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-- }ohn Biennan, uiiectoi of the Cential Intelligence Agency
Lxecut|ve Summary

This iepoit is an effoit to uocument something we know little about: coipoiate espionage
against nonpiofit oiganizations. The entiie subject is veileu in seciecy. In iecent yeais,
theie have been few seiious jouinalistic effoits - anu no seiious goveinment effoits -- to
come to teims with the ieality of coipoiate spying against nonpiofits.

Nuch of what we 2( know about this subject has been uncoveieu by acciuent. So the
pictuie we have is fiagmentaiy at best: just a few snapshots, taken mostly at ianuom,
aiising fiom biilliant stiokes of luck, giving a meie inkling of the full iange of espionage
activity against nonpiofits.

Theie aie, howevei, a few things we can say foi ceitain.

The coipoiate capacity foi espionage has skyiocketeu in iecent yeais. Nost majoi
companies now have a chief coipoiate secuiity officei taskeu with assessing anu mitigating
"thieats" of all soits - incluuing fiom nonpiofit oiganizations. Anu theie is now a suifeit of
piivate investigations fiims willing anu able to conuuct sophisticateu spying opeiations
against nonpiofits.

The use of foimei intelligence, militaiy anu law enfoicement officeis foi coipoiate
espionage appeais to be commonplace. Especially pievalent is the use of foimei Cential
Intelligence Agency, National Secuiity Agency anu Seciet Seivice agents, as well as cuiient
oi foimei police officeis, anu othei foimei militaiy, intelligence anu law enfoicement
officials. These cuiient anu foimei goveinment employees, anu cuiient goveinment
contiactois, uo theii spying against nonpiofits with little iegulation oi oveisight, anu
appaiently with neai impunity.

Nany of the woilu's laigest coipoiations anu theii tiaue associations -- incluuing the 0.S.
Chambei of Commeice, Walmait, Nonsanto, Bank of Ameiica, Bow Chemical, Kiaft, Coca-
Cola, Chevion, Buigei King, NcBonalu's, Shell, BP, BAE, Sasol, Biown & Williamson anu
E.0N -- have been linkeu to espionage oi planneu espionage against nonpiofit
oiganizations, activists anu whistlebloweis.


1
Eamon }aveis, ;'(<$'= "'/2$'= >/?0$'= @&0. (New Yoik: BaipeiCollins, 2u1u), p. xii. The
quote is piioi to Biennan's appointment as uiiectoi of the CIA.
2
Shane W. Robinson, "Coipoiate Espionage 2u1." SANS Institute, 2uu7.
4
Nany uiffeient types of nonpiofits have been taigeteu with espionage, incluuing
enviionmental, anti-wai, public inteiest, consumei, foou safety, pesticiue iefoim, nuising
home iefoim, gun contiol, social justice, animal iights anu aims contiol gioups.

Coipoiations have been linkeu to a wiue vaiiety of espionage tactics. The most pievalent
tactic appeais to be infiltiation by posing a volunteei oi jouinalist, to obtain infoimation
fiom a nonpiofit. But coipoiations have been linkeu to many othei human, physical anu
electionic espionage tactics against nonpiofits. Nany of these tactics aie eithei highly
unethical oi illegal.

Coipoiations engage in espionage against nonpiofits with neai impunity. Typically, they
suffei nothing moie than minoi auveise meuia coveiage if theii espionage is exposeu. The
lack of accountability may encouiage othei coipoiations to conuuct espionage.

Coipoiate espionage against nonpiofit oiganizations piesents a thieat to uemociacy anu to
inuiviuual piivacy. Bemociacy cannot function without an effective civil society. But civil
society anu its nonpiofit oiganizations uepenu ciucially on theii ability to keep some iueas,
infoimation, anu conveisations piivate.

Inuiviuual citizens anu gioups uo not lose theii iight to piivacy meiely because they
uisagiee with the activities oi iueas of a coipoiation. The iight to piivacy uovetails with
oui Fiist Amenument iights to speech, public uebate, anu full paiticipation in the
"maiketplace of iueas." It is especially unjust that coipoiations sabotage Ameiicans'
funuamental iights thiough actions that aie unethical oi illegal.

Nany things can be uone to piotect nonpiofits fiom coipoiate espionage. Congiess shoulu
investigate anu holu heaiings on coipoiate espionage against nonpiofits. Congiess anu
state legislatuies shoulu enact legislation to ciiminalize the theft of confiuential,
noneconomic infoimation helu by theii ciitics. Law enfoicement - especially the 0.S.
Bepaitment of }ustice - shoulu piioiitize investigating anu piosecuting coipoiate
espionage against nonpiofits.

5
Introduct|on
1he brave new wor|d of corporate esp|onage

In the 0niteu States, coipoiations have hiieu piivate investigatois since the coloiful anu
enteipiising Allan Pinkeiton set up a uetective agency in 18Su. It was a benign stait.
Pinkeiton enfoiceu a stiict coue of ethics on his "piivate eyes," anu he focuseu much of
theii woik on solving ciimes anu catching ciiminals. But when Pinkeiton uieu in 1884, his
business was taken ovei by his sons, who hau iueas of theii own. They unueitook
contioveisial woik, such as anti-union anu stiike-bieaking opeiations. Thus began the
long iise of the coipoiate spy-foi-hiie, anu the effoit to counteiact those who uaieu to
impaii the piofits of coipoiate Ameiica.

Touay, most laige coipoiations possess theii own inteinal intelligence capabilities. Theie
is an institutionalizeu secuiity anu intelligence function within eveiy majoi company - a
chief secuiity officei of some soit. They peifoim "thieat assessments" of all kinus,
incluuing the potential impact of nonpiofit oiganizations.

Some of theii staff oi contiactois aie foimei employees of the National Secuiity Agency,
Cential Intelligence Agency, Seciet Seivice anu othei intelligence oi law enfoicement
agencies, the militaiy, oi local police. Some of them have spent uecaues in intelligence
woik. A few giant coipoiations, such as Walmait, have essentially ieplicateu in miniatuie
an entiie CIA uiiectoiate of intelligence - foi theii own piivate use.

Coipoiate espionage is now commonplace. Beie's how the SANS Institute, a laige
cybeisecuiity euucation pioviuei, explains it: "The incieasing high stakes game of
coipoiate espionage is being playeu by inuiviuuals, coipoiations anu countiies woiluwiue.
These playeis will use any ethical, anu in most cases, any unethical, means to acquiie uata
that will give them a competitive oi financial auvantage ovei theii competition."
2
veteian
iepoitei Eamon }aveis makes a similai point. "Theie is so much money at stake," }aveis
says, "that eveiyone is spying on eveiybouy else. We live in an infoimation age wheie uata
is money. If you get moie uata than the next guy, you have the euge."
S


Since the enu of the Colu Wai, theie has also been a laige inciease in the numbei of piivate
investigative anu intelligence fiims - staffeu with foimei goveinment employees - uoing
espionage woik laigely uncheckeu by law enfoicement. As Annie Nachon, a foimei 0K
secuiity agency NIS agent, tolu the A$? @./.$-+/3 "The big change in iecent yeais has
been the huge giowth in these |secuiityj companies..Wheie befoie it was a hanuful of
piivate uetective agencies, now theie aie hunuieus of multinational secuiity oiganizations,
which opeiate with less iegulation than the spooks themselves."
4


2
Shane W. Robinson, "Coipoiate Espionage 2u1." SANS Institute, 2uu7.
S
}uuith Woous, "Spies, Lies - anu a Poisonous Bivoice Battle." "#$ B/,*0 "$*$4'/&#, }une 7,
2u11.
4
Stephen Aimstiong, "The New Spies." A$? @./.$-+/3, August 11, 2uu8.
6

Eamon }aveis has iepoiteu on the shauy ethics of the coipoiate espionage inuustiy. "As
one expeiienceu inuustiy opeiative tolu me, 'We'ie just one scanual away fiom a
goveinment ciackuown." With so much unsavoiy conuuct taking place, the inuustiy seems
likely to exploue into public view.

