa signs for 34 rm commit-
ments and options plus purchase
rights for another 30 777-9Xs
46 Air Nostrum attempts to regain
protability in struggle to recover
from Spains economic downturn
48 A quarter century after China
formed separate airlines, the big
state carriers are still learning




September 23, 2013 Volume 175 Number 33
A round-up of what youre reading on
Europes maintenance, repair and overhaul community convenes in London this week
for Aviation Weeks MRO Europe conference and exhibition. Our editors will be ling
articles and live blogging throughout the event. Keep up with the latest on or download our free event app:
Drop in at our OnSpace blog to
view a map of Vesta supplied
by the Dawn probe during its
history-making 13-month orbital
tour of the large main-belt aster-
oid, and click through to see a
full Vesta gallery. (
Darpa is trying again to develop a reusable launch vehicle
capable of aircraft-like operations. Read Managing Editor
for Technology Graham Warwicks Ares post and see
Darpas latest concept (
MyAWIN allows you to set up customized
email news alerts for delivery on a daily
or weekly basis. You also can save favorite
World Aerospace Database searches and
bookmark articles for future reference.
On our article about Textrons new Scorpion
light attack and recce jet, Rowboat 70
wrote: This is what the light surveillance/attack (LSA) aircraft
should have looked like in the rst place.
Keep up with all the news and blogs from
Aviation Weeks editors.
Follow @AviationWeek or like us at
On the Web
52 Low-cost commercial
aviation in China might be
receiving ofcial recognition
53 China looks to major
international aerospace rms
for help with ATM issues
66 Taiwan points to its aviation attri-
butes in pushing to be allowed
back into the IACO Assembly

I was astonished to read in Tilt
Tanking about refueling trials using a
V-22 platform in ight mode to refuel an
F/A-18C ghter (AW&ST Sept. 9, p. 37).
The corkscrew wake turbulence
from the tiltrotor propellors are most
likely pulsing the F/A-18 compressor
blades during the fueling sequence.
This might make the engine designers,
especially the fatigue experts, a bit
uneasynot to mention this taxpayer.
Chris Barnes
Bill Sweetmans Save the JSF.
Really? (AW&ST Aug. 19, p. 19),
advocates several actions that could
result in signicant cost reductions
for the Defense Department. However,
there are a few of points that deserve
additional thought before program
cancellation becomes reality.
First, when technology programs
are canceled, the corporate knowledge
is lost forever. Yes, some documenta-
tion will remain but the knowledge and
skills that will be required to nish the
job will be gone forever. What is being
overlooked is that retaining the capa-
bility to create new weapon systems is
every bit as important as the weapon
systems being created. Perhaps even
more so.
Second, the contention that the de-
signs can simply be rejuvenated should
the need arise makes one wonder just
what enemy is going to give us enough
time to pull an outdated design of the
shelf and reconstitute the knowledge
and skill bases necessary to bring it to
fruition in time to counter the emerg-
ing threat? The technology in the de-
sign will have been rendered obsolete
by the passage of time, necessitating
redesign and remanufacturing result-
ing in even further delays in deploy-
ment. Where is the wisdom in that?
Weapon systems are critical to the
maintenance of our way of life, but not
more so than the skills required to cre-
ate them in the rst place. The people
that possess the skills and knowledge
to create those weapons systems can-
not just be acquired and discarded at
will. The cost of losing the F-35 tribal
knowledge will far exceed that of the
face value of the contract. These ef-
fects must be included in any decision
to cancel portions of the F-35 contract.
Thomas L. Parker
Thank you for Cathy Buycks compre-
hensive Airline Intel column Accept or
Reject (AW&ST Sept. 9, p. 22). She is
correct when she writes about the ight
and duty limitations (FTL) and rest
requirements and that the European
Parliament is reviewing the draft regula-
tions with a possible full implementation
by 2015. As an IATA Operational Safety
Audit (IOSA) auditor, I am familiar
with the International Air Transport
Association (IATA) Standards Manual,
Edition 7, that became mandatory on
Sept. 1. It has requirements that closely
mirror the European Union-wide FTL
The IOSA standards currently in use
are present in both the ight and cabin
sections of the IOSA checklist and con-
tain one standard that is required now,
with two others that are conditional on
the requirements for managing fatigue
as established by the governing state or
authority. I expect the EU will endorse
the recommendation of the European
Aviation Safety Agency with require-
ments that become efective this year.
Shand Gause
Out of the Bottle (AW&ST Sept.
16, p. 50) tries to paint U.S. export
controls as a failure, but it attacks a
straw man.
You declare that [i]f restrictions
on supplying space technology to
China were meant to arrest . . . [its]
astronautical development, there is
precious little sign of success.
But ITAR (U.S. International
Trafc in Arms Regulations) was
not meant to do that: It has diferent
First, ITAR avoids implicating U.S.
suppliers in transactions that could
threaten our security. Even if an ad-
versary does get some capability, it is
surely better that we not sell it to them
Second, ITAR aims to slow the
development of adversary capabilities.
Stopping isnt the issue, since almost
anyone can get anything with enough
time and efort. But rates of progress
do matter in the fast-moving defense
technology world.
So has ITAR slowed the development
of militarily relevant Chinese space ca-
pabilities? Fixating upon a red herring,
your hatchet-job on ITARs failure
misses the important question.
I noticed, however, that ITAR-Free,
No More (page 52), suggests that
Chinese capabilities developed faster
because ITAR was circumvented by
Thales and various U.S. suppliers. This,
the State Department says, caused
harm to national security by providing
the Peoples Republic of China a more
reliable satellite capability. Hmmm.
Christopher Ford
In Out West (AW&ST Sept. 2,
p. 31), I came across a statement that
the y-by-wire avionics of the Sukhoi
Superjet 100 are provided by Thales. I
am directly involved with this project
and would like to correct the
record. Yes, the SSJ100 avionic
suite is provided by Thales.
However, the entire y-by-wire
ight-control system (FCS) is
provided by Liebherr-Aero-
Our workshare on the aircraft
comprises both primary and
secondary ight controls as
well as all FCS components
from stick-to-surface (cockpit
controls to actuation and drive
systems). This also includes
the diferent ight-control computers
(hardware and software) of the electric
Tim Lammering, Team Leader
Flight Controls and Actuation Systems,
Aviation Week & Space Technology welcomes
the opinions of its readers on issues raised in
the magazine. Address letters to the Executive
Editor, Aviation Week & Space Technology,
1200 G St., Suite 922, Washington, D.C. 20005.
Fax to (202) 383-2346 or send via e-mail to:
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you must give a genuine identification, ad-
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not print anonymous letters, but names will be
withheld. We reserve the right to edit letters.

the Washington-headquartered
General Aviation Manufacturers
Association. He was director of
engineering and manufacturing
at GAMAs headquarters.
Julian Bracey has been
appointed senior purchasing
manager for the European
headquarters of Wall Colmonoy,
Pontardawe, Wales.
Curtis Arnold has become
completions manager of Rebtech,
Bedford, Texas.
Andrew D. Williamson (see
photos) has been named CFO of
the Merex Group, Camarillo, Calif.
Steve Melvin has been appointed
director of technical solutions and
Eric Hillewaert director busi-
ness development for OEM and
Americas programs for Merex
Inc. Williamson was managing
director for the Angeles Capital
Group and a partner at Allendale
Partners. Melvin was operations
manager for the Merex Camarillo
facility, and Hillewaert customer
support/product line manager of
the Fluid Controls business for
Circor Aerospace.
Martin Munro has become
general manager of Ottawa-based
Cubic Field Services Canada. He
was executive vice president of
Allen Vanguard and general man-
ager of Lockheed Martin Canada.
Curtis Reusser
Steve Melvin
Robert Hosozawa
Eric Hillewaert
A. D. Williamson
urtis Reusser (see photo) has
been appointed president/CEO
of the Esterline Corp., Bellevue,
Wash., efective Oct. 28. He has been
president of United Technologies
Aircraft Systems business, which
was acquired from Goodrich. Reusser
succeeds Brad Lawrence, who will
continue as executive chairman until
March 5. Michel Potvin has become
vice president-corporate marketing
and strategy. He was a platform presi-
dent for Esterline and had been a vice
president of the Canadian division of
L-3 Communications.
John W. Diercksen has been
named to the board of directors of
Luxembourg-based Intelsat. He is an
executive vice president of Verizon
James Roddey has been apppinted
communications and media relations
manager at Embry-Riddle Aeronautical
University, Daytona Beach, Fla.
Robert Hosozawa (see photo) has
become vice president-business man-
agement for the Herndon, Va.-based
Integrated Logistics and Moderniza-
tion Div. of the Northrop Grumman
Corp.s Technical Services Sector. He
was director of business management
for the B-2 Spirit program at Northrop
Grumman Aerospace Systems.
Greg Bowles has been named
Brussels-based director of European
regulatory afairs and engineering for
Ulla Siebke has been ap-
pointed country manager for
Germany for Vueling Airlines.
She was a sales and account
manager for SAS Scandina-
vian Airlines.
USAF Brig. Gen. Thomas
W. Geary has been appointed
director of intelligence at U.S.
Southern Command Head-
quarters in Miami. He has
been deputy to the deputy
chief of staf for intelligence
at International Security As-
sistance Force Headquarters
and deputy director of op-
erations and support for U.S.
Forces-Afghanistan in Kabul.
Col. Russell L. Mack has been
nominated for promotion to
brigadier general and appoint-
ment as vice commander of
the 7th Air Force, Pacic Air
Forces/chief of staf of Air
Component Command, Osan
AB, South Korea. He has been
chief of staf of the Air Force
executive action group at
USAF Headquarters at the Pentagon. c
To submit information for the
Whos Where column, send Word
or attached text files (no PDFs) and
photos to:
For additional information on
companies and individuals listed in
this column, please refer to the
Aviation Week Intelligence Network
at For
information on ordering, telephone
U.S.: +1 (866) 857-0148 or
+1 (515) 237-3682 outside the U.S.
On the Button Accuracy
LPV / GPS Landing System
STC Solutions for Easy Retrot
t Applicable to MMR and non-MMR equipped aircraft
t ILS/MMR look-alike architecture
t Accuracy far superior to RNP 0.1, with better-than-ILS stability
t Migration to GBAS just one step away
t Exceeds sensor requirements for all global ADS-B mandates

($53.6 million), compared with a 3.8
billion target quoted for the initial ver-
sion by the Japan Aerospace Exploration
Agency (JAXA) in 2011. The cost is to be
reduced to 3 billion, report Japanese
media, but it is unclear whether that
gure applies to the version successfully
launched on Sept. 15, called E-X within
NASA Braces For Furloughs
Managers at NASA are preparing for a
possible government shutdown at the
end of the month if Congress cannot
nd a way to continue funding. A lapse
would mean that a number of govern-
ment activities would cease due to a lack
of appropriated funds, writes David
Radzanowski, Administrator Charles
Boldens chief of staf. It would also
mean that a number of employees would
be temporarily furloughed. While near-
term planning focuses on an orderly
shutdown of activities in a funding
cutof, work is also ongoing to prepare
for a second round of sequestration that
would reduce the overall funds available.
Weve clearly done scenario planning,
says Associate Administrator Robert
Lightfoot, the agencys No. 2 ofcial. We
do it every year. Right now, we have faith
that theyll work out the process like
they always do, and well adjust.
JAXA Launches First Epsilon
A Japanese program to develop a cheap-
er solid-propellant space launcher has
achieved a successful rst launch, with
the Epsilon rocket placing a planetary-
observation satellite, Sprint-A, into orbit.
The rst Epsion launch cost 5.3 billion
JAXA, or the intended improved design,
E-1, which two years ago was to cost less
than 3 billion per launch. The costs
are more crucial than usual, because
the whole point of the Epsilon program
is to save money. The predecessor M-V
launcher, more powerful than Epsilon,
cost 8 billion a shot.
Danger of No Go-Arounds
The Flight Safety Foundation is try-
ing to nd out why the vast majority of
airliner unstablized approaches do not
result in go-arounds. The Virginia-based
safety advocate says 30 out of every
1,000 approaches can be classied as
unstable based on legacy metrics, includ-
ing airspeed and aircraft conguration
below a certain altitude on an approach.
However, the number of go-arounds,
the proper response for pilots when an
approach is deemed unstable, is much
lower at 1.2 for every 1,000 approaches.
We feel that the lack of a go-around
decision is the leading risk factor in
landing accidents, says Kevin Hiatt,
Flight Safety Foundation president and
CEO. The disconnect between unstable
approaches and go-arounds is alarm-
ing, given that 68% of all accidents, or
63, were in the approach and landing
phases of ight. Hiatt says approaches in
visual conditions are particularly prone
to issues as controllers and pilots try to
put as much ow into an airport as pos-
First Inmarsat-5 Clears
Thermal-Vacuum Test
Boeing satellite engineers continue
preparing the frst Inmarsat-5 mobile
broadband satellite for launch on a Russian
Proton before the end of the year, after the
spacecraft made it through thermal-vacuum
testing without a hitch. The 702HP-based
satellite and two more are designed
for Inmarsats Global Xpress network of
broadband links for mobile users on land,
sea and in the air. Planned for a 15-year
service life, the K
-band constellation
is part of a $1.2 billion investment that
Inmarsat says is fully funded, to allow users
higher speeds and smaller terminals than
todays technology. Among the spacecraft
features will be steerable beams to enable
real-time addition of capacity. Boeing has
two more Inmarsat-5s in production at its
Satellite Development Center in El Segundo,
Calif. iDirect will develop the ground
The World
For more breaking news, go to
network, including satellite-terminal core
module technology, for Inmarsat.
Atlas Launches
Third AEHF Spacecraft
Controllers are preparing another Advanced
Extremely High Frequency (AEHF-3)
spacecraft for operation after an early
morning launch Sept. 18 on a United
Launch Alliance Atlas V fying from Cape
Canaveral. Liftoff came at 4:10 a.m. EDT;
Lockheed Martin Space Systemsbuilder
of the satelliteacquired its signal 51 min.
later. Based on the A2100 bus, AEHF-3 can
deliver data rates fve times higher than the
old Milstar constellation, allowing real-time
video and targeting data for combatants in
the feld while providing national leaders
with survival communications across the
spectrum of confict. The new spacecraft will
join two predecessors in orbit as Lockheed
Martin builds out a planned six-satellite
constellation for the U.S. Air Force, which
also will serve Canada, the Netherlands, the
U.K. and other U.S. international partners.
The 13,600-lb. AEHF-3 was launched
on an Atlas V 531, with a Centaur upper
stage, 5-meter fairing and three Aerojet
Rocketdyne solid-fuel boosters.










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S&P 500



sible. The situations often lead to higher

aircraft speeds that result in unstabilized
approaches, though Hiatt notes those
criteria may need to be reviewed. He
says there could be more leeway, when
runways are dry or longer than usual.
Chinese Components in A350
The Harbin Hafei Airbus Composite
Manufacturing Center (HMC) has
delivered the rst elevator for the Airbus
A350. HMC is a joint venture among
Airbus and several Chinese partners,
including the local Avic branch. Airbus
holds a 20% stake. HMC started gaining
composite and Airbus expertise by deliv-
ering A320 rudders, spars and elevators,
initially not as a sole supplier. HMC is
expected to become the sole supplier for
A350 elevators and rudders by 2017.
SM-3 Salvo Success
The U.S. Missile Defense Agency
(MDA) achieved its rst ever salvo
test of the SM-3 Block IB missile, and
the intercept took place at the high-
est altitude for the system to date.
The rst SM-3 IB that was launched
successfully intercepted the target, a
short-range ballistic missile described
as one of the most complex targets
that we have shot to date, says Mitch
Stevison, Raytheons SM-3 program
manager. The second SM-3 IB was
launched about 2 min. after the rst,
in accordance with military doctrine
for assured kill. The missile was set to
intercept the target if the rst SM-3 IB
did not. Since the rst missile executed
the intercept, the second missile ew a
prole through the debris eld that it
was pre-programmed to y. The target
was detected by the Aegis systems
SPY-1 radar on the USS Lake Erie
cruiser, which also red the missiles.
C-17 Line To Close
Pointing to the lack of enough interna-
tional orders and uncertainty caused
by U.S. military budget cuts, Boeing
plans to close its long-running C-17
production line in 2015, the company
announced. Boeing will discontinue the
line after completing the last of 22 C-17s
for international customers. The deci-
sion will have an impact on about 3,000
jobs, many of them at the airlifters Long
Beach, Calif., nal assembly facility but
also in St. Louis; Macon, Ga., and Mesa,
Ariz. Workforce reductions and supply-
chain impacts are expected to begin
primarily in 2014, says Nan Bouchard,
Boeing vice president and C-17 program
manager. Of the 22 aircraft for foreign
customers, two are for an unnamed
international buyer, and seven are yet to
be delivered to India, which has ordered
10. Boeing does not yet have orders for
the remaining 13, Bouchard notes. Boe-
ing has a post-production contract with
the U.S. Air Force and will continue to
evaluate C-17 work.
Russias Arctic Return
Russia is strengthening its presence
in the Arctic Ocean in order to protect
natural resources on its part of the Arc-
tic Shelf and the Northern Sea Route.
On Sept. 12, the surface ships detach-
ment of the Russian navys northern
eet arrived at the New Siberian Islands,
located between the Laptev and the East
Siberian seas. The marines landed on
Kotelny Island the next day to restore a
military air base abandoned in 1993. The
air, called Temp, is scheduled to be ready
to receive helicopters and xed-wing
aircraft by Oct. 1. The base will initially
be able to receive Antonov An-72/74 light
transport planes. The airstrip will later
be extended for heavier transports like
the Antonov An-22 and Ilyushin Il-76, the
military says.
U.K. Bids Farewell To VC10
The U.K. Royal Air Force (RAF) is ending its association with the Vick-
ers VC10 airliner this week, 47 years
after the type entered service. The pre-
vious two VC10 tankers, Nos. ZA147
and ZA150, few their last operational
sorties on Sept. 20 with a farewell
tour of U.K. airfelds before return-
ing to their home base at RAF Brize
Norton. Designed during the 1950s,
the four-engine airliner was built to
operate from hot and high airfelds
to support services fown by British
Overseas Airlines Corp. Unfortunately
the aircraft began operation too late
to have an impact on the sales of the
Boeing 707 and Douglas DC-8, with just 54 being built from 1962-70.
The RAF, however, was an enthusiastic operator, fying 28 VC10s in
several different confgurations, buy-
ing them fresh off the production line
and later converting the commercial
aircraft into aerial refueling tankers.
The fnal RAF fights are scheduled
for this week when the aircraft will be
fown to museums or collections. The
VC10 is being replaced by the Airbus
A330-200 multi-role tanker transport,
known in RAF service as Voyager,
which will also replace the Lockheed
L-1011 Tristar when it leaves RAF
service in March. The last-ever VC10
fight is planned for Sept. 25.
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Up Front
The fruits of that boldness were on
display Sept. 13, when the 1,000th E-Jet
was delivered to Republic Airways at
the companys headquarters in Sao Jose
dos Campos. The E-Jetsthe 170/175
and 190/195have enabled Embraer to
grab a leading share of the 70-130-seat
market. When the industry started
to recover, there we were, says CEO
Frederico Curado. The challenge now:
hold on to those market gains.
The key to Embraers success has
been its remarkable ability to gauge
where the airline market is headed
and tailor its products accordingly.
Its decision to develop larger regional
jets looked prescient by 2004, when
soaring fuel prices made it uneconomi-
cal to operate the 50-seaters that had
been the mainstay of the RJ market.
Another important factor is that Em-
braer has provided its suppliers with
ironclad protection of their intellectual
property, enabling the airframer to
gain access to cutting-edge compo-
nents and systems for its aircraft.
But Embraer has been boxed in from
moving further up the food chain by
Airbus and Boeing, which are re-engin-
ing their A320 and 737 families to ofer
airlines better fuel efciency. Mean-
while, new entrants are targeting Em-
braers market: the Mitsubishi Regional
Jet from Japan, the ARJ21 from China,
the Sukhoi Superjet 100 from Russia
and the smaller variant of Bombardiers
new CSeries jet (see page 28).
Curados team is responding with a
n Oct. 29, 2001, Embraer rolled out the 170, the rst in a
new family of passenger aircraft that were later dubbed
E-Jets. It was an inauspicious time to be investing. The 9/11
terrorist attacks the month before had sent the aviation industry
reeling, and the cover of Aviation Week & Space Technology pro-
claimed Airlines, Airports & MRO Under Siege. But as much of
the industry retrenched, ofcials at the Brazilian aircraft builder
pressed ahead with an aggressive development schedule.
Embraers Flight Plan
Wary of challenging Airbus or Boeing, airframer
aims to secure dominance of 70-130-seat market
cation woes have set back rst delivery
of the MRJ by more than three years, to
2017, and the long-delayed ARJ21 may
never sell outside of China.
Orders for E-Jets are on the rebound
after a painful slump. Embraer was
forced to slash production by 40% after
the onset of the global economic crisis
in late 2008, to about eight per month.
But the company has won 281 rm E-Jet
orders this year from airlines such as
Republic, United and SkyWest. Total
backlog has risen by $4.6 billion in 2013,
to $17.1 billion, its highest level since
2009. And that gure will likely grow
when third-quarter results are reported,
thanks to a July order from Interna-
tional Lease Finance Corp. for 50 E2s
worth $2.85 billion at list prices. While
the backlog also counts sales from Em-
braers business jet and defense units,
executives conrm that the increase is
mainly from commercial jet sales.
Increased demand for E-Jets has led
some nancial analysts to predict that
Embraer will move soon to raise produc-
tion rates. But Curado says the company
plans to hold delivery rates steady in
2014, at 90-95 per year. He also dismisses
suggestions that Embraer might begin
overbookinganticipating that some
orders will go away when hard times hit.
Boeing and Airbus have done well with
overbooking, he says. But were not
ready to take that risk.
Embraer may be bold, but it has
never been rash. c
complete overhaul of the E-Jets. The
company surprised the industry early
this year when it announced it would
switch from a GE CF34 powerplant to
Pratt & Whitneys PW1000G geared
turbofan, a next-generation engine
about which Embraers leaders had
initially been skeptical. But
the upgrades, formally
launched in June at
the Paris air show,
go much further.
Boeing and
Airbus are just
changing the en-
gines, but we are doing much
more[improved avionics], wings,
gears and systems, says Luis Carlos
Afonso, Embraers chief operating
ofcer for commercial aviation. It will
be as efcient as if we were designing a
clean-sheet airplane.
The E2 is scheduled to enter
service in 2018 with the 106-seat 190-
E2, 132-seat 195-E2 in 2019 and 88-seat
E175-E2 in 2020. They are designed to
ofer 16-23% fuel-burn improvements
and 15% lower maintenance costs.
Embraer is aiming to win a 40-45%
share of a market it estimates at 6,400
deliveries during the next 20 years, with
the 175 being marketed as a hub feeder,
the 190 an optimally sized market
opener and the 195 serving E-Jet opera-
tors that want to upsize. Can the plan
succeed? Embraer certainly holds an
advantage in the near term, thanks to
stumbles by its new competitors. Certi-
By Joseph C. Anselmo
Joseph C. Anselmo blogs at:
Tap the icon in the digital edition of
AW&ST to read our 2001 account of
the rollout of Embraers E-Jets, or go

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Hi-RAT was flight-tested by one of
the NGJ bidders, but the Raytheon jam-
mer selected by the Navy uses a difer-
ent power-generation system. The July
award of a $279.4 million contract for the
NGJ technology-development phase is
being protested by one of the losing bid-
ders, BAE Systems, opening up the pos-
sibility that the competition may have to
be restaged.
ATGI, meanwhile, demonstrated the
performance of its NGJ power-genera-
tion system to the Navy and prime con-
tractors on other electronic-warfare and
unmanned-aircraft programs during
tests of the Hi-RAT installed in a pod in
the Calspan wind tunnel in Bufalo, N.Y.,
hink ram-air turbine, and the pop-out propeller providing
emergency power on an airliner comes to mind, or the air-
driven prop powering the ALQ-99 jamming pod on a Boeing EA-
18G Growler. But what if huge amounts of power are needed, for
electronic attack, long-range sensors or directed-energy weap-
onsand not just in emergencies, but across the ight envelope?
Wind-tunnel tests on a high-power, air-driven generator de-
signed for the U.S. Navys Next Generation Jammer (NGJ) pod
have been completed and its developer is looking at other appli-
cations, including
power generation
on unmanned air-
craft. The high-
power ram-air
turbine (Hi-RAT)
developed by
Advanced Tech-
nologies Group
Inc. (ATGI) is a
ducted turbine
embedded within
the pod, with
inlet and exhaust doors for high power when open
and low drag when closed.
Air Power
Powerful air-driven generator could
meet high-energy needs
in late August. Hi-RAT
produces 2-3 times the
power of competing sys-
tems, says ATGI Presi-
dent John Justak. For
NGJ, we demonstrated
full power over the full
ight envelope: thresh-
old and objective, he
says. We are compact
and modular, with fail-
safe operation.
ATGI has demon-
strated that Hi-RAT can produce 90
kW of power at the original low-air-
speed, high-altitude design point for
NGJ, where the dynamic pressure of air
owing into the ram-air turbine is low.
We have a unique approach to turbine
design, Justak says. The turbine has
vanes wrapped helically around a coni-
cal shaft, changing in shape along their
length from a pressure-driven reaction
turbine blade to a velocity-driven impulse
turbine blade. Ours is more kinetically
driven, like a windmill. At low velocity
and low density, we use potential and ki-
netic energy to drive the turbineeven
at 50,000 ft., he notes.
The system has been developed with
support from the Navys small-business
innovative research and Ofce of Navy
Research rapid innovation fund. We
were asked by the Navy to not go exclu-
sive with any prime, to be available to
all primes including the NGJ winner,
Justak says. In July 2012, Northrop
Grumman ight-tested a prototype NGJ
pod using ATGIs ram-air turbine
for prime power generation, but the
companies did not formally team,
he says. Northrop, teamed with ITT
Excelis, was the other losing bidder,
along with BAE.
Hi-RAT is a one-piece assembly
that includes articulated inlet and
exhaust and a single-stage tur-
bine. When operating, exhaust
flaps open to create suction to
pull air though the turbine. If an
anomaly is detected, the inlet and
exhaust close automatically to
reduce drag. The NGJ Hi-RAT is
24 in. in diameter, 60 in. long and
potentially could generate up to
700 kW, Justak says.
But ATGI has tested a
300-watt micro-RAT
and other versions in-
cluding a 6-kW system
to power intelligence,
surveillance and recon-
naissance pods carried
by aircraft such as
the Lockheed Martin
C-130. ATGI is looking
at other applications,
including providing
power on unmanned
aircraft at high altitude.
We are also dis-
cussing with commer-
cial aircraft manufacturers the idea of
a buried ram-air turbine to provide
emergency power with less drag, Justak
says. c
Leading Edge
By Graham Warwick
Managing Editor-Technology
Graham Warwick blogs at:
Embedded inside the
pod, the air-driven turbine
has helical vane-like
blades (graphic above)


Selfwinding chronograph
Ofcially chronometer-certied
Water-resistant to 200 m/660 ft

By Pierre Sparaco
Former Paris Bureau Chief
Pierre Sparaco has covered
aviation and aerospace
since the 1960s.
n Oct. 4, ailing Air France is expected to unveil yet another
cost-cutting plan. This one could involve nearly 3,000 job
cuts (in addition to the more than 5,000 previously announced).
It also could entail a revamping of the carriers short-/medium-
haul route system.
coalesced under a common brand,
Hop! No bottom-line numbers have
been released, but nancial results are
understood to be disappointing.
Perhaps Air France is simply not
going as far as needed, as quickly as
needed. Its cost structure is so high
it cannot compete efciently against
the low prices of Ryanair and EasyJet.
But the ag carriers leaders believe
such a goal could be achieved through
Transavia, a small charter-like sub-
sidiary, a heritage of the Air France-
KLM consolidation. Transavia, which
operates 11 Boeing 737-800s, has a lean
structure and minimal overhead. It is
now scheduled to serve more city pairs
and expand its eet in the next several
years to about 30 aircraft. But this is
obviously not enough to intimidate
Ryanair, EasyJet and their ilk.
Last month a new management
The new plan, dubbed Transform
2, is just another conrmation that
the airline has been slow to adapt
to the ways of the new marketplace
(although, in truth, those ways are no
longer all that new). European airline
industry deregulation, led by the
European Union, was implemented in
stages throughout the 1980s. Leading
low-fare competitors such as Ryanair
and EasyJet, and later other startups
such as Vueling, became commercial
threats less than 15 years ago.
Still, Air France executives rmly
reject criticisms about their far too
timid counterattacks, although they
have long underestimated the seismic
changes in the market. A signicant
number of European travelers adapted
overnight to no-frills ights while
enjoying the rock-bottom prices of-
fered by the new players. Flight time
between most European points is no
more that 60-90 min. and, as consumer
groups repeatedly point out, the aver-
age passenger can certainly survive for
less than 2 hr. without free drinks.
Air France, which is desperately
seeking to restore protability, has
in the past several months imple-
mented multiple initiatives in an
efort to retain market share on short
routes, maintain a high seat-load
factor and achieve decent yields. It
even found inspiration in Ryanairs
strategy of decentralized bases, and
established provincial teams wherein
cockpit crews and ight attendants
on Airbus A320s return each night to
key domestic points such as Toulouse,
Nice and Marseilles. In the same vein,
operations of regional afliatesBrit
Air, Regional Air and Airlinairwere
team came to power, after the re-
tirement of veteran Chairman/CEO
Jean-Cyril Spinetta, age 70. Philippe
Calavia, the CFO, age 65, also retired
and Alexandre de Juniac became head
of the Air France-KLM group. Trans-
form 2 will be their rst joint efort to
create a more positive environment,
but success is far from guaranteed.
In an unprecedented initiative,
six board members who represent
ight and ground personnel recently
reached out to French Prime Minis-
ter Jean-Marc Ayrault for help. They
outlined their mounting worries and
uncertainties about the future and sug-
gested quick-reaction measures such
as reduced social costs (pensions, etc.)
for employees. Air Frances competi-
tiveness is at stake in ways that are
unprecedented, the executives aver.
They say the carrier spends as much
of 34.2% of its revenues for salaries, in-
cluding social costs, while the Interna-
tional Airlines Group (parent of British
Airways and Iberia) devotes 24% to
salaries, and Lufthansa, 23.45%.
France is in the midst of an intense
national debate about taxes and social
costs impairing the nations competi-
tiveness. However, Ayrault and Trans-
port Minister Frederic Cuvillier have
yet to respond to the board members
request for support.
Board members also criticized the
governments liberal policy toward
Middle East carriers, claiming Emir-
ates obtains far too many trafc rights
to French destinations, distorting
competition. Such free rein results
from Emirates massive Airbus A380
orders, according to the board. In addi-
tion, they assert, Air France (as well as
other airlines serving Paris Charles de
Gaulle and Orly airports) pay excessive
airport taxes and fees and state-con-
trolled ADP Paris airports authority
reaps prots at an obscene rate. The
resulting mood is deleterious, they
There has never been this level of
discontent since Air France was estab-
lished in the 1930s. And the govern-
ments silence when it comes to this
issue is increasingly disturbing. c
Air France still ofers traditional
inight service on short-haul routes.
Mounting Uncertainties
Air France has battled the headwinds
of market change to no avail
Reality Check

May 2025, 2014
Berlin ExpoCenter Airport I

Hosted by

The Coalition as the long-standing
center-right alliance is commonly
calledmade the removal of the car-
bon tax a central plank of its election
platform. The new government will not
back down on this issue, particularly
after the Coalition was swept into
power by a handy margin in the Sept.
7 election. However, navigating the
legislative process will not be straight-
forward, and there is considerable
uncertainty over the level of resistance
from opposition parties and how long
it will take to repeal the tax.
The carbon taxwhich afects
airlines and other sectorswas
introduced by the Labor government
in July 2012. It cost Qantas A$106 mil-
lion ($99.2 million) in the most recent
nancial year, dwarng the carriers
net prot of A$6 million for the period.
The tax cost Virgin Australia A$48
Both major carriers have stopped
short of criticizing the carbon tax
policy itself. However, they have high-
lighted the amount they have had to
hile campaign promises must always be viewed cautiously,
it appears that the overthrow of Australias Labor govern-
ment will benet airlines in a few key areas. Most notably, the
new Liberal-National Coalition government has signaled that it
will throw out a carbon tax that has been severely hurting airline
If the carbon tax is removed, it would be ying in the face of
the global trend. Emission tax plans have been popping up in
various countries in recent years, to the consternation of the air-
line industry. So a reversal would be a signicant development.
Carbon Costs
Australias new government looks
to eliminate emissions tax
pay, and have noted that it is difcult
to pass on this cost to passengers in
the current demand environment.
Some smaller carriers like Regional
Express have been much more vocal in
their criticism of the carbon tax.
The Regional Aviation Association
of Australia (RAAA) previously esti-
mated that this tax would raise A$195
million a year from the nations avia-
tion industry, with almost A$50 million
coming from regional carriers.
Another part of the Coalitions pre-
election agenda for aviation will also
please Australias smaller domestic
carriers. It has said it will reintro-
duce the En Route Rebate Scheme,
a program subsidizing some regional
air services that was eliminated by the
Labor government in 2012. Before it
was canceled, the rebate was providing
support to eight airlines on 81 regional
In its aviation policy manifesto, the
Coalition says it will introduce a new
and better targeted En Route Rebate
Scheme for regional commercial
airline carriers to support low volume
and new routes to small and remote
communities. A 2009 government
review recommended that a revised
version of the program be established,
but it was axed instead. RAAA CEO
Paul Tyrrell acknowledged to Aviation
Week in April that the program needs
modernizing, and said the group
would work with any of the parties to
do so.
One of the most controversial issues
in Australian aviation is whether to
build a second Sydney airport, and
where it should be located. The major
parties remained cautious over this
issue during the campaign, although
the Coalition stated its position in its
policy document. It says that although
the existing Sydney Kingsford Smith
Airport believes it can cater to the
increase in trafc for many years to
come, there will be a time when a
second international airport will be
required. But the Coalition has so far
only committed to making a decision
on a site in its rst term of govern-
Other major initiatives proposed
by the Coalition include establishing
an Aviation Industry Consultative
Council that will meet regularly with
the transport minister. The Coalition
is concerned at reports from the in-
dustry that it does not have a voice at
the heart of government, according to
the aviation policy document. We will
seek to develop an open and ongoing
dialogue with industry.
The new government intends to
launch a major external review of
aviation safety and regulation in Aus-
tralia, to be conducted by a qualied,
eminent and experienced member of
the international aviation community.
It also wants to reform the structure
and direction of the oft-criticized Civil
Aviation Safety Authority.
In one respect, the conclusion of the
Australian election period would have
been a relief to airlines no matter who
won. The major carriers reported that
business travel took a hit in the lead up
to the election, as the lack of certainty
made bean counters for companies of
all sizes be more cautious. Now airlines
will be looking for more concrete ben-
ets as the Coalition begins to act on
its campaign promises. c

Airline Intel
By Adrian Schoeld
Senior Air Transport
Editor Adrian Schoeld blogs at:

