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Subject: Medical Sciences Book Index: Cardiovascular Physiology: A Clinical Approach Style: Chicago Manual of Style Indented

A Absolute refractory period !" Acetylcholine "# "" $% Actin #$ &yosin'binding site on "( ") "# and &yosin interaction* See Actin+&yosin cross'bridge cycle Actin+&yosin cross'bridge cycle #$ A,P'fueled for&ation and breakage of "( and inotropy "" prevention ") )#) steps involved in ")+"# Action potential -AP. )/0 along conduction path1ays )2 atrial and ventricular %$+!( autono&ic influence on !0 definition )" initiation in SA node /2 in nonpace&aker cardiac cells !(+!) opening calciu& channel ") in pace&aker cells !)+!" !% phase ) %$ phase # " and 2 !( and t1itch duration !% Active hypere&ia )#2 Adrenergic receptors "# )/0 Afferent nerve fibers )2( Afferent nerves )/0 Afterload $" )/0 definition $$ in high arterial pressure )(( and pressure volu&e loop )() Aldosterone )22 Alveolar hypoxia )/0 Angina pectoris clinical case presentation of )"(+)") Angiogenesis )%$ )/0 definition ))" )#$ tu&or )"( Angiotensin II -AII. )# )#" )2"+)22 )%% )!( )!)

Antidiuretic hor&one -A34. )#" Aorta )% 2/ )2) fetal shunt )!#+)!" oxygenated blood flo1 via )0 )$ 2) 20+2$ pressure in )(( 1all of ))2 Aortic arch baroreceptors )2( )2) Aortic valve )! )/ 2) 2" %) %2 $$ and afterload )() blood flo1 through 2/ 2$ opening of $$+)(# )(2 Apical i&pulse )/0 ) postjunctional receptors )## #'5eceptors )##+)#" Arginine vasopressin -A6P. )#" and baroreceptors link bet1een )2" functionality )2#+)2" synthesis )2# Arrhyth&ias /2 Arterial baroreceptor activation )!2 feedback loop )" stretching associated 1ith changes in blood pressure )# Arterial pressure #) )22 and afterload relation bet1een )((+)() regulation and kidney )22+)2% restoring syste&ic )" Arteries branches of* See Arterioles conduit )$ coronary ## distribution ))% Arterioles )$ ))% )/0 vasoconstriction of )#2 Atria )% )/0 blood flo1 in 2" contraction 2/ !! depolari7ation /0+/$ and ventricles valves bet1een )! Atrial cell action potentials !( /( Atrial conduction path1ay !%+!! disturbances of )!( Atrial &uscle cells %$ )/0 Atrial natriuretic peptide -A8P. )2% Atrial septal defect -AS3. clinical case presentation of %)+%# Atrioventricular node )2 !) !2 !! )/0

Atrioventricular valves )! "$ )/0 closure and first heart sound 2/ )!# functioning "$+2( leaflets of 2)+2" and se&ilunar valves difference bet1een 2) Aug&ented li&b leads* See 9nipolar li&b leads Autono&ic nervous syste& )#+)" "#+"2 )22 effect on heart rate !0 $% effect on pace&aker action potential !/+!0 role in cardiac output $" sy&pathetic li&b of $" Autono&ic sti&ulation of heart rate "" Autoregulation definition ))" )/0 principle of )#2 vascular )#% A6 nodal rhyth& !/ A6 node !) !2 !! !/ /$ 00 A6 valves* See Atrioventricular valves B Bach&an:s bundle !2 !% 'Adrenergic+sti&ulated lusitropy "2 'Adrenergic sti&ulation action on cardiac &yocytes "2 and heart rate "# second &essenger activation "2 Baroreceptors )"$ aortic )2( and arginine vasopressin link bet1een )2# arterial* See Arterial baroreceptor and autono&ic nervous syste& )#+)" )2(+)2# definition )2( )/0 feedback loop )#+)" and hor&one control of blood pressure )2#+)22 renin+angiotensin II+aldosterone cascade )2"+)22 Bipolar li&b leads /% Blood )%! Blood+brain barrier ))" )#0 Blood circulation* See also Blood flo1 fetal* See ;etal circulation functions )) pul&onary* See Pul&onary circulation syste&ic* See Syste&ic circulation Blood flo1 "$ )0( cerebral )#0