Foimei CIA uivision chief Nelvin uoouman has similai conceins about these piivate
intelligence fiims. "Eveiything is being attiacteu to these piivate companies in teims of
inuiviuuals anu expeitise anu functions that weie noimally uone by the intelligence
community," he says. "Ny majoi concein is the lack of accountability, the lack of
iesponsibility. The entiie inuustiy is essentially out of contiol. It's outiageous."
S


Some of this lack of accountability anu ielative impunity may ueiive fiom cohesive "olu boy
netwoiks" within foimei intelligence, law enfoicement anu militaiy ciicles. Such
camaiaueiie is not suipiising. The CIA's "olu boy netwoik" is legenuaiy. Regaiuing the
FBI, Eamon }aveis uesciibes a little-known publication, the "'/&*,3$, which "lists eveiy
ietiieu FBI agent in the countiy who woiks in the piivate investigations business." }aveis
uesciibes the "'/&*,3$ as "a bit like an institutionalizeu olu-boy netwoik foi ietiieu u-
men."
6


1he r|se of corporate esp|onage aga|nst nonprof|t organ|zat|ons

Thioughout the twenty-fiist centuiy, nonpiofit oiganizations anu activists have been
taigets of coipoiate espionage. But we uon't know exactly how many. Little is publicly
known about such espionage, because the peipetiatois stiive mightily to keep theii
opeiations seciet. As one secuiity jouinal obseives, "most coipoiate espionage cases nevei
come to light."
7
The entiie subject iemains muiky at best.
8


This iepoit is an effoit to uocument what we uo know, even though the uetails in each case
aie fai fiom complete. Nuch of what we know has been uncoveieu via impiobable stiokes
of goou foitune, such as whistlebloweis within piivate investigations fiims, leakeu
uocuments oi bizaiie coinciuences. That suggests that what we uo know is meiely the
pioveibial tip of the icebeig.

Nany factois have contiibuteu to the iise of coipoiate espionage against nonpiofits anu
whistlebloweis, such as the iising availability of foimei CIA, NSA anu othei militaiy,

S
}eiemy Scahill, "Blackwatei's Piivate Spies." "#$ A/.,(3, }une 2S, 2uu8.
6
Eamon }aveis, ;'(<$'= "'/2$'= >/?0$'= @&0. (New Yoik: BaipeiCollins, 2u1u), pp. 112-S.
7
"Bow Real Is the Risk of Coipoiate Espionage Touay." @$61',.0 B,'$6.('C- D$&('., Institute
of Nanagement & Auministiation, Apiil 2uu9.
8
Two iecent books aie illuminating: Eveline Lubbeis, @$6'$. E/3($15'$- ,3 .#$ B/'<F
G('&('/.$ /32 H(*,6$ @&0,34 (3 I6.,5,-.-9 (Lonuon: Pluto Piess, 2u12); anu Beiui Boghosian,
@&0,34 (3 B$+(6'/60F J(5$'3+$3. @1'5$,**/36$= G('&('/.$ H(?$' /32 H1)*,6 D$-,-./36$.
(San Fiancisco: City Lights Books, 2u1S).
7
intelligence anu law enfoicement officials; the outsouicing of goveinment intelligence
opeiations to piivate intelligence fiims; the spieau of suiveillance techniques geneially;
the iising powei anu sophistication of electionic suiveillance; the continueu giowth of
coipoiate powei in the 0niteu States; the paucity of law enfoicement iesouices spent on
piotecting nonpiofits; anu the failuie to punish coipoiations anu theii piivate intelligence
fiims foi unethical oi illegal espionage.

Foi many companies, the intangible value of theii bianu is a piecious asset. Foi this
ieason, many companies may view nonpiofits anu whistlebloweis as potent anu
unpieuictable auveisaiies, anu want to know eveiything they can about them. Companies
take "bianu iisk" seiiously, which also leaus them to outsouice theii effoits to taiget
nonpiofit oiganizations, thus ieuucing the bianu iisk of such activities anu hiuing behinu
shielus of plausible ueniability.

Coipoiations have useu a gieat vaiiety of human, physical anu electionic espionage tactics.
Accoiuing to }ack Bevine, a S2-yeai veteian of the CIA, anu foimei acting uiiectoi of its
foieign opeiations, "The piivate sectoi has viitually all the same techniques as the
goveinment."
9
Nany of these techniques, at least when useu by piivate coipoiations, aie
unethical oi illegal, anu have unueniably been useu against nonpiofit oiganizations.

A uiveise aiiay of nonpiofits have been taigeteu by espionage, incluuing enviionmental,
anti-wai, public inteiest, consumei, foou safety, pesticiue iefoim, nuising home iefoim,
gun contiol, social justice, animal iights anu aims contiol gioups.

Nany of the woilu's laigest coipoiations anu theii tiaue associations -- incluuing the 0.S.
Chambei of Commeice, Walmait, Nonsanto, Bank of Ameiica, Bow Chemical, Kiaft, Coca-
Cola, Chevion, Buigei King, NcBonalu's, Shell, BP, BAE, Sasol, Biown & Williamson anu
E.0N -- have been linkeu to espionage oi planneu espionage against nonpiofit
oiganizations, activists anu whistlebloweis.

Touay, coipoiations can hiie talenteu anu expeiienceu foimei intelligence, militaiy anu
law enfoicement officials to conuuct espionage against nonpiofit oiganizations. Foimei
agents of the CIA, NSA, Seciet Seivice, FBI, 0.S. militaiy anu cuiient anu foimei police have
all been linkeu to spying on nonpiofits. The ievolving uooi keeps spinning. Six yeais ago,
the investigative iepoitei Bouglas Fiantz suggesteu, "The best estimate is that seveial
hunuieu foimei intelligence agents now woik in coipoiate espionage..These ex-spies
apply a highei level of expeitise, honeu by goveinment seivice, to the ciuuei tactics
alieauy piacticeu by piivate investigatois."
1u


In iecent yeais, theie has been a laige tiansfei of goveinment intelligence opeiations fiom
goveinment staff to piivate fiims. "The CIA, NSA anu othei agencies once ienowneu foi
theii analysis of intelligence anu foi theii technical piowess in coveit opeiations, electionic
suiveillance anu oveiheau ieconnaissance have outsouiceu many of theii coie tasks to

9
Bouglas Fiantz, "Spy. vs. Spy." H('.7(*,(, Becembei 17, 2uu7.
1u
Bouglas Fiantz, "Spy. vs. Spy." H('.7(*,(, Becembei 17, 2uu7.
8
piivate intelligence aimies," wiites Tim Shoiiock. "As a iesult, spying has blossomeu into a
uomestic maiket woith neaily $Su billion a yeai."
11
In 2u1u, the K/-#,34.(3 H(-. was able
to iuentify 1,9S1 piivate companies that "woik on top-seciet contiacts." The H(-. also
estimateu that "out of 8S4,uuu people with top-seciet cleaiances, 26S,uuu aie
contiactois."
12


While such outsouicing is outsiue the scope of this iepoit, it speaks to the immense
capacity of intelligence gatheiing foi hiie, which coipoiations may employ to taiget
nonpiofit oiganizations.

In this iepoit, we uefine coipoiate espionage as coipoiations' use of unethical oi illegal
investigative oi suiveillance techniques to obtain infoimation about the activities of othei
coipoiations, whistlebloweis, activists, anu nonpiofit oiganizations.

This iepoit piesents naiiatives of coipoiate espionage, most of them uuiing the past
seventeen yeais. We will also uiscuss some iecent FBI investigations of nonpiofit
oiganizations, as well as a coipoiate-FBI paitneiship on intelligence matteis.

11
Tim Shoiiock, @&,$- 7(' L,'$F "#$ @$6'$. K('*2 (7 M3.$**,4$36$ N1.-(1'6,34. (New Yoik:
Simon & Schustei, 2uu8), pp. 11-2.
12
Bana Piiest anu William N. Aikin, "National Secuiity Inc." K/-#,34.(3 H(-., }uly 2u,
2u1u.
9
Narrat|ves of corporate esp|onage
8eckett 8rown Internat|ona| vs. many nonprof|t groups

In 1994, }ohn C. Bouu met Richaiu Beckett at a bai in Easton, Naiylanu. Shoitly theieaftei,
Beckett intiouuceu Bouu to Paul Rakowski, a ietiieu Seciet Seivice agent. Rakowski
pitcheu to Bouu the iuea of foiming a new piivate secuiity business. In August 199S, the
piivate secuiity fiim Beckett Biown Inteinational (BBI) was foimeu.