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In Orbit
By Frank Morring, Jr.
Senior Editor Frank
Morring, Jr., blogs at:
Top agency managers say that put-
ting astronauts in a distant retro-
grade orbit around the Moon, where it
would take nine days to get home, can
be an afordable next step out of low
Earth orbit for humans, even without
an asteroid there for them to study
(AW&ST July 24, p. 39). But the mis-
sion also ofers a technology pull for
other advanced spaceight capabili-
ties under development in the open-
ended if-you-build-it-they-will-come
technology efort that is a hallmark of
todays NASA policy.
Solar Electric Propulsion (SEP) is
a good example. NASA already was
working on a 30-kw SEP demonstra-
tion when the asteroid-capture mission
came along. But in tight-budget times,
the SEP demonstration mission needs
a partner to help defray the cost, and
the asteroid mission is picture-perfect
for that role.
It ts well in terms of the capabil-
ity needed and in the time frame,
says James Reuther, deputy associate
administrator for programs in NASAs
Space Technology Mission Directorate.
Development of the advanced-SEP
demo hardware would have started
next year, but that has been advanced
with the advent of the asteroid-capture
idea. The objective is a 50-kw system
able to nudge a space tug out to the
target and deect it to the desired
lunar orbit. NASA is working on
advanced solar arrays to generate the
higher power, and a new Hall-thruster
design that can ionize the 10 tons
of xenon engineers estimate will be
required. In both cases, stowage ef-
ciency is crucial to hold down the size
and weight of the space tug.
ASAs Asteroid Redirect Mission (ARM) has run into some
heavy political ack on Capitol Hill, but inside the agency
there is a clear understanding that it can be the nucleus of a
lot of advanced-technology developments needed for expan-
sion of human spaceight into the Solar System, regardless of
the objective.
Tech Pull
Asteroid mission advances Solar Electric Propulsion
Xenon is the preferred SEP fuel
because at pressure it packs very
well, Reuther says. But to reach an
asteroid and nudge it back toward the
Moon will require about ve years of
continuous operation, beyond the state
of the art. Over time, the magnetic
eld around the thruster brings ion-
ized particles back onto the ceramic
exit ring and can erode it to the point
that the ceramic wears away, exposing
the electrodes beneath it and shorting
out the system.
The idea has emerged of what
they call a magnetically shielded Hall
thruster, where the shape of that exit
ring is designed in such a way that
the eld lines dont bring the particles
back into contact with the ring itself,
explains Reuther. Thats one of the
things we have been testing in this
advanced development efort for the
demo. And were pretty condent that
we actually have what we call erosion-
free Hall thrusters.
To power the Hall thrusters, NASA
is more concerned with how it can pack
solar arrays into a launch-vehicle fairing
than with how efciently the solar cells
can convert sunlight into electricity.
NASA has contracts with ATK and
Deployable Space Systems (DSS) for
advanced solar arrays that use light-
weight blankets of solar cells instead of
rigid at panelsa circular approach at
ATK that unfolds like an Asian fan, and a
DSS system that rolls out and curls back
on itself to stifen in the same fashion as
a metal tape measure (see photo).
We expect to cut the mass for the
equivalent power by roughly half as
opposed to traditional technology, and
more importantly, we expect to cut the
packing densityhow we t these in a
launch shroudby a factor of three,
Reuther says.
The power and specic impulse that
could be generated by using erosion-
free Hall thrusters and gossamer
array structures applies across the
SEP arena, and could enable such
applications as 100-beam K
communications satellites, extended
robotic satellite-servicing missions, and
perhaps robotic spacecraft designed
to capture and deorbit dangerous
pieces of space debris. The SEP-system
thrust is too low to get humans to Mars
quickly enough, but it could be used to
pre-position habitats and supplies to
minimize the launch requirements for
the human vehicle, and to send robotic
probes on science missions outside the
Solar Systems ecliptic plane.
Anything that requires power or a
signicant [change in speed], its going
to be a game-changer to bring this on
line, Reuther notes. c



Washington Outlook
he top generals and admiral in charge of the Air Force, Army,
Marine Corps and Navy, respectively, were posed two ques-
tions by a congressman last week: Could you carry out military
requirements under the latest Defense Strategic Guidance, as-
suming the 10-year, across-the-board budget cuts stay in efect?
And could you prevail in
more than one regional con-
ictthink Iran and North
Koreaat the same time?
One by one, the four core
members of the Joint Chiefs
of Staf said simply, no.
In fact, it is my opinion that
we would struggle to meet even
one major contingency operation,
noted Army Chief of Staf Gen.
Raymond Odierno. He also told
Rep. Randy Forbes (R-Va.) that the
Pentagons Strategic Choices and
Management Review, performed
over the summer after Congress
failed to nd alternatives to cuts,
relied on rosy assumptions. Those
include six-month wars with
at least 90-day warnings to call up
reservists and National Guardsmen,
and no peacekeeping operations after
major combat ends. They are very
unrealistic and positive assumptions.
And for that, they would all have to
come true, Odierno said.
Forbes is a vocal defense hawk who
represents part of the worlds largest
naval base in southeastern Virginia.
He said he sought the testimony in
a rare joint appearance by the four
chiefs last week in front of the House
Armed Services Committee in order to
combat assertions by some Americans
that sequestration is a good thing. It is
not that Forbes does not want to cut
the federal decit and debt. It is that
he and many other lawmakers know
sequestration is not the way to do it,
partly because it does not allow for
strategic choices in spending.
Congress is failing to adequately
fund our military in a responsible and
reliable fashion, and that is a consider-
able charge, asserted Rep. Jim Cooper
(D-Tenn.). If sequestration were
foisted on us by an enemy, wed call it
an act of war.
But even within the defense-friendly
congressional armed services com-
mittees, that message has difculty
resonating anymore. Lawmakers are
focused on more parochial interests.
Barely 24 hr. after the Joint Chiefs
testied on the impact of sequestra-
tion to national security, most Repub-
lican members of the Senate Armed
Services Committee (SASC) used the
conrmation hearing for proposed Air
Force Secretary Deborah James to
lobby her to keep USAF aircraft based
in their states (see page 31).
Most Democratic members were no
better, using the hearing to speechify
on sexual harassment and veteran
benets issues in the news. Just ve
of the 26 members of the SASC re-
marked on the harm to security from
sequestration. Despite still needing
their votes, James did her best to
warn senators, too. These things are
possible, she said of the risks brought
on by sequestration. c
Dozens of large U.S.-India military
deals worth billions of dollars are
nearing completion and likely to be
clinched in the next few weeks. Indian
Prime Minister Manmohan Singh is
preparing to arrive in Washington on
an ofcial visit starting Sept. 27, on the
heels of a trip to India by U.S. Deputy
Defense Secretary Ashton Carter.
Top Indian defense ministry sources
indicate one or more contracts could
be nalized during Singhs visit, such
as a $1.2 billion deal for six follow-
on Lockheed Martin C-130J Super
Hercules transports for the Indian air
force. This year has played out well
for Indo-U.S. defense cooperation,
says a top Indian defense ofcer who
will be part of the Singhs delegation.
The prime ministers visit to the U.S.
will take these and many awaited
deals forward and intensify the level
of cooperation beyond a buyer-seller
A new FAA rule is easing restrictions
on pilot ight review and recency
requirements for both ight instruc-
tors and pilots of commuter and
on-demand operators. The FAA issued
the rule Sept. 16 at the behest of sev-
eral parties seeking to overturn a legal
interpretation limiting exemptions to
the standing 24-month ight-review
requirement. It also comes as the
agency and industry reexamine ight
instructor and pilot requirements in an
efort to boost the pilot population and
improve general aviation safety.
The rule allows an additional rating
to an existing ight instructor certi-
cate and its renewal or reinstatement
to meet the 24-month requirement. It
claries that recent ight experience
requirements do not apply to a com-
muter or on-demand pilot-in-command
(PIC) if that pilot meets an operators
specic PIC requirements. c
You Were Warned
Chiefs say U.S. might not win under sequestration
By Michael Bruno
Senior Policy Editor
Michael Bruno blogs at:

We would struggle
to meet even one
major contingency




merging from a hiatus in new-product development in
2008, Bombardier took on its biggest challenge yetto
enter a new market with a clean-sheet design, its largest
aircraft ever and its rst with y-by-wire ight controls, carbon-
ber composite wing and geared-turbofan engines.
The Canadian manufacturer crossed
its first hurdle on Sept. 16, when the
CSeries narrowbody airliner made its
delayed rst ight from Mirabel, near
Montreal. But with the focus shifting to
service entry, assumptions made when
the development program was laid out
are being reexamined to see whether
Bombardier can deliver the first air-
craft as planned, a year from now.
First ight was scheduled for Decem-
ber, but was postponed to the end of
June by assembly delays. It then slipped
further as ground testing took longer
than anticipated. So far, the company
is sticking publicly to plans for a ve-
aircraft, 2,400-hr. test program leading
to entry into service (EIS) of the initial
110-seat CS100 in 12 months, but its ex-
perience with ground tests is leading
Bombardier to review its plans.
We really need to reassess, to take
another look at the scope of ight test-
ing and how fast we can do it, says
Rob Dewar, vice president and general
manager for CSeries. Our focus has
been on early entry into service, but
the aircraft has to be mature and ready
for EIS. The reassessment will take
a couple of months and require a few
more flights, as well as discussions
with CSeries customers, he says.
Boeing laid out the 787 at 48
months, and it took close to eight years.
Graham Warwick Montreal
Clean rst ight for
CSeries, but achieving
service entry of all-new
airliner in 12 months looks aggressive
We set our schedule at 5.5 years, and
some thought that was too conserva-
tive. But aircraft are more integrated
now, so there are more tests to do, and
the rules are more challenging, which
is new to us, Dewar says, adding We
set the schedule [for rst ight] too ag-
gressively. It took longer than planned.
Even with delays, there is still some
cushion in the schedule before Bom-
bardier would incur penalties for late
delivery. Playing down the delay, Bom-
bardier CEO Pierre Beaudoin says the
internal target for rst ight was June,
so it was less than three months be-
hind. Nico Buchholz, executive vice
president of group eet management
for CSeries launch customer Luf-
thansa, says the EIS is still within the
window of variability assumed in the
carriers planning.
Bombardier is holding to its project-
ed $3.4 billion for development of the
CSeries, although it now reports a total
of $3.9 billion to include the $500 mil-
lion in interest on nancing its $2 billion
share of the development cost, with the
rest coming from suppliers and the Ca-
nadian, Quebec and U.K. governments.
Firm orders still stand at 177 aircraft,
but will definitely reach the target
of 300 by EIS, says Mike Arcamone,
president of Bombardier Commercial
Aircraft. Several customers are wait-
ing for ight tests to conrm the per-
formance projections, he says. Aircraft
Nos. 2 and 4 are the performance-test
vehicles. Midway through ight test,
will we have the majority of the perfor-
mance data, says Dewar.
The CSeries conducted its first
ight in middle-of-the-envelope condi-
tions, taking of at mid-weight and re-
duced thrustwhich contributed to its
extraordinary quietness. The aircraft
reached 12,500-ft. altitude and 230-kt.
airspeed, retracting the landing gear
and varying ap and slat settings dur-
ing a 2.5-hr. ight, says chief test pilot
Chuck Ellis, who commanded ight-
test vehicle 1 (FTV1).
There was one minor fault during
the ight: an advisory message from
one of the subsystems. We made a
small adjustment, and achieved all of
our objectives, Ellis says. Most of the
extra time on the ground over the past
weeks was spent testing and matur-
ing the aircraft software. A lot of the
maturity work was around erroneous
messages. We had one message on the
ight, and there was no functionality
issue. I was expecting five to 10, not
just one, says Dewar.
The CSeries is Bombardiers first
y-by-wire (FBW) aircraft, and FTV1s
rst ight was in the direct, or degraded
mode that is the backup in the event of
a ight-control failure. We were very
conservative, and by ying in a degrad-
ed mode were able to see the aircraft
responding, not the FBW computers
interacting. We were trying to remove
that part of the equation, Ellis says.
The FBW system will be switched to
See video and photos of the
CSeries rst ight on our
Things With Wings blog at:



Pratt plans a series of minor im-
provements to the PW1500G to ensure
initial CSeries will meet fuel-burn per-
formance guarantees. The company
has assembled 11 production engines
at its Mirabel site, six of which are in-
stalled on the initial three CS100 test
aircraft. Since ying the rst PW1524G
on its Boeing 747SP testbed in June
2011, Pratt has also begun testing the
PW1200G for the Mitsubishi MRJ and
PW1100G for the Airbus A320Neo,
and says lessons learned from these
engines will be applied to the CSeries.
From Number 1 onward they have
been full-up production engines, says
Bob Saia, vice president of commer-
cial development programs for Pratt
& Whitney. They are just lagging
some of the performance items that
we have developed and some improve-
ments we will make. We are targeting
them for introduction in the last ship-
set of ight-test engines for the rst
CS300s, he says, adding We slowed
the CSeries engine denition so sup-
pliers can make the parts to the EIS
The nal service-entry standard will
be introduced as a block change modi-
facility originally built for the smaller
CRJ700 series. Construction of a
dedicated CSeries assembly building
will be completed by mid-2014, when
production needs to move. The new
building will have four xed stations
for joining of the fuselage sections and
wing and mounting of the gear. Once
on their wheels, aircraft join a moving
assembly line for completion.
Production is beginning to ramp up,
and is planned to reach a capacity of
120 aircraft a year by the end of 2016.
Chinas Shenyang Aircraft, which al-
ready builds the rear fuselage section,
is beginning assembly of the center and
forward fuselage sections and will take
over from Bombardiers Belfast, North-
ern Ireland, plant.
Dewar says Bombardier decided to
build the airframe sections at its own
plants to protect the program in its ear-
ly stages, when there are a lot of design
changes, then transition them when
the work became more repetitive. We
know China can build the fuselages, no
question. They have done well on the
rear fuselage and are tracking well to
the plan, he notes.
The CSeries is the rst aircraft pow-
ered by Pratt & Whitneys
geared turbofana decision
that was critical to meeting
the aircrafts aggressive fuel-
economy, noise and emissions
targets. The engine is on
track with performance. We
will now validate its inflight
performance integrated with
the aircraft, says Dewar.
fully augmented normal mode for later
ights. Bombardiers y-by-wire control
philosophy is to give the pilots cues
when the aircraft is approaching its lim-
its, but allow them a bit more, says Ellis.
The CSeries also is the companys rst
aircraft with sidestick controllers. We
have soft and hard stops. But the air-
craft is designed around the soft stops.
The remaining four CS100 flight-
test vehicles, the first production
aircraft and the rst test aircraft for
the 130-/160-seat CS300 are in final
assembly at Mirabel, but Bombardier
will review the results from FTV1 be-
fore flying the next aircraft, in case
changes are required. Modifications
from ground testing have been rolled
into FTV2-5. Everything we learned
on 1 we have put into 2-5. We could get
two aircraft up fast, but there is no
sense putting two in the air if we have
to change them, Dewar says.
Static structural testing has contin-
ued beyond the seven safety-of-flight
cases required for rst ight, with no
issues so far with the aluminum-lithi-
um fuselage and resin-transfer molded
carbon-ber wing. We are tracking to
plan, says Dewar. Final assembly of the
fatigue-test article has begun on site at
IABG in Germany, where durability
testing is expected to begin by year-end.
Test and initial production aircraft
are being assembled at Mirabel, in a
Capt. Chuck Ellis (right) and
First Ofcer Andy Litavniks
ew FTV1, with test engineer
Andreas Hartono (not pictured).
The low noise of Pratts PW1524G
geared turbofans was notable on
takeof and landing.
There were no surprises for
Bombardier as CSeries FTV1
completed its 2.5-hr. rst ight
from Mirabel on Sept. 16. AVIATION WEEK & SPACE TECHNOLOGY/SEPTEMBER 23, 2013 29

Guy Norris Los Angeles
High Hopes
First-ight regime shows
Boeings condence in 787-9
oeing kicked of the 787-9 test and certication pro-
gram on Sept. 17 with an ambitious 5-hr., 16-min. rst
ight. Crewed by 787-9 Senior Project Pilot Mike Bryan
and 787 Chief Pilot Randy Neville, the aircraft took of from
Paine Field in Everett, Wash., at 11:02 a.m. local time and
returned to Boeing Field, Seattle, at 4:18 p.m.
The ight included evaluations normally conducted dur-
ing a standard B-1 Boeing production test sortie as well as
assessments related to specic diferences associated with
the propulsion system and handling characteristics of the
longer airframe. The aircraft, designated ZB001, is 20 ft.
longer overall than the baseline 787-8, and is powered by the
newly certicated, higher-thrust Package C version of the
Rolls-Royce Trent 1000. Maximum altitude reached during
the ight was 20,400 ft., and maximum airspeed was 250 kt.
The test debut of the 787-9 marks a major milestone for
the program as Boeing continues to ramp up deliveries of
the 787-8 and initiates development of the 787-10, the third
major derivative of the family. Boeing has high hopes for
the -9 stretch, particularly because the higher-capacity
variant does not trade performance for the additional 40
passengers it will hold compared to the -8. The aircraft is
designed to y an additional 300 nm with a
full payload compared to the baseline, and
has already attracted 388 rm orders. This
represents 41.5% of the programs overall rm
backlog, a gure comparatively close to the 787-8s current
498 order tally.
Boeing also appears more condent about meeting ini-
tial performance goals with the 787-9 than it did with the
troubled early development versions of the 787-8. This is
largely because the 787-9 empty weight is reportedly running
marginally better than predicted, partially related to struc-
tural and systems improvements gleaned during the weight
optimization eforts for the 787-8. The -9 also incorporates
aerodynamic improvements, including a hybrid laminar ow-
control device in the vertical n, and will benet from the lat-
est fuel-burn improvement packages developed by Rolls for
the Trent 1000 and General Electric with the Performance
Improvement Package (PIP) II package for the GEnx-1B.
The Package C engines powering the aircraft on its rst
ight are rated at 74,000 lb. thrust, and are designed to have
1% better fuel burn relative to Package B. The upgraded con-
guration incorporates modications to increase mass ow
and the exhaust-gas temperature margin, and includes modi-
ed blades in the intermediate-pressure compressor and a
semi-active case cooling system for improved tip clearance
control in the low-pressure turbine. The engine will be the
baseline powerplant for the 787-9 when it enters service with
Air New Zealand in mid-2014 and will also be standard on
787-8s from around June 2014 onward.
The 787-9 will be based at Boeing Field for most of the
upcoming test and certication campaign, which will be
completed in second-quarter 2014. The rst 787-9 is the
126th 787 to roll of the combined Everett and Charleston,
S.C., production lines, and will be joined in the test program
by the second and third 787-9s, Nos. ZB002 and ZB021.
The second test aircraft has been completed and the third,
which will be GE-powered, is in nal assembly. Two 787-
9s with completed interiors will also join the latter stages
of the program to assist with function and reliability pre-
entry-into-service tests. c
cation and includes things associated
with optimized cooling. We have turned
down ow in some areas and pressur-
ized some bleed cavities, says Saia. As
a result Pratt expects to pick up a few
tenths of a percent of fuel-burn im-
provement. That will put us right on
our guarantee to Bombardier so were
on target for the rst customer.
Eforts are underway, meanwhile, to
reduce the CSeries weight. We have
a small challenge, which is normal in
development, so we are in a weight-
saving mode, says Dewar. We plan
to be on track with or better than all
guarantees. c
With Guy Norris in Los Angeles.
Boeings 787-9 has aerodynamic,
structural and systems improve-
ments as well as its 20-ft. stretch
over the baseline 787-8. AVIATION WEEK & SPACE TECHNOLOGY/SEPTEMBER 23, 2013 31
Amy Butler Washington
USAF chief: JStars, T-38
replacements among top priorities
s there hope for a programs future if it is not in the sacred Top
Three priorities of the U.S. Air Forcethe F-35 Joint Strike
Fighter, the KC-46 aerial refueler and the long-range bomber?
For months, the USAFs message has been tightly con-
trolled. Keep those three programs moving forward; anything
else is subject to cuts or, if it is a new start, indenite deferral.
But Gen. Mark Welsh, Air Force chief of staf, revealed a peek
into his priorities beyond the dramatic sequestration cuts that
have derailed military spending plans in recent months.
Aside from his Top Three, Welsh says he would like to
start projects to replace the aging E-8C ground-surveillance
and T-38 fast-jet trainer eets. Industry is already prepared
for bothwith primes and subs pairing of to pursue these
projects. But rst, Congress must provide a funding prole
that will support them, Welsh notes.
Thus, the Air Force is developing two potential budgets
high and low proposals. The latter takes into account a
worst-case scenario of sequestration impacts stretching
through scal 2015. The former allows for at least some new-
start work, though not as much as the service had hoped.
The E-8C Joint Stars eet is housed on aging Boeing 707
airframes, all of which were purchased as used platforms
before being modied with mission systems in the 1990s and
2000s. So, their service life is hampered and maintenance
cost is high. That, coupled with a desire from combatant com-
manders for more and better ground surveillancetracking
ground vehicles to individuals on footis behind the need. An
analysis of alternatives conducted by the service has pointed
to a solid business case for housing the next system on a busi-
ness jet to access both its speed and low operating cost. And
signicant advances have been made in active, electronically
scanned array radars to allow for multimode detection and
tracking of many targets simultaneously.
The E-8Cs are housed on the oldest of the USAFs 707s, but
it is likely that the service could embark on a larger recapital-
ization project to eventually put the E-3 Airborne Warning
and Control System air surveillance and RC-135 Rivet Joint
signals intelligence missions on the same business jet platform.
Industry teams are ready for the T-X program to buy 350
T-38 replacements; the Air Force has slipped the competition,
delaying elding until at least 2023. BAE Systems/Northrop
Grumman with the Hawk T2, General Dynamics/Alenia Aer-
macchi with the M346, and Lockheed Martin/Korea Aerospace
Industries with the T-50 are all competing. Boeing, said to be
in talks with Saab for a partnership, is eyeing a brand-new de-
sign. Gen. Edward Rice, head of the Air Education and Train-
ing Center, says he cannot recommend a quick start to T-X in
this budget environment because the T-38 is still safe to y.
Up for cuts are several mainstay Air Force programs. The
service is pursuing as many vertical cuts, or wholesale eet
terminations, as possible, because the savings are more pro-
found than simply slicing a portion of a eet. With a vertical
cut, the service divorces itself from the cost not only of the
aircraft, but also of an entire training and supply chain.
Potential vertical cuts include the A-10 eet and MC-12W
Project Liberties. Both conduct niche missions. If funding
werent an issue I would love to have that capability, [but]
there are other things I need more desperately than the
MC-12, says Gen. Mike Hostage, who heads Air Combat Com-
mand. The L-3 Communications MC-12Ws were just elded in
2009 to satisfy an urgent need for more intelligence collectors
in Iraq and Afghanistan.
A-10s, by contrast, have been lauded for decades by the
Army for their precise close air support (CAS). The Air Force
has tried before to kill the A-10 eet during budget crunches,
but Army ofcials often convince Congress to keep them.
Hostage says that with targeting pods and precision-guided
munitions, CAS can be had through a variety of platforms.
While they were not happy, [Army leaders] understand we
are in a scal crisis, he says. I am not backing away from
the mission. I am just adjusting the way Im doing it.
Several other eets are facing partial cuts. These include
the Lockheed Martin C-130 and General Atomics MQ-9 Reap-
er unmanned aircraft. We are trying to convince [the Ofce
of the Secretary of Defense] that the 65 [combat air patrol]
challenge . . . is not the force structure the nation needs or
can aford, Hostage says. Predators and Reapers are use-
less in a contested . . . environment [and] I need anti-access
capability. Hostage did not reveal what the right number of
Reapers would be.
Likewise, the service may shed old, excess C-130s, even
while proposing another multi-year deal of the new J-model
of the tactical transports. Presently, the Air Force has ap-
proximately 340 C-130s, but USAF Gen. Paul Selva, head of
Air Mobility Command, says the requirement is closer to 300.
Selva is also proposing an early retirement to the KC-10
refueler eet. It could retire early as the Boeing KC-46 comes
onboard. The KC-10 provides more refueling capacity than
the KC-135 and was once uniquely capable of providing fuel
to Navy and Marine Corps jets that use the probe and drogue
receiver interface. Now, however, the service has outtted the
majority of its KC-135s into the R conguration, which allows
for the workhorse tanker to conduct such missions.
The topline requirement for tankers is 479 aircraft, so it is
possible the USAF could reduce the KC-10 eet as early as
the rst 18 KC-46s are introduced into service in 2017.
Also up for a reduction is the C-5A eet. C-5As have notori-
ously low reliability; by contrast, the C-5Mwhich includes
new engines through a Lockheed Martin programhas
proved to be highly reliable. Congressional members have
held retirement plans for the eet at bay in hopes of protect-
ing missions at their home-state Air Force bases.
Selva says the C-5M, a modernization that includes new
engines for the strategic airlifter, is highly reliable and, as such,
is not being eyed for a cut. Likewise, the C-17 eet appears safe.
Budget drills are likely to examine other possible cuts until
the nal proposal is delivered to Congress early next year. c
Life Post-Cuts?
Predators and Reapers are useless
in a contested environment, [and] I
need anti-access capability
See how U.S. Air Force programs are faring amid budget uncertainty
and other factors at

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fter years of political wrangling,
the Netherlands has nally de-
cided to purchase the Joint
Strike Fighter (JSF), but at a greatly
diminished number than originally
The Hague will now buy 37 of the
85 F-35s it had intended to purchase
when it rst signed on to the program
in 2002, basing its decision on the need
to remain within the tight 4.5 billion
($6.1 billion) budget assigned for its
F-16 Fighting Falcon replacement
program, and the 270 million annual
operations budget for ghter types in
the armed forces inventory.
In the decision, announced on Sept.
17 in policy documents setting out the
forecast plan for its armed forces, De-
fense Minister Jeanine Hennis-Plass-
chaert said she saw the purchase of the
F-35 as a key innovation for the services,
at a time when the country is becoming
less militarily ambitious, pointing out
that any future Dutch military opera-
tions will be limited to shorter periods
of time than was previously possible.
The F-35 provides the most op-
tions from a military operational per-
spective, she says. She also cited its
potential for further development,
especially in the area of networked
operations [along with] the opportu-
nities for international cooperation in
areas such as training, maintenance
and deployment.
The report states that independent
analysis from organizations such as
TNO, the Netherlands Organization for
Tony Osborne London
The Netherlands
was the second
nation to receive
Applied Scientic Research, backed up
the ministrys decision.
The Netherlands intends to begin op-
erations with the F-35 in 2019 alongside
the countrys last F-16s, which will retire
in the early 2020s. The defense ministry
does not rule out purchasing more air-
craft within the nancial framework,
but the document highlights one of the
ongoing frustrations of the program as
air arms try to work out the operational
and ownership costs of the aircraft. As
a result, the ministry is creating a risk
reserve of 10% to be applied to the
program and operational costs. Even
if more aircraft are ordered, eet size
would still be in the low forties, says
one ofcial close to the program.
The ministry has notied its part-
ners in the F-35 program of the
changed gure.
The Netherlands was an early sig-
natory to the JSF program, investing
more than 1 billion in a bid to retain
aerospace skills and knowledge in
the country following the collapse of
Fokker in 1996. Two F-35As were pur-
chased early on to take part in the op-
erational test-and-evaluation phase of
the program.
Despite this, the F-35s place in the
Netherlands inventory has never
been assured. In recent months, the
program has faced bitter opposition
in parliament: A nalized Dutch pur-
chase had been rejected mainly by the
left-leaning Labor Party while in oppo-
sition. However, that decision changed
after the Labor party formed a major-
ity coalition in the lower house with
Prime Minister Mark Ruttes Liberal
party after last Sep-
tembers elections.
The pol i t i cal
strife forced the
defense ministry to
put one of its two
JSFs into storage
at Edwards AFB,
Calif. The second
is understood to be
test ying at Lock-
heed Martins F-35
production facility
in Fort Worth.
The European
economy has tak-
en its toll on defense spending. The
Netherlands once near-200-strong
F-16 eet has dwindled to fewer than
70 aircraft, and a further 10% of the
fleet will be cut throughout 2014.
Under the new policies proposed by
Hennis-Plasschaert, the country will
share responsibility of guarding the
airspace of the Benelux countries
Belgium, the Netherlands and Luxem-
bourgwith Belgium, rather than each
country, holding a quick-reaction alert
against possible aggressors in sover-
eign airspace, as is currently the case.
Belgium, too, might be replacing its
aging F-16s in the coming years. The
Netherlands transport aircraft and
helicopter eets will remain stable, al-
though the air forces VIP Gulfstream
IV will be sold in 2014.
The Pentagon is predicting a 50%-
plus increase in the ramp rate for F-35
production in the next ve years that
will contribute, ofcials hope, to a sig-
nicant reduction in the aircrafts per-
unit price. The cost of each F-35A, not
including engines, is targeted below
$100 million in low-rate, initial produc-
tion Lot 7 for the rst time.
Program ofcials, however, are ulti-
mately targeting fth-generation capa-
bility at a fourth-generation price, by
2019, said U.S. Air Force Lt. Gen. Chris-
topher Bogdan, executive ofcer for the
F-35 program, during a brieng at the
annual Air Force Association confer-
ence near Washington on Sept. 17. We
are at a point . . . where that [produc-
tion] ramp is going to shoot up. c
With Amy Butler in Washington.
Netherlands nally selects F-35 to replace F-16,
but cost questions still loom
Difcult Choices
& S P A C E T E C H N O L O G Y
A CFM56-5B at
GA Telesis Engine
Services in Vantaa,
Surplus parts, once an
afterthought, are shaping
MRO strategies
Page MRO4
Essential Insights To Optimize the Aircraft Life Cycle
MRO Edition

Wheels Up to Wheels Down Maintenance
- Engine Controls
- Flight Controls
- Aircraft Electronics
- Cabin Systems and Modifications

erging companies, mov-
ing and culling unneed-
ed inventories can be both
energizing and stressful.
Moving and
There is the excitement generated
from new opportunities and the pros-
pect of creating something superior
but there is also the sheer hard work
of overcoming unexpected obstacles to
make this happen.
Just look at the proposed merger of
American Airlines and US Airways.
Instead of celebrating the creation of
one of the worlds largest airlines in
August, the two are scheduled to ap-
pear in a U.S. District Court on Nov. 25
to defend anti-competitive concerns.
While the pace of airline mergers
might slacken, consolidation in the
aftermarket will continue. Kellstrom
Materials is a good example of why.
When Kellstrom purchased AirLi-
ance Materials from Lufthansa Technik
on May 17, it combined two medium-
sized companies into one large entity
with complementary product lines.
Clients gained a broader channel of dis-
tribution, more parts choices and new
customer interfaces.
The deal happened quickly, and
Roscoe Musselwhite, Kellstrom Mate-
rials president and CEO, immediately
started looking for the synergies.
In doing so, he says that you dis-
cover stuf you dont need, like DC-9
air stairs. Weve been scrapping a lot of
material we once loved, Musselwhite
notes, so that the prime commercial
material located at Kellstroms Florida
facility will fit into AirLiances ware-
house near Chicago OHare Interna-
tional Airport.
Its like moving to a new houseyou
realize what possessions you value
mostand you purge the infrequently
used things because the cost of relocat-
ing them is high.
Kellstroms parts-scrapping is not
making a huge economic impact,
maybe a couple $100,000, [but] its a
necessary step, says Musselwhite.
Kellstrom implemented Phoenix
its enterprise resource-planning
systemat AirLiances facility, and
went live with it this month. This was
an essential step because it didnt
make sense to start the physical pro-
cess of moving the mapped inven-
tory loc to loc beforehandand
disrupt the inventorys data integrity.
Parts are now relocating to Chicago,
but Kellstroms sales staf will remain in
Florida. However, they have been visit-
ing Chicago on cultural exchanges to
cross-pollinate ideas.
The parts marketplacematerial
valuation, ownership options and dis-
tribution channelshas drastically
changed since AirLiance formed.
Large holders of inventories in this
business are seldom rewarded, unless
it is the right inventoryat the right
price, says Musselwhite.
And with repair costs often eclips-
ing the price of a used part, having the
three rightspart, place, locationis
paramount (see page MR04).
I recently left my home of a decade
for a new one, 700 mi. (1,126 km) away,
so I acutely understand the energy it
takes to cull, pack and move. The same
week I was transitioning domiciles,
Penton purchased Aviation Week from
McGraw Hillmy work houseso I
doubly understand the human side of
undergoing a merger, posthaste. But
like Musselwhite, I feel privileged to
be at the stage of exploring new pos-
sibilities and brainstorming ideas with
colleagues old and new.
Change can be disruptive, but it can
blow open doors you may not have
knocked on before. If youre in the
Windy City, knock on my new office
door, which is open.
Embrace new ideas and move your
company forward. c
Lee Ann Tegtmeier
Chief Editor MRO