disruptions in %( la&inar and turbulent )! )/ %( fro& left atriu& to left ventricle )(#+)(" &etabolic regulation of )#2 &yogenic regulation of )#2+)#% resistance in pul&onary circulation #) and vasoconstriction )$ in steady'state conditions $2 to subendocardial cells )#/ in thorax 2"+22 through heart 2(+2) Blood pressure -BP. )"0 and A8P link bet1een )2% and autono&ic nervous syste& )2(+)2# baroreceptor control of )2#+)2" body position )2! and cardiac output )#" )"$ changes during pregnancy )%0+)%$ hor&one control of )2#+)2" influence on cognitive+e&otional factors )" during labor )!) positional changes in )2!+)2/ renin+angiotensin+aldosterone cascade effect on )22 at rest )2) and stretch on baroreceptors )#+)" and syste&ic vascular resistance )"$ Blood vessels )0 arteries )$+#( capillaries ))! classification ))" elastic recoil ))2 functions of ))" genesis of )#$ ly&ph vessels #) ))0 skeletal &uscle pu&p ))/ structure of ))"+))2 veins #( Bradycardia / )/0 Breathing nor&al exhalation and pleural pressure )0 inspiration and intrathoracic pressure )0 )$ venous return )0+)$ B'type natriuretic peptide -B8P. )2% Bulk flo1 )/0 Bundle branches -right and left. )2 !2

Bundle of 4is )2 !2 !% C Calciu& channels inactivation of !( !# <'type ") role in ventricular &uscle contraction 0% Calciu&'dependent potassiu& channels activation of )#! Calciu&'induced calciu& release -CIC5. "( ")+"# )/$ Calse=uestrin "# Capacitance vessels ))" Capillaries categories of ))! classification of #" constituents of ))% in cross section ))! functions ))! gas and nutrient exchange by ##+#" oncotic pressure 1ithin ))$ si7e and shape of ## starling forces in ))$ 1alls of #" Capillary fluid and substrate exchange #" Capillary hydrostatic pressure -C4P. ))0 ))$ )#( Capillary oncotic pressure -C>P. ))$ )#( Cardiac action potential* See Action potential -AP. Cardiac cell* See also Cardiac &uscle cells in conducting path1ays !% at rest %/+%0 Cardiac contractility* See Contractility Cardiac contraction and relaxation actin and &yosin "(+") and calciu& supply #$ and cross'bridge for&ation "(+") Cardiac controller " )/$ effector &echanis&s ))+)# electrical conduction syste& )"+)2 electrical principles of /2 intracardiac co&ponent of %! &aintaining blood pressure ))+)# role in cardiac output $2 sensing &echanis&s )#+)" Cardiac cycle 2 2(+2) graphical representation of 2! Cardiac hypertrophy )(( Cardiac inotropy ""+"2

Cardiac &uscle )% ?C coupling in ") granules 1ithin )2% intrinsic property of $/ tension generation in $! Cardiac &uscle cells -&yocyte. )/$ contraction and relaxation #0 #$ intracellular calciu& 1ithin "% relaxation "# separated by intercalated disks "( sti&ulation by sy&pathetic activity $% structure of #$+"( synchronous contraction of "( types of %$ Cardiac output -C>. autono&ic control $2+$% definition 2 $" )/$ deter&inants of $"+$2 afterload $$+)(" contractility )("+)(% preload $0+$$ expression for $2 ;rank Starling la1 of the heart $! heart rate regulation $% hor&onal control $2+$% length tension relationship $! &easure&ent techni=ues )(% )"$ during nor&al pregnancy )%/+)%0 stroke volu&e regulation $%+$/ Cardiac pace&aker cells "# !# Cardiac shunts )#" )!#+)!" Cardiac skeleton !! )/$ Cardiovascular control center )2) Cardiovascular physiology clinical approach to % i&portance of study of ) 0 physiological rhyth&s in 0"+02 syste&s approach to " think critically about % Cardiovascular pu&p " blood vessel co&ponent of* See Blood vessels heart portion of* See 4eart Cardiovascular syste& adjust&ents in pregnancy %* See also Pregnancy cardiovascular adaptations to capillaries in " co&ponents of " 2