As pait of its woik, BBI spieu on many nonpiofit oiganizations. }ames Riugeway
1S
of
E(.#$' O(3$-, who bioke the stoiy of BBI's espionage opeiations, wiote that BBI

"spieu on uieenpeace anu othei enviionmental oiganizations fiom the late
199us thiough at least 2uuu, pilfeiing uocuments fiom tiash bins, attempting
to plant unueicovei opeiatives within gioups, casing offices, collecting phone
iecoius of activists, anu penetiating confiuential meetings. Accoiuing to
company uocuments pioviueu to E(.#$' O(3$- by a foimei investoi in the
fiim, this secuiity outfit collecteu confiuential inteinal iecoius÷uonoi lists,
uetaileu financial statements, the Social Secuiity numbeis of staff membeis,
stiategy memos÷fiom these oiganizations anu piouuceu intelligence
iepoits foi public ielations fiims anu majoi coipoiations involveu in
enviionmental contioveisies."
14



Greenpeace

Foi much of the 199us, uieenpeace conuucteu a campaign to phase out the use of chloiine
to manufactuie plastics anu papei. Especially in the eaily- anu miu-199us, uieenpeace's
campaign geneiateu ciitical meuia coveiage foi Bow, the woilu's laigest piouucei of

1S
Inciuentally, it was }ames Riugeway who fiist iepoiteu in 1966 that piivate uetectives
(hiieu by ueneial Notois, it was latei uiscloseu) weie tailing anu investigating Ralph
Nauei. See }ames Riugeway, "The Bick." "#$ A$? D$&1)*,6, Naich 12, 1966.
14
}ames Riugeway, "Black 0ps, uieen uioups." E(.#$' O(3$-, Apiil 11, 2uu8.
10
chloiine.
1S
It also won suppoit fiom the Clinton auministiation anu othei goveinmental
bouies.
16


In an effoit to alleviate its political anu publicity tioubles, Bow hiieu Ketchum, a public
ielations fiim. Accoiuing to Naik Floegel of uieenpeace, Bow paiu Ketchum ioughly
$Suu,uuu annually foi PR anu espionage taigeting uieenpeace anu othei enviionmental
gioups. Those opeiations incluueu:

HP:*+,). BBI staff anu contiactois often conuucteu what they iefeiieu to as "B-lines," oi
obtaining uieenpeace's tiash anu iecycling, to gain access to inteinal uieenpeace
uocuments. Accoiuing to a lawsuit fileu by uieenpeace, between }uly 1S, 1998 anu }uly 18,
2uuu, BBI anu its contiactois conuucteu "moie than 12u uocumenteu B-Lines at
uieenpeace's offices."
17


E(.#$' O(3$- inteivieweu one paiticipant in a B-line against uieenpeace:

}ennifei Tiapnell, who was uating |BBI employee Timj Waiu in the late
199us, iecalls an evening when she accompanieu Waiu on a job in
Washington B.C. "Be saiu they weie tiying to get some stuff on uieenpeace,"
she says. Waiu woie black clothes anu hau tolu hei to uiess all in black, too:
"It was E,--,(3 M+&(--,)*$-like." In Washington, Waiu paikeu his tiuck in an
alley, she iemembeis, anu tolu hei to stay in the tiuck anu keep a lookout. In
the alley, he met a couple of othei men, whose faces Tiapnell uiu not see
cleaily. Waiu was talking on a walkie-talkie with otheis, anu they all walkeu
off. About an houi latei, the men came back anu placeu two tiash bags in
Waiu's cai. Tiapnell says she uiun't know what they uiu with the bags÷anu
Waiu nevei explaineu.
18



1S
See, foi example, Ivan Amato, "The Ciusaue Against Chloiine." @6,$36$, }uly 9, 199S.
Elisabeth Kiischnei anu Baviu Buntei, "Attacks on Chloiine uathei Foice." G#$+,6/* K$$<,
Novembei S, 199S. Naigaiet Kiiz, "Clashing ovei Chloiine." A/.,(3/* O(1'3/*, Naich 19,
1994. Bob Wyss, "Chloiine: Elementaiy, Peiilous. Its 0se in Compounus Tiips Inteinational
Reseaich Alaims." H'(5,2$36$ O(1'3/*P;1**$.,3, Septembei 6, 1994. Ron Chepesiuk, "It's
Chemical Waifaie in Chloiine Battle; uieenpeace Wants a ulobal Ban on Chloiine, But
Inuustiy uioups Say Theie Is No Bangei." N'*/32( @$3.,3$*, Apiil 9, 199S. }im Noiiis, "In
Stiictest Confiuence . . . The Chemical Inuustiy's Seciets." L(1-.(3 G#'(3,6*$, 0ctobei 2S,
1998.
16
Biau Knickeibockei, "Clinton Woulu Bottle 0p 0se of Chloiine." Chiistian Science
Nonitoi, Febiuaiy 22, 1994. "Panel Finus Thieat to uieat Lakes." I--(6,/.$2 H'$--¡A$?
Q('< ",+$-, Febiuaiy 22, 1994.
17
uieenpeace v. The Bow Chemical Company et al., at 9. See:
http:¡¡www.gieenpeace.oig¡usa¡spygate¡.
18
}ames Riugeway, "Black 0ps, uieen uioups." E(.#$' O(3$-, Apiil 11, 2uu8.
11
W), #5 "#:*V, #55*V,.). To conuuct B-lines against uieenpeace's Washington offices, BBI
hiieu a subcontiactoi, }ames Baion, a Bistiict of Columbia police officei.
19
Accoiuing to the
uieenpeace complaint, Baion "was expecteu to use his official police bauge to gain access
to uumpsteis that weie encloseu by a lockeu fence." Baion paiticipateu in "at least SS" of
the B-lines against uieenpeace.
2u


In an email uiscussing how to access the gaibage anu iecycling of anothei nonpiofit taiget,
BBI's Tim Waiu wiites: "Naybe one of oui BPB |Baltimoie Police Bepaitmentj guys can hit
that one."
21


W), #5 5#.<,. !,V.,0 !,.Q*V,G -;3G <*:*0/.% /+U "#:*V, #55*V,.). BBI was founueu anu¡oi
staffeu by foimei Seciet Seivice, CIA, militaiy anu police officeis, incluuing:
• Baviu Biesett, foimei chief of counteiteiioiism foi the Seciet Seivice;
• vincent Cannistiaio, foimei uiiectoi of countei-teiioiism opeiations foi the CIA;
• Philip uiialui, foimei countei-teiioiism specialist anu militaiy intelligence officei of
the CIA;
• }ay A. Bly, foimei Seciet Seivice agent;
• Timothy S. Waiu, foimei seigeant, Naiylanu State Police;
• Paul Rakowski, foimei Seciet Seivice agent;
• Nichael Nika, foimei Seciet Seivice agent;

ueoige N. Feiiis, foimei naval special opeiations officei;
22
anu,

• Baiolu "}im" uiasman, foimei Seciet Seivice agent, cuiiently Special Agent in
Chaige anu Chief Technology 0fficei, 0ffice of Inspectoi ueneial, 0S Bepaitment of
Bomelanu Secuiity.