Change can be disruptive, but
it can open new doors you may
not have even knocked on before. AVIATION WEEK & SPACE TECHNOLOGY MRO EDITION SEPTEMBER 23, 2013 MRO3
MRO4 Game Changers
Surplus parts are shaping
MRO strategies
MRO8 Start-Ups at Your Service
U.K. MROs and SMEs ll
needs of all sizes
MRO14 Stretching Beyond Core
A J Walter is rebranding
Azerbaijans aircraft,
partnering with BA
Engineering for 787
MRO16 Russia Starts Stocking Up
Western parts inventory
grows with economic zone
MRO22 Tackling Tool Control
Survey assessing how
industry tracks tools nds
desire for improvement
MRO24 Tethered Tools
Examining tool control in
orbit, based on a readers
comments in the tool survey
MRO27 Speed Up
Southwest Airlines quickens
parts ow to reduce inventory
MRO28 Twins Part Out
The A340 is challenged by
twin-engined aircraft
MRO31 Information Science
MRO providers use Big Data
to improve operations
MRO36 Fine-Tuning Aircraft Health
MRO38 Cabin Crewmembers
Take Notes
MRO42 EASA Outlines Upcoming
MRO44 Inspiring Excellence
MRO49 Inatable Hangars
MRO50 Fuel
MRO51 Electrical
The next issue of the MRO Edition
will be dated October 28.
Read Tegtmeiers posts on MROs
weblog, updated daily:

mong airlines, manufacturers and the nance community,
news of yet another mid-life aircraft being harvested for
parts will rekindle the debate about adjusting the useful
life of an airframe. In the aftermarket world, however, word of a
part-out brings near-universal agreement on a diferent industry
trend: the growing inuence of surplus parts on MRO strategies.
As recently as a decade or so ago,
sourcing serviceable parts was neither
complicated nor efficient. It did not
have to be. Top-tier airlines had larger
spares pools and met much of their
muted used-parts demand from within,
selling of what they did not need. Origi-
nal equipment manufacturers (OEM)
were just starting to see the valuable
roles that secondhand parts could play
in their aftermarket portfolios.
As a result, part-out specialists
could focus on their core competen-
cyripping planes apartand earn
an extra buck or two selling usable
parts to brokers with their own end-
user customer base.
Twenty years ago, we were just
supplying parts on an ad-hoc basis,
says GA Telesis President and CEO
Abdol Moabery. That has changed
The numbers hammer home
Moaberys point. In 2001, the air trans-
port serviceable parts market was
worth about $11 billion, with just 10%
claimed by surplus parts, according
to ICF SH&E data. A decade later, the
market was close to $15 billion, while
the surplus share had climbed to 18%.
By 2015, ICF SH&E projects surplus
parts could have 20% of the $17 billion-
plus market for serviceable airframe,
engine and component spares.
Several factors are playing major
roles in this market shift. First and
foremost, operators are changing their
strategies. Airlines realize that the
increased availability of good-quality,
used, serviceable material has allowed
them to control costs by avoiding the
need to put brand-new material into
their engines or airframes, says Steve
Williams, director of aircraft engine
services at A J Walter Aviation.
While many MRO-related changes
stem from within the hangar, some
take place on the flight line. An in-
crease in leased versus owned aircraft
also is boosting surplus-parts demand.
In 2000, about 25% of the worlds eet
was leased, Boeing data show. Last year,
the gure was about 38% and by 2020,
it will be above 50%.
Sean Broderick Washington
Surplus parts, once an afterthought,
are shaping MRO strategies
Because surplus parts ofer compa-
rable reliability to new parts at a frac-
tion of the cost, they are often tapped
to keep leased aircraft ying or pre-
pare them for an end-of-lease return.
It doesnt make sense to gold-plate a
lessors aircraft, Moabery says.
Among owned eets, deciding to pro-
long the service life of an older eet type
may have its drawbacks, but surplus-
parts availability is not one of them.
Take Delta Air Lines continued
use of nearly 120 MD-88s. Instead
of overhauling engines and sourcing
new components, the carrier can har-
vest what it needs from aircraft being
phased out elsewhere, such as Scan-
dinavian Airlines (SAS) MD-82s and
MD-87s, which Delta started strategi-
cally snapping up last year.
These are aircraft that are typically
purchased by part suppliers who will
chop that airplane up and sell it for
parts, explains Delta CFO Paul Jacob-
sen. [O]pportunities to acquire older
airplanes and harvest them for parts
has provided signicant savings for us
going forward in terms of a lower-cost
basis for the overhauls that we have.
Some of the ex-SAS aircraft may
pay for themselves in less than one
year, Jacobsen says.
Deltas strategy is more nuanced
than simply keeping its old metal y-
ing. In addition to parking regional jets,
it planned to retire 14 mainline aircraft,
including DC-9s, in the second half of
this year. The moves will come as new
aircraft and new-old aircraftsuch
as ex-AirTran 717senter the fleet.
The carrier is upgrading its MD-88s
and MD-90s with glass cockpits, which
both add capability and save weight,
not to mention justify the stockpiling
of used serviceable spares.
Delta does have one of the older
eets in the system, acknowledges Ed
Bastian, the carriers president. As a
result, we have considerable opportu-
nities to use older equipment to, in ef-
fect, improve the overall performance
of our maintenance programs.
Cost-saving opportunities abound
throughout an aircrafts service life
but are particularly ripe in the engine
world. The bulk of engine-maintenance
costs come from shop visits, of which
60-70% is in materials.
While performance-based contracts
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such as power-by-the-hour eliminate
the shop-visit cost spike for many op-
erators, some partyan OEM or inde-
pendent engine shopis performing,
and paying for overhaul work. Indepen-
dent providers have always sought cost-
saving opportunities such as surplus
parts or repairs that they can leverage
for customers, but OEMs were slow to
embrace such tactics.
When the primary OEM aftermar-
ket strategy focused on hawking new
spares, such resistance made sense.
But in a world where OEMs increasing-
ly see broad aftermarket support as a
lucrative revenue stream,
meeting customer demand
is taking precedence over
moving new product.
An MRO market assess-
ment released by the Aero-
nautical Repair Station As-
sociation (ARSA) showed
that OEMs captured 44%
of the $26 billion air trans-
port engine overhaul mar-
ket in 2012. That percent-
age should only grow.
A TeamSAI analysis
shows an across-the-board
increase in the percentage
of new-generation engines
in long-term OEM support
contracts compared to
their predecessors. CFM
International, for example,
grabbed less than 20%
of the CFM56-3 overhaul
market but has about 40%
of -5B/-7B work, and could
end up with 80% for the
Leap engine.
As e x pe c t e d, t he
OEM aftermarket ramp-up has been
matched by increased participation in
the surplus-parts game. The evidence
both at the macro and micro levelsis
Last year, the air transport engine
services market generated $1.35 bil-
lion in surplus-parts business, an ICF
SH&E analysis shows. The biggest slic-
es of the pie belong to a pair of OEM
subsidiaries, GE Engine Services and
Pratt & Whitney Services, at 17% and
10%, respectively. Not surprisingly,
they are their own biggest surplus-
parts customers.
GEs Engine Services foray is just
part of the companys used, serviceable
parts activity. In 2006, the company
bought aircraft part-out and surplus-
parts specialist The Memphis Group,
and tucked it into its Asset Manage-
ment Services (AMS) business within
its GE Capital Aviation Services leas-
ing arm. Last month, AMS unveiled its
newest product line: still-yable Boeing
777-200 parts, courtesy of an in-prog-
ress teardown.
OEMs have adopted what we do as
acceptable practice, says Moabery.
They are very much entrenched in
the used, serviceable parts market.
GA Telesis and its competitors lever-
age OEMs for more than their massive
parts needs. Moabery says his company
sends 70% of its repair jobs to OEMs,
too, which results in a higher condence
level among GA Telesis customers.
If youre concerned about my qual-
ity, then youre concerned about the
OEMs quality, he says. There is no
call to question [us] about the quality
of the parts.
Two-way partnerships with OEMs
exemplify one way in which surplus
parts specialists have changed to meet
growing demand. Moabery suggests
the increased capabilities of compa-
nies like his has as much to do with an
increase in mid-life aircraft part-outs
as any macro decrease in the tradition-
al 25-year useful life. Its not the avail-
ability of those aircraft at a younger
age that we should be focusing on, he
notes. Its really the capability of com-
panies like us and others that have de-
veloped sophisticated business models.
Some of the sophistication has come
via organic growth. Two former Col-
lins Avionics employees founded Cedar
Rapids, Iowa-based Intertrade in 1969.
For a quarter of a century, the family-
run business specialized in secondhand
avionics made by cross-town neighbor
Rockwell Collins. In the mid-1990s, In-
tertrade expanded, adding warehouse
space and parting out a Boeing 737-300
to help ll it. In 1999, Rockwell Collins
bought Intertrade. Today, the compa-
nys inventory is just as likely to feature
harvested parts from a 15-year-old 737-
700 (MSN 28437, purchased a year ago)
as it is refurbished components made
by its parent.
Diversification also gives compa-
nies more options as markets shift.
At conglomerates such as GE and
Rockwell Collins, the synergies of an
OEM unit, a large aftermarket ser-
vices network, surplus-parts special-
ist and (in GEs case) leasing arm are
self-evident. Smaller companies such
as GA Telesis are playing the diversi-
cation game, too. The company leases
out about 120 aircraft and engines,
giving it perspective into the aircraft-
demand market.
When the company evaluated the
prospects of a recently purchased
12-year-old 737-300 (MSN 30723) and a
1999-vintage 777-200ER (MSN 28418),
it saw more value in parting them out
to support the existing eet than keep-
ing them in the eet. Put simply, the
present value of the part-outs rev-
enue potential over, say three years,
was greater than the potential lease
returns plus the residual value.
We couldve put them back in ser-
vice, Moabery says. But economical-
ly, it makes more sense for us to part
out the aircraft and put those parts
into the aftermarket today.
Ten years ago, few surplus-parts
dealers could extract enough value
from a middle-aged, in-demand air-
liner to make such a call. Five years
ago, 54% of surplus-dealer stock came
directly from part-outs, ICF SH&E cal-
culates. Last year, the gure was 82%.
The suppliers are becoming more
sophisticated, both technically and -
nancially, Moabery says. c
GA Telesis leases about 120
aircraft and engines, which gives it
the ability to lease or part them out,
depending on the highest value.


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Startups at
Your Service
U.K. MROs and SMEs ll needs of all sizes
he demand for British civil after-
market work is expected to grow
in the next decade, but most
startups face an uphill struggle to en-
ter a market being squeezed by OEMs.
To add to their headaches, the cur-
rent shortage of skilled engineering
labor is set to worsen in the next de-
cade or two, while the trend of partner-
ing with OEMs ofers a double-edged
sword: MRO providers can gain reli-
able work from a handful of big cus-
tomersbut only while it lasts.
On the plus side, the relative weak-
ness of the British pound in recent
years has improved prospects for Brit-
ish MRO services, which were previ-
ously considered to be ofering poorer
value for the money than their Eastern
European rivals in particular.
Civil MRO work in Britain is fore-
cast to grow about 4% annually in the
next 10 years, driven largely by air
transport demand, according to Aero-
space, Defense and Security (ADS),
the sectors national trade body.
At the same time, ADS is encourag-
ing British MRO companies to look
outside their comfort zone and exploit
growing demand for expertise and
technology transfer in Brazil, China,
Kuwait, Malaysia, Qatar, Russia and
the United Arab Emirates.
Jeegar Kakkad, chief economist and
director of policy at ADS, says that its
not as if a British company is giving
away the crown jewels by working with
a foreign country. Once a relationship
has been established with an overseas
company, what they quite often want
is to maintain a partnership and do a
bit of a workshare, he notes.
According to the British trade body,
U.K. Trade and Investment (UKTI),
domestic MRO providers face stiff
competition abroad due to the increas-
ing strength of component manufac-
turers, while airframe makers such
as Airbus, Boeing and Embraer are
a growing competitor as they seek to
capture a greater share of the value
that their aircraft generate after pro-
Avionics repair for foreign
customers has relatively high
barriers to entry due to the so-
phisticated test equipment and
training needed to deal with
modern systems, software
development and capability
upgrades, UKTI adds.
But there has been growth in agree-
ments using performance-based logis-
tics, where suppliers are contracted to
deliver performance outcomes against
MRO objectives for systems or prod-
ucts, rather than simply agreeing to
provide goods and services.
Spending by airlines on asset man-
agement is rising, meanwhile, and the
increasing use of composites in new
aircraft means there is a correspond-
ing need to be able to support it and
undertake the necessary repairs once
in service, says UKTI.
The demand for non-destructive
testing and appropriate repair derives
from the Airbus A380, A350, A320neo,
Boeings 787 and Embraers 175 and
As the OEMs target greater vol-
umes of aftermarket work, indepen-
dent MROs are moving from heavy,
detailed, in-depth services to more
frequent, light-touch services, says
Many MRO companies benet from
the aerospace clusters that have devel-
oped around Britain, ofering easier ac-
cess to OEMs and the range of work
they can ofer.
The aerospace cluster in South East
Wales is one such example, and is dom-
inated by the British Airways mainte-
nance center in the Vale of Glamorgan,
which employs more than 700 people
to maintain the airlines Boeing 747, 777
and long-haul 767 aircraft.
David Jones, the secretary of state
for Wales, says the center has had a
very positive impact on small and
medium-sized rms (SME).
There is the very benecial efect
of larger companies being able to as-
A lot of the workforce
in the U.K. are beginning to
realize that the pre-2008
gravy train has gone away.
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sist the smaller companies
in developing their business
models, because theyve got a
great deal of expertise in terms
of running business, giving ad-
vice and so on, he says.
Were getting very small
SMEs, if you like, under the
wing of large companies, and
benetting from that relation-
ship, he adds.
Local MRO provider Cardif
Aviation was established last
year and aims to be a one-stop shop for
airlines and leasing companies operat-
ing narrowbody passenger aircraft.
Cardif Aviation operates in 132,000
sq. ft. of hangar and workshop space
at the former Royal Air Force mainte-
nance base in St. Athan and can hold
20 narrowbody airliners at one time.
It was co-founded by Bruce Dickin-
son, the lead singer for rock band Iron
Maiden, and Mario Fulgoni, who hopes
the company will transcend the rath-
er specialist nature of most British
civil MROs by ofering the full range
of maintenance, training for engineers
and pilots, and even initial ights for
startup airlines.
British MRO companies previously
sufered due to the relative strength of
the pound against the U.S. dollar, the
chief currency used for industry pric-
ing, while the recession has forced
them to improve in the face of grow-
ing regional competition, Fulgoni says.
The U.K. has become more com-
petitive over the last few years. Ster-
ling was previously strong against the
dollar; now its relatively weak, which
means that our rates are beginning to
look pretty good. Against the euro, the
U.K. is doing OK as well, Fulgoni says.
He notes that MRO providers in the
U.K. are competing against East Eu-
ropeanstheir labor costs are lower
and theyre much more willing to do
work. A lot of the workforce in the
U.K. are beginning to realize that the
pre-2008 gravy train has gone away
and that we need to be more produc-
tive now if were going to win business
from Europe.
He has ambitions to win business in
northern Europe, Scandinavia and as
far as North Africa, but if you go be-
yond that range, it really doesnt pay to
ferry the aircraft, he says.
Fulgoni sees partnership with
OEMs as another opportunity rather

Bruce Dickinson, lead singer for
the rock bank Iron Maiden, co-
founded Cardif Aviation with
Mario Fulgoni.
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than a threat. I would like to be an
approved supplier to both Airbus and
Boeing to provide them with OEM
support to their customers. They can
produce regular work and it tends to
be higher-margin, he says.
Ive talked to Airbus. Theyre very
interested in talking to us and looking
at what we can do, adds Fulgoni. It all
depends on what programs they start
and the problems they have.
Cardif Aviation works on the Airbus
320 and Boeings 737, 757 and 767 in ad-
dition to smaller regional aircraft. For
now, its work is split roughly 50/50 be-
tween leasing companies and airlines,
but Fulgoni sees smaller airlines as
a promising source of
Dorset-based Mari-
lake Aero specializes in
instrument MRO and
also has benetted from
work for smaller cus-
tomers. An SME em-
ploying just 12 people, it has not suf-
fered from the recession and still gets
plenty of work from approximately
100 customers.
Generally, a lot of the budget air-
lines do reasonably well, and thats
where we get a lot of our work from,
says Gerry Grifths, Marilakes man-
aging director.
The skills shortage has proved to
be one of his greatest challenges, a
problem that is only set to grow in the
coming decades.
It is difficult to get engineers
whove got instrument experience, he
adds. In the past, weve hired people
with electronic and some mechanical
expertise and trained them on our
equipmentthat takes a year to 18
months, says Grifths.
According to Kakkad, theres a real
challenge in terms of getting skilled
people for MRO. The Royal Academy
of Engineering estimates that Brit-
ain will need 80,000 new engineering
graduates each year but is only pro-
ducing about 20,000 annually.
The civil MRO sector, like other
British engineering sectors, is facing
a retirement peak of older workers.
The industry has only 1,200 licensed
engineers ages 20-30 and more than
3,500 over the age of 50, Kakkad says.
Spending money on training pro-
grams now is just one way of overcom-
ing the skills shortage. Even though
it might seem as if cash is short, most
companies realize that without skills
programs, production will slow up,
he adds.
As for the other challenges faced by
new and established civil MRO compa-
nies, Kakkad says they need to become
more exible and agile to respond to
shifts in the MRO market, focusing
more on partnering and shifting their
focus from heavy to light work.
OEMs are unlikely to make life easy
for independent MRO providers, and
the persistent skills shortage ofers
a permanent challenge. But with a
weaker pound and growing demand
abroad, new U.K. MRO companies
should have plenty of opportunities
ahead of them.c
Britain will need 80,000 new
engineering graduates each year
but is only producing about
20,000 annually.

Matthew Bell London
Beyond Core
A J Walter is rebranding Azerbaijans aircraft,
partnering with BA Engineering for 787
zerbaijan Airlines wanted to re-
brand its eet of 18 aircraft and
selected A J Walter Aviation,
best known for component support,
to managing the effort. AJW Group
tapped Eirtech Aviation to paint the
Nine months earlier, in November
2012, A J Walter bought two new A340-
500s from Airbus that it repainted and
reconfigured for use by Azerbaijan
Deepak Sharma, technical director
at A J Walter, told Aviation Week that
the company will continue to look be-
yond its traditional core capabilities.
That was obviously one of the
unique things to do, to buy these air-
craft from the manufacturer and pass
them onto an airline, says Sharma.
A J Walter is close to completing
the new look on Azerbaijan Airlines
A319, is part way through work on its
A320 and will be fully underway updat-
ing the airlines Boeing 757 and 767 by
We have done this [previously] on
an ad hoc basis, not so frequently and
not on such a large scale, he adds. The
program for Azerbaijan is a more for-
mal, managed procedure.
A J Walter already is working on a
total solution for the Boeing 787 with
British Airways, according to Sharma.
In a sign of their intent, in April the
two companies joined forces to pro-
vide Azerbaijan Airlines with power-
by-the-hour component support for its
new eet of 787s, which is scheduled
to start ight operations in 2014. A J
Walter and British Airways Engineer-
ing will provide extensive component
supply, inventory management and
repair services.
A J Walter also is looking beyond
eet rebranding to building a larger
engine portfolio for leasing. In January,
it bought three General Electric CF6-
80C2s and five CFM56-3C1 engines
and one Pratt & Whitney PW4056-3
to add to its lease oferings of PW2040
and CFM56 series engines.
Its lease packages include service-
able ready-to-t spare engines and com-
plete digital recordswith 24/7 service
and temporary replacement engines.
We are continuously identifying
what the target is, what the oppor-
tunities are out there, Sharma says.
At the moment were heavily looking
into the 737 and would like to get into
A350 work. But that does not mean
we are moving away from what we
currently do.
A J Walter manages a eet of more
than 400 aircraft under its power-by-
the hour services, with customers as
far aeld as New Zealand and Hawaii.
But the companys vision is not lim-
ited to Europe, America or Asia, he
adds. Well go wherever we need to be.
While some MRO companies see a
threat from OEMs trying to grab more
of the aftermarket, A J Walter regards
this as a legacy perception that fails
to take full advantage of business op-
While he concedes that all OEMs
want to protect their intellectual prop-
erty, I havent found the OEMs to be
that difcult. Its a matter of percep-
tion, he says.
The company does encounter some
minor issues with OEMs, but good
business sense and an eye for mutual
benet usually resolves the situation,
adds Sharma.
If you were trying to carry out a
certain level of repair, some OEMs
would restrict you and not grant you
a license for that, he says. But you
work with them, and there is benet
for them in selling the piece part. They
realize it is a reciprocating business.
Personal contact remains a priority
for A J Walter, an approach that works
99% of the time, he adds.
We seem to have turned the tables
with OEMs in the past few years. I nd
that if you meet people face-to-face
you win a lot more business than by
trying to win business by email. c
A J Walter Aviation was contracted
in July to rebrand Azerbaijan
Airlines eet. The job should be
nished by year-end.
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Henry Canaday Washington
Russia Starts
Stocking Up
Western parts inventory grows with free
economic zone, partners, cultural understanding
ussian aviation lacks the scale
and speedy growth of Chinese
aviation, but its fleet of about
500 Western aircraft is formidable.
Unlike China, Russia is just a 2-3 hr.
ying time from major aircraft manu-
facturers, shops and part inventories
in Western Europe, so the need for
in-country part stocks has not been
as intense as in China or other Asian
But one facet of Russian aviation
argues for local stocks. Almost every
Western aircraft rotates though one
city, Moscow, daily. Inventories held
in the capital city can very efciently
serve the entire market.
The government is sensitive to the
need for local stocks to support the
countrys aviation. It has established
a zone in Russia for imported parts
free of customs and value added taxes
(VAT) until the parts are actually sold
to airlines. And the Russian Federation
has joined the World Trade Organiza-
tion, which should eventually, if not
immediately, ensure some important
safeguards for foreign suppliers.
Non-Russi an compani es have
started to build signicant stocks of
aircraft parts in Russia. These stocks
are still supplemented by shipments
from Western hubs in the Netherlands,
England and Germany. But the direc-
tion is clear.
If Russian aviation continues to
grow at a healthy pace and the govern-
ment plays by Western rules in regu-
lating and taxing parts, Moscow could
have major stocks of line-replaceable
units fairly soon. This will happen fast-
er and more efficiently if companies
can connect with the right partners in
Russian aviation.
In penetrating this market, it helps
to be close, both physically and in expe-
rience, in dealing with Russians. The
Russian market keeps growing and
we are planning to grow along with
it, summarizes Paulius Kavaliauskas,
head of business development for com-
ponents and materials at FL Technics.
His company is part of a group listed
on the stock exchange in Warsaw, Po-
land, a neighbor of Russia and well ac-
quainted with Russian ways.
FL Technics opened a subsidiary,
FL Technics Line, two years ago in
Moscow and placed no-go and criti-
cal components in Moscow Vnukovo
International Airport to deal with
aircraft-on-the-ground (AOG) situa-
tions. With our own base in Russia,
we also ofer logistic services and help
operators with customs clearance, sig-
nicantly shortening delivery times,
Kavaliauskas says. FL plans to expand
geographically within Russia and add
additional stocks.
No-go, critical and some dangerous
components are placed at Vnukovo
and support Boeing 737s, Bombardier
CRJ200s and Airbus A320-family
aircraft. FLs main stocks are still in
Vilnius, Lithuania, another close neigh-
bor with very good connections to Rus-
sia. Kavaliauskas says FL can deliver
parts from Vilnius the same day they
are ordered or early the next morning.
Customs clearance can be completed
less than 24 hr. after a purchase order
is received.
But London is still the best loca-
tion for some parts, including flight
controls for 737NGs and some other
popular items. FL also keeps a parts in-
ventory for 737NGs and 737 Classics in
Warsaw. Sometimes we may even use
our Kuala Lumpur or Chicago stock,
Kavaliauskas notes.
FL wants to expand the range of
parts it stocks in Russia for the most
popular models and also to add parts
from partners with
which FL has distri-
bution agreements.
These partners in-
clude Seal Dynam-
ics, Heico and Kell-
strom. It is looking
at placing certain
ight controls, engines and auxiliary
power units inside Russia to support
airlines in AOG situations even faster.
Russias free economic zone for avia-
tion at Ulyanovsk-Vostochny airport is
about 570 mi. east of Moscow. Chiey
a cargo airport, the facility is home
to Volga-Dnepr Airlines and Aviastar,
which makes Antonov and Tupolev jets.
Ulyanovsk-Vostochny could become
the logical place to stock parts used for
heavy checks, where facility space is
cheaper than Moscow, MRO facilities
exist and tax treatment is favorable.
These reasons contribute to FL Te-
chics plan to build a 16,000-sq.-meter
(172,222-sq.-ft.) maintenance base and
warehouse at this airport. This will sig-
Airbus and S7
have agreed to
develop an A320
partnership in

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nicantly lower investment in stocks,
which will cost about the same as any-
where else in Europe.
Bringing parts into Russia now
means immediately paying an import
VAT of 18% and sometimes, customs
duties. Operating from a free econom-
ic zone allows stocking parts without
freezing this additional cash, Kaval-
iauskas says. Duties and taxes have
to be paid only when the part is sold
to the customer.
The FL executive sees other com-
panies taking the same direction his
has in Russia. But he cautions, This
market is highly attractive yet very
complex and it takes a lot of time and
energy to understand it, let alone start
operations. He predicts companies
that have been working on serving
Russia may soon enter the market,
but entirely new entrants will probably
take a few years to penetrate it.
A J Walter Aviation has been sup-
porting Russia for nearly 20 years from
the U.K., but it also now has more than
$30 million of rotable and expendable
components at Moscow Domodedovo
International Airport with a second-
ary location at Krasnoyarsk, Siberia.
It is considering placing inventory at
Vnukovo and is willing to look at other
locations, says Roger Wolstenholme,
director of group sales.
He says A J Walter logs about $100
million in annual sales in Russia and in
other members of the Commonwealth
of Independent States (CIS).
The companys components in Rus-
sia initially are intended for the S7
Groups A320s, but it plans to expand
into 737 Classic and NextGen, and per-
haps other Boeing aircraft, too.
Wolstenholme wants to build on this
position by developing customized solu-
tions based on AJWs expanding prod-
uct lines, including power by the hour,
consumables, engines and component
repair management by AJW Tech-
nique. He is especially hopeful about
opportunities for this division of AJW.
AJW has considered Russias new
duty-free zone but sees only limited
benets, compared with an efcient lo-
gistics chain out of the
U.K. Russian customs
still pose problems
that local stocks might
partly solve.
Customs clearance
remains an ongoing is-
sue, even though AJW
has considerable expe-
rience in minimizing
delays, ensuring that
documentation is cor-
rect and that items
are efciently tracked.
AJW also has the ability to provide
customs-clearance services via our lo-
cal agent, Wolstenholme notes.
He expects other companies will join
in the buildup of part stocks in Russia.
For instance, Engineering Holding,
one of the largest MROs in Russia and
the parent company of S7 Engineer-
The Russian Federation
has joined the World
Trade Organization, which
should eventually ensure
some important safeguards
for foreign suppliers
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ing, is stocking up to $5 million of
inventory on a consigned basis from
AeroTurbine, a subsidiary of Interna-
tional Lease Finance Corp. Stockpil-
ing used, serviceable material onsite
at Engineering Holdings facility at
Domodedovo should expedite inven-
tory delivery to customers within one
day after ordering. The initial inven-
tory for 737 and A320-family aircraft,
which became available on May 31,
consists of wheels, brakes, avionics,
fuel pumps and actuators.
In addition, AAR Corp. signed a let-
ter of intent in June to open a parts
center in Ulyanovsk in mid-2014 and
a maintenance facility there in 2015.
AAR currently keeps inventories for
Russia in Amsterdam, London and
Hanover, Germany, and can also tap
warehouses in the U.S., Middle East
and Asia.
Carl Glover, sales vice president in
AARs supply chain group, says Am-
sterdam has provided good connec-
tions to Russia and CIS nations. That
is where AAR now stocks its high-
moving rotables for exchanges and
consumables for immediate shipment,
including AOGs, to the region. Glover
notes that AAR has Russian-speaking
staff who understand local logistics
and documentation.
Glover attributes part growth in
Russia both to more Western jets y-
ing there and to the aging of the rst
Western jets in Russian aviation, as
these now require more maintenance
and spares. He emphasizes both sin-
gle-aisle and regional aircraft eets.
He also notes that, thanks to online
tools, airlines have better visibility into
which rms have what parts.
Glover says AAR will put inventory
closer to points of use in Russia as its
Russian maintenance venture ma-
tures. These on-site inventories will
be high-moving rotables and consum-
ables. Glover says AAR will consider
partnerships in light of specic busi-
ness cases and whether partnerships
serve customers.
Oliver Wyman Partner Chris Spaf-
ford observes that Western part
stocks in Russia are growing, not
only because of more Boeing, Airbus
and Bombardier aircraft, but because
Russias own Sukhoi Superjets require
many Western components. And Rus-
sia is unusual in that virtually all of
its Western aircraft operate through
Spaford says this attractive market
had been difcult to penetrate because
ownership of aircraft had been so con-
centrated, with about 70% of jets ying
for ve airlines. Geopolitical and bu-
reaucratic factors also posed hurdles.
Some of that has begun to shift.
Aircraft are more numerous now,
and geopolitical issues have lessened,
except perhaps between the U.S. and
Russia. Russia joined the World Trade
Organization in mid-2012, but WTO
rules have not yet been incorporated
into Russian laws, regulations and
practice. It is still very challenging to
do business in Russia, Spaford cau-
tions. It has become easier, but its not
like Western Europe.
Even the new free zone at Uly-
anovsk-Vostochny has not been applied
consistently, Spaford notes. You must
have a local partner to navigate it. In
fact, the Russian aviation market is a
lot like China, except for size. Spaford
points out that those 500 Western jets
are not much more than one Chinese
eet, China Southern. c
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Lee Ann Tegtmeier Chicago
Tackling Tool Control
Survey assessing how industry tracks tools nds
desire for improvement and identies some
he aftermarket issued a no-con-
fidence vote for its tool control
practiceswith one-quarter of
respondents selecting highest con-
cern in a recent Aviation Week survey.
The Web-based poll, conducted in
June and July, questioned the global civ-
il aviation aftermarket industry about
tool control practices, in preparation for
a panel on asset tracking during Avia-
tion Weeks MRO Europe Conference
on Sept. 24.
When asked how concerned are
you about the efectiveness of your tool
control process, on a scale of 0-10, the
average answer was a slightly concern-
ing 6.15.
However, note that only 8% selected
a 0 or 1 (the lowest concern) versus 22%
who chose 10 (the highest). Delving into
those extremes, 50% of the 10s came
from airline carriers line-maintenance/
operations support, versus 37.5% from
MROs and 12.5% from OEMs. Compar-
ing that to the 8% who selected the low-
est-concern numbers, 55% were from
airlines/operations support, 15% from
MROs and 30% from OEMs.
While tool control practices and pro-
cedures need to improve, capital costs
and internal cultural resistance are the
two biggest obstacles to adopting new
tool control practices, survey results
show. Other impediments, such as not
having the right technology, nished
far behind these two barriers.
Capital cost and cultural resistance
concerns could be linked to who owns
the hand tools and how tool boxes are
Consider a European airline that
spends 1,800 ($2,388) on a standard
electromechanical toolbox for a tech-
nicianbut it has 12 different types
to account for diferent skill sets and
maintenance tasks. If this airline opted
for shared toolboxes, fewer tools would
be available, which should save money,
reduce missing tools and foreign object
damage (FOD), and make tools easier to
track. The return on investment case
could be made for funding a high-tech
tool control system, but this airline also
anticipates that it would produce cul-
tural and technological resistance.
Every time improvements are ap-
plied to our tool store control systems,
we usually have huge discussions and
obstructions from the technicians,
says a manager for this airline.
Survey results indicate 64% of re-
spondents work at companies that own
the hand tools; the other 34% represent
companies where technicians own most
hand tools used on the job.
Only 42% of respondents report that
more than one person works on a single
toolbox per shiftand nearly half of
those say they inventory toolboxes daily
to ensure they are complete.
Tool control practices vary greatly
depending on the job and location. An
airline, for instance, can have disparate
practices for base maintenance and
outstation operations.
Hub environments usually have
higher-tech tool control optionsof-
ten which scan tools and check them
in and out to technicians or link them
to aircraft, sending alerts when a tool
doesnt come back and an aircraft is
going out. In heavy maintenance en-
vironments, specialized tooling can be
scheduled with work orders.
At outstations, those procedures
might not be as tight. The same is true
for MROs that have heavy maintenance
facilities and provide line services.
Even though procedures might vary
between maintenance bases and out-
stations, all of our tool control policies
. . . are laid out in our general main-
tenance manual, which spells out the
day-to-day operation procedures for
our maintenance department, points
out Joe Pergola,
United Airlines
aircraft mainte-
nance supervi -
sor i n Atl anta.
And airlines and
MROs mai nte-
nance procedures
manuals feature a
regulators stamp
of approval.
Because airlines
and MROs follow
strict rules for tool
management, me-
chanics are very
aware that if they lose a tool, they could
be sanctioned or charged with the its
replacement cost, which contributes to
the cultural resistance, reports a South
American maintenance executive.
Tools and tooling tend to be mis-
placed more often when items are
signed out over multiple shifts. To
combat this, one MRO ags tools used
on multiple shifts as critical, which
links them to work cards, so control-
lers cannot close a work card until
those tools are returned.
One survey respondent revealed that
his airline uses an internally developed
tool booking application, which pro-
vides limited reportssuch as number
of tools per technicianbut it is devel-
oping a radio-frequency ID solution for
tools and ground support equipment for
better tracking. (See chart).
The majority of respondents said
their companies reported losing 1-10
tools in 2012. When asked about the
Existing Tool Control Solutions* Equipment Tracked Electronically* Where Survey Respondents Work
Electronic access control
Parts and
Large tooling
(stands and jacks,
rigs and jigs, etc.)
North America
South America
Bar code
tool marking
No electronic
or automatic
tool marking
* Respondents could select multiple choices

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cost drivers of poor tool control, aver-
aged answers rank the following from
highest to lowest: lost productivity,
labor dedicated to nding lost tools,
operational shutdown or schedule
disruption, disassembly or rework to
locate a lost tool, and replacing tools.
There was not an obvious correla-
tion between concern about a tool
controls efectiveness and a systems
lack of electronic or automatic func-
tions. Even though companies use
robust software applications in their
production environment, many do
not connect electronic tool monitor-
ing into these applications. However,
The Tooling Module of our custom-
enterprise-resource-planning system
can establish dependencies between
tools and which aircraft types they
are applicable for, as well as training
required to check out/use the tools,
reports Art Smith, AARs vice presi-
dent and chief quality ofcer.
Because 60% of respondents indicate
they hope to connect electronic tool
monitoring into their software applica-
tions, expect more activity in this area.
Respondents were divided about
their the priorities for better tool
control. Reducing the threat of FOD
had by far the highest number of
rst-place votes (but also the second-
highest number of least concerned
After FOD reduction, the order of
goal importance is: less time searching
for tools, better inventory control and
organization, and obtaining metrics on
maintenance tasks/repair ow.
All lead to a more efcient and cost-
efective operation. c

We used a program to laser cut foam silhouettes. This has been

benecial for inventory and organization.

We are introducing cutting foam for controlling personal tool-

boxes and rolling tool boxesand shadow board for company
tools. Tool-shadowing is a very simple and efective tool control.

Most of our tool inventories are done manually, which is error-

prone. We would like to know how other MROs manage their tooling.

We have individual toolkits and sectional-general/shared tools

in cribs. We do not have a dedicated IT system for tooling, instru-
mentation and equipment control.

Tool control foam works just ne and is a simple and quick so-
lution. The new electronic systems from SnapOn and others are
way too expensive and too complicated.

Tool rooms are reconciled every third shift. QA and QC inspec-

tors are tested for tool nds every day.