definition )) of fetus )%% physiology* See Cardiovascular physiology Carotid sinus baroreceptors )2( )2) Central venous pressure -C6P. ))% )#" )"$ )/$ Cerebral circulation )#0 Cerebral vasculature parasy&pathetic innervation of )#0 Channelopathies )/$ Che&oreceptors )" Chordae tendinae 2)+2# )/$ Chronic hypertension )"$ Chronotropy "#+"" $% )/$ Co&pliance (C), "2 )/$ Concentric hypertrophy )(( Conduit vessels ))" functions ))2+))% structural features ))% Continuous capillaries #" ))! Contractility )/$ changes in )(2 definition )(" increase in )(2 P6 loop and )(2+)(% and ventricular function curve )(" Contraction process #0 #$ "#* See also Contractility Coronary arteries ## )/$ Coronary circulation ## coronary arterial inflo1 )#/ &echanis&s )#/ Cross'bridge cycling "( )/$ Cyclic AMP $% 3 3elayed rectifiers !( )/$ 3elivery cardiovascular events associated 1ith )!) 3epolari7ation %0 )/$ atrial /0+/$ hierarchy of !/ and repolari7ation 0# 3iastole ## "2 )/$ isovolu&etric contraction )(# 3iastolic dysfunction causes "% definition "2 3iastolic pressure )/$ in arteries 2#

deter&inants of 2"+22 3iscontinuous capillaries ))! 3istribution arteries ))% 3istribution vessels ))" 3obuta&ine "% 3uctus arteriosus )!#+)!" ? @?arly after'depolari7ations A !$ ?ccentric hypertrophy )(( ?chocardiography )(! ?ctopic beats )!( )/$ ?de&a accu&ulation )#( definition ))0 )/$ for&ation ))$+)#( pitting )#( ?ffective arterial blood volu&e -?AB6. )2% ?inthoven:s triangle and lead place&ent bipolar li&b leads /% electrical i&pulse &easure&ent /2+/% unipolar chest leads /!+// unipolar li&b leads /%+/! ?jection fraction -?;. )0( for&ula for )( &easure&ent techni=ues )(! ?lastic recoil 2% ))2+))% )0( ?lectrical conduction syste& atrial conduction path1ay !%+!! autono&ic influence on !/+!0 cardiac cells )"+)2 disturbances of )!( role of )2 ventricular conduction path1ay !! ?lectrical i&pulse &easure&ent #0 /2+/% ?lectrical sti&uli during absolute refractory period !2 repetitive !% ?lectrocardiogra& -?CB. 2 %! /"* See also Single'lead ?CB bipolar li&b leads /% clinical case presentation 00 ?inthoven:s triangle and lead place&ent* See ?inthovenCs triangle and lead place&ent genesis of /2 and &echanical action of cardiac pu&p 02+0% pen deflections fro& atrial depolari7ation /$+0(

up and do1n //+/0 of physiological rhyth&s 02 repolari7ation and , 1ave 0)+0# unipolar chest leads /! unipolar li&b leads /% ventricular M?A vector* See 6entricular &ean electrical axis -M?A. 1avefor&s and intervals P5 interval /$+0( P 1aves /0+/$ D5S 1ave 0(+0) in Eiggers diagra& 2! 2/ ?lectrokardiogra& -?FB. /2 ?nd'diastolic volu&e "" $! )0( ?ndocardiu& )0( ?ndothelial cells )0( functions ))! ?ndothelial regulators endothelin )#!+)#/ )2%+)2! nitric oxide )#%+)#! )2! prostacyclin )#! ?ndothelins -?,s. ))" )0( endothelin ) -?,'). )#!+)#/ isofor&s )2% nonselective blockade )2! role in blood pressure regulation )2! ?nd'systolic pressure volu&e relationship -?SP65. )(2 ?nd'systolic volu&e )0( ?picardial and endocardial tissue perfusion of )#/ ?picardiu&Gepicardial )0( ?pinephrine "# $% )## ?strogen )!( )!) ?xchanger " )0( capillaries ##+#" ?xchange vessels ))" ?xcitation+contraction coupling -?C coupling. "+2 calciu& role in "2 in cardiac &uscle ")+"# definition #$ &uscle contraction $! in vascular s&ooth &uscle )#) ; ;enestrated capillaries #" ))! ;etal circulation )%% )!#+)!" @;ick principle A )(%+)(! @;ight or flight response A )("