=F%)*V/: )(.Q,*::/+V,G *+0.()*#+ /+U *+5*:0./0*#+. Accoiuing to the uieenpeace
complaint, Naiy Lou Sapone, a BBI consultant anu expeiienceu infiltiatoi of nonpiofits,
poseu as a piospective campaign volunteei to suiveil uieenpeace's offices. She iepoiteu
that "I askeu foi a toui of all 4 floois in oiuei to assess which uivisions weie laigest, anu
obseive all employees in theii woik space. The public affaiis¡public euucation¡wiiting
uepaitment was the laigest in teims of flooi space anu numbei of employees obseiveu."
2S


BBI appaiently tiieu to ueteimine the secuiity coues foi uieenpeace office uoois, anu may
well have useu these coues to entei uieenpeace offices. Founu among the BBI uocuments
ielateu to uieenpeace was a hanuwiitten list of secuiity coues that seems to have been

19
Baion still woiks foi the Bistiict of Columbia police, in the special opeiations uivision.
http:¡¡www.linkeuin.com¡pub¡james-uaion¡2a¡98S¡2S.
2u
uieenpeace v. The Bow Chemical Company et al., at 9.
21
}ames Riugeway, "Black 0ps, uieen uioups." E(.#$' O(3$-, Apiil 11, 2uu8.
22
}ames Riugeway, "Black 0ps, uieen uioups." E(.#$' O(3$-, Apiil 11, 2uu8. BBI peisonnel
chait anu bios: http:¡¡www.gieenpeace.oig¡usa¡en¡meuia-centei¡iepoits¡BBI-peisonnel-
chait¡.
2S
uieenpeace v. The Bow Chemical Company et al., at 11.
12
useu by BBI staff oi contiactois to tiy to open uieenpeace office uoois. They appaiently
testeu many coues, anu noteu which ones woikeu anu which uiu not.
24


Accoiuing to the uieenpeace complaint, "BBI piocuieu anu helu highly confiuential
uieenpeace iecoius, incluuing, foi example, confiuential peisonal, financial anu
employment iecoius - which coulu only have been secuieu fiom uieenpeace's offices."
2S


E*.,0/")G F/V$*+2 /+U #0F,. ,:,V0.#+*V )(.Q,*::/+V,> Ample eviuence suggests that BBI
anu its sub-contiactois conuucteu electionic suiveillance of uieenpeace. Accoiuing to the
uieenpeace complaint:

• BBI kept a file labeleu "Wiie Tap Info" that was founu along with uieenpeace
inteinal uocuments.
26


• "BBI hiieu TiiWest Investigations to piocuie the phone call iecoius of uieenpeace
employees oi contiactois. BBI obtaineu the iecoius of cellulai phone calls placeu
anu ieceiveu by uieenpeace employees oi contiactois fiom uieenpeace's cellulai
pioviuei. Foi example, BBI obtaineu a list of calls maue to anu fiom |uieenpeace
oiganizeij Beth Zilbeit's cell phone, which was paiu foi by uieenpeace."
27


• "BBI puichaseu the seivices of NetSafe, Inc., a company that specializes in computei
intiusion anu electionic suiveillance, foi its woik on uieenpeace piojects. Nost of
NetSafe's top executives weie foimei National Secuiity Agency employees,
incluuing }oe Patanella." In 1999, BBI issueu a $4,uuu check, whose puipose was
iecoiueu as "Patanella - uP". "0thei BBI iecoius inuicate that the check was issueu
foi 'Cash' foi '}oe Patanella'."
28


• BBI's notes to its clients "incluue 5$')/.,+ R1(.$- attiibuteu to specific uieenpeace
employees."
29


• In 1999, BBI employees "wiote a pioposal foi 'intiusion anu suivey'" foi Ketchum,
which hau been hiieu by Bow to woik on matteis ielateu to uieenpeace.
Su


SF,50 #5 V#+5*U,+0*/: *+5#.</0*#+> Accoiuing to the uieenpeace complaint, uocuments
obtaineu fiom uieenpeace incluue "confiuential stiategy infoimation" about uieenpeace's
campaigns against "toxic chemicals, global waiming, nucleai eneigy, genetic engineeiing

24
http:¡¡motheijones.com¡files¡legacy¡news¡featuie¡2uu8¡u4¡Banuwiitten-uP-Booi-
Coues.puf. uieenpeace v. The Bow Chemical Company et al., at 1S-14.
2S
uieenpeace v. The Bow Chemical Company et al., at 14.
26
uieenpeace v. The Bow Chemical Company et al., at 14.
27
uieenpeace v. The Bow Chemical Company et al., at 14-1S.
28
uieenpeace v. The Bow Chemical Company et al., at 1S.
29
uieenpeace v. The Bow Chemical Company et al., at 16.
Su
uieenpeace v. The Bow Chemical Company et al., at 16.
13
anu the pollution of fisheiies anu oceans." Specific campaign stiategy uocuments incluue:
"Toxics Campaign Neeting Agenua foi Febiuaiy 2, 1999; uenetically Nouifieu 0iganisms
Campaign Stiategy; ulobal Waiming Stiategy; Climate Campaign Ship Toui Biaft Scheuule;
Communications Plan foi uieat Beai Rain Foiest Campaign; uieenpeace Southein Stiategy
0puate; anu Pieseivation of Whales Campaign."
S1


0n Novembei 29, 2u1u, uieenpeace fileu a lawsuit in feueial uistiict couit against Bow
Chemical, Sasol Noith Ameiica, Bezenhall Resouices, Ketchum anu otheis iegaiuing the
coipoiate espionage. uieenpeace's complaint allegeu violations of the Racketeei
Influenceu anu Coiiupt 0iganizations (RIC0) Act incluuing "both a pattein anu piactice of
actions by the Befenuants to intiuue upon anu invaue the piivacy anu lawful inteiests of
uieenpeace anu misappiopiiate its confiuential infoimation foi economic gain."
S2
The suit
was uismisseu on Septembei 9, 2u11. }uuge Rosemaiy N. Collyei iuleu that "The uiiect
victim of this allegeu wiie fiauu was not uieenpeaceG but a thiiu paity, anu, theiefoie, the
link between uieenpeace's injuiies anu Befenuants' allegeu iacketeeiing activity is too
attenuateu to be actionable unuei RIC0."
SS


0n 0ctobei 7, 2u11, uieenpeace ie-fileu its lawsuit in Bistiict of Columbia Supeiioi Couit.
S4

0n Febiuaiy S, 2u1S, BC Supeiioi Couit }uuge Nichael Rankin iuleu that uieenpeace may
pioceeu with paits of its case, but uismisseu foui of its claims.

0n 0ctobei 8, 2u1S, a coalition of nonpiofit oiganizations fileu an amicus biief in the
Bistiict of Columbia Couit of Appeals, uiging the couit to "ueclaie the piactice of
'commeicial uumpstei uiving' to be an illegitimate means foi a company to obtain
infoimation fiom an auveisaiy." The biief uefines "commeicial uumpstei uiving" as
"companies iummag|ingj thiough the tiash of theii competitois oi ciitics in seaich of tiaue
seciets oi othei valuable infoimation."
SS
The nonpiofits filing the amicus biief incluue
Essential Infoimation; the Centei foi Bealth, Enviionment anu }ustice; Rainfoiest Action
Netwoik; Institute foi Agiicultuie anu Tiaue Policy; anu the Centei foi Foou Safety.

1he Center for Iood Safety, Ir|ends of the Larth and GL Iood A|ert

In 2uuu, BBI changeu its name to S2i. That same yeai, the public ielations fiim Ketchum
askeu S2i, on behalf of Kiaft, to pioviue intelligence about nonpiofit oiganizations opposeu

S1
uieenpeace v. The Bow Chemical Company et al., at 17.
S2
uieenpeace v. The Bow Chemical Company et al., at 1-2. See also Spencei Bsu,
"uieenpeace Accuses Bow Chemical, Sasol anu P.R. Allies of Coipoiate Spying." K/-#,34.(3
H(-., 0ctobei 29, 2u1u.
SS
uieenpeace, Inc. v. Bow Chem. Co., 8u8 F. Supp. 2u 262, 269. See also Tom Schoenbeig,
"Bow Chemical, Sasol Win Bismissal of uieenpeace Lawsuit." ;*((+)$'4, Septembei 9,
2u11.
S4
Foi uetails, see: http:¡¡www.gieenpeace.oig¡usa¡en¡news-anu-blogs¡news¡spygate¡.
SS
uieenpeace v. The Bow Chemical Company et al., amicus cuiiae biief fiom Essential
Infoimation et al., at 2-S.
14
to genetically engineeieu foou. Emails ielateu to S2i's opeiations suggest the company may
have engageu in uumpstei uiving against these nonpiofits anu may have useu a Bistiict of
Columbia police officei to entei the piemises of one of the nonpiofits.