A major part of our tool control happens during nal inspection

when we search through work areas on the aircraft. c
Frank Morring, Jr. Washington
Tool Tethering
In space, tool control is imperative
hen the nearest hardware
store is 350 mi. straight
down, tool control takes on
a whole new dimension. Take away
gravity, and air, and it gets even harder.
Just ask Jill McGuire, a private pilot
who was also the engineer in charge of
crew aids and tools for the last servic-
ing mission to the Hubble Space Tele-
scope in May 2009.
You have to take everything with
you, she says. You dont get a chance
to run to Home Depot.
McGuire and her team at the God-
dard Space Flight Center in Maryland
designed 180 tools for the missions as-
tronauts, whose job included replacing
three gyroscopes, the Wide Field Cam-
era, a command and data handling sys-
tem, a battery module and a Fine Guid-
ance sensor; installing the new Cosmic
Origins Spectrograph, and repairing
the power supply for the Space Tele-
scope Imaging Spectrograph (STIS).
They worked with the astronauts on
tool design for spacesuit-glove compat-
ibility and on spacewalk choreography,
planning for every mishap they could
imagine while guring out how to keep
the tools, fasteners and other hard-
ware from drifting away to become
potentially deadly space debris.
Most of the tools had a spare, and
the extensive toolkit had special con-
tingency gear to handle problems
such as stuck bolts. The power pis-
tol grip tool the spacewalkers used
to turn fasteners had extra torque
limiters to add force, and the crew
had a special high-speed mini power
tool to undo the 108 fasteners on the
STIS in about 45 min. A special cap-
ture plate handled the debris issue for
the tiny parts if they came loose, but
the repair got complicated when one
of the four bolts holding a hand rail
would not unscrew.
A contingency tool to dismantle the
rail was stowed in an external toolbox
some distance away. Rather than take
the time to send a spacewalker to re-
trieve it, mission control ordered as-
tronaut Mike Massimino to break the
fastenerafter Goddard engineers
determined he could do so safely. The
rough handling saved time, and the
astronauts were able to nish the job.
That unplanned action was the ex-
ception to the rule developed over two
decades of on-orbit servicing at the
Hubble that holds planning supreme.
Spacewalkers spend a couple of hours
before each sortie setting up the mini-
work stations they wear on the front
of their suits with the tools for the
tasks ahead, following carefully estab-
lished sequences to keep tool tethers
from getting tangled and placing the
tools that will get the most use in the
easiest positions to reach.
With only about 6 hr. normally avail-
able for an extravehicular activity,
keeping the minute-by-minute timeline
is critical. Tool management is one of
the keys that makes it work.
The tethers and the hooks on those
boards are customized for each task,
says McGuire. The tool setup is as crit-
ical as the tool designs themselves. c

Jerome Greer Chandler Anniston, Ala.
Speed Up
Southwest Airlines quickens parts ow
in bid to reduce inventory 5-7%
n the aircraft parts world, speed
matters. If properly applied, it re-
duces inventory, saves money and
assures components are where they
need to be when they are needed. The
trick is owing those parts through the
system more quickly.
That is the aim of Southwest Air-
lines recently initiated Project Veloc-
ity, an efort that promises a 5-7% re-
duction in per-aircraft parts inventory,
according to Peter Requa, director of
supply chain management. We expect
to take our per-aircraft inventory down
from $650,000 . . . to
$610,000 or $600,000,
he says.
Project Velocity in-
volves shipping parts
directly from a dozen
of Southwests line sta-
tions to component re-
pair shops, bypassing
the airlines four main-
tenance bases that have
been part of the two-
step flow. The analogy
of a nonstop ight ver-
sus a two-leg change-of-
plane trip is apt.
Under the old regi-
men, You were basi-
cally double-shipping
it, Requa says, first
from the line station to a maintenance
base, such as Dallas Love Field. When
a part arrived at the base, parts people
would unpack it, load the information
into Southwests system, issue a repair
order and ship it once again to the
repair shop or supplier. The process
was taking us an average of 4.5 days,
says Requa. Via the new direct-ship
approach, that has been cut to 1.5 days.
Transit time from line to repair sta-
tion varied depending on where the
part was pulled. If it was at one of the
carriers maintenance bases at Dal-
las, Chicago Midway, Houston Hobby
or Phoenix Sky Harbor airports, it
went out fairly rapidly, says Requa. If
it came of at a line or eld station, it
would take too long.
Aircraft-on-ground (AOG) scenarios
were particularly onerous. It was tak-
ing us 20.5 days to recover those parts
from an out-station . . . and get them
shipped out, he says, noting that a lot
of people in the industry can relate to
AOG aggravation. You send the people
and the parts out there and the people
come back, but, for various reasons,
the parts dont work their way back to
the maintenance base, he says.
Directly shipping parts to third-par-
ty repair shops or suppliers eliminates
this two-step, too, yielding signicant
savings. Project Velocity cut the AOG
transit time from out-station to repair
station by two-thirdsfrom an acutely
cumbersome three weeks to 6.3 days.
To validate this, Requa says South-
west has a very robust tracking regi-
men that closely monitors returned
parts. The AOG parts volume is not
especially dramatic, but the reduction
in transit time is.
Making all this workcutting tran-
sit time and inventorywas not espe-
cially hard to do, at least not in terms
of the technology involved. It just took
a bit of organizational reorientation.
We had to go out of the supply chain
to get the direct-ship set up, says
Thereafter, it was a matter of setting
up information technology resources
at line stations and persuading stores
clerks to buy into the concept. We
had to have stores help, Requa says.
And that meant stores clerks had to
be able to do this work everywhere,
not merely at the airlines quartet of
maintenance bases.
Training proved somewhat chal-
lenging. Line stations are tradition-
ally lightly stafed, and it is sometimes
difcult to train personnel while still
keeping the operation running.
In terms of money, the efforts ex-
penditures were pretty
minimal, says Requa.
We spent only a couple
of hundred man-hours
setting this up. The
carrier did not pur-
chase new computers
and printers. Instead, it
delved into its internal
stores and surplus to
t the line stations with
the necessary IT.
The direct-ship pro-
cess was rol l ed out
incrementally, station-
by-station, over four
months, from January
to April. Direct-ship
from line maintenance
andi n the case of
AOGs at out stationsto repair shops
is just Phase 1. Requa hopes to close the
loop in Phase 2 by getting suppliers to
direct-ship back to the line stations.
There will be savings from that, too, he
says, but inventory has been lowered
considerably already by transporting
parts nonstop from eld to xers.
After Phase 3, Southwest plans to
speed things even further by increas-
ing the amount of data interchange
with suppliers.
Sometimes good ideas take a while
to incubate, and so it was with Project
Velocity. I think everybody knew it
needed to be done, Requa says. The
problem was that we all get caught
up in day-to-day operations . . . . We
really just had to set aside the time and
resources to get it done. c
Tap the icon in the digital edition of
AW&ST for an interactive breakdown
of Southwests direct-ship process,
or go to
Southwest Airlines started
shipping parts directly from line
stations to component repair
stations, dropping up to $50,000
of inventory per aircraft.


Sean Broderick Washington
Twins Part Out
The A340, designed to complement a similar
twin-engine jet, was done in by a bunch of them
he Airbus A340s fate could be
easily predicted by looking at the
widebody eet evolution of one
airline that never operated the model.
No carrier in history has operated
more Boeing 747s than the 112 own
by Japan Airlines (JAL) for more than
four-plus decades. Yet as of June 30,
the carriers widebody eet comprised
85 aircraft, and there was not a single
four-engine jet, let alone a 747, in it.
JALs long-haul strategy did
not change; technology, partic-
ularly in twinjet airframe and
engine design, simply got bet-
ter. And it doomed almost all
quad jetsand certainly those
battling twins of comparable
capacityin the process.
The A340s history is a cau-
tionary tale, said aviation con-
sultant George Ham-
lin. None of us
saw how quick-
l y the l arge
twi ns woul d
triumph over
the quads.
He should know. As a mar-
keting analyst for Airbus from
1989 to early 1996, Hamlin had
more than a ringside seat for
the A340s early bouts against
Boeings emerging widebody twins
he was in the ght.
When the airplane was being de-
signed, ETOPS was still coming to the
fore, Hamlin said. By the time the
A340 was designed, the die had been
cast, but none of us happened to know
it yet. Boeing made the bet, but indus-
try did not see it coming.
Boeings bet, of course, was the con-
tinued evolution of a trend it helped
pioneer: long-range twinjet opera-
tions. In 1985, there were hardly any
U.S.-Europe nonstop frequencies own
by twinjets. That year, the FAA issued
new guidance to expand the three-de-
cade limit on twin-engine aircraft y-
ing more than 60 min. from a suitable
airport. By 1992, twinjets were ying
a few more weekly transatlantic hops
than their three- and four-engine coun-
terparts, Boeing data show. They have
been widening the gap ever since.
The A340 was hatched in the midst
of this widebody-twin emergence.
Launched in June 1987, it was one
half of a compromise that united Air-
bus decision-makers split between a
twinjet and a four-engine design. The
resultthe A330/A340 programin
efect pitted two models built on the
same production line against the 777.
The A330 was to cover the shorter
hauls, while the A340 would provide
the security of four engines on long-
haul routes.
In some ways, the head-to-head raw
numbers are kind to the European
aircraft maker. From 1993-2012the
years the first and last A340s were
turned overAirbus delivered 1,315
A330s and A340s, compared to Boe-
ings 1,066 777s. The A340 racked up
just 377 of the Airbus deliveries, how-
ever, ceding its spot opposite the 777
and longer-range 767s (which must be
factored into any Airbus versus Boeing
widebody twin debate) to a continu-
ously improving A330, which set a new
annual record for widebody deliveries
last year, at 101.
With the 777 and A330 rmly estab-
lished and two new families of long-
range twins, the 787 and A350, set to
become major players by the end of
the decade, the A340s time appears
If you look at the universe of A340s
. . . we believe that essentially all of
those aircraft will be replaced over the
next 10 years, Air Lease Corp. CEO
Steven Udvar-Hazy told analysts dur-
ing an August earnings call.
A snapshot from Aviation Week In-
telligence Networks Fleets database
suggests the transition is underway.
From the end of 2008 through mid-
August, the A340 in-service fleet
dipped by 23 airframes, from 351 to
328. The number in storage increased
to 24 from 7, while the number listed as
retired jumped to 19 from one.
These indicators aside, the model
continues to perform workmanlike
roles for several carriers.
Iberia is upgrading interiors on 17
A340-600s by 2015, while SAS also is
refreshing some A340 interiors, albeit
with their replacementsA330-300s
and A350-900salready on order.
Lufthansa has 48 due to be replaced
by a long-anticipated (but as of late
summer, yet-to-be-placed) widebody-
eet renewal order.
Aviation Weeks MRO Prospector
(MROP) and Aviation Week Intelli-
gence Networks Commercial Fleets
database suggest the original Airbus
four-engine aircraft still has some life
left in it. MROP projects about $3.1
billion in MRO spending on the model
this year, with nearly half of it, or $1.5
billion, coming on engines, and about
25%, or $825 million, on components.
The total expenditure is projected to
fall to about $1.3 billion in 2022, with
engines accounting for $513 million
and components, $437 million.
The dip in aftermarket spending will
come from a retirement pace that will
see todays eet fall to about 171 aircraft
in a decade, AWIN Fleets projects.
Recent market intelligence suggests
these gures might be optimistic. Still,
the A340s falling demand and relative-
ly trouble-free airworthiness history
could open up some opportunities with
smaller operators looking for cheap,
reliable liftespecially ones already
operating, or familiar with, A330s. c
Iberia, which is upgrading interiors
on its Airbus A340-600s, is one of
several carriers hoping to eke some
more life out of its A340 eet.

Supply Chain Programs
Aircraft & Engine Parts
Aircraft Maintenance &
Aircraft Sales & Leasing
Expeditionary Airlift
Specialized Mobility Products
Cargo & Transport Products
Precision Machining
Composites Fabrication
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Oper at i ng i n t odays chal l engi ng busi ness envi r onment ,
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Bob Trebilcock Keene, N.H.
Information Science
MRO providers use Big Data
to improve operations
hanks to the National Security
Agency, Big Data is much in the
news today, though it involves far
more than spycraft. Data-collection
technologies, computing power, al-
gorithms and analytic software tools
that allow the NSA to look for patterns
among millions of seemingly random
communicationsand enable Amazon
and Facebook to target advertising
messages to consumersare also be-
ing explored to improve MRO business
Most industry professionals would
agree on the catalysts behind Big Data.
With more systems covered by data-
collection technologies, you have an
increasing amount of data, says Jim
Angus, commercial director of the In-
tegrated Vehicle Health Management
Center at Craneld University, north of
London. The center is funded in part by
Boeing and other players in the com-
mercial aviation industry to develop
applications for Big Data. The ques-
tion is, How do you translate that into
information that you can use for opera-
tional decisions or to improve your op-
erations to get more out of your eet?
In the commercial aviation space, a
number of leading MRO organizations
are exploring ways in which Big Data
could improve their operations. Heres
a look at four approaches:
Lufthansa Technik
Predicting Failure, Reducing Inventories
In the past, Lufthansa Technik re-
lied on historical data to develop pre-
ventive maintenance programs for
critical parts. Maintenance records
across a eet of aircraft might indicate
that a specic part typically failed after
5,000 hr. Based on that, maintenance
was scheduled for any instance of that
part at certain intervals to prevent a
failure in the eld.
Today, Lufthansa Technik is gath-
ering information from a much wider
variety of sources that also includes
sensor data, operational and flight
data, pilot and crew reports and ight
and schedule information. Lufthansa
Technik is working on ways to opti-
mize the usage of this huge amount of
data. The rst step is to collect it in a
central repository, or data warehouse,
where it can be mined and analyzed.
The data from these different
sources helps us to better understand
when a fault occurs and why, and to
better understand the repair pro-
cess, says Sebastian Giljohann, team
leader for innovation management at
Lufthansa Techniks aircraft mainte-
nance services. The goal is to increase
the technical reliability of the aircraft.
For instance, Lufthansa Technik is
creating new algorithms that correlate
data from sources that may not have
been considered in the past to identify
wear patterns on certain parts. In one
instance, an algorithm monitors histor-
ical data from a sensor on a pressure-
regulating valve.
In July 2010, the system combined
and processed diferent data accord-
ing to the beginning of the wear on the
valve and alerted us so that the valve
could be changed before it failed. This
alert was thrown even though there
As part of its Big Data initia-
tive, Lufthansa Technik is
correlating data from a num-
ber of parts on an engine
such as historical data on a
sensor pressure regulating
valveto identify wear that
might not be visible.

was no obvious wear, says
Giljohann. History showed
also that the valve had been
changed in January 2011,
so with this mathemati-
cal algorithm, we would
be able to predict a failure
ve months in advance, he
says. The key is to know
how to identify and com-
bine information.
Giljohann notes that Luf-
thansa Technik wants to
use Big Data to generate
a better understanding of
wear patterns at a granular
level. Instead of maintain-
ing a fleet on a preventive-mainte-
nance schedule, the organization may
be able to ofer maintenance programs
customized to specic aircraft operat-
ing in particular geographies. We be-
lieve that with the right data, the whole
supply chain is optimizable, Giljohann
Using Big Data To Create Community
There are two ways to use Big Data.
One is to create new models that dis-
rupt the way business has tradition-
ally been done. Think of how Amazon
has upended the retail marketplace or
social media sites such as Google and
Facebook have turned the advertis-
ing and publishing businesses upside
down. The other is to use the vast
amount of data now available to create
an electronic community with access
to more information and a streamlined
means of communication.
The latter is the focus of Aero-
xchange, an online collaboration plat-
form for spare parts. We are not at-
tempting to aggregate market data
to create conict among distribution
channels, says Al Koszarek, president
and CEO. The promise of Big Data is
the potential to improve safety, reliabil-
ity and the overall cost of MRO opera-
tions. For us, its not just data, but the
transmission of service records, bulle-
tins, completion data, serial numbers,
parts history and reliability informa-
tion between supply-chain partners [in
a secure environment].
None of that information is new,
Koszarek points out, but it has been
maintained in diferent locations and
much of it may have been recorded on
paper. Now, more powerful computers
are enabling the aggregation and orga-
nization of this data.
Think about servicing a complex
component like a landing gear, Ko-
szarek says. It comes back with a
document stack thats several hundred
pages long that gets stored in a docu-
ment vault. Its available, but its hard
to use in a seamless way. With more
powerful computers, secure Internet
communications and cheap digital
storage, there are better ways to man-
age the volume of information between
diferent organizations.
As Koszarek looks to the future, the
question of whats next? is not one
of vision, but of scale. Well be able to
take what we do today and scale it up
to cover larger and more complex sys-
tems, he says. We may even be able
to scale into industries that are near,
but not necessarily in the aerospace
Using Big Data To Manage Consumables
To turn the promise of Big Data
into a process with a real return on
investment, Danish parts and service
provider Satair is launching a pilot
project focused on the management
of consumables it provides to one eet
Satair hopes to bring together his-
torical and live, real-time usage data
from operatorsincluding operational
data from aircraft that are currently
yingto lend more transparency to
unscheduled maintenance events.
When you roll your aircraft in for a
The operational and performance
data from Boeing airplanes will
likely be used to improve the design
of next-generation aircraft.

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2013 Marvin Test Solutions, Inc. All rights reserved. Product and trade names are property of their respective companies.
New Name.
Same Aim.

check, you have knowledge of some of what youre going to
replace, says Steen Karsbo, group vice president and head
of marketing. But there are also items that you wont know
about until you open up the aircraft.
Similarly, he adds, there are components and critical items
that are needed at line stations to maintain aircraft once they
land and prepare for the next takeof.
From where Satair sits in the supply chain, that informa-
tion can be used to better predict when critical parts and
components will be required, where they will be used and
in what quantities. With better predictive data, Satair can
take both time and inventory out of the supply chain.
If you think about the way the system works today, you
get a request for a part at a line station that goes into an [en-
terprise resource planning] system which creates a purchase
order, says Karsbo. Once an order goes to a supplier, we
wait one to six weeks to get that part. That means we need
a ve to six weeks bufer of spare parts to make sure parts
are available when needed.
With information from the 20,000 or so aircraft that are
ying every day, a parts supplier like Satair could predict the
volume of parts needed before they fail. That information
can be tied to customer inventory levels and reorder points
and shared with parts manufacturers to better anticipate
demand. We could have a part on order, or even in inven-
tory, before an airline or MRO sends an order for that part
because we trust the data, Karsbo says. This would allow
us to lean the entire supply chain.
Satair is putting that theory to the test now in a pilot pro-
gram with one operator of a 40-aircraft eet. The pilot test is
focused on a limited range of consumables that are replaced
on a regular basis, such as lters. Satair receives a live sig-
nal via electronic data interchange (EDI) whenever a part is
taken from the operators warehouse shelf for line mainte-
nance or an evening layover. That information gives Satair
greater visibility into the operators inventory levels and use
patterns, which should in turn allow Satair to manage those
inventory levels more efciently and potentially reduce the
amount of inventory in stock.
The pilot test is expected to last eight months before it is
moved out to other parts as well as larger eet operators.
We cant base our planning on just one operator, Karsbo
says. However, we can make sure that the infrastructure
for this type of program is operational and that we can trust
the data. The next step, he adds, is to develop a similar pro-
gram with one or more operators of larger eets. We have
to get 60 to 70 percent of a eet providing us live data to be
efective, he says.
Managing Airplane Health
Boeing is focusing on the relevancy rather than the
amount of data with which it is working. Many industries
have gone through some transformation from manual, pa-
per-based processes to automated and integrated digitized
processes, says Per Noren, vice president of digital aviation
customer solutions. That has resulted in an explosion of
data. The question is whether that is an interesting phe-
nomenon, or whether there is relevant data that can solve
problems in the future. Were not after interesting data;
were after relevant data.
One way Boeing is applying this is in its wellness program
for airplanes, or what it refers to as airplane health solu-
Boeing personnel monitor live data
streaming in from aircraft in ight.
The data may reveal mechanical
issues that can be addressed once
the aircraft is on the ground.

Creating the Future of Lithuania
The new ultimate aviation technology park set up in Kaunas Free Economic Zone (FEZ), Lithuania, invites airlines and aircraft
companies to develop their business at the heart of Europe. Leading aviation companies such as Ryanair, DOT LT, and FL Technics
have already chosen Kaunas for their maintenance, repair and overhaul (MRO) terminals. Ryanair has chosen Kaunas for its
attractive cost incentives, its convenient geographical location, the fnancial support provided by the State, its deep traditions in
the engineering sector and collaboration with Kaunas Airport Management.
The Airpark is a territory of the FEZ
adjacent to Kaunas International
Airport. The Airpark ofers exceptional
possibilities for investors of the FEZ.
It integrates air, road and railway
facilities. Airline bases, aircraft servicing
companies, MRO terminals and
aviation industry companies will fnd
this area particularly attractive due to
the access to the 3250 m runway with
no restrictions on maximum takeof
weight (MTOW), coupled with the tax
incentives ofered by the FEZ.
The Airpark is a unique space for
investors, which brings together
Kaunas Airport, the Customs services
and Kaunas FEZ, says Milda Darguzaite,
CEO of Invest Lithuania. Foreign
investors have already appreciated
the economic benefts, the highly
qualifed employees, the favourable
logistics and the established MRO
companies, and now they are
considering launching the construction
of small planes. Milda adds: Aircraft
servicing companies and Kaunas Airport have formed an aviation cluster. Therefore, business and education institutions have
created a strong partnership in training newly qualifed specialists to meet the demands of developing businesses.
Kaunas FEZ ofers attractive tax and cost incentives, as well as fnancial support from the State. Business tax during the frst six
years of operation is 0 per cent followed by a 50 per cent exemption throughout the next 10 years. There is no property tax,
and business development is encouraged by the ofer of a 99-year lease of land with excellent roads, a gas pipeline, a water
supply and sewerage system, and a rainwater drainage system.
Lithuania joined the EU in 2004 and it has been a member of the Schengen Area since 2008.

tions. Some 3,000 onboard sensors
monitor more than 100,000 variables
on aircraft such as the Boeing 777 or
Boeing 787 as they y, streaming re-
al-time data to Boeing on the ground.
That information, along with data col-
lected from pilots, ight crews, main-
tenance operations, and parts and
inventory management systems, goes
into a data warehouse to create an
overall picture of each aircraft. This
allows Boeing to y hours ahead of
the airplane so that we can see when
things may occur on the aircraft and
have a spare part available, or per-
form maintenance now that will avoid
downtime in the future, says Noren.
The ultimate goal is to predict fail-
ures before they become an issue.
For example, Boeing noticed a tem-
perature spike in the air conditioning
system that occurred over several
ights of a 787. When the airline carried
out an inspection, it discovered a for-
eign object blocking the ducts and re-
moved it before larger problems arose.
Thats a simple example of what were
able to do today, Noren says.
The next step is to use that infor-
mation to determine how to optimize
he Integrated Vehicle Health Management Center at Englands Craneld Uni-
versity was founded ve years ago, after a proposal for it won an international
competition sponsored by Boeing.
The center has developed a formal statement that denes integrated vehicle
health management as a multi-sector discipline applied to a wide range of vehicles
(aerospace, automotive, rail, marine, energy) that transforms system data into infor-
mation to support operational decisions on vehicle condition and hence provide busi-
ness benet derived from minimized maintenance action, improved availability and
lower cost of ownership.
In laymans terms, the center is looking at ways to assess the health of an aircraft
using the data collected by the thousands of sensors on it. That information can
be used in a variety of wayseverything from reducing the amount of redundant or
just-in-case inventory to extending the life of a part through more predictive mainte-
The most generic example of the
problems were trying to solve is to avoid
an unpredictable failure that takes an
aircraft out of service as passengers are
about to embark, says Jim Angus, com-
mercial director at the Craneld center.
Unscheduled maintenance is another
potential opportunity were trying to
address. The industry wants to have a
platform where all the major subsystems
are monitored in a similar way so that we
can monitor the current health of an air-
craft and, based on its condition, predict
whats going to happen in the future.
Todays aircraft are already equipped
with thousands of sensors that monitor
its condition in real time, as it ies, and
transmit information to ground crews
in advance of landing. The next step,
Angus says, is to determine the right
number of sensors and the right places
to install them to monitor a system in a
more meaningful way.
Were interested in, given a physics
model of a system, what are the modes
of failure that might occur? he says.
And given that information, where do
you place those sensors? And what are
the diagnostic rules so that you know
whats happening?c
maintenance schedules and, in the
future, improve the design of future
aircraft. In general, the opportunity
is there, the technology is there and
the ability to solve large-scale prob-
lems is there, Noren says. The issue
is shifting the industry to collaborate
to make that happen. Were moving in
that direction, but were not in align-
ment yet. c
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tion. This sounds like a rule covering
ight attendants, but the FAA makes
clear that the scope is much broader.
The policys nal version underscores
that an aircraft is in operation from
the time a crewmember first boards
until the last crewmember disembarks
after completion of that ight, includ-
ing stops on the ground.
The FAA also claried that, while pi-
lots are exempt from the policy, anyone
else who works in a cabin during opera-
tions is not. For the purposes of this
policy, an aircraft cabin crewmember
means a person assigned to perform
duty in an aircraft cabin when the air-
craft is in operation (other than ight
crewmembers), the policy states.
Also worth noting is what is not
included in the policy: language that
limits it to operators. It seemingly ap-
plies to any company that puts aircraft
cabin crewmembers to work in a cabin
while an aircraft is in operation.
Taken at face value, the policy seems
to cover mechanicsand myriad other
non-pilotscalled in to address issues
that may pop up after a (non-pilot) crew-
member boards an aircraft in prepara-
tion for a ight. An FAA spokesman says
such an interpretation is accurate.
The policy leaves some murky wa-
ters. Does the policy cover third-party
contractors, such as line mechanics
working in a cabin just before depar-
ture? And if so, who is responsible for
the OSHA programs, the operator or
the MRO provider?
Neither the policy nor a document
prepared by the agency to address 196
industry comments on the December
2012 draft version claries such issues.
Developed to satisfy a congressional
mandate in the FAA Modernization and
Reform Act of 2012, the policy requires
any afected company to develop writ-
ten policies and procedures showing
how it complies with OSHA standards
in the identied areas.
The FAAs position represents a sig-
nicant shift. While OSHA rules apply
to most aviation operations, including
repair stations, aircraft cabins have
been off-limits. A 1975 OSHA probe
triggered an FAA notice underscoring
the point. But in 1999, the FAA signaled
Cabin Crewmem-
bers Take Note
The aviation maintenance world needs
no introduction to the Labor Depart-
ments Occupational Safety and Health
Administration (OSHA) regulations.
Typically, MRO-related OSHA rules
are linked to hangars or back shops and
associated with risks such as exposure
to chemicals. But an FAA policy issued
in August and efective Sept. 26 brings
OSHA regulations to aircraft cabins
and reads broadly enough to cover me-
chanics that work in them.
The policy requires companies to
develop programs in three areas
hazardous chemical communications,
exposure to blood-borne pathogens
and hearing conservationand apply
them to employees that work in air-
craft cabins.
The FAA says the policy statement
covers all aircraft operations that
utilize at least one aircraft cabin crew-
member while an aircraft is in opera-
Safety & Regulatory News

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a change was possible, saying it would
review oversight of airline worker oc-
cupational safety and health issues. A
year later, the FAA and OSHA set up a
joint team to examine the issues. The
new policy is the most signicant result.
The policys breadth is a surprise to
many. Part 91 and Part 135 operators as-
sumed it was for Part 121 (airline) opera-
tions and expected the FAA to specify
as much in the policys nal version. In-
stead, the FAA in the comment disper-
sal species that Part 91 and Part 135
operations that use a ight attendant
would be covered.
Many commercial and business
aviation operators oppose the policy.
Airlines suggested adopting a volun-
tary, data-driven system similar to a
Safety Management System, while the
National Air Transport Association and
National Business Aviation Association
said the policy would be a considerable
burden for small businesses.
OSHAs surveillance and enforce-
ment would be done by inspecting
procedures, not boarding aircraft, the
FAA claries in its comments response.
Those afected have six months to de-
velop programs before OSHA starts
reviewing procedures and considering
enforcement actions.
Exactly whose procedures they will
be reviewing remains to be seen.
Crying Wolf in FAA
Flight Standards?
Is the FAAs Aviation Safety branch
(AVS) doing more with less? Imperial
evidence suggests it may be.
Late last year, before sequestration-
related sabre-rattling morphed into
actual budget cuts, the FAA braced for
the impact by enacting a hiring freeze.
Some congressional two-stepping got
the FAA off the hook for its share of
2013 cuts, but the agency kept the hir-
ing freeze in place, realizing the x ad-
dresses only one year of sequestrations
10-year gift of forced austerity.
Senior ofcials warned of delays to
non-essential projects as a result of re-
allocating resources to tackle safety-
critical issues rst. The warning was
particularly ominous for companies
bringing new products to market or
supplemental type certicate seekers.
With fiscal 2013 wrapping up, the
AVS has 7,100 stafers, 340 fewer than
at the start of the fiscal year on Oct.
1, 2012. The congressionally approved
budget authorizes a staf of 7,455. How-
ever, despite the 4.5% dip in staf, there
is no sign of a project bottleneck.
Heico, the parts manufacturer ap-
proval (PMA) specialist that pushes
as many as 500 approvals through
the FAA per year, says the holdup in
bringing new parts to market is not
the agencys throughput; it is finding
willing customers.
We could do more. The issue is what
can the customers really approve and
digest? says Eric Mendelson, head of
Heicos Flight Support group. Its real
easy, in theory, to go out there and take
a look at what airlines are buying, [start
supplying those parts,] and just assume
that youll end up picking up market
share. It doesnt really work that way.
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Safety & Regulatory News
EASA Outlines
The European Aviation Safety Agencys
(EASA) four-year rulemaking outlook
includes little of signicance to MRO in
2014, but work on several key initiatives
with longer-term deadlines is featured
Reviewed annually, the planning doc-
ument sets deadlines for the following
year and tentative schedules for the
three subsequent years. EASA released
the 2014-18 version in late August.
Among the new plans MRO-related
highlights is EASAs plan to complete
in 2016 the Instructions for Continued
Airworthiness (ICA) rulemaking pro-
cess it began this year. Airline groups,
including the Association of European
Airlines, favor a policy statement sim-
ilar to the one issued by the FAA in
April 2012 that set basic guidelines on
acceptable ICA language.
EASAs technical-records rulemaking,
kicked of in 2011, is now slated to n-
ish in 2017, a year later than previously
planned. The rulemaking will tackle
many records-related issues, including
clarifying so-called back-to-birth parts
traceability, use of radio-frequency iden-
tication (RFID) for tracking, and stan-
dards for electronic-signature use.
The regulator also is tackling rules
that will clarify roles of Part 145 and
Continuing Airworthiness Manage-
ment Organizations, especially in
complex, multi-tier and subcontract
maintenance, EASA explains in the
rulemakings terms of reference doc-
ument. The efort is in response to a
2010 U.K. Air Accidents Investigation
Branch (AAIB) recommendation fol-
lowing a mishap tied to a lease hando-
ver-related maintenance.
[T]he regulations and regulatory
guidance provided by EU OPS 1, Part M
and Part 145 do not specically cater for
arrangements involving multiple levels
of subcontracted companies, despite
this being commonplace within the
industry, and particularly relating to
non-core activities such as lease hand-
backs, the AAIB said. EASA expects to
publish its recommendation to the Eu-
ropean Commission in early 2017, and a
related nal rule a year later.
EASA also is considering a mandate
to require runway overrun protection
systems (ROPS) on new aircraft. Devel-
oped by Airbus for the A380, ROPS will
be standard on the A350. They are an
option on the A320neo and were recent-
ly certified for retrofits on in-service
A320s. Airbus is developing versions
of the system for other manufacturers
The Association of European Air-
lines (AEA) reiterated that while it
supports certication eforts for ROPS
and similar systems, a mandate should
wait until the systems gain more in-
service experience. AEA also sees
ROPS as but one part of a broad ap-
proach to improving runway safety.
Sean Broderick
Review EASAs rulemaking plan for 2014-
18, which maps out MRO-related tasks such
as Part M and Part 145, at:
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completing the minimum require-
ments. . . . Our job isnt just replac-
ing things. If we dont do it right,
thats someones life.
This is human factors at its nest.
It is the ip side of the Dirty Dozen.
Rather than examining the cause of
an error in order to avoid repeating
it, the Marines actions should be ex-
amined in order to inspire the same
level of excellence elsewhere. As
this case demonstrates, it may not
be a matter of leaders working with
technicians to avoid problems such
as distraction and complacency, but
rather developing in them unparal-
leled focus and attentiveness.
How? You could send all your
technicians through Marine Corps
boot campor you can reevaluate
how you attract, select, train and
develop your employees. Dan Car-
rison and Rod Walsh, former Marine
Corps ofcers, co-founders of
Semper Fi Consulting and authors
of Semper Fi: Business Leadership
the Marine Corps Way, ofer these
recommendations for attracting the
technicians most likely to excel and
setting them on the right course:

Send the best to recruit the best.

Attracting the highest-caliber em-
ployeethe kind who will go out of
his or her way to check an awkward
spot of an aircraft just to be sure all
is welltakes a high-caliber company
representative. In the Marine Corps,
the recruiter position is lled only by
the cream of the crop, the kind who
inspire awe and respect in talented
young men and women.
How many organizations send out
their cream of the crop to recruit?
Too often, recruiting is done by a
third party or human resources or
by whomever is available, while the
very people who should be there
your top technicians, who are more
qualied than anybody else to
recognize potentialremain in the
hangar. A maintenance organiza-
tion that subs out recruiting, say
Carrison and Walsh, abdicates its
greatest responsibility.

Seek qualities of excellence over

experience. You can train a mechani-
to be inspected at the time. So why
did he delve into that area? Simply
to be sure nothing was missed. As
he stated in the Spring 2012 issue
of Mech, being a Marine Corps
mechanic demands more than
What is notable here is not that
an issue was found. Mechanics nd
and x problems every day. What is
notable is that the Marine discov-
ered it in a difcult-to-reach area of
the helicopter that was not required
Human Factor
By Heather Baldwin
Heather Baldwin covers
MRO, training and human factors.
She can be reached at:
Inspiring Excellence
U.S. Marine Corps training provides
model for MRO recruiting success
n late December 2011, a U.S. Marine Corps mechanic conduct-
ing a routine phase inspection of a UH-1Y Huey discovered
that the helicopters transmission pylon beam and the main
beam joint were disintegrating. Left unchecked, the problem
would have resulted in disaster. The mechanics nding led to
a Corps-wide inspection and, ultimately, the release of an engi-
neering advisory report.

Tool control can only be effective if every tool can be assigned to an individual and
if it can be veried that the tool returned was the same one that was checked out.
Automated: real-time tool inventory monitoring
Smart: RFID technology differentiates identical tools
Accurate: tracks tools to their assigned pocket
Simple: doesnt interfere with technicians workow
Compatible: works with existing tools
To see for yourself how the
PinPoint tool control system works,
5738 (08/13)

cally minded individual to work sheet
metal, but you cant train in him or
her an innate desire to excel. Marine
recruiters seek people of great
character, knowing the training will
forge the necessary skills. Conversely,
private enterprise generally seeks
experience, relying on the screening,
not the training, to identify the best
While certain requirements such
as an aiframe and powerplant (A&P)
license are necessary, qualities such
as honesty, determination and a
cheerful acceptance of stress, which
can all be identied through probing
questionnaires and interviews, may
be more important to the company
in the long run than related experi-
ence, say Carrison and Walsh.

Create an unforgettable rst

impression. Once accepted into the
Corps, the candidate arrives on a
specic day to take an oath of al-
legiance, led by a solemn Marine in
dress blues. Afterward, a sense of
awe and irreversibility lingers. That
same impression can be duplicated
through a company declaring its
commitment to new employees.
The new employees could be
shown into a conference room lled
with all the available managers from
every department within the organi-
zation. The highest-ranking executive
could then stand and, in a sincere and
friendly manner, pledge the support
of the organization to the new as-
sociates, expressing gratitude of the
company for being the one chosen by
the applicants, suggest Carrison and
Wash. Technicians will not forget such
a gesture, and they will be eager to
repay it with their best work.