;iltration forces ))0 ;ixed splitting 2$ )0( ;ora&en ovale )!#+)!" ;rank+Starling la1 of heart $" $!+$/ @;unny channel A !# B Ballop %( )0( Bap junctions )2 )0( Bestational hypertension -B4. )%$ )!( Breat vessels 2 )% inferior vena cava )0 pressure in "$ 2% superior vena cava )0 4 4eart #0 biological i&portance ) blood flo1 patterns in )!+)/ cha&bers of )%+)! contractility of ""+"2 denervated !/ electrical conduction path1ay in !2* See also ?lectrical conduction syste& great vessels of )0 location in thorax )% pericardial sac )0 pressures in "$ pu&ping capacity of control syste& and %/ enhancing "2 4eart failure )#( clinical case presentation "% congestive )2% dilated ventricle and lo1 cardiac output )((+)(# systolic )(! )(/ ventricular function curve in )(" 4eart rate -45. auto&atic and behavioral control of ) )"$ autono&ic sti&ulation of "" regulation $% at rest )2) setting !/ and stroke volu&e $2 4eart sound S) -first. "$+2( S# -second. 2(

factors influencing 2$ physiological splitting of 2$+%( S" -third. 20 S2 -fourth. 20 4e&atocrit -4C,. )%! 4exaxial syste& of Bayley -4SB. 0%+0! @4oliday 4eartA syndro&e clinical case presentation of 00 4u&oral vasoactive substances )#0 4yperpolari7ation !# of s&ooth &uscle cell )#! 4ypertension )0( gestational )%$ )!( hypertrophy in )(( phar&acological &anage&ent of )22 4ypertrophy )0( deleterious effects )(" in hypertension )(( pathological )(" and 1all stress )(( )(# 4ypotension during labor )!) orthostatic )2/ 4ypoxia )#! I Indicator dilution &ethod )(% Inferior vena cavae -I6C. 2( 2) )%! co&pression of )!2 @InotropicA agents )(" Inotropy ""+"2 $% )0( Interstitial hydrostatic pressure ))$ Interstitial os&otic pressure ))$ Intra'abdo&inal pressure 22 Intranodal path1ays !2 !% Intrathoracic pressure variation and blood flo1 2"+22 In1ard rectifier %/ )0( Ion &ove&ent across sarcole&&a %!+%/ @Irregularly irregularA rhyth& 00 Isoelectric line // /0 Isovolu&etric contraction 2/ )0( Isovolu&etric relaxation 2/+20 )0( F Fidney and cardiovascular interaction )2% role in arterial pressure regulation )22+)2%

role in salt and 1ater balance )2% 1aste eli&ination by )%0 < <abor cardiovascular events associated 1ith )!) <a&inar blood flo1 )! )/ %( )0( <eft atriu& -<A. )! 2( 2/ blood in )!# and pul&onary capillaries #( systolic and diastolic pressure 2% venous return fro& pul&onary veins into 22 )(# )(/ <eft ventricle -<6. 2(+2) output $/ preload for $0+$$ stiffGnonco&pliant "% syste&ic circulation )! systolic and diastolic pressure 2% <eft ventricular end'diastolic volu&e -<6?36. $/ $0 )(/ <eft ventricular end'systolic volu&e -<6?S6. )(# )(/ <eft ventricular pressure -<6P. 20 )() <eft ventricular systolic contraction coronary arterial inflo1 in )#/ <ength+tension relationship $! <'type calciu& channels entry of calciu& via "2 opening ") <usitropy "2 $% )0( <y&phatics ))0 <y&ph nodes #) <y&ph vessels #) ))0 functions of ))" M Maternal abdo&en in late pregnancy )%/ Maternal intravascular volu&e changes )%! Mean arterial pressure -MAP. esti&ation of )%0 Mean electrical axis -M?A. esti&ation of 0%+0/ Medulla )0) functions # )# Me&brane potential %0 changes associated ion channel openings !# and depolari7ation %0 oscillations in !$ phase ( %$ phase 2 !( and repolari7ation %0+%$ and sodiu& channels %$

Mitral valve 2) M<C kinase -M<CF. )#) )## phosphorylation of )#! Mur&urs )! )/ )0) clinical case presentation %)+%# definition 2( %( factors contributing to intensity of %) Myocardial infarction ## )0) Myocardial ische&ia )0) Myocytes* See also Cardiac &uscle cells contraction and relaxation #0 $!+$/ definition #0 Myofibrils actin* See Actin &yosin* See Myosin Myogenic reflex )# Myogenic response )#2+)#% Myosin "! and actin interaction "( calciu& levels "# cross bridge for&ation ") $!+$/ prevention ") )#) definition "( Myosin light chain -M<C. )#)