0ne uocument iecoveieu fiom BBI's files was an email fiom }ay Bly, a foimei Seciet Seivice
agent, to Tim Waiu, a foimei Naiylanu State Tioopei:

"Receiveu a call fiom Ketchum yesteiuay afteinoon ie thiee sites in BC. It
seems Taco Bell tuineu out some piouuct maue fiom bioengineeieu coin.
The chemicals useu on the coin have not been appioveu foi human
consumption. Bence Taco Bell piouuceu potential glow-in-the-uaik tacos.
Taco Bell is owneu by Kiaft. The Ketchum 0ffice, New Yoik, has the ball. They
suspect the initiative is being geneiateu fiom one of thiee places:
1.Centei foi Foou Safety, 7th & Penn SE
2.Fiienus of the Eaith, 1u2S veimont Ave (Between K & L Stieets)
S.uE Foou Aleit, 12uu 18th St NW (18th & N)
#1 is locateu on Siu flooi. Nain entiance is key caiu. Alley is lockeu by iion
gates. 7 uempsteis |sicj in alley÷take youi pick.
#2 is in the same builuing as Chile Embassy. Aimeu guaiu in lobby & cameias
eveiywheie. Theie is a uumpstei in the alley behinu the builuing. Bon't know
if it is tieu to blug. oi a neighboihoou piopeity. Cameias eveiywheie.
#S is uoable but behinu lockeu iion gates at ieai of blug."
S6


The next uay, Bly sent Waiu anothei email:

"Re: Bumpstei Bive.
I got holu of }im Baion |a Bistiict of Columbia police officei woiking foi BBIj
yesteiuay. Be was supposeu to uo veimont Ave anu Penn Ave SE last night. I
have not heaiu fiom him touay÷what's new. I uiu 18th St. Weaiu |sicj set
up÷the uumpstei is behinu lockeu gates. The tiuck uiives uown the alley
anu iings foi the night guaiu to open the gate. The guaiu comes out, unlocks
anu goes back into the builuing (piobably pisseu off because they woke him
up), the guys walk the bags out to the tiuck one at a time. When they finish
they lockeu the gate behinu them. Theie was so much tiash they hau to
compact the tiuck two times while they weie theie. I uiu not finu anything
fiom the Sth flooi, but the goou news is it's uoable."
S7


0n Septembei 28
th
, Waiu ieplieu:

"uoou news! Think that once }im |Baionj calls you back we will know wheie
we stanu. If he can't get in with the shielu, it will be uifficult at sight #1. I
think #2 we can uo iegaiuless. The issue is a hot one in geneial. I've been
following it fiom heie. Bon't foiget oui uP |uieenpeacej boy in Baltimoie has

S6
}ames Riugeway, "Black 0ps, uieen uioups." E(.#$' O(3$-, Apiil 11, 2uu8.
S7
}ames Riugeway, "Black 0ps, uieen uioups." E(.#$' O(3$-, Apiil 11, 2uu8.
15
been hanuling the woik foi uP. It may be woith a check in the city. Naybe
one of oui BPB |Baltimoie Police Bepaitmentj guys can hit that one."

U.S. Þub||c Interest kesearch Group, Ir|ends of the Larth, Nat|ona| Lnv|ronmenta| 1rust]GL
Iood A|ert, Center for Iood Safety, Lnv|ronmenta| Med|a Serv|ces, Lnv|ronmenta| Work|ng
Group, Inst|tute for G|oba| Commun|cat|ons, Þest|c|de Act|on Network.

0ne BBI uocument -- titleu "Possible Sites" -- appeais to be a list of nonpiofit taigets foi
uumpstei uiving, intiusion anu infiltiation. All of the gioups above aie on the taiget list.
Next to Enviionmental Neuia Seivices is a notation: "think we have hit them befoie".
S8


Ienton Commun|cat|ons
Fenton Communications is a public ielations fiim founueu by Baviu Fenton that
suppoits public inteiest, enviionmental anu othei nonpiofit gioups. E(.#$' O(3$-
iepoiteu that:
0n Becembei 8, 1999, a BBI opeiative, accoiuing to an inteinal iepoit, 'sat
suiveillance' at |Baviuj Fenton's Washington home, beginning at 2:Su am. In
the iepoit, the opeiative noteu the time of the moining gaibage pick-up anu
that he ietuineu to the office to 'soit mateiial' anu 'analyze.' BBI ian
backgiounu checks on both Fenton anu his then-wife. The company's files
containeu photogiaphs of theii house as well as client lists, billing
infoimation, anu peisonnel infoimation fiom Fenton Communications.
Between }uly 1998 anu Febiuaiy 2uu1, Fenton says, his fiim expeiienceu
seveial bieak-ins, uuiing which boxes of files anu two laptops weie stolen.
The culpiits weie nevei caught.
S9


Accoiuing to the uieenpeace complaint, BBI obtaineu confiuential inteinal
uocuments fiom Fenton Communications, incluuing "billable time summaiy iepoits,
ieflecting the woik peifoimeu foi Fenton clients; inteinal fee memoianua, which
pioviue instiuctions foi invoicing paiticulai clients; timeslip iepoits, which
uocument the billable houis of each employee; anu a check foi the ieimbuisement
of a health insuiance claim foi Baviu Fenton, which was maileu to his home
auuiess."
4u


S8
http:¡¡motheijones.com¡files¡legacy¡news¡featuie¡2uu8¡u4¡Possible%2uSites-
Auuiesses.puf.
S9
}ames Riugeway, "Black 0ps, uieen uioups." Nothei }ones, Apiil 11, 2uu8.
http:¡¡motheijones.com¡files¡legacy¡news¡featuie¡2uu8¡u4¡Inteinal%2uRepoit-Sat-
Suiveillance.puf.
4u
uieenpeace v. The Bow Chemical Company et al., at 17.
16

Greenpeace, CLLAN and the Lake Char|es Þro[ect
Fiom 1984 to 2uu1, C0NBEA vista manufactuieu vinyl chloiiue at a factoiy in Lake
Chailes, Louisiana.
41
In 1997, C0NBEA vista was founu guilty of "wanton anu
ieckless uisiegaiu of public safety" anu fineu $7 million in punitive uamages foi
leaks of ethylene uichloiiue, an inteimeuiate compounu in the piouuction of
polyvinyl chloiiue.
42
Foi many yeais uieenpeace campaigneu to expose the uangeis
of polyvinyl chloiiue anu the pollution geneiateu by C0NBEA vista.
4S


Accoiuing to the uieenpeace complaint:

• "0n Nay 26, 1998, woiking at the behest of both C0NBEA vista anu
Bezenhall, BBI initiateu the 'Lake Chailes Pioject' to secuie confiuential
infoimation about enviionmental oiganizations anu campaigneis."
44


• To assist with the Lake Chailes Pioject, BBI hiieu Naiy Lou Sapone, who
hiieu Bick Rogeis to infiltiate uieenpeace anu CLEAN. "Posing as a
conceineu citizen, Rogeis manageu to get electeu to CLEAN's boaiu. Fiom
that position, he monitoieu the activities of uieenpeace, incluuing
communications between CLEAN anu uieenpeace..Rogeis sent moie than
6S naiiative iepoits anu foiwaiueu at least 1Su confiuential emails to
Sapone. Sapone, in tuin, foiwaiueu the confiuential emails anu iepoits,
almost uaily, to Waiu between August 1998 anu Novembei 1999."
4S


• "In 1998, }ay Bly tiaveleu to Louisiana to suiveil the offices anu homes of
activists woiking in Lake Chailes. Be submitteu numeious iepoits uetailing
his activities, which involveu.collecting anu soiting tiash fiom vaiious
locations. In 1999, Bly was ieimbuiseu foi supplies puichaseu in Naiylanu
in connection with his C0NBEA vista investigations: AAA batteiies, tiash
bags, a tiash can anu keys.the chaige to C0NBEA vista foi making 'keys'
fuithei pioviues suppoit foi the conclusion that BBI was unlawfully gaining
access to uieenpeace piemises, oi piopeity ielateu to uieenpeace, that it hau

41
In 2uu1, C0NBEA vista was puichaseu by Sasol, a giant South Afiican chemical company.
42
"C0NBEA vista punisheu ovei leaks; C0NBEA vista Co. pays $7 million foi chemical
spill." G#$+,-.'0 /32 M321-.'0, Novembei S, 1997.
4S
See, foi example, "uieenpeace, Lake Chailes, La., Resiuents Piotest PvC." uieenpeace
news ielease, }uly 14, 1997. }im Noiiis, "Bane 0n The Bayou; Chemical Companies' 'Lying
Piopaganua' Bupes The Public About vinyl Inuustiy Bazaius, Lawmakei Says." L(1-.(3
G#'(3,6*$, }uly 26, 1998. uaiy Tayloi, "uieenpeace Sets Louisiana Chem Piotest." G#$+,6/*
A$?- S M3.$**,4$36$, }une 21, 1999. }ohn NcQuaiu, "0nwelcome Neighbois: Bow The Pooi
Beai The Buiuens 0f Ameiica's Pollution." ",+$-PH,6/013$ (New 0ileans, LA), Nay 2S,
2uuu.
44
uieenpeace v. The Bow Chemical Company et al., at 21.
4S
uieenpeace v. The Bow Chemical Company et al., at 2S.
17
no lawful iight to access."
46