Establish warrior stations. During

the nal challenge of boot camp,
recruits travel through warrior
stations modeled on actual heroic
feats performed by Marines at some
point in history. At each station,
recruits read a description of the
feat, then reenact it.
Maintenance organi-
zations can introduce
a similar concept us-
ing the heroic deeds
of mechanics whose
actions went above
and beyond day-to-
day expectations.
Maybe someone on
your team identied
a potential risk in a
procedure and drove
industry-wide change.
Or superior team-
work led to major
accomplishment. These real-world
examples of excellence from within
your own organization will inspire
new employees to strive for the
same level of performance while
communicating that they are joining
an elite force. c
A candidates qualities such as
honesty, determination and
a cheerful acceptance of stress,
which can all be identied through
questionnaires and interviews,
may be more important
than related experience.
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Jerome Greer Chandler
Inatable Hangars
o make the concept of an inflatable hangar fly, first
youve got to make sure the structure itself does not
y away.
Jose Antonio Sanz insists his companys inatable
structures can cope with winds of 100 kph (62 mph), even
150 kph (93 mph). Were talking to a customer who will re-
quire 180 kph, protection, says Barcelona-based Buildairs
commercial director.
A telematic control system, coupled with multiple 20-cm
(7.87-in.) screws drilled into the tarmac, is essential to a
structures stability.
Telematic controls incorporate anemometers that
constantly measure wind speed. When winds whip up,
the systems motors pump more air into the semi-circular
inatable tubes that comprise the hangar. At the same
time, You receive an alarm on your smartphone, computer
or iPad.
So far, Sanz says Buildair has sold two inatable hangars
to the MRO industryone to LAN Airlines and the other
to EADS-Cassidian. The former is an H-38, with 38 meters
(124.67 ft.) of clear width. It can handle Boeing 737 or
Airbus A320-family aircraft. The latter is an H-54, with 54
meters of clear width. It is capable of accommodating an
A310. Buildair is talking with a customer about fabricat-
ing an inatable hangar with 75 meters of clear width, one
that would provide enough room for an Airbus A330 or a
Boeing 767, 777 or 747.
The really [difcult] dimension is the width, says Sanz.
It is very difcult to build a large-width structure.
So far, Sanz says both LAN and EADS-Cassidian are
happy with their hangars. Among the attributes he pitches
to prospective customers are:

Price. Sanz contends the inatable hangar can cost about

one-sixth of a standard metal structure.
Enter Link # at
for more information

Portability. A hangar ships via standard 20 X 40-ft. sea

containers, or it can be palletized for air transport. He says
it took EADS-Cassidian seven days to deploy, x and inate
its H-54.

Environmental advantages. Sanz says fabrication

entails no wasteno chemicals or contaminant
metals. The ination motors do not demand a lot of
energy either.

Minimum scheduled maintenance. Every six months

is the plan. Should something bad befall the inatable
tubes, Sanz says one or two can be inoperative and
the hangar will still support the load. There would be
no need to repair or change the tubes until the next
regularly scheduled maintenance event.
While Buildairs product ofers some advantages,
longevity is not one of them. Traditional metal han-
gars last 20 years and longer. Sanz says none of the
companys hangars have reached their service life,
but that life will be six to 10 years or more, depend-
ing on proper maintenance, and just what it has to
weather. c

Sean Broderick
Fuel Efciency
1. Cold Starter
Supplier: AIR BP Lubricants
Offering: BPTO 2389 is a low-viscos-
ity, gas-turbine oil, offering exceptional
cold-start capability. Many airlines
rely on BPTO 2389 in their auxiliary
power units (APU) because it gets
them started after long cold-soaks at
altitude. BPTO 2389 is the only MIL-
PRF-7808 Grade 3 qualied oil that
is fully approved in all Honeywell and
Hamilton Sundstrand APUs.
Link 601
2: Fixed Right
Supplier: Aviation Fuel Systems
Offering: An FAA repair station
specializing in aircraft fuel-leak detec-
tion, repair and fuel-cell recertication,
Aviation Fuel Systems Repair counts
Federal Express and engine maker
GE among its regular customers. Its
expertise extends to fuel tank-related
structural repairs, eliminating the need
for an additional supplier in many
Link 602
3. Software That Saves, 1.0
Supplier: ETS Aviation
Offering: ETS Aviations FuelSaver
program combines fuel-saving
specialists with custom-built software
that integrates with an operators
existing systems. Data are collected
from ight-planning software and
other sources, and specialists identify
opportunities to reduce fuel consump-
tion through operational changes.
Customers range from international
carriers like easyJet to regionals like
Switzerlands SkyWork Airlines.
Link 603
4. Software That Saves, 2.0
Supplier: GE Aviation
Offering: GE Fuel & Carbon Solutions
helps operators gain efciency by
optimizing operations, policies and
processes. Opportunities are identi-
ed by studying data and fuel-usage
trends, and can lead to annual fuel-
cost savings of 3% or more. GE offers
two options: consulting and software
or software as a service.
Link 604
Enter Link # at for more information



Lee Ann Tegtmeier
Electrical Optimization
s aircraft increasingly depend on electrical power, sen-
sors need to keep up with overheating-detection ca-
pabilities, and repair stations need new certications.
Here is a sampling of some new electrical components and
Enter Link # at
for more information
1. Let Me See
Supplier: LoPresti Aviation
Offering: The BoomBeams lighting sys-
tem is designed to provide higher landing
and taxi light output, and consume less
power than stock lighting equipment, to
reduce overall lighting and maintenance
costs, according to the company.
Link 605
2. Overheat Sensors
Supplier: Avio-Diepen
Offering: Avio-Diepen carries Thermocoaxs Negacoax sensors,
which are designed to detect overheating and re, and are based
on mineral-insulated cable technology. These sensors, available in a
range of alarm temperatures, can be used on bleed air in the wings
and around the APU, pylon and turbine.
Link 606
3. Onboard Power
Supplier: Liebherr-
Aerospace Toulouse
Offering: Liebherr is
working with Thales
Avionics Electrical
Systems, with support of
the French civil aviation authority, to develop a large-scale electrical
and thermal power management approach to optimize consumption.
Link 607
4. Array Connector
Supplier: Bel Fuse, part of Cinch Connector, purchased Array
Connector on Aug. 21.
Offering: Array Connectors products include a range of connectors,
including ones for inight entertainment applications. This acquisition
broadens Cinch Connectors product offerings, as well as brings it new
engineering capabilities.
Link 608
5. Sensor Certication
Supplier: Ametek
Offering: Ameteks
Sensors & Fluid
Management Systems
service center in Reynosa,
Mexico, has received
accreditation certication
from the Civil Aviation
Administration of China. This facility, which hopes to expand its Asian
aerospace aftermarket activity, repairs most of the companys systems,
including speed sensors and stall computers.


M.C. Gill Corporation
International Headquarters
4056 Easy Street EL Monte, CA 91731 USA
Phone: 626-443-4022 FAX: 626-350-5880 Email:

Events that will Change your MRO Business Forever!
The MRO event series is the largest series dedicated to the aviation maintenance industry, addressing key issues of
business and technology strategies in the maintenance repair and overhaul (MRO) market. Bringing in not only key
airline personnel but the buyers as well, these events focus on process improvements and information technology.
Be a part of the MRO community, network with your peers, explore our unmatched exhibition halls, and achieve results!
Locate reliable manufacturers, suppliers, and service providers at Aviation Weeks MRO Event Series!
for more information including complete exhibitor listings and MRO Links participants.
To advertise in MRO Links, contact Beth Eddy at 561-862-0005, or
Enter Link # at for more information
MRO Europe Featured Companies, Products & Services
Link 065
Boeing Commercial Airplanes
Introducing the Boeing Edge
The Boeing Edge is the industrys
largest portfolio of services, support
and solutions. Weve organized it
around your business to give you
the advantage it takes to succeed,
to optimize the performance of your
airplanes and operations. All backed
by the knowledge and experience
only Boeing can provide.
Link 177
Lower VOCs, Workplaces
Exposures, Fire Risk
AXAREL 1000 is the preferred
alternative for IPA and other
hazardous cleaning solvents. You
will use less while lowering
VOCs, workplace exposures and
re risk. Applications range from
general purpose cleanup to surface
preparation. Best of all, AXAREL
1000 has no odor and is approved by many aerospace
Link 331
Aero Instruments & Avionics, Inc.
BOOTH 1109/1111
Premier Independent
Repair Center
Every day, our super skilled
technicians unleash their
abilities on the avionic world.
We specialize in repairs and
overhauls of commercial aircraft
instruments, avionics and
electrical accessories. Let us
provide you with the quality
repairs and service you need.
Link 291
American Cooler Service, Inc.
Quality Minded, Customer
Driven. Always Reliable!
American Cooler Service, an
FAA/EASA repair station, repairs
and overhauls heat transfer
components, with specialization
in Heat Exchangers, Oil Coolers,
Electrical Fans, and Valves.
Customers worlwide have
relied on American Coolers
unmatched quality service and reliability for two decades.
February 5-6, 2014
Dubai, UAE
October 29-31, 2013
January 21-22, 2014
Rio de Janeiro, Brazil
All new event focusing on
MRO operations in Latin,
South America, and the Caribbean!

Enter Link # at for more information AVIATION WEEK & SPACE TECHNOLOGY MRO EDITION SEPTEMBER 23, 2013 MRO53
Link 98
experience empowering innovation
EmpowerMX is an international
provider of MRO software
solutions, consulting/BPO and IT services. We
deliver real-time intelligence/Lean-based best
practices on MX activity/eet status and are purely
focused on empowering MROs with the ability to
decrease their costs of making air travel safer.
Link 309
L. J. Walch Co., Inc.
BOOTH 1206
Better Service, Longer Life
Since 1953 we have
provided quality repairs,
overhauls and spares to
OEMs, Airlines, Rotorcraft
and Military customers alike.
Quality and Reliability are
number one. Large or Small,
our support team is ready to
help you. Contact us to see
why your competitor is using
L. J. Walch Co repairs.
Link 297
Lewis & Saunders
Overhaul and Repair
L&S is a leader in the repair and
overhaul of rigid tubes, manifolds,
ducts, and exible hose assemblies
used in the aerospace industry. We
hold FAA, EASA, and CAAC repair
station certications. As a Part 145
Repair source, we have the total
after-market solution for exible and
rigid assemblies. See us at Booth 309
MRO Europe.
Link 559
TES Aviation Group
Maintenance Reserve Calculation Tool
TES has recently developed
a unique Maintenance
Reserve Calculation tool to
provide quick and accurate
MR rate projections to
support lease transaction,
whereby both lessor and
operator can be satised
that an exact accrual of
reserve amounts are collected to support future engine SVs.
Link 087
Crane Aerospace & Electronics
BOOTH 1305
A320 Landing Gear Control
Interface Unit (LGCIU)
Crane Aerospace & Electronics
offers an enhanced LGCIU for
the Airbus A320 Series aircraft.
The enhanced LGCIU provides
signicant reliability improve-
ment (45,000 MTBUR), higher
accuracy and lower weight. It
is certied, standard on all new
A320s, and available for retrot.
Link 006
AAR Solutions for Commercial Aviation
AAR, through its 1MRO
approach, seamlessly
provides products and
services through a
nationwide network of
maintenance facilities,
with bundled landing gear,
technical and engineering
capabilities and backed
by world-class processes and systems that lower
costs while maximizing aircraft availability.

Enter Link # at for more information
Link 751
Meggitt Aftermarket Services
Committed to providing
highest quality solutions.
Continuously improving its
products and processes.
AOG support 24/7/365 days.
Spares sales distribution, technical services, repair shop and
warranty administration. Full life-cycle support from requirements
denition, design, test and certication to aftermarket and
customer support.
Link 753
BOOTH 1408
More Than Distribution
We are a 100% employee owned
global leader of distribution and supply
chain solutions. We offer customized
supply chain solutions for both OEM
and aftermarket customers and have
various manufacturing capabilities
to meet all your supply chain
management needs.
Link 430
Moog Inc.
Advanced Products & Services
for Global Aerospace
Moog is the worlds
premier supplier of
complete ight control
systems and critical
control products. We design, manufacture and provide
support solutions for commercial aircraft, business jets,
military aircraft and rotorcraft. We offer creative and
exible solutions to meet your unique needs.
Link 160
BOOTH 1150
NORDAM Delivers MRO and
OEM ResultsWorldwide
NORDAM provides third-party
MRO services to the military,
commercial airline and air
freight markets, specializing
in fan and thrust reversers,
nacelles and ight control
structures. We also manufacture composite aircraft
structures, transparencies, interior shells, custom
cabinetry, and radomes.
Link 557
Sterling Global Aviation Logistics
BOOTH 1050
Global Aviation Logistics-
To Keep Your Aircraft Flying
Since 1981, Sterling has been
providing 24/7 global AOG logistics,
transporting valuable and critical
aircraft parts swiftly and efciently.
We specialize in shipping AOG
aircraft parts, rapid returns, heavy
weight or oversized freight, and
dangerous goods, while keeping
down time to a minimum.
Link 400
Aerospace Precision, Inc.
15-40F-11 PBE, Repair &
Overhaul Services
Aerospace Precision is the
exclusive repair station in the
USA for the repair & overhaul of
Air Liquide Protective Breathing
Equipment - send inquiries to

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Link 175
The Leader in MRO
The leader in maintenance,
repair, and overhaul.
PEMCO World Air
Services provides quality
workmanship at our
FAA-certied, U.S. service
facilities and at our partner
sites in Southeast Asia.
Link 520
Aircraft Demolition, LLC
Worldwide Aircraft Disassembly, Part-out & Recycling
Aircraft Demolition purchases
commercial and military aircraft
for recycling purposes.
Unique in the industry, we are
a dual accredited member of
the Aircraft Fleet Recycling
Association in the Recycling
of Aerospace Materials
and the Disassembly of Aircraft, Powerplants and Other
Aerospace Materials.
Link 511
Affordable Thermal Spray Equipment
Bay State Surface Technologies,
a subsidiary of Aimtek, has been
providing quality, operator-friendly
plasma and twin-wire arc spray
equipment and materials for over
50 years. Complete turn-key
solutions, including booths, robots,
dust collection, turntables, parameter
development, and training.
Link 338
Chem Processing, Inc.
Plating & Coatings for
Aircraft MRO
Chem Processing, Inc. offers a
full line of metal nishing services
to aircraft MRO organizations
including cadmium plating,
electroless nickel plating, dry lm
lubricants, silver plating, hard
chrome plating, zinc-nickel plating,
aluminum anodizing, chem lm
and passivation.
Link 100
Heat Shield/Thermal
Insulation Blanket Repair
ETI INC. offers repair
capabilities for all major
engine types. Services
provided by ETI INC.
include both DER and
Manual parts repair and
PMA development. For
quality and innovation
send your parts to ETI INC. One such repair is our heat
shield/thermal blanket repair.
Link 424
Sherwood Aviation
Component Repairs,
Overhauls, Sales &
Since 1991, Sherwood
Aviation has been a World
Class provider of component
Repairs, Overhauls, Sales & Exchanges,
serving Commercial, Military & Regional, Fixed Wing
& Rotary Wing Aircraft.
Certied Woman-Owned Small Business,
CAGE Code 3EM37, FAA OOWR599L,
EASA.145.4866, ISO 9001:2008.

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Link 183
PlaneTechs Aviation Workforce
Solutions (Stafng)
PlaneTechs provides aviation contract
personnel for aircraft maintenance,
repair, overhaul and manufacturing
projects in the commercial and DoD/
Govt. sectors. As the nations largest
provider of aviation mechanics and
technicians, PlaneTechs makes it easy
for our clients to staff their projects and
keep them running safely, on time and
on budget.
Link 310
Sumitomo Precision USA, Inc. - Repair
Heat Exchanger Specialist
Sumitomo Precision USA pro-
vides maintenance/repair and
OEM warranty administration
capabilities to SPU/SPP heat
management components in-
clusive of V2500, TRENT, and
BR platform Heat Exchangers.
Beneting from close links
with both Sumitomo OEM facilities we offer efcient OEM
product support.
Link 316
BASF Aerospace Materials
Aerospace materials from BASF
include a broad portfolio of products
and technologies that can provide
unique solutions across a wide range
of applications cabin interiors,
structural materials, seating
components, fuel and lubricant
solutions, coatings & specialty
pigments, as well as ame retardants
& re protection.
Link 169
Pacic Coast Composites
Advanced Composites
Stop wasting time
hunting around for your
aircraft composite repair
products; stop wasting
your time coordinating
those deliveries! We
stock the most requested
products for next-day
delivery anywhere globally. We do all the work & when it
arrives on your doorstep youve got exactly what you need.
Link 515
Oklahoma Department of Commerce
Oklahoma Dept of Commerce
Economic Development
Oklahomas $12 billion MRO industry
includes over 500 aerospace compa-
nies, with expertise from composites
to engines to precision machining.
With tremendous state nancial
incentives, a highly trained workforce,
and a low cost of doing business, we
can help your company prosper! Visit
Booth #2347.
Link 121
A320 Landing Gear Harness Repair
Servicing both OEM & Aftermarket
with repair, overhaul & replace-
ment. Capabilities include repair or
replacement hardware for the entire
aircraft, from engine and airframe
to APU, landing gear, ECS and all
subsystems. Specializing in Harness
Assemblies & Temperature Sensors.

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Link 075
Chase Aerospace
APU Repair and
We are an EASA, FAA
& CASE approved re-
pair station specializing
in Auxiliary Power Unit
repair, overhaul and
support of GTCP85,
GTCP331 & GTCP131-9 series APUs and associated
components with a portfolio for sale, lease and exchange.
We provide a high product quality at competitive pricing.
Link 758
Malabar International
B787 Coolant Service Equipment
Malabars Coolant Service Cart
(CSC) performs rapid aircraft
coolant drain, ll, clean and de-
aerate operations. The Coolant
Top-Off Pack (CTOP) is a
portable unit for line maintenance
service. K-Tools manufactured by
Malabar to Boeing specications
connect the CSC and CTOP to
the aircraft.
Link 145
Engine Field Service,
Sales & Exchange
LCI, a FAA/EASA Repair Station,
provides services such as MPA
runs, Removals/Installations, DVD
Borescope Inspections, Repairs,
Conversions, Preservation and
Storage, Component Changes,
QEC Kit Builds/Swaps, Tear-
downs, Top-case Repairs, Asset/
Lease Pool Management, and
Technical Support.
Link 403
Airline Support Group
Ground Support Equipment /Boeing & Airbus Tooling
Airline Support Group
manufactures, sells,
leases and repairs engine
stands, specializing in
and Pratt & Whitney engine stands, including
JT8D,JT9D,PW2000, and PW4000. ASG is a supplier
of Boeing and Airbus tooling.
Link 574
Astronics Corporation
Air Lite
LED Flashlights
Astronics DMEs Air Lite
ashlights provide 60% weight
savings over their predecessors.
The model 1E is for emergency use
and the 2R is rechargeable and
for utility use. Both models oat in
water, are constructed of ame-
retardant plastic, and include a
push-to-test battery monitoring system.
Link 371
At 32,000 feet, there are no
unimportant parts
ECAS, Inc. is a stocking distribu-
tor of aircraft hardware & electrical
components supporting aviation,
military and aerospace applications.
We offer an extensive inventory of all
AN, MS & NAS fasteners. We also
carry one of the largest inventories
of Cherry Rivets, Hi-Lok, Camloc &
Dzus fasteners. 1-800-330-3975
Cage Code-0WTF7

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Link 757
Impex International
Since 1985, Impex Provides
an extensive product line
of standard and special
engineered mechanical
components (Fasteners and Fittings) to aerospace and
defense customers.ISO 9001 / AS 9120 Certied ,One
Stop Shop for Multiple Items, Exceptional Customer Service
Major Credit Cards Accepted.
Link 302
Jergens Specialty Fasteners
Jergens Kwik-Lok Pins
Kwik-Lok Pins provide quick,
easy positive engagement
and high holding strength for
applications requiring frequent,
repetitive use. If you need safety,
speed and dependability, then you
need Jergens Kwik-Lok Pins.
Link 755
Americase, Inc.
Americase: You dream it, we can build it!
Americase, an AS9100 company,
is the premiere custom container
manufacturer. With an all-in-house
engineering and production
environment, Americase is uniquely
adept in providing high quality,
custom fabricated parts and
containers to various industries. If
you can dream it, Americase can
build it.
Link 364
Aero Precision A Greenwich AeroGroup Company
Fixod Wing
Potary Wing
Sparo, P&OH
Shortor TAT
OEM Ouality
Compotitivo Prico
Link 754
Keeping You Airborne
The Aereos group of companies:
Atlas Aerospace provides 35
years of repair & overhaul services
of pneumatic, hydraulic, electro-
mechanical, and electronic parts.
ACP redeploys high value expendable
parts through DER repair. Aervit
provides Airbus & Boeing rotable
spares, and Euless Aero Components
provides precision machining.
Link 546
Hisco, Inc.
Premier Distributor of
Mission-Critical Materials
Hisco distributes MRO products
from leading manufacturers. Our
portfolio includes adhesives, tapes,
abrasives, cleaners, primers, coatings,
insulating technologies, breather and
bleeders, bagging lms, release lms,
mold release lubricants, solder, wire
and cable components, packaging,
and more.

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Link 037
Ametek MRO
MRO Capabilities
Global provider of repair/
overhaul services for
commercial, regional,
general aviation & rotor
wing aircraft.
Operations are FAA,
EASA, CAAC & CAAS approved. Capabilities: avionic,
electromechanical, electronic, uid system, hydrau-
lic, oxygen, pneumatic, radio system & safety equipt
Link 756
Our global structure provides a
prompt response mechanism for a
full range of needs, including: eld
and technical support; spare parts
ight and maintenance; operations
consulting; aircraft modications;
comprehensive crew and personnel
training; technical publications and
Link 018
Aerosource Inc.
ADG & RAT Repair and
Overhaul Services
Aerosource Inc. is the OEM for
the DC10 and MD11 Air Driven
Generator assembly, as well as RATs
and other various components for
military application. Aerosources
FAA/EASA approved repair station
specializes in ADGs and RATs for
all Airbus, Boeing, Bombardier and
Embraer eets.
Link 404
Amarillo Economic Development Corporation
Business Relocation/
Expansion Services
The Amarillo EDCs mis-
sion is to promote business
expansion in the greater
Amarillo area that builds a
stronger, more diversied
economy. The Amarillo EDC offers aggressive incentives
to businesses that locate or expand operations in the
Amarillo community.
Link 248
Ascent Aviation Services
Ascent Aviation
Narrow-body MRO
& Storage Services
Ascent Aviation Services-
Tucson Intl Airport-is a
premier provider of narrow-
body heavy maintenance,
modications, & interior/
exterior refurbishment services. MRO industry veterans provide
highly dedicated support in FAA, EASA & AFRA certicated
facilities to meet the demands of a global customer base.
Link 060
BAE Systems
BAE Systems offers the largest breadth
of MRO, aftermarket, and services
spanning commercial, regional, and
business aircraft platforms. Were
proud to be a preferred OEM in the
service and support of:

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Link 382
Rockford Area Aerospace Network
One stop Midwest aerospace & aviation services
Rockford Area Aerospace
Network, a one stop source
for aerospace supplier and
aviation service information.
We are cost-effective,
offering technical talent, a
diverse industrial market, a
development friendly airport,
and an instant supply
chain of +200 companies that support the aerospace
Link 318
Packaging That Reduces Supply Chain Cost
Your mission is our mission.
We develop complete pack-
aging solutions optimized
to reduce total cost and
environmental impact in your
supply chain. Nefab has
unrivaled experience with the
aerospace industry and with
global engineering and supply
capabilities we serve you in every corner of the world.
Link 534
Were Not Your Typical
Simultaneously putting OEM care
and quality together with rapid TAT,
competitive pricing, and responsive
customer support into every repair,
Shimadzu Precision Instruments,
Inc. (SPI) is the One Stop Shop
for all your Shimadzu LRU repair
Link 213
STS Aviation Group
Turn-Key Solutions
to Keep You Flying
The STS Aviation Group provides
turnkey services for MROs and
Airlines through its divisions:
STS Engineering Solutions,
STS Line Maintenance, STS
Component Solutions, & STS
AeroStaff Services. These
divisions can work together to
meet a common goal... to provide
Solutions to Keep You Flying.
Link 220
Texas Aero Engine Services LLC (TAESL)
TAESL Repairs
the Rolls-Royce RB211-535 & Trent 800
TAESL is the industry leader
in engine repair and overhaul
services for the Trent 892 and
RB211-535, providing the
highest quality, industry-best
turn-times at competitive
rates. We offer customer-ori-
ented solutions in a state-of-
the-art facility, providing engine overhaul and test capacity.
Link 508
Texas Aerospace Services
Your MRO choice for aircraft components
Since 1967, the wings of
the world have relied on
Texas Aerospace Services,
an industry leader in the
maintenance, repair and
overhaul of aircraft acces-
sories and components.
Our facility is equipped
to overhaul and repair
electromechanical, hydraulic, pneumatic and fuel
system components.

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Link 222
TIMCO Aviation Services
Aircraft MRO and Interiors
Products and Services
TIMCO is one of the largest
independent MROs, offering
complete aircraft care including:
base maintenance; interiors design,
engineering, certication & integration;
products including galleys, lavs and
FeatherWeight seating; engine
MRO; and TIMCO LineCare line
maintenance & cabin care.
Link 046
Aviation Component Solutions
NEW PMA P00899 & P0900 Impellers
ACS Announces Impellers
P00899 and P00900 that
are used in the Vacuum
Generators on the A318,
A319, A320, A321, A330,
A340, ERJ170 & ERJ190
Aircraft. ACS . . . Delivering
the Difference
Link 227
Triumph Group
B777 ACM Program
Triumph Accessory Services
Wellington has made
signicant investment in
our Boeing 777 Air Cycle
Machine (ACM) capabilities
and spares, to include the
construction of a new overhaul
and test facility. Triumph is
ready to support your B777 component maintenance
by reducing your overall cost of ownership.
Link 218
TCI Turbine Controls, Inc.
TCI - Striving for
Repair Station Excellence
approved repair facility focused on
the overhaul and repair of engine
components and engine airframe
accessories for commercial, military
and Industrial markets.
We have recently added a second
facility in Miami FL, which signicantly
increases our airframe accessories
Link 090
Dean Baldwin Painting, LP
The premier provider of
Aircraft Painting Services
Dean Baldwin Painting,
LP. provides expert aircraft
painting services to the
aviation industry. Services
include full strip and paint-
ing, ight controls removal,
balancing and re-installation,
scribe line inspections and
aircraft weighing.
Link 360
Nycote Labs
Nycote is the Clear Liquid-
Nylon Coating Pioneer. Our
formula protects stainless
steel surfaces and other
compounds from wear,
corrosion, friction and
conductivity. Its clear uid
base eliminates pinholes
and gives metals a void-free impervious barrier that is
unattainable by other products.

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Link 296
Inventory Locator Service, LLC
The most essential tool in an MROs toolbox!
Subscribers to ILSmart get the
following information at their
when they are ready to buy
ILS offers multiple ways to
streamline your business processes.
Link 299
Rigid Lifelines
Rigid Lifelines Grifn Fall
Protection System
The Grifn by Rigid Lifelines is a
portable fall protection system that
protects workers during
vehicle maintenance. Reposition the
Grifn with a small towing device to
make vehicle access
easier during maintenance.
Visit for
more information about the Grifn.
Link 410
Diehl Aerospace, Inc.
DIEHL Aerospace Inc.-
OEM Customer Support Center
Diehl Aerospace, Inc. is the
customer support center
of Diehl Aerosystems for
the Americas. We are the
exclusive distributor and repair
station for their avionics, light-
ing, cabin interior, lavatory and
galley equipment. We strive to provide services from
cockpit to cabin tailored to our customers.
Link 513
Diligent Delivery Systems
Natl AOG, NFO and
Aviation Parts Shipping
Diligent Delivery Systems is your
Total DELIVERY Solution for
shipping emergency aviation parts.
Our reliable domestic counter to
counter, AOG/NFO, local and long
distance hot shot, expedited trucking,
LTL, FTL, & Air-Ride equipment is at
your ngertips. Our expert specialists
are available 24/7/365.
Link 592
Products, services and expertise.
Pattonair helps its customers get
the right product at the right time
as well as providing supply chain
expertise and solutions. Pattonair
offers global coverage and a range
of services from product distribution
management, direct line feed and
kitting, through to tailored advice
and consultation.
Link 311
Wesco Aircraft
Quality Products. Cost-Saving Solutions.
Wesco Aircraft offers
on-time, error-free delivery
of high quality aerospace
and industrial consumables
worldwide. Our advanced
logistics services improve
inventory efciency and
provide signicant cost
savings. With nearly 60
years of industry experience,
we can help you achieve your objectives.

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Link 387
Capture 3D
Accurate & Fast Non-Contact 3D
Metrology & Inspection
Capture 3D improves IGT/Propulsion
design, mfg, & production processes
with innovative, accurate and fast
non-contact 3D metrology solutions.
Solve engineering issues, prevent
future problems, optimize workows,
eliminate wasteful costs/rework,
and improve product quality while
accelerating ROI.
Link 340
DAC International
Air Data Testing for AoA DMA Aero/DAC International
Tosting lor AoA, Ps and Pt (3 &
4 channel)
Multiplo lino switching option
(leak isolation)
PvSM compliant
5000 Hour pump guarantoo
Four Hour battory back-up
Link 759
Testek, Inc.
Testek designs and
manufactures quality aircraft
component test systems for
testing engine accessories
and airframe components:
Electrical, Fuel, Hydraulics,
Pneumatics, Mechanical,
Lube Oil, Power Controls, etc.
Testeks products address the
needs of MRO, OEM development, and production testing.
Link 540
Worthington MRO Center
V2500-A5 Thrust Reversers
Worthington MRO Center
in Tulsa, OK offers world
class repair and overhaul of
Thrust Reversers, Nacelles
and Flight Control Services.
Spares Pool on hand for
lease, exchange and sale.
Composite and sheet metal
repairs, exotic welding of exhaust systems and ducting.
Full Maintenance Program Support.
Link 303
Advanced Torque Products LLC
Powerful, Precision Bolting
without External Power
High Precision, Mechanical Torque
Wrenches & Multipliers
1% accuracy - roducod calibration
Lightwoight - orgonomic, small
All-mochanical - no oxtornal powor roquirod
Digital control - lntornational moasuromont
A Veteran Owned Company
Phone: 860.828.1523
Link 233
University of Tennessee
The Aerospace & Defense Portfolio
UT offers student-centered, business
education, and training programs prov-
en to enhance business performance.
These include an Aerospace & Defense
MBA and short courses ideal for the
A&D industry -- including lean, supply
chain management, acquisition and
logistics. Certications are also avail-
able. Classes take place on campus
in Knoxville. UT also delivers custom
courses on-site at the workplace of sponsoring employers.

Whichever way you cut it, the many facets of the TRUEngine program
add more sparkle to your CFM56 investment. World-class support,
unmatched product knowledge, and the peace of mind knowing your
engine has been maintained to CFMs precise standards. But the real
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*Based on CFM, GE and independent third-party research.
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Unmatched Experience | World-Class Support | Exceptional Value AVIATION WEEK & SPACE TECHNOLOGY/SEPTEMBER 23, 2013 35
Graham Warwick Washington
Shared situational awareness
and decision-making aids now
the targets of refocused precision
close-air-support demonstration
hen the U.S. Defense Advanced Research Projects
Agency (Darpa) declared its intent to make close
air support more responsive by enabling ground
forces to directly control the weapons on unmanned aircraft,
it raised a few eyebrows. When it revealed a heavily armed
Fairchild A-10 would be converted to optionally piloted opera-
tion for the Precision Close Air Support (PCAS) technology
demonstration, eyebrows arched even higher.
Now the skeptics can relax, somewhat, as the PCAS pro-
gram has been reshaped to focus on near-term transition of
the technology to manned close-air-support (CAS) aircraft.
An A-10 will still be used as the testbed for live-re trials, but
will be own manned. And PCAS will still demonstrate that
a joint terminal attack controller (JTAC) on the ground can
directly control the weapons on an aircraft, but the outcome
will not lead to automated, unmanned CAS.
Instead, the product of the demonstration will be hardware
and software that provides improved communications and
shared situational awareness between the JTAC and the pi-
lot, and autonomous decision aids that recommend actions
to increase the speed and accuracy of CAS.
Raytheon is moving ahead to demonstrate more rapid
and precise close air support after nalizing a contract with
Darpa for Phase 2 of the PCAS program. The fundamental
goal is still the same: to decrease the timeline by a factor of 10
from a request for re to an efect on target from 60 min. to
6 min. for an A-10 loitering 20 nm away, says Dave Bossert,
Raytheon program manager. And we will still use the A-10,
but not optionally manned.
The modied program comprises two elements. PCAS-Air
is the airborne system, providing the interface between the
aircraft, its sensors, weapons and pilot, and the JTAC on
the ground. PCAS-Ground is the kit carried by the JTAC,
including an Android tablet computer, head-up display and
digital radio.
PCAS will provide improved communications between
JTAC and pilot, with all-digital messaging and shared displays
of sensor imagery, targets, weapons and their efects. The
PCAS-Air piece was the A-10. Now it is Smart Rail electron-
ics, small enough so that anything that can carry the Hellre
missile can be PCAS-Air-enabled, Bossert says, adding We
are platform-agnostic, sensor-agnostic and radio-agnostic.
The Smart Rail includes a computer that hosts the PCAS
algorithms, a GPS/inertial navigation system and talks to
the JTAC via a dedicated data-link radio and to the aircraft,
sensors and weapons via an interface box. An Android tab-
let identical to that carried by the JTAC is mounted in the
cockpit for the pilot.
Tight coupling of the JTAC and pilot is key, Bossert says.
PCAS provides the JTAC access to the computing power and
high-resolution sensors on the aircraft without the Smart Rail
having to be part of its operational ight program. It is sepa-
rate from, but hosted on, the aircraft, he says, which will re-
duce the time/cost for adding PCAS capability.
Raytheons modied $12.9 million Phase 2 contract will cul-
minate in a critical design review in November, and Bossert
says there is a high probability Darpa will proceed into
the 18-month, $25.5 million Phase 3 ight demonstration.
Team members include GE Aviation providing its stores
and payload controller and Rockwell Collins supplying high-
bandwidth QNT radios, head-mounted display systems, and
targeting and visualization tools.
The program changes reect a shift in focus for near-term
transition of PCAS to manned CAS, from unmanned. One
of the original sponsors when we started was the MQ-X
[unmanned aircraft] program. There is no MQ-X anymore,
he says. MQ-X was the U.S. Air Forces planned Predator/
Reaper replacement, but never got beyond concept studies.
The primary focus was never the optionally piloted A-10,
and it became somewhat distracting, Bossert says. Instead
of enabling the JTAC to directly control weapons on an air-
craft, PCAS is most likely to transition to operational use as
an autonomous decision aid for the pilot. Manned CAS has
the biggest need, he says.
It will be part of their situational-awareness decision aids,
showing recommended actions for both the pilot and JTAC,
Bossert continues. For the PCAS demo, we still plan autono-
mous weapons employment, but a pilot will y the A-10 and
be able to override the autonomy.
The live-re demos in 2015 will involve the A-10s 30-mm
gun, a joint-direct-attack-munition GPS-guided bomb, a
Laser Maverick missile, dual-mode laser/GPS weapon and
2.75-in. rocket.
After the demo, PCAS will be ready to transition to any
xed-wing, rotary-wing or unmanned aircraft that can carry
Hellre [or larger weapons], Bossert says. c
JTACs head-up display previews weapons
y-outs and efects.

Graham Warwick Washington
First ight is only the initial step on
long road to ultra-long endurance
ong in gestation and in endurance, Aurora Flight Sci-
ences Orion unmanned aircraft has made its rst step
toward demonstrating a 120-hr. ight at 20,000 ft., car-
rying a 1,000-lb. multi-sensor payload.
That would allow the Orion to provide continuous surveil-
lance carrying a Predator-class payload with fewer takeofs
and landings than current medium-altitude, long-endurance
UAVs ying 24-hr. missions, signicantly reducing the man-
power burden and operating cost.
The Orion demonstrator made its rst ight from a
Western test range, believed to be China Lake, Calif.,
on Aug. 24. Powered by a pair of fuel-efcient Au stro
Engine AE300 turbo-diesels, the aircraft ew for 3.5 hr.,
reaching an altitude of 8,000 ft. and airspeed of around 60
kt., says Tom Clancy, vice president of Auroras unmanned
air system business sector.
Within the Defense Department, ownership of the Orion
program has changed hands several times. Aurora declines
to identify its current customer, but the U.S. Air Force tells
Aviation Week it is the USAF Big Safari program office,
which manages the acquisition and modication of special-
mission platforms.
When Aurora began work in 2006, it was with U.S. Army
funding, and the Orion was planned to be a hydrogen-fueled,
high-altitude, long-loiter (HALL) UAV. In 2008, the com-
pany submitted an unsolicited proposal to the Air Force
Research Laboratory for a medium-altitude version of the
Orion, powered by conventional engines. This led to a con-
tract for the Medium-Altitude Global Intelligence, surveil-
lance, reconnaissance and Communications relay (Magic)
joint concept technology demonstration (JCTD).
Using the composite wing and tail of the original HALL
design, the Orion was rolled out at Auroras plant in Golden
Triangle, Miss., in November 2010. It was then expected to y
in August 2011. The programs progress has been funding-rate
limited, says Clancy. The early phases of the Magic JCTD
were completed, then we transitioned to a new program ofce,
he says. But the basic objectives set at the beginning remain:
a 120-hr. autonomous UAV carrying 1,000 lb. to 20,000 ft.
The technical goals still align with those of Magic: Aford-
ability, through reduced takeofs and landings; autonomy, to
reduce training cost; and open architecture, to minimize the
cost of upgrading or augmenting the mission system, notes
Clancy. We are working toward plug-and-play, so we can
change the mission suite with relative ease.
There was no mission system on board for the Orions
first flight, but there will be a payload on the aircraft for
the 120-hr. demonstration ight, expected to be conducted
by mid-2014, he says, adding A number of diferent multi-
intelligence payloads are potentially part of the program.
Aurora had proposed building three aircraft for the Magic
demo, but now cant talk about whether there will be more
than one, Clancy says. He also cannot comment on whether
there are any plans to deploy the system operationally.
The Orion has a long-span, one-piece composite wing for
low drag and light weight, two keys to extended endurance
at medium altitude. Another is the fuel-efcient turbo-diesel
engines, which burn jet fuel. Two other long-endurance UAV
aimed at the 100-hr.-plus markAeroVironments Global Ob-
server and Boeings Phantom Eyeare hydrogen-fueled and
designed to y at high altitude. Both ew only a handful of
times and are currently without a customer.
Long endurance also requires high reliability, and the au-
tonomy and redundancy of the Orion system architecture
are similar to Auroras Centaur optionally piloted aircraft,
a modied Diamond DA 42. Some pieces are triplex, some
duplex. For extreme endurance, there can be no single-point
failures, Clancy says.
Control modes were evaluated during the rst functional
check ight, which included a couple of approaches and go-
arounds to check the autonomous systems before landing on
the hard-surface runway, he notes. Command and control
of the Orion is more Global Hawk-like than Predator-like,
and involves supervised autonomythe operator telling the
aircraft what to do in broad terms such as takeof, land and
trajectory, adds Clancy.
Flights will build up to the 120-hr. demo in the coming
months. It will be a signicant reach to expand the envelope
that far, says Clancy. Aurora, meanwhile, has the capacity in
place to make multiple aircraft per year at its Mississippi
plant, he says, if the Orion can traverse the somewhat tortu-
ous path from a technology demonstration to an operational
program of record. c
Staying Power
The Orion has a slender, single-
piece, carbon-ber wing for low
drag with minimum weight.


making its rst takeof
and landing on our Ares
blog at:
See video of the Orion

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Guy Norris Los Angeles
Gaining Momentum
More milestones line up for NASA Commercial
Crew contenders as concept tests continue
our years into its initiative to develop a U.S. commercial
crew transportation system, NASA is nearing an inex-
ion point in the program as it ghts potentially debilitat-
ing budget cuts while investing more to see the competitors
through to the next stage.
The agency is poised to issue a request for proposals (RFP)
for the second phase of development and certication under
the Commercial Crew Integrated Capability (CCiCap) pro-
gram, as a step toward awarding Commercial Crew Trans-
portation Capability (CCtCap) contracts in mid-2014.
Despite budget concerns, NASA ofcials appear increas-
ingly optimistic that Congress is becoming more supportive
of the Commercial Crew initiative, particularly as the com-
petitorsBoeing, Space Exploration Technologies (SpaceX)
and Sierra Nevada Corp.advance into hardware demonstra-
tions. Were seeing higher momentum, says NASA program
manager Ed Mango.
At the American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics
(AIAA) Space 2013 conference in San Diego this month, Mango
said the agency is on track to release the RFP for Phase 2 cer-
tication shortly. The buildup to certication and the award
of CCtCap contracts come amid mounting test activity and
encouraging early results from commercial resupply missions
to the International Space Station (ISS), both helping build the
case for more funding, he says.
The mood as I see it on both the executive and congres-
sional side for Commercial Crew is getting stronger, Mango
says. Referencing the congressional plus-up in funding for
scal 2014 to $525 million from $428 million, he says, both
chambers understood . . . the importance of getting a U.S.
capability for the ISS. . . . If certain things happen under a
continuing resolution, we will be somewhere between $488
million and $525 million. We are good to get through [scal
2014] and still complete commitments
we have under [the CCiCap initiative],
and that will play into how we imple-
ment CCtCap.
Mango notes that NASA has con-
tracted with all three teams for certi-
cation products. While the companies
are doing development, we want to
start talking with them about our re-
quirements and how they are going to
meet them. The efort has been split
into two, with the rst round going
very well, he adds. In the rst round,
the teams gave NASA proposals on
how they would or would not meet
the requirements. Now were in the
middle of feedback to them, Mango
The second round is a further itera-
tion of the same process. At the end
of January, we will give them feedback
again. Then they have all the data. So, if
theyre ready to bid for the next phase,
it gives them a chance to rene propos-
als before the best and nal bids, he says. Mango expects the
RFP for CCtCap to be released in late October. Final bids will
be due by year-end, with contract award planned for the end
of July 2014.
Id like to have more than one, he says. Competition helps
price, but we also understand it helps in other ways, such as
safety. Competing providers also gives the government much
more capabilitywe have a redundant system on this side [of
the Atlantic]. The award pretty much guarantees two mis-
sions to the winning contractor, Mango says. The contract
will allow up to six missions, based on performance, through
2020. Beyond this, and assuming the life of the ISS is extend-
ed, NASA will transition to a services contract. This will be
enacted once commercial crew services have stabilized, he
says, adding: We dont want to go with a long-term services
contract until we understand the risk posture.
Of the contenders, Sierra Nevada is the nearest to ying
hardware. It is conducting ight-readiness reviews for the
rst drop test of the Dream Chaser lifting body at NASAs
Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards AFB, Calif., amid
preparations for its rst Commercial Crew critical design
review (CDR).
At press time, the ight was expected either Sept. 21 or
Sept. 28, as the approach-and-landing tests are only permitted
on a Saturday at Edwards and, to keep to Sierras schedule,
should begin by the end of this month. Until now, Dream Chas-
er development has been conducted under a $212.5 million
CCiCap contract received in August 2012, considerably less
than those awarded to Boeing and SpaceX. But NASAs deci-
sion in August to add a $5 million CDR milestone has boosted
the competitive position of the Dream Chaser, says Mark Sir-
angelo, Sierra Nevada Space Systems head and corporate vice
Boeings CST-100 completed
water-drop and egress tests in
Nevada last month and is due to
return there in October for para-
chute-drop tests on land.

We will enter CDR this year, and before that, we were
doing it on our own. To us, it represents that NASA believes
we are a system thats matured enough to begin the CDR
process. They see that because of the energy were putting
into it, says Sirangelo. NASA also awarded Sierra Nevada an
additional $10 million for incremental reaction-control sys-
tem testing, to be accomplished in July 2014. Thats about
getting to maturity quicker, he adds.
One of the biggest risks is the green thrusters, Mango
says. Wed like to keep on with testing of those because, if
that technology takes of, it could revolutionize the way we do
satellite servicing on orbit. We want Sierra Nevada to work
toward that and are funding the thruster design so they can
do testing in a near-vacuum environment . . . . At some point,
we need to lock down the design of the orbital vehicle, so we
agreed to discuss how the test-a-little-build-a-little approach
will feed into the nal design.
Sirangelo says the Dream Chaser engineering test article
at Edwards is ready for its rst autonomous ight. The ini-
tial two drop tests, from a hovering Sikorsky S-64 Skycrane,
could be enough to satisfy Sierra Nevadas requirements. It
will go at least two ights, but it could go to 10 if we need to,
he explains.
Assembly of the orbital-test Dream Chaser, to be used for
powered ights into space, is underway at Lockheed Martins
facility in NASAs Michoud Assembly Facility in Louisiana.
We wanted to have two under simultaneous construction,
and with it being at Michoud, this brings in another NASA
center . . . . Were targeting delivery next year, Sirangelo
Planned testing from next year, assuming a CCtCap award
in July, will see the Dream Chaser go higher, faster, hyperson-
ic, suborbital, without people and with people, says Sirangelo.
Testing will be divided into four major steps: approach and
landing, high atmospheric, suborbital and orbital. For initial
testing, Sierra Nevada has yet to decide whether to tow the
Dream Chaser or drop it from a launcher aircraft.
Boeing and SpaceX, both proposing capsule-based con-
cepts, are approaching equally intense periods of test and
development milestones, made busier by
new targets added by NASA.
Its the grind up to critical design
review, says John Mulholland, Boeing
Space Exploration vice president and
commercial programs manager. The
company is on track to complete five
milestones by year-end, having complet-
ed seven since the start of the year. Five
more remain for 2014, including a newly
added requirement to conduct a Phase 2
spacecraft safety review in July.
After you get to CDR, you want to un-
derstand how that afects all the safety
analysis, says Mango. So we decided to
fund their next level of safety review. Each
team has a unique approach to how they
do this development, and we see where
there are higher risks and rewards, and
use that for optional milestones.
In May, Boeing completed a further round of water-tank
drop tests of the CST-100 capsule at a facility in Las Vegas.
The tests were required because of last years redesign of the
airbag system to accommodate extra loads uncovered during
analysis of conditions encountered in the event of a water
landing. Boeing performed 15 drops of a CST-100 model in
ve days. This was to make sure we really understood the
loads when we put that center airbag in, says Mulholland.
This month, Boeing also completed engine development
tests on the orbital maneuvering and attitude control (OMAC)
system, as well as a mission-control-center interface demon-
stration test as a precursor to pilot-in-the-loop tests in Febru-
ary. A new engineering simulator installed at Houston will be
used to perform the initial piloting tests in the fall. Overall,
the CST-100 team is about a month ahead of plan, Mulhol-
land notes. Almost weekly, there is a component CDR.
SpaceX, which is poised to launch the rst upgraded Fal-
con 9 v1.1 that is part of its Commercial Crew architecture,
was to deliver a detailed inight-abort test plan to NASA
for review last week. In October, the company will conduct a
safety review covering a hazard analysis, probabilistic safety
assessment and failure mode and efects analysis. A review
of the upgraded Falcon 9 ight, which will take place from
Vandenberg AFB, Calif., follows in November.
Later in the year, SpaceX will conduct further testing of the
parachute system for Dragon Rider, the manned version of
the capsule already used to carry cargo to the ISS. SpaceX
has a parachute system and pad-abort system theyre going
to test, and they are going to do the chutes in a way thats
never been done before, says Mango. We said thats a pretty
big risk, so we came to an agreement to do this extra mile-
stone, he adds. The $20 million milestone is planned to be
accomplished by December.
An integrated CDR is set for March 2014, with the nal
design slated to be presented to NASA before the start of
manufacturing the orbital test vehicle. The parachute tests
at the end of this year, which include a helicopter drop test,
will help us with the more difcult launch-abort/pad-abort
test in April, Mango says. c AVIATION WEEK & SPACE TECHNOLOGY/SEPTEMBER 23, 2013 39
Sierra Nevadas Dream Chaser is
poised for free-ight drop tests
over the Edwards AFB dry lake bed.

SpaceX Dragon modications
bump NASA cargo mission to
pace Exploration Technologies (SpaceX) is modifying
its Dragon capsule to aford more payload capacity for
NASA cargo runs to and from the International Space
Station (ISS). But the improvements will push a planned
December ISS mission into 2014, in which the companys
crowded launch manifest is pending the delayed debut of
the revamped SpaceX Falcon 9 rocket.
President Gwynne Shotwell says NASA needs SpaceX to
make the Dragon enhancements in order to increase the re-
usable cargo vessels cold-storage capacity for transporting
research samples between Earth and the ISS.
Were developing a major upgrade to Dragon to triple
the amount of science that we carry up and back, Shot well
said Sept. 10 at the World Satellite Business Week confer-
ence here, adding that the capsules December mission is
now scheduled for February.
Under the terms of SpaceXs $1.6 billion Commercial Re-
supply Services (CRS) contract with NASA, the company is
supposed to deliver 20,000 kg (44,000 lb.) of food, supplies
and science materials to the ISS by Dec. 31, 2015. Dragons
advertised payload capacity is for more than 3,300 kg of pres-
surized and unpressurized cargo to the space station and up
to 2,500 kg on the return trip.
Since the December 2008 CRS contract was signed, how-
ever, Dragon has conducted just three trips to the ISS, deliv-
ering a combined 1,595 kg of pressurized cargo and returning
a total of 2,120 kg to Earth.
NASA spokesman Joshua Byerly says no new require-
ments have been added to the SpaceX CRS contract, sug-
gesting the upgrades are expected to fulll a long-standing
requirement to meet ISS cargo needs. But he says the work
is taking longer than initially planned.
The December launch date was chosen in cooperation
with SpaceX and assumed the enhancements being imple-
mented by SpaceX, Byerly explains. It is simply taking
longer to get all the modications completed, which is not
unreasonable, given the nature of the enhancements.
In the meantime, SpaceX is still sorting out technical
troubles with a new version of its Falcon 9 rocket.
More than a year behind schedule, the Falcon 9 v1.1 is a
signicant departure from the baseline Falcon 9 that has
launched four times since its rst ight in December 2010.
The changes include a complete redesign of the vehicles Mer-
lin 1 engine, known as the Merlin 1D, and a new octagonal
conguration for the rockets nine rst-stage motors. Other
enhancements include considerably longer fuel tanks and
a wider payload fairing. All the upgrades are aimed at loft-
ing more massincluding crewto the ISS, while afording
entry to the commercial launch market. Falcon 9 has more
than $1 billion in commercial-launch backlog to execute in
the coming years.
Previously slated to debut Sept. 15 from SpaceXs new
launch pad at Vandenberg AFB, Calif., the company shifted
the Falcon 9 v1.1 mission to the end of September following a
recent static-re test. SpaceX founder, CEO and Chief Technol-
ogy Ofcer Elon Musk stated on Twitter Sept. 13 that during
the 2-sec. test, the rockets nine engines achieved full thrust,
but that some anomalies need to be investigated. Two days
later, he tweeted plans to conduct a second static-re test be-
fore launching Sept. 29-30.
For its rst ight, the new Falcon 9 is expected to deliver
a small Canadian science satellite to an elliptical polar orbit.
If successful, this will clear the way for SpaceX to conduct
its rst commercial mission to geostationary transfer orbit,
launching the SES-8 satellite for SES, the worlds second-larg-
est satellite eet operator by revenue. SES-8 was expected to
launch from Cape Canaveral in the rst quarter of this year.
SES says it is waiting to deliver the Orbital Sciences Corp.-
built spacecraft to Vandenberg until the rst Falcon 9 v1.1 mis-
sion is successfully lofted.
In addition to SES-8, Shotwell says SpaceX is planning to
put the Orbital-built Thaicom 6 communications satellite into
orbit by year-end before launching at a cadence of almost
one a month in 2014. For now, the company is producing four
Merlin 1D engines per week, but plans to increase the rate to
ve per week starting in January, she says. This pace is nec-
essary to keep up with SpaceXs busy launch manifest, which
indicates 12 Falcon 9 v1.1 missions next year, including the one
to the ISS in February.
Our production is now ahead of our launch, Shotwell adds.
We have to get these vehicles to the launch site and y them,
but production should not be an issue going forward. c
Slipping By
Dragon has berthed at the ISS three
times since SpaceX signed a contract
with NASA in 2008 to deliver 20 tons
of cargo to the orbiting outpost.
Frank Morring, Jr. Wallops Flight Facility, Va.
Orbital Sciences sees an Antares market
beyond taking cargo to the space station
rbital Sciences Corp. engineers
already are looking for another
rocket engine to power the An-
tares medium-lift launch vehicle, after
closing out the week demonstrating
that the new commercial cargo carrier
can safely approach the International
Space Station (ISS).
The supply of surplus Soviet-era
Nk-33 kerosene-fueled engines extends
beyond the 20 Orbital will need to y
out more than $2 billion in NASA work
through 2015. Another two of those
engines, which Aerojet has modified
and labeled as the AJ-26, lifted the rst
Cygnus cargo capsule to orbit last week.
Assuming all goes well in the next
month or so, that mission to the ISS
will close out the companys $288 mil-
lion Commercial Orbital Transporta-
tion Services (COTS) Space Act agree-
ment with NASA. After that, the next
16 are destined for the eight ISS resup-
ply missions under Orbitals $1.9 billion
Commercial Resupply Services (CRS)
But NASA will continue to need sta-
tion resupply from Orbital and fellow
COTS/CRS contractor SpaceX, and
Orbital wants to expand its market
beyond the ISS in any event.
The company has indefinite deliv-
ery/indenite quantity contracts with
NASA and the Air Force for other me-
dium-lift launch services. While no pay-
loads have surfaced yet, the company
is courting the private sector as well.
We have a lot of interest from peo-
ple who are waiting to see if we suc-
ceed with this before they place a rm
order, said Frank Culbertson, Orbital
executive vice president, before last
weeks launch.
Liftof of the 13-story Antares/Cyg-
nus stack from the new state-owned
spaceport pad on Wallops Island, Va.,
occurred at 10:58 a.m. EDT Sept.
18. The apparently flawless ascent
marked the beginning of 10 safety-of-
spaceight demonstrations over four
days, capped by berthing and about
a month of operations at the ISS, to
complete Orbitals COTS milestones.
A longtime sounding-rocket facility
run by NASAs Goddard Space Flight
Center, Wallops is a barrier island on
Virginias Eastern Shore that lies near
small communities, working farms and
other settlements on the mainland.
That proximity led NASA ofcials to
check at least four residences shortly
before liftoff when range-safety offi-
cials raised concerns that a tempera-
ture inversion could focus enough
overpressure on them in an explosion
on ascent to cause windows to blow in.
The condition lifted before launch.
The Cygnus vehicle carried about
700 kg (1,543 lb.) of supplies on the
demonstration mission, but on early
CRS ights it will be able to handle as
much as 2,000 kg of pressurized car-
go; an enhanced Cygnus would have
a 2,700-kg capability. The Cygnusa
pressurized aluminum cylinder made
by Thales Alenia Space with heritage
in the ISS modules the company built
in Turin, Italymaneuvers using an Or-
bital Sciences service module based on
the companys geostationary-satellite
bus technology.
Orbital controllers in Dulles, Va.,
were maneuvering the Cygnus toward
the ISS last week, in preparation for a
nal set of demonstration maneuvers
on Sept. 29the nominal berthing day.
At least two of three orbit-changing
burns were completed on Sept. 19 to
set up eight planned maneuvers lead-
ing to rendezvous, grapple with the
stations robotic arm and berthing to
the nadir port on the stations Node 2.
Among capabilities to be demon-
strated were relative GPS navigation,
autonomous maneuvering, lidar naviga-
tion using a reector on the station as
a tracking target, and hold-and-retreat
maneuvers. The station crew was ready
to grapple Cygnus from the robotic con-
trol station in the cupola on the nadir
side of Node 2, move it to its assigned
common berthing mechanism and
open the hatch to begin unloading the
cargo. Once the vehicle is empty, sta-
tion crewmembers will begin loading
it with trash, discarded gear and other
extraneous material for a destructive
reentry over the South Pacic east of
New Zealand by mid-October, which
will mark the missions end.
Even before the Cygnus started
chasing the station, the successful
Antares launch encouraged market
analysts on Orbitals prospects. With
the end of the development of Antares
and Cygnus approaching, and the rst
CRS missions planned for December,
Orbital is on the cusp of improved
profitability and an upturn in free
cash ow, wrote Jeferies LLC analyst
Howard Rubel.
Culbertson says Orbital plans to
find a replacement for the rapidly
dwindling store of Russian engines to
enable it to continue ying Antares.
We are looking at what the options
are, who has engines that might be
compatible and available and how long
would it take to develop and/or order
them, he says. We know that some-
time after 2016 we need to start looking
at other alternatives, so weve got a very
active efort going on with everybody
who says they make an engine. c
Orbital Sciences
Antares rocket
roars toward
the ISS to dem-
onstrate cargo
delivery and join
SpaceX as a com-
mercial resupply




Opening Another
Route to Orbit

t is no exaggeration when I say the eyes of the avi-
ation world will be xed on this months assembly
of the International Civil Aviation Organization in
This meeting will set the stage for world aviation for
years ahead and generate the economic conditions that
are needed for this vital global industry to grow. It will
tackle many challenges that should not be underesti-
mated: in safety, security, air navigation, global compe-
tition, market access and of course, the environment.
In aviation, Europe has reaped enormous ben-
ets from market opportunities and from open and
fair competition. This is why I would like to see
ICAO make further progress in this area on a wider,
worldwide basis.
Global rules for a sector that is already highly in-
ternationalized and competitive need to catch up on
issues such as common-competition principles and
airline ownership and control. The adherence of dif-
ferent national practices, barriers and limitations is
an anachronism for such a modern global business.
They slow down its development and growth and are
an impediment for carriers to important new sources
of foreign capital. Competition must be open, fair and
non-discriminatory in matters such as state subsidies,
user charges, royalties and access to infrastructure.
The assembly will likely be dominated by envi-
ronmental issues, namely how to achieve aviations
sustainable growth and how it can curb emissions.
We cannot pretend otherwise. This is where a truly
global deal is long overdue, and the world now justi-
ably expects an agreement.
In Europe, we have already shown exibility when
we made the difcult decision to stop the clock on
our Emissions Trading System. By doing this, we
averted a probable trade war. It also shows our de-
termination to reach an agreement.
We will continue working hard to get all our part-
ners onboard for the ambitious action that our planet
demands. This is not only about nding a compromise.
We want our aviation industry to grow and prosper,
and improve its environmental footprint at the same
time. For that to happen, the world needs to see the
aviation industry as a responsible citizen.
The ICAO assembly faces a huge responsibility to
guarantee an ambitious and sustainable environment
where such growth can take place, and aviation can
continue to connect citizens and businesses worldwide.
That means more opportunities for travel and trade. A
stronger and more sustainable aviation sector provides
a denite opportunity. Europe is ready to play its part
in achieving and strengthening this vision in Montreal.
And Europe has a great deal to ofer. While we have
sometimes been alone in tackling some of the difcult
regulatory challenges, we wouldas alwaysprefer
to see a multilateral way forward. As the largest event
in global aviation, the ICAO assembly is the obvious
place to discuss and, hopefully, reach agreement on
multilateral solutions to global challenges.
On security, along with many others, our strong fo-
cus has helped to stabilize public condence after some
major challenges, most notably the 9/11 attacks. I am
encouraged to see a good deal of support elsewhere in
ICAO for this because security is, after all, a matter for
everyone. No country can tackle on its own the threat
of terrorism to international aviation. We should keep
working together in ICAO to nd the right balance be-
tween keeping people safe and making life as manage-
able as possible for passengers and industry.
Last years ICAO High Level Conference on Aviation
Security recommended reinforcing air cargo security
and addressing the danger from liquid explosives, as
well as insider threats. If these recommendations are
followed in Montreal, then we will be stronger and more
united in tackling the specter of air-travel terrorism.
On safety, there has been remarkable progress,
both in Europe and worldwide. But we still need to
reduce the risk of gaps in regulations, avoiding con-
fused responsibilities and conicting requirements. I
would like to see ICAO give a big push toward this.
Its important to take action to improve before acci-
dents happen, not just afterward.
As an international service industry, aviation has
reached a level of structural maturity, which means
we all need to meet global standards of safety, security
and the environment. That means working together to
modernize air trafc management, because global avi-
ation needs efcient and advanced ATM systems that
can provide fair value and seamless service to airlines
as well as punctuality to passengers. These are needed
especially now that air trafc growth is pushing the
worlds transport systems to their limits. ICAO can play
a vital role in helping to develop global ATM standards
and interoperability. They would save vast amounts in
ATM costs that are passed on to passengers.
So the importance of the forthcoming assembly
in Montreal cannot be underestimated. There is a
lengthy and varied agenda in front of us. It will be a
pivotal moment for the future of international avia-
tion. Europe will be at the heart of the negotiations,
not just on aviation emissions but in all areas. I plan
to ensure the best possible outcomes for EU citizens
and businesses, and to secure sustainable growth for
this vital global industry. c
Siim Kallas is transport
commissioner and vice
president of the European
Mapping the
Future of
World Aviation
o issue in aeropolitics is as contentious as the introduc-
tion of charges for carbon emissions. The European Union
almost caused a trade war over its Emissions Trading
System (EU ETS), but it seems a global deal is in sight.
Agreeing on the basics and a sched-
ule for the introduction of a global struc-
ture of market-based measures (MBM)
to limit aviations greenhouse gas emis-
sions will be the most important topic at
the International Civil Aviation Organi-
zations (ICAO) 38th General Assembly,
which begins Sept. 24 in Montreal.
While it is clear no agreement on
the details of a concrete global system
will be sealed, progress has been made
on a compromise solution that would
commit ICAO to develop a method for
tackling aviations carbon emissions
and decide its details by 2016. The
global MBMs would be fully imple-
mented from 2020 as part of a basket
of measures involving technology and
operational improvements (including
adopting a global CO
standard for
aircraft by 2016) and sustainable al-
ternative fuels. They are intended to
achieve carbon-neutral growth begin-
ning in 2020.
The proposal, endorsed by ICAOs
governing council on Sept. 4, accepts
the principle of regional or national
MBMs, such as the EU ETS, until the
global system is in place. At the request
of the EU, which is not a member of
ICAO, the councils draft resolution rec-
ognizes that states (or groups of states)
may choose, before the full implemen-
tation of a global MBM, to implement
systems that apply to flights to/from
third countries, which depart or arrive
at airports in that state, for the portion
of those flights within the airspace of
that state, and which would fully cover
all emissions from ights that both de-
part from and arrive in that state.
Negotiations on the compromise
accord were difficult. Several states
on the 36-member council, including
Argentina, Brazil, Cuba, India, Saudi
Arabia and the U.S., had strong reser-
vations, yet they did not raise formal
objections. Whether ICAOs 191 con-
tracting states will support the deal at
the pending Assembly is unknown, but
it seems unlikely that delegates will
wish to reopen substantive debate on
such a hard-won consensus text, says
Chris Lyle, chief executive of Canada-
based Air Transport Economics. The
question is how meaningful and com-
mitting the resulting, formally adopted
Assembly resolution will be, he adds.
Jens Flottau Frankfurt and Cathy Buyck Brussels
Clearing the Air
International Civil Aviation Organization meeting
might break deadlock over emissions trading
This will be key for the EU, which
has demanded that the Assembly agree
meaningful international action on a
global MBM. Last November, the Euro-
pean Commission (EC) agreed to stop
the clock on the application of the ETS
to routes beyond Europe for a year to
give ICAO time to devise a global solu-
tion. Until the end of this year, opera-
tors (regardless of their nationality)
must surrender emissions allowances
only for air trafc between European
As part of the compromise, and
only in return for a global
deal, the EC has pledged
to extend the moratorium
to 2020, although the scope will be
slightly amended to include emissions
from all arriving or departing flights
(also to third countries) using Euro-
pean airspace. Overights will not be
included. For example, a London-New
York ight will be included in the plan
for the segment using European air-
space, comprising EU-member states
plus Iceland, Liechtenstein and Norway.
There are some technical chal-
lenges in implementing a territorial
airspace approach, but it does ad-
dress head-on what was the most-cited
problem with the original ETS, namely
its extraterritorial reach, notes John
Byerly, former U.S. State Department
deputy assistant secretary for trans-
portation afairs.
The concept of a trading system
constrained to European airspace is
not new. A group of European carri-
ers led by Air France urged the EC to
kick-start the principle of curbing and
taxing emissions within the limits of
the blocs airspace to let airlines and
states gain expertise with the new
cap-and-trade mechanism and avoid
international opposition. Also, before
the EU adopted the ETS, the U.S. had
signaled it might accept a version that
applied only to intra-EU ights by U.S.
carriers. Despite this, the EC stuck to
its overzealous environmental aspira-
tions and in 2008, adopted legislation
to bring international aviation into the
ETS from 2012all ights arriving at
and departing from a European air-
port were included for the total length
of the ight.
The EU now is lowering its ambi-
To secure an ICAO deal, Europe
would restrict emissions trading
to its own airspace until a global
system takes efect in 2020.

tions, with the ECs directorate general
for Climate Action (DG Clima) recog-
nizing it is a multilateral negotiation
where you give-and-take.
The approach is not undisputed,
however. Inside the EU, critics warn
that some countries might still opt out
and claim exemption under the broader
climate-change principle of common
but differentiated responsibilities
(CBDR). Under this United Nations no-
tion, developed countries have greater
responsibility and capacity for taking
action to address climate change. De-
veloping countries, in particular China
and India, dispute the compatibility of
the EU ETS with the CBDR principle.
China has prohibited its airlines from
complying with ETS legislation and
its airlines operating intra-European
flights face fines for non-compliance.
Also, Indian airlines have not complied.
Surprisingly, China appears to be
willing to accept the proposed ICAO
Council deal because, insiders say, it
hopes to name the next ICAO secre-
tary general succeeding Raymond
Benjamin, whose second three-year
term ends in 2015.
The Federal Association of German
Aviation and Space Industry, of which
Lufthansa is a founding member, ob-
jects to the compromise, claiming it
represents a massive distortion of
competition for European airlines.
Also, the European Low Fares Airline
Association decries the intra-EU-only
application as discriminatory and urges
the EU to honor its oft-repeated pub-
lic commitment to automatically snap
back to the legally proven, all-ights
scope for EU ETS, pending implemen-
Jens Flottau Frankfurt
Mover and Shaker
Lufthansa CEO announces his departure
as the airlines restructuring ramps up
o other recent Lufthansa CEO
has forced so much deep change
on the airline as Christoph
Franz. The announcement of his unex-
pected departure creates uncertainty,
drawing into question whether Europes
largest airline group will continue with
reform or stagnate.
Franz confirmed last week that
he will not extend his contract, set to
expire next spring. Instead, he will be-
come executive chairman of the board
of Swiss pharmaceutical giant Roche,
replacing Franz Humer. Franz has
served on Roches board since 2011.
The CEOs departure comes at a time
when the company is still struggling to
adapt. Franz has been the mastermind
behind Lufthansas most fundamental
relaunch, which is far from complete.
When he was leading the groups
passenger business, Franz instituted
the Score restructuring program
aimed at cutting costs by 1.5 billion
($2 billion) starting in 2015. Score in-
cludes 3,500 job cuts, unheard of at
the consensus-oriented airline, and
hundreds of projects to improve effi-
ciency. The largest undertaking is the
transfer of non-hub European flying
to low-cost affiliate Germanwings, a
decision made after Franz recognized
that Lufthansa would never be able to
compete efectively outside of its hubs.
The move remains highly controversial,
even among senior management and on
the executive board level.
But Franz has not only
initiated cost cuts; he has
also been the first Luft-
hansa CEO to open the
company to outside exper-
tise. For decades, the air-
line was inward-focused
in its search for talent and
ideas. That has changed
so radically that now long
tenure with the company
is almost a disadvantage
for career progression.
It is no secret or sur-
prise that Franz is disliked
by many. Unions representing pilots,
cabin crew and ground staf are quiet-
ly expressing hopes that his successor
will slow things down, although Franz is
stressing that there is no alternative
to the current course, which he sees as
a prerequisite for future investment.
And the investment will be huge. The
airline last week placed orders for 59
new widebody aircraft, including 34 of
the yet-to-be-launched Boeing 777-9X
and 25 Airbus A350-900s. That alone
represents a 14 billion investment at
list prices; the carrier has 295 rm or-
ders in total. Even with the usual dis-
counts, Luft hansa is likely to spend in
excess of 20 billion for new aircraft.
Without the successful implementa-
tion of the restructuring program, we
will not be able to generate the neces-
sary means to nance the investments,
Franz says. The orders are an expres-
sion of our condence that we can im-
plement Score.
A successor has not been named, and
company officials indicate a decision
will not be made for several weeks
possibly as late as year-end. Franz will
stay on until May 2014. The board has
made clear that it intends to continue
the restructuring course.
Many see Carsten
Spohr, 46, as the lead-
ing candidate to replace
Franz. Spohr began as
a Lufthansa pilot and is
an Airbus A330/A340
captain, but since mov-
ing into management, he
has kept his license cur-
rent only in the simulator.
He followed Franz at the
helm of the airline opera-
tion, the division most in
need of restructuring, and
is well-liked among staf.
But Spohr has not pushed for reform
as hard as Franz, and critics say he has
not proven that he is up to being CEO.
Other units such as Lufthansa Cargo
and Lufthansa Technik are already de-
livering promising results.
Another contender is Harry Hoh-
meister, currently CEO of Swiss Inter-
national Air Lines and group executive
board member overseeing Austrian
and Brussels Airlines. However, he
was promoted on the group level only
in July, raising doubts about his readi-
ness to step into a still larger role.
Lufthansa executives say the board
may appoint an interim CEO who
would serve for a few years in order to
give themselves more time to search
for a permanent replacement. Lufthan-
sa Cargo CEO Karl-Ulrich Garnadt, 56,
would be the most likely candidate in
that scenario. c
Christoph Franz,
Lufthansa Group CEO


tation of any equivalent MBM by ICAO.
For International Air Transport
Association (IATA) Director General/
CEO Tony Tyler, a positive conclusion
at the forthcoming ICAO Assembly is
far from assured, and he warns, if an
agreement is not reached, and individ-
ual regions go their own way, then the
threat of a trade war will loom again.
The IATA general Assembly in June
in Cape Town backed a resolution call-
ing for governments to agree to a sin-
gle global MBM. IATAs stance is that
a single mandatory carbon-ofsetting
system, without a revenue-sharing ele-
ment, under which all operators would
have to buy carbon credits from other
industries to ofset their future growth,
would be the quickest and simplest
MBM to introduce and administer. It
would also minimize competitive dis-
tortion, it states.
It took IATA almost two years to
align the majority of its 240-member
airlines (representing 84% of global
air trafc), but its eforts are bearing
fruit. The council text, which will be
discussed by the Assembly, notes the
support of the aviation industry for a
single global carbon-ofsetting scheme,
as opposed to a patchwork of state and
regional MBMs. ICAO established a
high-level group last November to try
to find a way to implement a single,
global mechanism and/or a frame-
work for states establishing their own
MBMs. Options for a single system
adopted by all states include a man-
datory emissions ofset, a mandatory
ofset with an added revenue charge
and a global emissions-trading system
similar to the EU ETSs. c
he airline industry has become accustomed to rst orders for
new aircraft coming from the Middle East. But it is not one of
the three big Persian Gulf carriers that has placed the rst order
for the Boeing 777X.
Lufthansa last week signed for 34 rm commitments and
options as well as purchase rights for another 30 777-9Xs. It ex-
pects the rst aircraft to be delivered in 2020 but cautions that
this may change as the program progresses.
Although the airline selected the 777-9X over Airbuss A350-
1000 for now, last week it also ordered as many as 55 A350-900s
and options that could be converted to the larger version if needed.
Boeing intends for the 777-9X to replace its 747-400. Luf-
thansa operates 22 747-400s and continues to take delivery of
its 747-8snine have been phased in and 10 more are on rm
Boeing will not launch the 777X program with an order from
a single customer, regardless of the carriers size or health, but it
remains on track for ofcial launch toward year-end and is widely
expected to announce it at the Dubai air show in November.
Aside from Lufthansa, other leading launch candidates for the
777X include All Nippon Airways, British Airways, Emirates and
Japan Airlines, all of which have been included in the airline group
review process for the bigger twin. Expectations of a launch at
Dubai have been boosted by Emirates President Tim Clark, who
said earlier this year that he anticipated the launch in six to nine
The 777X will use a larger composite wing, drawing on knowl-
edge from 787-9 wing development. The 777X is designed to
have 20% lower fuel burn than the 777-300ER, half of which
will be gained from the wings improved performance and re-
duced weight. For the rest, Boeing is banking on the General
Electric GE9X, a new centerline turbofan selected in March as
the 777Xs exclusive powerplant.
Tests of a 90% scaled version of the new compressor began
in late August on a rig at a GE Oil & Gas site in Massa, Italy. The
results of the evaluation will be used to ne-tune the design,
which incorporates ve bladed-disk (blisk) stages, and run a sec-
ond compressor in 2014. The twinjet series will include a 777-
8X, 228 ft. long with 353 seats to succeed todays 777-300ER,
and a 250-ft.-long 777-9X that will compete in the 400-seat
long-range market between the current 777 and 747-8 sectors.
The most distinctive feature of the new twin family will be the
aircrafts 223-ft.-span wing, which will be the largest ever made
by Boeing, if nalized at this size. The manufacturer is consider-
ing a folding-wing system that would enable the outer 11 ft. of
each wing to fold up for improved airport compatibility. c