North Va||ey Coa||t|on

Accoiuing to E(.#$' O(3$-,
"In 1996 anu 1997 in noithein Califoinia, wheie Biowning-Feiiis Inuustiies was
engageu in a battle ovei the futuie of a gaibage uump, BBI conuucteu what its
iecoius labeleu 'coveit monitoiing' anu 'intelligence gatheiing' on the Noith valley
Coalition, a citizens gioup opposeu to the Biowning-Feiiis pioject. In Septembei
1997, BBI ieceiveu a payment of $198,881.uS fiom BFI."
47


Nurs|ng home act|v|sts

Accoiuing to the K/-#,34.(3 H(-.= BBI spieu on nuising home activists who wanteu
impioveu conuitions at a Naiylanu nuising home calleu Bebiew Bome:

In 1997, at a community centei in Nontgomeiy County, activists helu
meetings to uiscuss Bebiew Bome. The gioup, maue up laigely of iesiuents'
ielatives, allegeu pooi meuication contiols anu iough tieatment of iesiuents.
As they stiategizeu, an unueicovei opeiative was paying close attention. Bei
iepoits -- along with meeting agenuas, license plate numbeis anu
uesciiptions of auvocates -- weie ielayeu to Bebiew Bome officials, the
iecoius show..0vei a yeai, the nuising home paiu BBI about $Su,uuu foi
investigative woik, accoiuing to invoices auuiesseu to chief executive
Waiien Slavin.
48


Mary Lou Sapone and the 8rady Campa|gn

Fiom the miu-199us thiough much of the 2uuus, Naiy NcFate was a piominent volunteei
foi gun contiol gioups. She ian foi a seat on the boaiu of uiiectois of the Biauy Campaign
to Pievent uun violence, anu woikeu closely with othei national gun contiol oiganizations,
such as the violence Policy Centei. She was uiiectoi of feueial legislation foi States 0niteu
to Pievent uun violence. She was ueeply knowleugeable about the plans anu actions of
these anu othei national gun contiol gioups. They, howevei, uiu not know that hei othei
iuentity was Naiy Lou Sapone, who since the late 198us hau been paiu by coipoiations to

46
uieenpeace v. The Bow Chemical Company et al., at 2S-4.
47
}ames Riugeway, "Black 0ps, uieen uioups." E(.#$' O(3$-, Apiil 11, 2uu8.
48
}enna }ohnson, "Coipoiate Espionage Betaileu in Bocuments; Befunct Nu. Agency
Taigeteu Activists." K/-#,34.(3 H(-., }une 22, 2uu8. See also "Spying by Nuising Bome
Biaws Fiie." "#$ T('?/'2, }uly 18, 2uu8.
18
spy on citizens' gioups.
49
Foi example, she hau woikeu foi Beckett Biown Inteinational to
infiltiate the Lake Chailes, Louisiana enviionmental oiganization CLEAN.
Su
Foi the 0.S.
Suigical Coipoiation, she hau infiltiateu animal iights activists who weie piotesting its use
of uogs in meuical tiaining.
S1
In a 2uuS ueposition, Tim Waiu, foimei piesiuent of BBI, saiu
that the National Rifle Association hau been a client of Sapone's. Billing iecoius show that
the NRA paiu BBI "neaily $8u,uuu" foi seivices ienueieu between Nay 1999 anu Apiil
2uuu.
S2


US Chamber of Commerce]n8Gary Iedera|]nunton & W||||ams vs. U.S. Chamber
Watch]Þub||c C|t|zen]Þub||c Campa|gn]MoveCn.org]Ve|vet kevo|ut|on]Center for
Amer|can Þrogress]1|des Ioundat|on]Iust|ce 1hrough Mus|c]Move to Amend]kuckus
Soc|ety

In }anuaiy 2u11, an executive in the computei secuiity fiim BBuaiy Feueial claimeu to
have iuentifieu the leaueiship of the hackei collective Anonymous.
SS
In iesponse, the
collective hackeu the fiim's email anu othei accounts, anu ieleaseu its files on the
Inteinet.
S4
This cieateu a iaie oppoitunity to ieview the iecent inteinal woikings of an
impoitant piivate investigative fiim.
SS


The uocuments ieveal pioposals maue by BBuaiy Feueial to the poweiful 0.S. law fiim
Bunton & Williams, to help its client, the 0.S. Chambei of Commeice, uiscieuit its nonpiofit
ciitics.

The uocuments offei the joint seivices of thiee fiims: BBuaiy Feueial, the intelligence
analysis fiim Palantii Technologies
S6
anu Beiico Technologies,
S7
which pioviues

49
}ames Riugeway, Baniel Schulman anu Baviu Coin, "Theie's Something About Naiy:
0nmasking a uun Lobby Nole." E(.#$' O(3$-, }uly Su, 2uu8. }ohn Staubei anu Sheluon
Rampton, "(U,6 @*124$ ,- J((2 T(' Q(1F >,$-= B/+3 >,$- /32 .#$ H1)*,6 D$*/.,(3- M321-.'0.
(Nonioe, NE: Common Couiage Piess, 2uu2), pp. 61-4.
Su
}ames Riugeway, "Black 0ps, uieen uioups." E(.#$' O(3$-, Apiil 11, 2uu8.
S1
}oseph Bemma, Robeit E. Kesslei anu Nichael Slackman, "Bomb Suspect: 'I Was Set 0p';
Says 'Fiienu' -- 0.S. Suigical's Agent -- Peisuaueu Bei to uo 0n." A$?-2/0, }anuaiy 27, 1989.
Celestine Bohlen, "Animal-Rights Case: Teiioi oi Entiapment." "#$ A$? Q('< ",+$-, Naich
S, 1989.
S2
}ames Riugeway, Baniel Schulman anu Baviu Coin, "Theie's Something About Naiy:
0nmasking a uun Lobby Nole." E(.#$' O(3$-, }uly Su, 2uu8.
SS
Nate Anueison, "Bow 0ne Nan Tiackeu Bown Anonymous÷anu Paiu a Beavy Piice."
I'- "$6#3,6/, Febiuaiy, 2u11.
S4
Chailes Aithui, "Anonymous Attacks 0S Secuiity Company." J1/'2,/3, Febiuaiy 7, 2u11.
SS
Eiic Lipton anu Chailie Savage, "Backeis' Clash With Secuiity Fiim Spotlights Inquiiies to
Biscieuit Rivals." "#$ A$? Q('< ",+$-, Febiuaiy 12, 2u11.
S6
Foi backgiounu, see: Pascal-Emmanuel uobiy, "Revealeu: Palantii Technologies, The
Secietive $7SS Nillion Tech Secuiity Company Belping Beuge Funus Anu uoveinments."
19
intelligence seivices to the 0.S. militaiy anu intelligence agencies. Togethei, the thiee fiims
calleu themselves "Team Themis."

In iesponse to solicitations fiom Bunton & Williams, seveial Team Themis uocuments
outline a campaign to taiget 0.S. Chambei Watch, a nonpiofit watchuog gioup that
monitoieu the 0.S. Chambei of Commeice. Team Themis pioposeu to execute highly
unethical anu¡oi possibly illegal tactics,
S8
such as:

• "Cieate a false uocument, peihaps highlighting peiiouical financial infoimation, anu
monitoi to see if 0S Chambei Watch acquiies it. Afteiwaiu, piesent explicit
eviuence pioving that such tiansactions nevei occuiieu."