Lufthansa is the rst airline
to rmly commit to the new
Boeing 777-9X.
Jens Flottau Frankfurt and Guy Norris Los Angeles

Cathy Buyck Brussels
Air Nostrum attempts to get back on the path to protability
he past few years have not been kind to Air Nostrum.
The regional airline, which has been operating under a
franchise contract with Iberia since 1997, is struggling
with the fallout of Spains relentless economic downturn
and an onslaught of low-cost carriers in the country. Iberias
downsizing and social unrest is making matters worse.
Air Nostrums challenging situation is indicative of the
Spanish air transport market, which has seen the bankruptcy
of Spanair and Air Madrid, but also of Europes regional seg-
ment. Passenger trafc and associated revenue passenger
kilometers own by regional airlines in Europe have gradu-
ally declined over the past decade. Enplanements of member
airlines of the European Regions Airline Association (ERA)
fell to 60.9 million last year from 84.4 million in 2002.
The Valencia-based regional realized in 2009 that yields
would never return to the levels of old and management out-
lined a drastic plan to cut loss-making routes and reduce unit
costs. In 2009, the company posted its rst loss following 13
consecutive years of prots. The red ink was still present in
last years accounts and Air Nostrum is now following a more
draconian strategy to return to protability by 2015.
The airlines restructuring plan includes a further cutback
of its network, lowering salaries and increasing productivity,
but the main focus in on its eet. Air Nostrum will phase out
its complete Bombardier CRJ200 eet and postpone deliver-
ies of new CRJ1000 and ATR 600-series aircraft, says CEO
Carlos Bertomeu, who co-founded the airline in 1994.
The CRJ200 eet is responsible for most of Air Nostrums
losses, which amounted to 21.1 million ($28.13 million) in
2012 on revenue of 465 million. The high fuel prices, de-
creasing yields and rising airport charges in Spain make the
cost per seat of the CRJ200 uneconomical, conrms Ber-
tomeu. The airline started upgrading its eet with larger-
capacity aircraft several years ago, and in 2010 introduced
its CRJ1000s. Air Nostrum has 10 CRJ1000s in service and
25 on order, according to AWINs commercial eets data-
base. The Air Nostrum CRJ1000s have 100 seats in a one-
class conguration. The airline was the launch customer
for the aircraft.
The CRJ1000s would gradually substitute our CRJ200
and CRJ900 eets. The plan was well designed, unfortunate-
ly the dramatic worsening of the economic crisis in South
Europe has forced us to speed up the process to phase out
the CRJ200 eet, he sighs.
Air Nostrum redelivered already 10 50-seat CRJ200s to
lessors when the leases matured (two in 2011, three in 2012
and ve in 2013). Of the 25 CRJ200s that remain in its eet,
17 are leased and eight are owned.
The airline, which operates as Iberia Regional, is working
with the diferent lessors to obtain early termination of the
CRJ200 leases. To facilitate an early termination we coop-
erate with the lessors on the sale of the [14] aircraft that are
younger than 10 years and therefore are suitable for certain
markets that require more modern eets, for example the
Russian market, notes Bertomeu.
For the three aircraft of an older vintage, Air Nostrum
is working with the lessors to place the aircraft with a new
customer. We have been placing some of our CRJ200 spare
capacity with third parties under sub-lease agreements and
we are using these contacts to facilitate the direct relation-
ship between lessor and lessee, says Bertomeu.
Of the eight CRJ200s on its balance sheet, two are used in
Air Nostrums scheduled operations in niche markets, two are
regularly used for charter operations and one is under a wet
lease with Binter Canarias. The remaining three are part of
what it calls exible operations whereby the airline replaces
a larger-capacity aircraft with a CRJ200 on any pair of ights
on which fewer than 50 seats have been sold on both legs.
By doing this, it achieves savings on airport charges and fuel.
Air Nostrum is looking for opportunities to lease these
owned CRJ200s out, because it is more efficient for the
company to have a complete phase-out of the eet as op-
posed to having an additional small eet in operation, as-
serts Bertomeu.
Negotiations are ongoing with Argentinean SOL Lineas
Aereas to place up to six of its owned CRJ200s. Air Nostrum
is also working on two other projects in the region. Bertomeu
says these Latin-American endeavors are in very advanced
conversations but nothing has materialized just yet.
The airline also reached agreement with Bombardier and
ATR to postpone short-term deliveries of the CRJ1000 and
ATR 72-600 on order. The current weakness of demand in
the market does not favor taking on additional capacity, Ber-
tomeu says. He vows Air Nostrum is still fully committed to
take delivery of all the aircraft and expects to be able to resume
the deliveries in 2016. We expect to make good progress into
having an airline based on two eets, the CRJ900/1000 and
ATR 72-600 with a cost-per-seat and a eet size well adapted
to meet the current market constraints, he explains.
Air Nostrum placed an order for 10 ATR 72-600s and a
further 10 options at the Paris air show in June 2009. It has
ve -600s series in service. c
Testing Times
Air Nostrum is upgrading its eet with
larger-capacity regional aircraft.

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or insight into the competitiveness of Chinas main airlines,
overlook their domestic operations, which are generally
protablethough not lately. Domestically, the carriers
compete mainly against each other. Their true strengths and
weaknesses are evident in international operations, where the
big Chinese carriers shy away from fully competing with expe-
rienced foreign airlines.
They are not as strong as they
look, says analyst K. Ajith of Singa-
pore brokerage UOB Kay Hian, dis-
missing their domestic performance as
an indicator of management efciency.
Yes, China Southern Airlines is now
Asias largest carrier, with compatriots
Air China and China Eastern Airlines
not far behind, and all three are grow-
ing powerfully year after year. But
their reluctance to put much resources
into the international market is proof
that, a quarter of a century after they
or their predecessor companies were
formed, the giant industry is still not
up to world standards.
Gradual improvement is likely, say
analysts and industry ofcials, where-
as a radical attempt by Beijing to force
rapid change on its airlines is quite un-
likely. There is no sense of crisis, and
China can get along with imperfect
airlines, just as it copes with other in-
dustries that are much further behind
international standards than its com-
mercial aviation sector. Indeed, com-
mercial aviation is quite open by the
standards of other industries.
But it could be more open still. For
example, China has just one well-
developed budget carrier, Spring
Airlines, whose growth has been
constrained. How fast the Big Three
improve in the coming 10 years or so
depends domestically on whether
Spring and others are allowed more
access, says Guo Yufeng, director
of the Chinese aviation service for
consultants ICF SH&E. In fact, the
government does seem to be looking
more favorably on low-cost carriers,
and the extent to which they are al-
lowed to develop may soon be the big-
Bradley Perrett Beijing
Protected Species
A quarter-century after China formed separate
airlines, the big state carriers are still learning
gest question in Chinese commercial
aviation (see page 52).
That does not mean unbridled
competition from budget airlines is
imminent. Even if the government
thinks a dose of low-cost competition
is just what the Big Three need, it will
be careful not to prescribe too much,
because the cure could be worse than
their disease.
China Southern, Air China and China
Eastern each have just 25-30% of the
international trafc at their home bas-
esGuangzhou, Beijing and Shanghai,
respectively. This low level seems all the
more remarkable considering the traf-
c feed from their enormous internal
networks and those of their substantial
afliated domestic carriers. Instead, al-
liance partners seem to benet from all
that connectivity.
Moreover, Chinese airlines should
have the great advantage of low costs
in competing with foreign carriers
based mainly in fully developed econo-
mies. The Big Three are cheaply capi-
talized (and sometimes recapitalized)
by the Chinese state and its banks, the
government orders aircraft for them in
bulk to obtain keen prices, and, above
all, they have the advantage of an inex-
pensive labor market.
And they are no longer new to the
game. The Civil Aviation Administra-
tion of China (CAAC), now the regula-
tor, was the airline until 1988, when its
regional divisions became airlines that
were progressively exposed to compe-
tition. But they still seem to have so
much to learn.
The weakness of Chinese airlines in
the international market is mainly due
to a lack of experience, says a senior
CAAC researcher. They feel they are
not fully prepared for international
competition. And there is another fac-
tor: The supply of aviation resources
in China, such as skilled staf, is still
inadequate, so the airlines lack a mo-
tivation to pursue the international
Chinas major airlines still do not
think they are fully prepared for the
international market.
Tap the icon in the digital edition of
AW&ST for a closer look at Chinas
major domestic air routes and data
on the top 10 airlines, or go to

market. In other words, they are busy
enough domestically.
Why do they still feel they can de-
ploy those resources more protably
at home than internationally? It is
partly, as the CAAC researcher says,
because they are more experienced in
their home market, and partly because
competition in China is restricted.
Limited competition is hardly ap-
parent from a glance at timetables.
Only 8% of Chinese trips are on routes
without competition, and for 32%, pas-
sengers can choose among at least
ve airlines, according to Amadeus
(see chart). But the local market is
more comfortable than it seems for
Chinese carriers because it is con-
trolled in two important ways.
First, national capacity is carefully
limited by the CAAC and the National
Development and Reform Commis-
sion, which was the central planning
committee in Chinas truly socialist
era and still at the center of attempts
to orchestrate much of the economy.
Those two bodies approve aircraft
imports with an eye on demand for
travel and the availability of techni-
cians and pilots. Whether they are
directly concerned with airline pric-
ing or mainly about keeping the skies
safe amid a skills shortage, restricting
capacity restricts competition.
Second, there is limited access to
that managed market. The fourth-
largest carrier, Hainan Airlines, is
now basically a private business, de-
spite its earlier links with the provin-
cial government of Hainan, but it car-
ried only 3% of the Chinese industrys
passengers last year. Almost all of the
rest of the market is in the hands of
the Big Three and their afliates, such
Shenzhen Airlines, partly owned by
Air China, and Xiamen Airlines, partly
owned by China Southern. The state
carriers have advantages in attracting
personnel as well as acquiring aircraft,
runway slots and trafc rights, which
limit the opportunities for private car-
riers to open or expand, say industry
For six years until this May, a new
private carrier could not even begin
operations. During that period, the
CAAC had a policy of not accepting ap-
plications for air operator certicates.
In fact, it continued to approve airlines
with at least partial government own-
ership, so the policy was in efect a ban
on new private airlines. The stated rea-
son, which is not in doubt, was safety.
In 2007, the CAAC was concerned
about a surge in new airlines with
limited management experience
amid the already serious shortage
of technicians and pilots. Again,
the lack of resources beneted the
The result of this structure is
that the Chinese domestic market
is one in which state airlines com-
pete mainly against state airlines.
According to Ajith, that hides their
inefciencies. One measure is the
productivity of their workforces.
China Southern, Air China and
China Eastern collected revenue of
$210,000, $270,000 and $200,000
per employee in 2012, respectively.
Such gures must be handled with
caution, since some carriers con-
tract out more than others, but it
is still notable that the Chinese
values are around half the levels
of United Continental and Qantas
no competition
2 airlines
3 airlines
4 airlines
5 or more
Domestic Route Competition
in China
Note: Percentages of passengers journeys in 2012.

($420,000 and $440,000, respective-
ly). Asian competitors Cathay Pacic
Airways and Singapore Airlines show
even higher labor productivity on that
measure, with revenue per employee
above $500,000, but neither has nar-
rowbody operations, which are rela-
tively labor-intensive.
It may be argued that China is a de-
veloping country, so labor efciency is
only naturally lower here. But the ma-
jor Chinese airlines have largely failed
to fully exploit the related, powerful
factor of their countrys cheap labor
market. Any Chinese person outside the
industry would be startledindeed, in-
triguedto learn that Air Chinas staf
costs worked out at $39,000 per em-
ployee last year, four times the average
wage of even Beijing, where labor costs
the most. For United Continental, the
gure was $90,000, in a country where
GDP per capita is eight times as high.
Even allowing for the bargaining power
of Chinese pilots, it is hard to see why
Air China is spending so much.
China Southerns staff costs are a
good deal lower, at $29,000 per em-
ployee, but still remarkable by the
standards of Chinese workers. Figures
for China Eastern are unavailable.
To some extent, the inefciencies of
Chinese state enterprises are the fa-
miliar ones of large government busi-
nesses anywhere. The big Chinese
state airlines have private sharehold-
ers, but there is not the slightest doubt
that their managers pay overwhelming
attention to their ministerial masters.
Indeed, in one respect the airlines have
an even deeper state character than,
say, British Airways had before privati-
zation. The top managers are Commu-
nist nomenklatura, moved into and out
of managing airlines as they ascend in
their careers. The former chairman of
Air China, Li Jiaxiang, is now head of
the CAAC.
They are classic examples of the eco-
nomic system described as Socialism
with Chinese characteristics. More
than anything, the often-heard but lit-
tle-understood phrase means the Chi-
nese state continues to own large slabs
of the economy but its enterprises must
accept market prices for their products.
At least in theory.
In practice, the state ddles with the
market, as when the authorities deter-
mine air capacity. The very geographi-
cal arrangement of the Big Three shows
this mentality of planning competition.
Each is based in one of Chinas three
traditionally leading cities, spaced well
apart and with approved route net-
works. They cannot set up a new base
wherever they wish; they must ask the
CAAC, which will consider the health
of the market before deciding. As gov-
ernment operations, airlines can easily
object to each others plans that present
unwelcome competition.
A striking current example of this
is China Southerns struggle to utilize
the five Airbus A380s it ordered for
the sake of national prestige in 2005.
Ideally, they would y intercontinental
services from Beijing, but Air China has
successfully resisted that, forcing China
Southern to try the best route it could
nd from Guangzhouto Los Angeles.
That transpacic service used up only
part of the A380s capacity, however,
and so by this July, China Southern was
reduced to announcing that the aircraft,
with a range of 15,400 km (9,600 mi.),
would also y 3.5-hr. services between
Kunming and Beijing, probably the lon-
gest domestic route on which it could
imagine using them. Lobbying from
China Eastern, which has a base in
Kunming, put a stop to that.
It is not quite a bed of roses for the
Big Three, however. For a start, the
government, through the state-owned
Assets Supervision and Administra-
tion Commission, wants profits from
airlines, as it does from most of its en-
terprises. The airlines must be at least
competent enough to exploit the man-
aged market to generate a return on
their equityalthough when they fail,
the state has been repeatedly ready to
recapitalize them.
Further, the Chinese state is not
monolithic. Diferent groups have dif-
ferent interests, and so not everything
is nicely coordinated. The air force re-
fuses to give airlines enough airspace
for the trafc they handle. The CAAC
and Air Trafc Management Bureau,
evidently fearful of the political con-
sequences of crashes, further limit
airspace capacity by being far more
conservative about aircraft separa-
tion than authorities are elsewhere.
The state railways, independent of the
transport ministry, have built a colossal
high-speed network in direct competi-
tion with the airlines. And, every so of-
ten, the central planners miscalculate
the amount of capacity that is needed.
When the economy turns out not to de-
mand the air trafc that the airlines can
generate, prots sink.
The carriers are in exactly that situ-
ation just now. Amid capacity growth
of 7.5-11.9%, the Big Three made little
or no operating prot in the rst half
of this year.
Still, the domestic operating environ-
ment for Chinese airlines is probably
one that most foreign carriers would
be pleased to enjoy, even without the at-
tractions of strong trafc growth. And
it is hard to imagine airlines coping in
highly competitive markets with the
Chinese service standards.
Air Chinas staf costs are four times
the average wage in Beijing.

Our airlines are a long way behind
on service, and not just in the air, says
a senior marketing officer of a state
carrier. We have problems from end
to end in the task of providing a travel
service, getting important details right
and setting up systematic processes.
Staf quality is not good enough. They
need to develop experience.
Their service shortcomings are
particularly noticeable in Asia, where
standards of non-Chinese major air-
lines tend to be high. Foreign pas-
sengers in particular are reluctant to
accept such common Chinese airline
characteristics as late departures,
barely acceptable meals, occasionally
loose cabin lining, and dirty nooks and
crannies. On Asian regional services,
Air China appears to stock Boeing
737 and Airbus A320 ights with only
two bottles of mediocre wineone red
and one unchilled whitefor about 150
passengers. The carriers seem unable
to master such details as always hav-
ing a stock of landing cards on board;
even cards for China are only some-
times available. And they are further
burdened by often unruly passengers
and lax cabin discipline, which are not
problematic domestically but do not
please foreigners.
Another factor in Chinese state
airline management is that, to a some
unquantifiable extent, the Chinese
government is weighed down by the
national game of building relationships
to gain favorsguanxi (pronounced
GWAHN-shee). The problem is so obvi-
ously pervasive that comment on it out- AVIATION WEEK & SPACE TECHNOLOGY/SEPTEMBER 23, 2013 51
side of China seems surprisingly rare.
In the guanxi culture, a person will
almost instinctively look for a chance
to build a good relationship with some-
one with power, typically buying the
connection with meals, gifts and, in the
end, maybe cash and other monetary
kickbacks. As the two parties see it,
they are helping each other. This ex-
tends to getting promotions.
Guanxi does not just raise questions
about staff quality. In most Western
countries, the line defining corrupt
behavior is now pretty sharp. In Chi-
na, because of guanxi, it is a perfect
blur. The favors of a relationship may
progress from being allowed early de-
parture on Fridays to costly perqui-
sites and eventually management of a
contract that the subordinate knows
should go to a friend of the boss.
This certainly does not mean that
Chinese managers have all bought
their way up, nor that competence is
absent even from those who have. In
the case of state airlines, analysts say
the guanxi culture is much less severe
than in other parts of the government.
Maintaining safety must hold it in
check. But Chinese state enterprises
will probably always sufer from the
culture more than do private enter-
prises, where bosses maintain rmer
control. c
The Chinese government not
only buys aircraft in bulk;
it works out how many the
industry needs.


Bradley Perrett Beijing
Suddenly, the CAAC is promoting budget airlines
fter years of being held back, low-cost commercial
aviation in China looks like it might nally be receiving
ofcial recognition. The Civil Aviation Administration
of China (CAAC) has told the countrys small airlines to ex-
plore budget operations and suggested to big carriers they
may have something to learn there, too.
Perhaps encouraged by the prospect of supportive poli-
cies, the small private carrier Juneyao Airlines has applied
to set up a budget ofshoot in Guangzhou, the home base of
China Southern Airlines, the countrys largest carrier, says
an industry ofcial. The policy turnabout may also be good
news for Spring Airlines, Chinas most mature budget carrier,
which has developed far slower than it planned, apparently
because of ofcial reluctance to let it move fast.
The reasons for the CAACs former lack of enthusiasm for
budget aviation are unlikely to completely go away, however.
The authority can be expected to be as wary as ever of letting
small airlines build up their eets too quickly, endangering
safety. And it will not let low-cost operations threaten the
viability of the governments own airlines, whose manage-
ment has room for improvement (see page 48). In short, no
Chinese equivalent of AirAsia is likely to suddenly burst onto
the scene. China does not work that way.
The decision to encourage low-cost aviation was made at
the CAACs mid-year work meeting in July. According to a
notication sent to the airline industry, but not issued publicly,
the head of the CAAC, Li Jiaxiang, told the meeting small and
medium airlines must actively explore the low-cost mode of
operations. Large trunkline carriers can take advantage of the
methods of low-cost carriers to improve their management
and reduce costs. In the second half of the year, the CAAC
will look at regulations to support the rapid development of
low-cost aviation. (The word rapid perhaps should not be
taken too literally; Chinese ofcialdom is much given to exag-
geration for emphasis.) The support may include subsidies.
Low-cost aviation in North America, Europe and South-
east Asia has developed quickly, says a CAAC ofcial. It
gives strong impetus to the economy, infrastructure and
tourism and for that reason has attracted the strong atten-
tion of the management levels of the CAAC. So the supervi-
sory thinking has changed.
Yet the economic benefits of cheap travel cannot have
dawned on the CAAC only in 2013. A bigger factor may be a
political one: Chinas new premier, Li Keqiang, is pushing for
renewed economic reforms. In those circumstances, it would
not do for the CAAC to seem hidebound.
The south-central division of the CAAC has already ap-
proved Juneyaos application and passed it to Beijing for re-
view. With a provisional OK obtained, there is unlikely to be
any technical difculty with the plan, and in view of the latest
policy stance the chances of nal approval must be good.
Juneyao is based in Shanghai but has presumably chosen not
to base its budget carrier there because the city is also the
hometown of Spring. The new carrier may be related to the
announced plan of a Hong Kong travel company to invest in
mainland budget aviation.
Juneyaos ofshoot will be mainland Chinas third budget
airline. A mainland subsidiary of Hainan Airlines, Chongqing-
based West Air, has begun converting itself to the low-cost
model. Another Hainan Airlines subsidiary, Hong Kong Ex-
press, is also moving to budget operations. And, China Eastern
Airlines is setting up Jetstar Hong Kong in partnership with
Qantas, though this project is encountering strong opposition
from incumbent carriers. China Eastern has been ahead of the
CAAC in establishing Jetstar Hong Kong, seeing it as a way of
learning about budget operations. And in contrast with Hainan
Airlines eforts, China Eastern will have the advantage of tak-
ing part in a project that will be executed with the guidance of
experienced staf from the Qantas Group. Despite the knowl-
edge that China Eastern may gain from that, China Southern
and Air China have shown no signs of following that path.
If they do, perhaps under the impulse of the CAACs forth-
coming policies, they will have no shortage of Asian low-cost
carriers to cooperate withfor example, AirAsia of Malaysia,
Indonesias Lion Air and Singapores Tigerair. And there is no
reason why a U.S. or European budget carrier could not be
a partner. Before China Easterns deal with Qantas, Chinese
airline joint ventures with foreigners were largely limited to
freight carriers. But many other industries in China, includ-
ing aircraft maintenance, have developed faster thanks to
expertise gained from foreign partnerships.
The support for budget carriers comes as the CAAC lifts
its prohibition on new private airlines. In May it approved
the setting up of Ruili Airlines by Yunnan Jingcheng, a pri-
vately owned conglomerate whose businesses include hotels
and travel services. For the last six years, the administration
would not accept applications for private airlines air opera-
tors certicates. c
Spring Airlines may nd
expansion easier now that the
authorities have sanctioned
low-cost aviation.

Adrian Schoeld
ATM Assist
Foreign companies are heavily involved in
Chinas eforts to reduce airspace congestion
t is widely accepted that there is tre-
mendous growth potential in Chinas
domestic air travel market. However,
just as well-known are some of the air
traffic management challenges that
could hinder this expansion. China is
increasingly looking to address these
issues with the help of major interna-
tional aerospace companies.
One goal is to boost air connectiv-
ity to cities in western China, and
several companies have been involved
in installing precision satellite-based
approaches to increase the safety and
reliability of services to airports in
mountainous terrain. But in the east-
ern part of the country the problems
are diferentcongestion and ight de-
lays are becoming a major headache.
And China is drawing on the expertise
of Boeing and Airbus to address this
challenge as well.
Neil Planzer, Boeing vice president
for air traffic management, says the
introduction of required navigation
performance (RNP) approaches is an
excellent solution for some airports in
western China. However, it will do little
for the delay problems in the busier
airspace, particularly in the Beijing-
Shanghai-Guangzhou triangle. Flight
delays are bad enough now, but Plan-
zer notes that proposed growth far
exceeds the current air trafc control
One facet of the delay issue is po-
litical, particularly regarding military
control of a large proportion of domes-
tic airspace. Civilian use of airspace
has expanded a bit, but not enough,
Planzer says. China has got some real
political problems [regarding conges-
tion] in addition to technical air trafc
control problems.
Foreign aerospace companies ob-
viously cannot help on the political
side, notes Planzer. But where the
Western countries can help is in the
development and creation of a next-
generation phase of air trafc man-
agement (ATM), he says, to prepare
for projected growth.
As with other countries, you cant
wait for growth to occur, and then say
OK, we want to change the system.
You need to anticipate it, he says.
Boeing has been helping to lay the
groundwork in part through holding
classes for senior executives from Chi-
nas Air Trafc Management Bureau
(ATMB). One such course nished re-
cently in Seattle and more will follow,
says Planzer.
Participants learn how to develop
and execute ATM concepts and prin-
ciples in a strategic way, Planzer says.
This will help instill a core capability
to understand what the Chinese system
needs and how to expand it. We believe
this is more important than [helping]
design a particular piece of airspace.
China likes to be self-sufficient
they want to bring in all the informa-
tion they can and develop an internal
capability to execute. Sometimes they
do it with [foreign] companies, some-
times on their own.
This has led to China signing many
cooperation and advisory agreements
with Western companies, but these
are really only helping them out on the
fringes, he notes.
At some point, Boeing will prob-
ably sign a memorandum of under-
standing (MOU) with China regarding
ATM, Planzer says. But we want to
do something substantive with that,
he adds.
In addition to the ATM classes,
Boeing has also launched a research
initiative through the Boeing-Comac
Technology Center in China, in con-
junction with the Civil Aviation Uni-
versity of China. The aim is to fore-
cast the 30-year capacity of Chinas
airspace system, develop evaluation
tools to predict trends and provide
recommendations for improvements.
The Boeing-Comac center will also
work with the Nanjing University of
Aeronautics and Astronautics on the
development of an air trafc decision-
support system to optimize inbound
trafc ows at airports. This will help
controllers determine the most efcient
arrival sequences, says Boeing.
Planzer stresses that Boeings pri-
mary motive in China regarding ATM
is not to win contracts. Rather, it
wants to ensure that the country has
an ATM system that can expand to
handle the volume of [projected] trafc
that will allow us to deliver the aircraft
they have on back order.
Boeing will not be attempting to sell
China ATM technology, or bidding to
overhaul its ATM system. The company
can most help with processes and pro-
cedures in the airspace they have, and
in the airspace they anticipate, says
RNP approaches are improving
access to airports in mountainous
terrain such as Jiuzhai-Huanglong.


Planzer. Boeing can take the aggre-
gate view, such as assessing the efect
that increasing trafc at one airport will
have on others in the system.
Chinese ofcials seem to be indicat-
ing to us that they would like to [work]
with us on these issues, Planzer notes.
Boeing has recently increased its ATM
presence in China in preparation for an
expanding role.
In addition to the big-picture initia-
tives, Boeing also works on smaller
support projects involving the aircraft
it sells. One example is the develop-
ment of RNP procedures at Wuyishan
Airport for Boeing 737s operated by
Xiamen Airlines, in conjunction with
Boeing subsidiary Jeppesen.
Planzer stresses that eforts such as
RNP are perfect capabilities
for terrain-challenged airports
in western China and other
parts of country. However, this
does not reduce congestion at
the large eastern hubs. Over
the next decade, I think were
going see them focusing more
on that problem, he says.
Airbus, meanwhile, is also
heavily involved in China.
The manufacturer early this
month signed a new MOU that
will help the ATMB determine
its next steps in key facets of
Four projects will begin this year.
They will involve air trafc ow man-
agement (ATFM), airport collabora-
tive decision-making (CDM), instru-
ment landing systems (ILS) at Beijing
Capital International Airport and per-
formance-based navigation and capac-
ity assessment at Chengdu Shuangliu
International Airport.
At the MOU signing, ATMB Director
General Wang Liya said these projects
will pave the way for a broader coop-
eration between us and Airbus in the
future. They will also help us draw
on the experience of other regions to
develop our future ATM systems, which
will be more integrated with global sys-
tems, Wang added.
Much of the work will be conducted
by Airbus ProSky, the manufacturers
ATM unit. The MOU covers several de-
liverables, but Airbus is not revealing
contract details or specic timetables.
The aim of the ATFM component is
to set up a functional prototype system,
an Airbus ProSky spokeswoman says.
This will allow the Chinese agency to
evaluate ATFM and determine what
data and interfaces it will require.
ATFM is a centralized function that
is intended to increase the efciency
of the broader network. This will es-
sentially be a demonstration system
and will combine of-the-shelf products
and elements engineered specically
for the project.
The airport CDM component of
the MOU is aimed at bringing a wider
range of stakeholdersincluding air-
linesinto planning and operational
decisions. Airbus will work with the
ATMB to analyze what procedures
and functions are required. U.S. and
European systems will be examined to
evaluate best practices.
Airbus will likely recommend the
type of system that will best suit the
ATMBs needs. This could be used as
a reference to harmonize CDM at mul-
tiple airports, including coordination
with centralized ow management.
At the Beijing airport, Airbus
ProSky will be using its exact landing
interference simulation environment
(Elise) system to analyze the airports
ILS system. Elise is used to map ILS
signals and model interference pat-
terns. It can help optimize ILS systems
and ensure that new construction can
be as close as possible to runways
without causing ILS interference.
The Beijing deployment of Elise will
be a pilot project, to assess the reliabil-
ity and accuracy of the system. This
will help the ATMB determine at which
other airports it needs to be used.
Airbus will be doing work at the
Chengdu airport to help increase ef-
ciency and improve capacity. This in-
cludes a performance-based navigation
(PBN) initiative, with Airbus providing
technical and operational support to
create new procedures. The project will
link an RNP approach to a runway ILS.
At Chengdu, Airbus will be draw-
ing on the PBN expertise of Quovadis,
which is one of the companies in the
Airbus ProSky group. Quovadis recent-
ly completed a separate PBN project at
Chinas Zhangjiajie Airport, which in-
cluded an RNP-to-ILS procedure.
Other aerospace companies are also
involved in various PBN projects in Chi-
na. GE Aviation has helped install RNP
approaches at several Chinese airports
in recent years, working with most of
the major airlines. In many cases these
procedures have dramatically expand-
ed access to airports that have terrain
and weather constraints.
GE says it designed the
rst RNP-to-ILS procedure in
China, at Xichang Qingshan
Airport, about 200 mi. south
of Chengdu. It is now expand-
ing this procedure to other
Contributing to congestion
in Chinese airspace are hori-
zontal separation standards
that are significantly higher
than in other countries, includ-
ing the U.S. However, a trial is
underway in Chinas northeast
to reduce these separation
minimums, says Brian Davis, Honey-
well vice president for Asia-Pacic air
transport business.
More airspace allocation from
the military would also help reduce
delays, says Davis. But he notes that
there is a certain amount of efciency
that can be gained from the aircraft
and the infrastructure. There is a lot
of low-hanging fruit.
Honeywell and the ATMB are work-
ing on installing a satellite-based land-
ing aid known as a ground-based aug-
mentation system. The rst Chinese
airport at which this will be installed
should be named within a month, Davis
China is making good progress with
RNP approaches at airports, but these
are generally to improve safety rather
than to boost capacity, says Davis. Us-
ing RNP on air routes would allow air-
craft to be kept closer together and, to
the satisfaction of the air force, would
be much less likely to wander into mili-
tary airspace. c
With Bradley Perrett in Beijing.
GE Aviation and other aerospace
companies have begun installing
RNP-to-ILS procedures at some
Chinese airports.