• "|Cjieate a fake insiuei peisona anu geneiate communications with CtW |Change to
Winj. Afteiwaiu, ielease the actual uocuments at a specifieu time anu explain the
activity as a CtW contiiveu opeiation. Both instances will piove that 0S Chambei
Watch cannot be tiusteu with infoimation anu¡oi tell the tiuth."
S9


Team Themis pioposeu to wage electionic waifaie against 0.S. Chambei Watch anu its
allies. 0ne Team Themis pioposal offeis to employ BBuaiy Feueial's capabilities foi
"Infoimation 0peiations." Infoimation 0peiations is a militaiy teim foi electionic waifaie.
The pioposal incluues BBuaiy Feueial's expeitise in "vulneiability Reseaich¡Exploit
Bevelopment" anu "Nalwaie Analysis anu Reveise Engineeiing."
6u
Anothei Team Themis
uocument pioposes to use a softwaie engineei "iesponsible foi the uesign anu
uevelopment of custom bots".
61
Nany kinus of malwaie use custom bots.

0thei emails show that BBuaiy Feueial investigateu the ciitics of the 0.S. Chambei of

;1-,3$-- M3-,2$', Naich 1u, 2u11. Palantii Technologies has ieceiveu $8u million in 1Su
feueial contiacts since 2uu9, incluuing Su contiacts with the Bepaitment of Befense anu 22
contiacts with the Bepaitment of }ustice, accoiuing to 0SASpenuing.gov (accesseu 0ctobei
28, 2u1S.)
S7
Beiico Technologies has ieceiveu $1S million in 91 feueial contiacts since 2uu8,
incluuing S2 contiacts with the Bepaitment of Befense, accoiuing to 0SASpenuing.gov
(accesseu 0ctobei 28, 2u1S.)
S8
See Kevin Zeese's ethics complaint against Bunton & Williams attoineys }ohn W. Woous,
Richaiu L. Wyatt anu Robeit T. Quackenboss, Febiuaiy 2S, 2u11.
http:¡¡www.velvetievolution.us¡images¡B_W_Bai_complaint.puf.
S9
"0S Chambei Watch Infoimation 0peiations Recommenuation." Novembei 29, 2u1u.
http:¡¡images2.ameiicanpiogiess.oig¡ThinkPiogiess¡PioposalFoiTheChambei.puf.
6u
Beiico Technologies, BBuaiy Feueial, Palantii Technologies: "Coipoiate Infoimation
Reconnaissance Cell (CIRC); Team Themis."
http:¡¡images2.ameiicanpiogiess.oig¡ThinkPiogiess¡themispioposal2.ppt
61
Beiico Technologies, BBuaiy Feueial, Palantii Technologies, "Coipoiate Infoimation
Reconnaissance Cell." Novembei S, 2u1u.
http:¡¡images2.ameiicanpiogiess.oig¡ThinkPiogiess¡themispioposal1.puf.
20
Commeice, incluuing theii spouses, chiluien, ieligious activities anu peisonal lives - anu
even gatheieu photos of them.
62


Team Themis pioposeu to Bunton & Williams a $2uu,uuu monthly piice tag foi initial
ieseaich, with a $2 million monthly cost foi a full campaign.
6S


Team Themis pioposeu to employ veteians of the 0.S. militaiy anu intelligence seivices. In
a pioposal to Bunton & Williams, Team Themis wanteu to "highlight.key peisonnel as
iepiesentative of the outstanuing talent within oui oiganizations" who woulu conuuct oi
oveisee espionage against nonpiofit oiganizations. Those people incluue:

• uuy Filippelli, "a foimei 0.S. Aimy Nilitaiy Intelligence officei with seivice in
ueimany, Koiea, Iiaq anu Afghanistan, anu as a civilian Special Assistant to the
Biiectoi of the NSA..Be most iecently ietuineu fiom seveial weeks in Afghanistan
in }une 2u1u, conuucting a compiehensive assessment foi senioi uefense anu
intelligence officials."

• Boug Philippone "ueployeu to Afghanistan, Iiaq anu Pakistan foi a total of 6
ueployments fiom 2uuS-2uu7. Be commanueu multiple }oint Special 0peiations
Commanu outstations in suppoit of the global wai on teiioi. Boug ian the foieign
fightei campaign on the Syiian boiuei in 2uuS to stop the flow of suiciue bombeis
into Baghuau.. As a commanuei, Boug ian the entiie intelligence cycle: iuentifieu
high-level teiioiists, planneu missions to kill oi captuie them, leu the missions
peisonally, then exploiteu the intelligence anu eviuence gatheieu on taiget to uefeat
bioauei enemy netwoiks."

• Aaion Baii, who "seiveu as the Biiectoi of Technology foi the Cybei secuiity anu
SIuINT Business 0nit within Noithiop uiumman's Intelligence Systems
Bivision..|Bej seiveu 12 yeais in the 0niteu States Navy as an enlisteu ciyptologist,
senioi signals analyst, softwaie piogiammei, anu system auministiatoi..Ni. Baii
has pioneeieu many uses of the Inteinet anu new meuia foi the puiposes of
conuuction bioau infoimation opeiations campaigns foi key intelligence
customeis."
64



62
Scott Keyes, "0S Chambei's Lobbyists Soliciteu Fiim to Investigate 0pponents' Families,
Chiluien." Think Piogiess, Febiuaiy 1u, 2u11. Eiic Lipton anu Chailie Savage, "Backeis'
Clash With Secuiity Fiim Spotlights Inquiiies to Biscieuit Rivals." "#$ A$? Q('< ",+$-,
Febiuaiy 12, 2u11.
6S
Beiico Technologies, BBuaiy Feueial, Palantii Technologies, "Coipoiate Infoimation
Reconnaissance Cell Scope of Woik." Novembei 1S, 2u1u.
http:¡¡,+/4$-V9/+$',6/3&'(4'$--9('4W"#,3<H'(4'$--W.#$+,-&*/39&27
64
Beiico Technologies, BBuaiy Feueial, Palantii Technologies, "Coipoiate Infoimation
Reconnaissance Cell." Novembei S, 2u1u.
http:¡¡images2.ameiicanpiogiess.oig¡ThinkPiogiess¡themispioposal1.puf.
21
Team Themis offeieu to infiltiate ciitics of the 0.S. Chambei of Commeice. In a "biief" foi
Bunton & Williams, they piopose to "use the following tactics to mitigate effect of
auveisaiial gioups." These tactics incluue: "Biscieuit, Confuse, Shame, Combat, Infiltiate,
Fiactuie." They pioposeu using these tactics against the Centei foi Ameiican Piogiess,
Nove0n.oig, velvet Revolution, Nove to Amenu, }TNP (}ustice Thiough Nusic Pioject), 0.S.
Chambei Watch, Biau's Blog, }oe Tiippi, Biave New Films, New Left Neuia, Agit-PoP,
Couiage Campaign anu the Ruckus Society.
6S


Team Themis pioposeu to gathei intelligence fiom seveial nonpiofit oiganizations anu
theii staff. 0ne uocument sets foith some "piioiity intelligence iequiiements" anu taigets
the following nonpiofit oiganizations: Nove0n.oig. velvet Revolution, Centei foi Ameiican
Piogiess, the Tiues Founuation anu }ustice Thiough Nusic anu 0.S. Chambei Watch. Team
Themis pioposeu to taiget these specific inuiviuuals: Biau Fiieuman, co-founuei of the
velvet Revolution; }ane }ohnson, a communications stiategist; Ilyse Bogue, foimei uiiectoi
of political auvocacy anu communications foi Nove0n.oig; Nick Nyhait, piesiuent anu CE0
of Public Campaign; anu Robeit Weissman, piesiuent of Public Citizen.
66


n8Gary Iedera|]nunton & W||||ams]8ank of Amer|ca vs. W|k|Leaks

In late Novembei 2u1u, }ulian Assange, euitoi-in-chief of the nonpiofit meuia oiganization
WikiLeaks, announceu his intention to "take uown" a top 0.S. bank anu ieveal a coiiuption
scanual within it. Bank of Ameiica was ueeply conceineu that it might be the subject of
WikiLeaks' upcoming ievelations.
67
BBuaiy Feueial iesponueu to these events with a joint
pioposal to Bunton & Williams - along with Palantii Technologies anu Beiico Technologies
-- on how to uestioy WikiLeaks. The pioposal offeis highly unethical anu¡oi illegal tactics,
incluuing:

• Spieau "uisinfoimation" about WikiLeaks;

• "Submit fake uocuments anu then call out the eiioi." In othei woius, foiging
uocuments, giving them to WikiLeaks, anu then exposing them as false, to
unueimine Wikileaks' cieuibility;

• Execute "|cjybei attacks against the |WikiLeaksj infiastiuctuie to get uata on
uocument submitteis". Palantii, BBuaiy anu Beiico believe that this woulu "kill"
WikiLeaks.