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Guy Norris Los Angeles
Cost Cutters
NASA and its SLS partners pull out the stops to
reduce costs as hardware testing surges ahead
acing even greater budgetary
uncertainty than before, Aero-
jet Rocketdyne is entering a key
period of testing in its drive to cut
cost from the propulsion element of
NASAs heavy-lift Space Launch Sys-
tem (SLS) vehicle.
Working closely with the space
agency, the newly merged rocket en-
gine company has a raft of cost-saving
initiatives underway ranging from
production streamlining to advanced,
but cheaper, manufacturing methods.
According to NASAs SLS liquid en-
gines program manager Mike Kynard,
the goal is straightforward. We want
SLS to be more afordable. We dont
want to spend all our money on the
truck that takes us to spacewe want
to be able to spend more on explora-
tion when we get there.
The vision statement stems as much
from the fiscal realities of the pres-
surized NASA budget as it does from
the bitter experience of the canceled
Constellation program that preceded
the SLS. The Augustine Report said
Constellation was not afordable, and
we heard that message loud and clear,
Kynard told reporters at NASA Sten-
nis Space Center, Miss., where tests
are underway of the liquid-oxygen/
hydrogen (LOx/LH) J-2X upper-stage
engine in development for the SLS.
The latest hot-re test of the J-2X
on Sept. 5 included the rst part made
from selective laser melting (SLM), a
subset of additive manufacturing. The
part tested was an access port cover,
not typical of the more complex, hard-
to-make parts for which SLM will be
generally used. But Aerojet Rocket-
dyne and NASA ofcials say its inclu-
sion in the J-2X program helps pave
the way for broader applications later.
Initial targets include using SLM to
help produce a more affordable, ex-
pendable version of the SLSs RS-25,
which was originally developed as the
space shuttle main engine (SSME).
Jim Paulsen, Aerojet Rocketdyne
Advanced Space and Launch deputy
program manager, says the company
needs to start focusing on afordabil-
ity, and thats going to be by using les-
sons learned from the RS68 and J-2X
and applying it to the new RS-25.
Paulsen adds, we hope to get started
on that fairly soon because there is a
supply-base concern. We hope that
when the new scal year starts in Oc-
tober we will be working on restarting
RS-25 production.
Kynard says potential applications
of SLM include parts that are difcult
to manufacture such as the pogo
LOx splash-bafe, which is designed to
prevent potentially damaging frequen-
cy harmonics in the fuel system. Com-
pany officials say the application of
the SLM process is expected to bring
signicant cost and time savings. Gas-
generator components that typically
took nine months to produce at a cost
of $300,000 are now expected to be
made in 3-5 weeks for just $35,000.
NASA SLS program manager Todd
May says, we are laser-focused on
getting costs down, and notes that the
sintering process is a valuable tool in
this initiative.
As well as afordability, the design
focus for the new-build RS-25 units
will counter obsolescence issues that
have emerged over time. An example
is the 1980s-vintage engine controller
on the SSME. The new-build engine,
which will retain the baseline RS-25
designation, is a modern digital-en-
gine controller that will be derived
from units tested on the new upper-
stage engine.
J-2X was made for Ares [under
Constellation] and thats been adapt-
ed for SLS, so now it has diferent re-
quirements, says Kynard. So we are
evolving the J-2X controller to control
the RS-25. We think it is helpful to have
a common engine controller anyway, so
as we evolve the J-2X unit for the RS-
25, well keep an eye on it and see if we
can put it in the RS68, and if we resur-
rect it, the F-1B as well. The adapted
J-2X controller will be run on a pair of
RS-25 development engines at Stennis
starting next year.
Aerojet Rocketdyne is moving to re-
start RS-25 production soon because,
even though NASA has 15 complete
RS-25 former shuttle engines in stor-
age at Stennis and a 16th due to be as-
sembled from existing parts, this will
only cover sufcient engines for four
launches of the SLS. The rst stage
of the SLS will use four RS-25s. The
rst 16 ight engines are covered, but
The third J-2X will begin nominal
and of-nominal performance tests
later this year.

we like to have four spares ready to
go. So you could argue we are good
for three launches, says Paulsen.
The rst four SLS ights are slated
for 2017, 2021, 2023 and 2025. So we
will be looking at delivering the rst
new engines to Stennis in the 2021-22
time frame, he adds.
Up to 50% of the cost-savings for the
expendable RS-25 is also expected to
be realized through the process of val-
ue-stream mapping, the way the en-
gine is put together. Part of the close-
out of the shuttle involved looking at
what it takes to restart RS-25, says
Tom Martin, development lead for the
F-1B advanced booster risk-reduction
program at Aerojet Rocketdyne. We
did value-stream mapping to see what
drove the major costs and, in future, if
we restart production, we will hit the
ground running.
We saw opportunities before where
we could do things differently, but
change was too expensive in the mid-
dle of the shuttle program for re-certi-
cation reasons, adds Chris Sanders,
Aerojet Rocketdynes deputy director
for strategic planning and business
After 30 years of work with space
shuttle, Martin says, there was a
lot of baggage that you didnt want to
mess with because it was a ight pro-
gram. So you can look at it now and
say, What do you want to keep and
what dont you need?
We changed the approach because
the SSME was made in limited
quantities and nobody had ever
done value-stream mapping on
it before, says Kynard. We
looked at every step to see if
there was a better way to make
the engine. Flow time has seen a
huge benet. Were seeing three
to four months go to about one-
month assembly periods. This
engine is ripe for that, and we
can make the ow common be-
tween engines. That way, the
line doesnt care if its a J-2X or
an RS68.
Under the revised process, the
overall time for production of the
new RS-25 from long-lead items
to installation is expected to be
reduced to around four years
from the 6.5-year period it saw
on the shuttle. Its ambitious,
but thats how you drive aford-
ability, Kynard adds.
Martin says the focus has
been on three major areas: raw ma-
terials, touch labor and support la-
bor from engineering staf. So weve
been going through and looking at all
of that, he says. Weve been consoli-
dating the supply chain.
Sanders says that suppliers that
represent a potential single-point
failure have been eliminated, while
the number that are common between
multiple programs is growing. For ex-
ample, they are 65% common between
the J-2X and RS-25 and its likely that
will go higher.
As one of the major tenets of SLS
is the heavy use of heritage hardware,
Sanders believes this also plays a role
in forcing the government-industry
team to seek even more cost-saving
initiatives. NASA decided to go with
mature and relatively low-risk tech-
nology, so weve inserted in J-2X more
modern manufacturing, and the fa-
cilities have been laid out to optimize
the production and assembly ow, he
So at the program level, weve got
those kinds of things going on. At the
company level, weve been reducing
our footprint at the various campuses,
which is down by 50% since we started
the process in 2007, Sanders notes.
Head-count is also down by around
30% and part of that is the new reality
of the business baseas well as a drive
to be leaner and more afordable.
Sanders says this is not just about
reducing square footage. The com-
pany has also been making eforts to
consolidate large turbomachinery pro-
duction into one location [at West Palm
Beach, Fla.], and at Stennis, where we
conduct all large-engine assembly and
test. In one site, there is now RS68,
RS-25 and J-2X, he says.
Major manufacturing consolidation
is also close to completion at Aerojet
Rocketdynes site in De Soto, Calif.,
near Los Angeles, where the company
has centralized activity away from
the heritage facility at nearby Canoga
Park. Thats the third big part. Weve
laid out assembly and ow to minimize
production time and unnecessary
ow, Sanders says.
We are trying to use same manu-
facturing technology so that in a com-
mon shop the same people can work
on different parts. For example, the
move to hip-bonded chambers, which
was implemented on the J-2X, is a good
example of where it sets the stage for
everything were doing on RS-25, he
says. We use it on RS68 and intend
to use it on the F-1B. In many ways,
the J-2X is a testbed for everything
we need to do for the RS-25. Also, the
RS-25 is a restart of an existing pro-
duction line, just like J-2X.
Sanders stresses that the SLS will
only be successful if it is afordable.
He asserts that this program, more
than any previous shuttle replace-
ment efort, has the greatest chance
because of the initiatives that are be-
ing taken now. c
Testing of the second J-2X
ended in September with a
full-duration 330-sec. run. AVIATION WEEK & SPACE TECHNOLOGY/SEPTEMBER 23, 2013 57

Tony Osborne RAF Valley, Wales
Use of new Hawks
and synthetic aids
could inuence
jet training
beyond the U.K.
he introduction of the BAE Systems Hawk T2 jet trainer
and modern synthetic training aids are having a dra-
matic efect on the preparedness of the U.K.s fast-jet
Senior ofcers say the rst four pilots who graduated from
the 11-month advanced fast-jet training course in Junear-
riving ready for conversion onto frontline typesare signi-
cantly better prepared for the multi-role missions than their
predecessors, who had trained on the older Hawk T1.
The new training system is being provided by a private
company, Ascent, a joint venture of Lockheed Martin and
Babcock, selected by the U.K. Defense Ministry in 2008 to
create a new Military Flight-Training System (MFTS).
The Hawk T2 training system was the rst of two blocks of
MFTS now operational. Ascent also provides rear crew and
observer training for the Royal Navy using the Grob Tutor
and Beechcraft King Air 350ER, operating from Royal Naval
Air Station Culdrose, England.
By the end of the decade, Ascent is due to have revital-
ized the U.K.s entire xed-wing training operation, with
new eets and systems for elementary, basic and multi-
engined pilot training replacing or upgrading the current
eets of Grob Tutor, Shorts Tucano and Beechcraft King
Air trainers.
Under the new fast-jet training systems, sited with 4 Sqdn.
here, pilots are trained by military instructors in the air while
experienced ex-military contract instructors integrated into
the training squadron work on the ground. New facilities
constructed at RAF Valley house modern classrooms and
synthetic training aids, including two full-mission simulator
domes, ight-training devices and desktop training stations.
The introduction of the Hawk T2 enables student crews to
familiarize themselves with the modern avionics systems
long before they begin ying the Euroghter Typhoon or
F-35 Joint Strike Fighter
A networked information technology structure allows
students to carry their training syllabus on laptops given to
them for the duration of the course. The interactive learning
materials facilitate continuing studies during downtime. The
laptops give students access to a Microsoft Flight Simulator-
style avionics emulator that helps them understand the ma-
jority of key avionics button-pushes. In the classroom, the
laptops can be connected to a hands-on-throttle-and-stick
(Hotas) system through which students can become familiar
with that control conguration. In addition, the entire system
is geared toward monitoring a students progress.
Ascent officials say it will be 2-3 years before they can
quantify the nancial savings of the new training regime,
but they believe they will be recognized once the pilots reach
the operational conversion unit of the frontline aircraft type
they will end up ying.
While the Hawk T1s challenged the pilot, they werent
giving them relevant training for the aircraft that they were
going to be ying, says Al Shinner, Ascent station manager
for the Hawk program here.
Thanks to downloaded training, pilots are given an under-
standing of radar and countermeasures; the simulation sys-
tem tted into the aircraft helps with grasping use of beyond-
visual-range, air-to-air missile engagements and dropping
precision-guided munitions. The data-linked system means
instructors can insert potential ground threats into the sce-
nario, which is then shared among aircraft taking part in
the sortie. Aircraft can also be congured to y as Red Air
(opposing) or Blue Air.
The training is not just about ying the aircraft. A lot of
the skills being developed on this course are related to the
data management from the sensors onboard the aircraft,
explains Shinner.
Enabling students to learn advanced skills in the Hawk
which costs a fraction of training in a frontline type such
as the Typhoondiminishes the need to conduct systems-
familiarity sorties in the more expensive platform. And re-
hearsing the mission in the simulator leads to a reduction
in failure events to 0.5% on the T2 from 7-10% on the T1.
Boosting Standards
The RAFs Hawk T2s are tted with
simulated radar and defensive aids. AVIATION WEEK & SPACE TECHNOLOGY/SEPTEMBER 23, 2013 59
Moreover, onboard telemetry and video-recording of each
sortie allows the students and instructors to review the ight
from takeof to landing.
Previously, such debriengs would only have been possible
if the aircraft had been carrying a Rangeless Airborne Instru-
mented Debrieng System (Raids) or ying on an Air Combat
Maneuvering Instrumentation (ACMI) range. Training for
air-to-air combat is mostly conducted only in the aircraft,
but many skills required for air-to-ground combat are taught
and practiced in the simulator.
Some planned training elementssuch as for night-time
quick-reaction alerts and helicopter interceptionhave been
dropped, and complex missions have been added. One of the
last missions before graduation is a simulated attack involv-
ing surface-to-air and aerial threats; as the student is about
to attack, the pilots are called to disengage and re-plan the
mission inight to engage a time-sensitive target.
A number of air forces are looking at the training system,
and Ascent is studying options to tap the systems spare ca-
pacity (currently 50%) to train pilots from other air forces
or refresh depleted pilot skills for other aircraft types. The
U.K. has trained many foreign aircrews on the Hawk T1 and,
although it was about to be withdrawn from training opera-
tions at RAF Valley at the end of 2012, training activities were
extended for pilots from the Royal Saudi Air Force.
Ofcials concede that in an ideal world, the Ascent team
would have started restructuring the training system from
the most basic level up. The current spare capacity is due to
the large number of Hawk T2s available, as the aircraft were
purchased and training contracts signed before the 2010
Strategic Defense and Security Review shrank the Royal
Air Forces fast-jet eet and its pilot pool.
However, there will be potential for more savings as As-
cent brings in new training eets. Future turboprop basic
trainers are likely to feature advanced avionics similar to
the Hawk T2s, allowing avionics introductory work to be
downloaded into the cheaper aircraft. Basic ight training
will probably move here from Linton-on-Ouse in North
Yorkshire. Operations with the new eets are due to begin
in 2018.
The success of the training system is a test case for the
Hawk as an entrant in a number of jet-trainer competitions
around the world. BAE Systems recently began production
of the rst of 22 Hawks for the Royal Saudi Air Force as part
of the 1.9 billion ($3 billion) training deal signed by the Saudi
government in May 2012. These, along with eight aircraft for
Omans air force, are being produced on a new line estab-
lished at BAEs factory in Warton, England. The aircraft is
also being ofered for the U.S. Air Force T-X competition and
the Polish lead-in ghter-trainer requirement. c

The success of the training
system is a test case for the Hawk
as an entrant in jet-trainer
competitions around the world
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Tony Osborne London
Taking lessons from Libya, Europe
works on its tanker capability
lack of European aerial refueling capability was one
of several shortcomings aficting the air arms partici-
pating in Operation Unied Protector in Libya in 2011.
The shortage meant that NATO was forced to call upon the
U.S. Air Forces Boeing KC-135 and KC-10 tankers to ensure
that the coalition operation was able to strike Gadaf-loyalist
forces across the vast desert state.
Now, more than two years after the engagement in Libya,
work is underway to try to address at least part of the prob-
lem with a series of trials aimed at wresting the maximum
performance from Europes tanker platforms.
The first collective air-to-air refueling clearance trial,
which took place this month, was a ight-test campaign with
the goal of clearing potential receivers for the Continents
aerial refueling tankers. Organized by the European Defense
Agency (EDA) and the Netherlands-based Movement Coordi-
nation Center Europe, countries have been invited to qualify
their combat aircraft to refuel from the Italian air forces new
Boeing KC-767 tanker. In the space of four sorties, ying in
diferent areas of the ight envelope, air arms can clear their
combat and support aircraft to refuel from the KC-767, lead-
ing to greater interoperability during coalition operations.
According to Laurent Donnet, project ofcer for the re-
fueling trials, Europes 42 tankerscomprising 12 diferent
types of aircraftlack up to 40% of the clearance required
to refuel the many diferent types of European combat and
support aircraft.
For planning purposes alone, this means that during op-
erations, more tankers are needed in the air because some
aircraft are not cleared to refuel from certain tankers, says
Military ofcials suggest that Europe only has 50% of the
tankers needed to meet refueling demands, but, Donnet says,
if all the tankers were cleared to refuel the diferent types, it
would be possible to reduce the number of tankers needed in
the air at one time, and we can make better use of the assets.
During the trialsconducted in Sardinia Sept. 5-12the
KC-767 was able to refuel and qualify the French air force
Dassault Mirage 2000 and Rafale ghters as well
as the Swedish air force Saab JAS 39 Gripens.
A French air force Boeing E-3F Sentry air-
borne early warning aircraft had been scheduled to partici-
pate in the trial, but was needed elsewhere. The clearance
work conducted will also ow down to the other European
operators of the Gripen, the Czech Republic and Hungary.
France had already been granted wartime operational clear-
ances for its Rafale and Mirage aircraft at the beginning
of 2013, when the KC-767 supported French operations in
Mali, but the new trials mean the aircraft can be refueled
throughout the ight envelope. Italy has already cleared the
Euroghter Typhoon and Panavia Tornado aircraft to refuel
from the KC-767.
Donnet is now working on another series of trials, expected
to take place early in 2014 using the KC-767, and says the
U.K. Royal Air Force is interested in providing one of its
new Airbus A330-200 multirole tanker transport (MRTT)
Voyager aircraft to build that types refueling capability. The
U.K. Defense Ministry is known to be exploring opportunities
to share ight hours of the nine-aircraft core Voyager eet.
This is a more cost-efective approach. By doing the trials
at the same time, we can maximize the number of test ights
in one sortie, it is just dependant on the availability of the
aircraft and the test pilots, explains Donnet.
The EDA trials address one of the four key areas through
which it hopes member countries will be able to boost capac-
ity and capability of their tankers eets. Other areas of study
include improving access to commercially available refuel-
ing capabilitysuch as that provided by Omega or even the
U.K.s AirTanker consortiumand encouraging European
customers of the Airbus Military A400M to t a refueling
capability to that transport aircraft.
Another area of discussion is the possible creation of a
European tanker operation similar in design to NATOs
E-3 aerial warning and control system component and the
Hungary-based Heavy Airlift Wing. Defense ministers from
Belgium, France, Greece, Hungary, Luxembourg, the Nether-
lands, Norway, Poland, Portugal and Spain, signed a letter of
intent to cooperate on such a program at the end of 2012 and
EDA hopes to have a memorandum of understanding signed
at the end of 2014 that allows for the possible procurement of
tankers in conjunction with Occar, the European armament
cooperation agency for initial operations, in 2020, and a full
operational capability in 2021. No platform has been chosen,
although the EDA is looking at both the A330 MRTT and the
KC-46 or KC-767.
A major hurdle, however, will be overcoming the various
certication demands set by diferent countries within Europe.
The creation of a single European certication for refueling
clearances would, Donnet says, be challenging because there
is no starting place within European Aviation Safety Agency
guidelines from which to draw up guidance. c
Baby Steps
The rst of the EDAs tanker trials involved
the Italian air forces Boeing KC-767s.

Michael Fabey Panama City, Fla.
Sikorsky MH-60s rise above
Littoral Combat Ship problems
he saving grace for the U.S. Navys Littoral Combat Ship
(LCS) program may prove to be the Sikorsky MH-60
Seahawks, needed for most of the surface warfare, mine
countermeasure or antisubmarine-warfare missions the ves-
sels are expected to perform.
While the LCS sea frames and equipment for the ships inte-
gral mission-module packages have sufered substantial cost in-
creases, schedule delays and operational hiccups, the Seahawk
has proved to be the programs consistent high performer.
Indeed, the success of LCS operations will depend on the
eets aviation assets. In addition to MH-60R (Romeo) and
MH-60S (Sierra) Seahawks, the ships also will likely employ
Northrop Grumman MQ-8 Fire Scout unmanned he-
licopters. They could be real aids if the Navy uses
LCS vessels for certain U.S. Marine Corps amphibi-
ous operations.
The Marines love the Fire Scout, says Capt. John
Ailes, who is in charge of LCS integration eforts. Its
basically a sensor, adds Ailes, a Navy ofcer recently
selected to be an admiral. The Navy is currently us-
ing the MQ-8B but eventually is expected to move to
the C-Model Fire Scout. The Fire-X, a Northrop Grumman/
Bell Helicopter joint venture is scheduled to make its rst
ight this fall.
Aviation always has been a vital component of LCS. The
programs concept envisions quickly sending small warships
to hot zones with mission-specic equipment that can be op-
erated of the vessels.
The LCS could exploit its speed to increase the reach of
task groups by serving as a fast-moving lily pad for helicop-
ters other than its own, says a 2010 report on LCS from the
Center for Strategic and Budgetary Assessment. In such
cases, one or more LCSs could be positioned on the periphery
of a task group to which manned or unmanned air assets
could be deployed from (carrier for landing dock ship), or to
take advantage of the LCSs large ight decks to refuel and
rearm in patterns synchronized with the LCSs own air de-
tachment. It could also extend the range of its embarked air
assets by using its speed to sprint toward recovery points.
While LCS may be evolving much more into a platform
other than the aviation lily pads envisioned early on by
some defense analysts, there is no doubting the importance
of the helicopter-centric operations for the vessels.
Fleet commanders will covet the LCS airborne assets,
Ailes predicts. Not everyone has a helicopter. The first
question eet commanders ask is: How many helicopters
do you have? There are so many things you can do with a
helicopter. It can double for surface sea surveillance. You can
drive around and look for submarines.
Indeed, the Romeo makes an LCS a capable and lethal
antisubmarine-warfare vessel, Ailes says, thanks to the peri-
scope-detection capability and other technological advances
on the aircraft.
You want to keep submarines at [long] range, he explains.
You never want to get close because theyll shoot torpedoes
at you. You send your helicopter out, and this is extraordi-
narily long range. We never talk about just what big part the
helicopter is in all of these scenarios. Its just huge.
Many earlier-model destroyers, Ailes notes, do not have a
helicopter presence.
The Navy program of record calls for the service to receive
280 Romeos, with 166 delivered thus far; and 275 Sierras,
with 234 delivered. A Romeo is now deployed on LCS-1 USS
Freedom, a Sierra on Freedom in 2010.
We bring the helicopter, Ailes says. And not just any
helicopterweve got the Romeos. Theyre eye-watering he-
licopters; by far, the most capable system weve ever built.
And its already in the eet, so theres not a lot of technical
risk there. Weve deployed it on LCS-1 [USS Freedom], so
we retired that risk.
The Romeo is now on Freedom as part of the ships surface-
warfare-mission suite as it is deployed in Asia. The Navy expects
to be driving around and testing the antisubmarine-warfare
mission components on Freedom by the end of 2014, says Ailes.
Meanwhile, the Navy is counting on the Sierra to conduct
a host of mine countermeasure missions. Initially, the Navy
had planned to conduct some rather robust sensor pod-tow-
ing missions with the Sierra, which had required helicopter
modications. As a recent Government Accountability Ofce
report notes, the Navy decided to abandon those operations
because of engine-failure concerns.
Ailes explains the helicopter still proved it could do the mis-
sions but opted against using the Sierra because it lacks a back-
up engine, and even though there were no reported engine fail-
ures, it would be safer to use other equipment for the same task.
For its slated mission set, LCS ofcials say, the Sierra has
done the job.
Those were really successful, surprisingly successful,
says Tracy Nye, a Navy mine warfare specialist working on
the LCS program. We were just able to y that helicopter
on and of the ship. We tried diferent tactics of launching
and recovery. They really pushed the envelope on helicopter
operations on the ship.
Nye acknowledges, however, the need to reduce the time to
reload mine-neutralizer magazines. When fully implemented,
the LCS mine countermeasures package will include an AN/
AES-1 sonar, the Airborne Laser Mine Detection System and
AN/ASQ-235 Airborne Mine Neutralization System, making
the LCS a potentially formidable anti-mine platform com-
pared to the current Avenger-class ships. c
Helo Effect
Littoral Combat Ship ofcers will use Seahawks
for multiple ofensive and defensive missions.

Graham Warwick Washington
Hunting Carbon
Unmanned-aircraft technology elded to monitor
rapid changes in thawing Arctic
limate change is fueling a race for once-inaccessible
Arctic resources, but the rapidly thawing ice poses a
growing risk of accelerating global warming by releas-
ing huge stores of eons-old carbon into the atmosphere. Un-
manned aircraft are beginning to play a key role in monitoring
the changes in these vast and remote areas.
A team lead by Harvard University has completed ights
over Alaskas North Slope to measure the release of green-
house gases by melting permafrost. Aurora Flight Sciences
Centaur optionally piloted aircraft was own manned for
these initial ights, but the team plans to return next year
and y the modied Diamond DA42 unmanned on extended
ights over the ocean.
The FAA, meanwhile, has issued the first restricted-
category type certicates to AeroVironment for the Puma
AE and Insitu Inc. for the Scan Eagle, allowing commercial
ights of the small unmanned aircraft over the North Slope
and Beaufort Sea to monitor oil spills and observe wildlife as
Arctic resource exploration and exploitation gathers pace.
Operations are expected to begin this month.
The Aurora-owned and -operated Centaur completed 16
ights totaling more than 60 hr. in August, operating from
Deadhorse, Alaska, carrying a highly sensitive spectroscopic
instrument developed by Harvard. The aircraft had to y
5-10 meters (16-33 ft.) above the ground for extended periods
so researchers could precisely measure the rate at which
carbon is being released into the atmosphere.
Over the past 30 years, the Arctic Ocean has lost 80% of
its permanent oating-ice volume, resulting in rapid melting
of permafrost regions that contain vast stores of methane
and carbon dioxide. The surface soils in Alaska and Siberia
contain 2 gigatons of carbon. If just 0.5% of that is released,
it will double the carbon added to the atmosphere each year
by fossil-fuel combustion, says Jim Anderson, principal in-
vestigator for Harvards Anderson Research Group.
Determining the rate at which carbon is being released by
melting permafrost is crucial to predicting climate change.
The Centaur was equipped with the Harvard-developed Flux
Observations of Carbon from an Airborne Laboratory (Focal)
instrument to measure the concentrations of carbon isotopes
C12 and C13 with sufcient resolution to distinguish between
carbon from surface vegetation and that released by melting
Focal bounces the beam from a tunable mid-infrared quan-
tum cascade laser between two highly reective mirrors to
create a 5-km-long (3-mi.) path within a 1-meter-long cell.
This enables the spectroscopic instrument to detect trace
isotopes by direct absorption as air is drawn through by a
pump. The quality is very high, the data unequivocal, and
it responds very quickly, says Anderson. The ush time is
practically 1,000 times a second.
The concentration data are combined with vertical-velocity
measurements by a highly responsive air-turbulence probe,
supplied by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Adminis-
tration, to enable calculation of the ux, or ow rate, of meth-
ane and CO
. The ratio of isotopes identies the source, with
thermogenic carbon stored in permafrost being higher in C13
and biogenic carbon from vegetation higher in C12. Flux is the
crucial observation, as it quanties the contribution of the melt
zone to carbon in the atmosphere, says Anderson.
Funded by the National Science Foundation, the August
research campaign was very successful, he says. The pilot
was able to y the Centaur less than 10 meters above the
billiard-table at North Slope, keeping the aircraft within a
tight altitude tolerance that allowed the instrument to collect
ux data with very high spatial resolution to measure re-
lease rates from diferent landscape features, such as ponds.
The Harvard team is now preparing a proposal for a 2014
research campaign that would involve unmanned ights of the
Centaur over the Arctic Ocean. Clathrates on the ocean oor
trap a large amount of methane in their crystalline structure,
and as the ocean warms there is a risk of them melting and
releasing their carbon. The 2014 campaign would involve un-
manned ights of up to 23 hr. to systematically map the oceanic
carbon ux with high spatial resolution, Anderson says.
The optionally piloted aircraft is the ideal tool for this
type of experiment, says Aurora founder John Langford.
The airplane can be ferried through national and interna-
tional airspace in its manned, fully certied mode. Once the
instruments, ight trajectories and operating protocols have
all been validated, the long and repetitive measurements can
be handed over to the computer. c
Its extended proboscis snifng for carbon isotopes,
Auroras Centaur ies low over Alaskan tundra.


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ATR . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13
Aviation Week
Commercial and MRO
Advantage . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32-33
Aviation Week & Space Technology
Photo Contest . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 47
Aviation Week Events
MRO Asia . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37
MRO Middle East . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 59
Avio . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15
Breitling . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21
CFM International . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25
CMC Electronics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .11
Custom Control Sensors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3
Esterline Power Systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51
Eurocopter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19
ILA Messe Berlin . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23
MTU Aero Engines . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4th Cover
Nexans . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9
Ontic . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3
PPG Industries . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16-17
Raytheon Co. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3rd Cover
Rockwell Collins . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-5
Singapore Airshow 2013 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 55
Spirit AeroSystems . . . . . . . . . . . . 2nd Cover
(Between pages 34 & 35):
AAR . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . MRO30
Aero Instruments &
Avionics, Inc. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . MRO10
Air Cost Control . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . MRO29
AJ Walter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . MRO12
Aviation Week Events.
MRO Latin America . . . . . . . . . . . MRO48
BAE Systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . MRO2
Boeing Co., The . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . MRO15
Bombardier . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . MRO18
CFM International . . . . . . . . . . . . . . MRO64
Delta TechOps . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . MRO7
DynCorp International . . . . . . . . . . . MRO11
Engineering - Aviation Maintenance
Holding . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . MRO25
FAG Aerospace . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . MRO19
AgustaWestland . . . . . . . . . . . . . . MRO37
Free Economic Zone . . . . . . . . . . . . MRO35
HARCO. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . MRO32
HEATCON Composite
Systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . MRO49
HEICO Aerospace . . . . . . . . . . . . . . MRO26
IAI, Israel Aerospace Industries Ltd./
BEDEK Aviation Group Ltd. . . . . MRO9
Iberia Maintenance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . MRO5
Ipsen Inc. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . MRO43
Kissimmee Gateway Airport . . . . . MRO36
Latchways . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . MRO20
Lufthansa Technik . . . . . . . . . . . . . . MRO23
M.C. Gill Corporation . . . . . . . . . . . MRO51
Mack Brooks Exhibitions Ltd.,
Inter Airport Europe . . . . . . . . . . MRO34
Marvin Test Solutions . . . . . . . . . . . MRO33
Master Lock Company . . . . . . . . . . MRO38
MSI Aircraft Maintenance . . . . . . . MRO21
PartsBase, Inc. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . MRO39
Saab . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . MRO40
SAE International . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . MRO41
SEMR Aerospace . . . . . . MRO46 - MRO47
TAP . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . MRO13
TAT Technologies . . . . . . . . . . . . . . MRO44
Touchdown Aviation . . . . . . . . . . . . MRO42
United Technologies,
PinPoint. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . MRO45
United Technologies,
Pratt & Whitney . . . . . . . . . . . . . . MRO17
CLASSIFIED ADVERTISING . . . . . . . . . . 63
Conceptual Research . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 63
HotSeat Chassis Inc. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 63
Matec Instruments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 63
Survival Products Inc. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 63
Oct. 2-4JEC America. Boston.
Oct. 7-10Sixth AAS Wernher von Braun
Memorial Symposium: Bringing Exploration
Forward. University of Alabama at
Huntsville. See
Oct. 14-1651st Annual SAFE Association
Symposium. Grand Sierra Resort & Casino,
Reno, Nev. See
Oct. 22-24National Business Aviation
Association Convention and Exhibition. Las
Vegas. See
Oct. 22-2524th Annual NHA Gulf
Coast Fleet Fly-In. NAS Whiting Field,
Milton, Fla. For more information, contact
Oct. 23Aerospace Components
Manufacturers Inc. Hartford/Windsor
Airport Marriott Hotel. Windsor, Conn. See
page3643.html for more information.
Oct. 23-24JDA Aviation Technology
Solutions Regulatory Afairs training course.
Bethesda, Md. For details and registration
information, see
services/regulatory-training.php or contact
Nina Acosta at 301-941-1460 ext. 110.
Oct. 29-31Third Edition of the World
Passenger Symposium. The Convention
Center Dublin. See
Aerospace Calendar
To submit Aerospace Calendar Listings
Call +1 (202) 383-2350
Fax +1 (202) 383-2347
Regster for Avaton Week events at
or by ca||ng +1-212-904-4682
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Oct. 29-31MRO Asia. Singapore.
Nov. 6-8SpeedNews 18th Annual Regional & Business Aviation
Industry Suppliers Conference. Scottsdale, Ariz.
Nov. 12-14A&D Programs. Phoenix.
Jan. 21-22MRO Latin America. Rio de Janeiro.
Feb. 4-6MRO Middle East. Dubai.
Feb. 10Air Transport Worlds 40th Annual Airline Industry
Achievement Awards. Pan Pacic Singapore Hotel.
March 3SpeedNews Fourth Annual Aerospace Raw Materials &
Manufacturers Supply Chain Conference. Beverly Hills, Calif.
March 3-5SpeedNews 28th Annual Commercial Aviation Industry
Suppliers Conference. Beverly Hills, Calif.
March 4-5Defense Technology and Afordability Requirements.
March 6Aviation Weeks Laureate Awards. Washington.

he 38th Session of the International Civil Avia-
tion Organization Assembly convenes in Mon-
treal this week. For the rst time since losing
its ICAO seat in 1971, Taiwan has been invited to
attend the assembly, and will do so under the name
Chinese Taipei. As an integral part of the global
aviation network, we reiterate our commitment to
ICAO standards and look forward to further mean-
ingful participation in ICAO meetings, mechanisms
and activities.
Taiwan is located in the busiest section of air-
space in East Asia. Its major hub, Taiwan Taoyuan
International Airport, is one of the busiest air-
ports in the region. It was ranked 16th globally in
international passenger traffic by Airports Coun-
cil International in 2012, and a total of 58 domestic
and foreign airlines connect Taiwan with 117 cities
across the world.
The Taipei Flight Information Region (FIR)
each year provides more than 1.3 million naviga-
tion services to aircraft carrying 45 million pas-
sengers and over 1.68 million tons of cargo. In 2011,
Taiwanese airlines carried 15.9 billion ton-kilome-
ters of passengers, freight and mail. The large vol-
ume of cargo and passenger traffic makes Taiwan
an important part of the global air transport net-
For more than four decades, due to the lack of di-
rect contact with ICAO, Taiwans Civil Aeronautics
Administration has had to make an extra efort to ad-
here to constant updates of the organizations ight
safety and security standards. Although we have an
excellent record in keeping our systems current,
learning about the latest ICAO standards has often
been a long and costly process.
International support for Taiwans meaning-
ful participation is greatly appreciated. In order
to ensure its compliance with the latest aviation
safety standards and work with the global commu-
nity for improvement of the quality and efficiency
of air travel throughout the world, Taiwan has for
many years strived to participate in ICAO. Our call
for inclusion in the organization has been acknowl-
edged around the world. Many important aviation
sector officials have publicly endorsed our bid for
inclusion in ICAO, and we are grateful for their
We believe our participation in this years ICAO
Assembly will allow us not only to closely observe de-
liberations and gain a better understanding of vari-
ous aviation issues, but also to contribute to global
endeavors to ensure the safety, convenience and ef-
ciency of international air transport.
Taiwan is ready to share with the world its rich
experience. It can contribute to regional and global
aviation safety by sharing its advanced aviation
technologies. One example is the CNS/ATM (com-
munications, navigation and surveillance air trafc
management) system proposed by ICAO in the late
1980s for development of a globally coordinated
system of air navigation services to cope with the
worldwide growth in air trafc demand.
CNS/ATM involves a complex and interrelated
set of technologies largely dependent on satel-
lites. For a decade, Taiwan made tremendous in-
vestments in human resources and equipment to
develop the system and find solutions to technical
problems as they emerged. Taiwan was the first
Asian country to put the system into servicein
2011. The system has given our nation increased
air services efficiency, and we believe our know-
how and experience gained in developing and op-
erating the system provides an excellent resource
for other countries.
Taiwans participation in the 38th Session of
the ICAO Assembly brings us one step closer to
reaching the associations goal of a seamless sky.
Regular participation of Taiwans experts and offi-
cials in ICAO meetings, mechanisms and activities
would also be very constructive in this regard.
If Taiwan gains access to ICAOs Standards and
Recommended Practices, we will be able to incorpo-
rate them into our aviation safety and security regu-
lations in a much more timely and comprehensive
manner. Our technical knowledge and skills also can
be shared with the international civil aviation com-
munity. Together, we will work toward our common
goal: safe, orderly and sustainable development of
international civil aviation that promotes the wel-
fare of all. c
Taiwan can contribute to
regional and global aviation
safety by sharing its advanced
aviation technologies

Taiwans Case
For a Voice
Kuang-Shih Yeh is Taiwans
minister of transportation
and communications.






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