6S
Beiico Technologies, BBuaiy Feueial, Palantii, "B&W Biief."
http:¡¡thinkpiogiess.oig¡economy¡2u11¡u4¡11¡1S6819¡chambeileaks-moie-plans¡
66
Team Themis, "Team Themis PIR's* |Piioiity Intelligence Requiiementsj."
http:¡¡hbgaiy.anonleaks.ch¡aaion_hbgaiy_com¡attachments¡1929.pptx.
67
Nelson B. Schwaitz, "Facing Thieat Fiom WikiLeaks, Bank Plays Befense." "#$ A$? Q('<
",+$-, }anuaiy 2, 2u11.
22
• An implicit thieat to iuin the caieei of ulenn uieenwalu, a piominent jouinalist, if
he continues to suppoit WikiLeaks.
68


In othei uocuments piesenteu to Bunton & Williams, foi its client Bank of Ameiica, BBuaiy
Feueial boasts of its "I0 |Infoimation 0peiationsj Nission Expeitise." Infoimation
0peiations is a militaiy teim foi electionic waifaie. BBuaiy Feueial also offeieu its
expeitise in "Computei Netwoik Attack", "Custom malwaie uevelopment", "Computei
Netwoik Exploitation", anu "peisistent softwaie implants".
69


The 0.S. Bepaitment of }ustice appeais to have playeu a key iole in these events. "#$ "$6#
L$'/*2 iepoiteu that "Bunton anu Williams weie iecommenueu to Bank of Ameiica's
geneial counsel by the Bepaitment of }ustice, accoiuing to the email chain vieweu by The
Tech Beialu."
7u
If this is tiue, it iaises the question of whethei the }ustice Bepaitment
assisteu Bank of Ameiica in its battle against WikiLeaks, anu how much }ustice Bepaitment
officials knew of anu even suppoiteu coipoiate espionage against WikiLeaks anu its allies.

Chevron]kro|| |n Lcuador

In August 2u1u, a jouinalist nameu Naiy Cuuuehe wiote about the effoits by Kioll,
71
a
giant piivate investigations fiim, to ieciuit hei as a "coipoiate spy" foi Chevion. The
company has been tiying unsuccessfully to stave off a $9.S billion fine aiising fiom a
lawsuit alleging that Texaco
72
spilleu SSu million gallons of oil aiounu Lago Agiio, Ecuauoi.
The spill biought cancei anu othei uiseases to local iesiuents. Accoiuing to Cuuuehe, Kioll
offeieu hei $2u,uuu to pose as a jouinalist while conuucting inteiviews to unueimine a
stuuy of the health effects of the oil spill. She wiote, "If I went to Lago Agiio as myself anu
pietenueu to wiite a stoiy, no one woulu suspect that the staiiy-eyeu young Ameiican
poking aiounu was actually shilling foi Chevion." Cuuuehe tuineu uown the money, anu
insteau penneu a chaiming aiticle about hei expeiience in "#$ I.*/3.,6.
7S


68
"The WikiLeaks Thieat: An 0veiview by Palantii Technologies, BBuaiy Feueial anu
Beiico Technologies." http:¡¡wikileaks.oig¡INu¡puf¡WikiLeaks_Response_v6.puf.
69
Nate Anueison, "Spy uames: Insiue The Convoluteu Plot To Biing Bown WikiLeaks." I'-
"$6#3,6/, Febiuaiy 14, 2u11.
7u
Steve Ragan, "Bata Intelligence Fiims Pioposeu a Systematic Attack Against WikiLeaks."
"#$ "$6# L$'/*2, Febiuaiy 9, 2u11.
71
Kioll iuentifies itself as "the leauing global pioviuei of iisk solutions." See
http:¡¡www.kioll.com¡about¡.
72
In 2uu1, Chevion meigeu with Texaco.
7S
Naiy Cuuuehe, "A Spy in the }ungle." "#$ I.*/3.,6, August 2, 2u1u.
23

Wa|mart vs. Up Aga|nst the Wa|

Foi yeais, Walmait has maintaineu a iobust coipoiate intelligence anu secuiity
uepaitment, staffeu by a "team of foimei officials fiom the C.I.A., F.B.I. anu }ustice
Bepaitment," accoiuing to the A$? Q('< ",+$-.
74


In Naich 2uu7, Walmait's "Thieat Reseaich anu Analysis uioup" fiieu Biuce uabbaiu, a
computei technician, foi unauthoiizeu iecoiuing of conveisations between Walmait anu a
A$? Q('< ",+$- iepoitei, Nichael Baibaio, anu inteicepting Walmait colleagues' text
messages. Aftei leaving Walmait, uabbaiu uiscloseu some of Walmait's suiveillance
piactices, incluuing taigeting citizens gioups anu ciitics. Accoiuing to the K/** @.'$$.
O(1'3/*,

"In late spiing 2uu6, Wal-Nait leaineu that seveial anti-Wal-Nait gioups
might piotest at the annual shaieholueis meeting in }une. Company
executives weie conceineu the civil-iights gioup Acoin (the Association of
Community 0iganizations foi Refoim Now) anu local 0p Against the Wal
membeis woulu uisiupt its meeting. Wal-Nait sent a long-haiieu employee
weaiing a wiieless miciophone to 0p Against the Wal's Fayetteville, Aik.,
gatheiing, anu eavesuioppeu fiom neaiby, says uabbaiu. 'We followeu
aiounu the peiimetei with a suiveillance van," he says.'"
7S


L|ectr|c|tó de Irance vs. Greenpeace

0n Novembei 1u, 2u11, the Fiench utility Electiicité ue Fiance was fineu 1.S million Euios
foi hacking into the computeis of uieenpeace Fiance. EBF was also iequiieu to pay an
auuitional Suu,uuu Euios in uamages to uieenpeace Fiance. EBF hiieu the piivate
intelligence fiim Kaigus Consultants, which in tuin illegally obtaineu a copy of the haiu
uiive of Yannick }auot, the foimei campaign uiiectoi of uieenpeace Fiance. Thieiiy Loiho,
the heau of Kaigus Consultants, was sentenceu to thiee yeais in piison, two of which weie
suspenueu. EBF's foimei heau of nucleai piouuction secuiity, Pascal Buiieux, was also
sentenceu to thiee yeais in piison, with two suspenueu.

Bis ueputy, Pieiie-Paul Fiançois,
was sentenceu to thiee yeais in piison, with 2V yeais suspenueu.
76


74
Nichael Baibaio, "Baie-Knuckle Enfoicement foi Wal-Nait's Rules." "#$ A$? Q('<
",+$-, Naich 29, 2uu7. See also }ason Kiiby, "When the Spies Aie out of Contiol." E/6*$/3-,
}uly 2, 2uu7.
7S
Ann Zimmeiman, "Insiue Wal-Nait's 'Thieat Reseaich' 0peiation." "#$ K/** @.'$$.
O(1'3/*, Apiil 4, 2uu7.
76
Beniy Samuel Paiis, "EBF Founu uuilty of Spying on uieenpeace Fiance." "$*$4'/&#,
Novembei 1u, 2u11. Baviu }olly, "Backei, Cyclist, Executive, Spy." A$? Q('< ",+$- blogs,
Novembei 1u, 2u11. Banna ueismann, "EBF Fineu t1.Sm foi Spying on uieenpeace."
J1/'2,/3, Novembei 1u, 2u11.
24

The stoiy of the hacking anu its uiscoveiy is magnificently convoluteu. In 2uu9, a Fiench
investigating juuge nameu Thomas Cassuto acciuentally uncoveieu that Electiicité ue
Fiance hau spieu on uieenpeace Fiance, anu appaiently othei uieenpeace offices in
Euiope as well. EBF is the woilu laigest opeiatoi of nucleai powei plants. It is 8S%
owneu by the Fiench goveinment. uieenpeace has long campaigneu against the use of
nucleai powei.
77


Accoiuing to the M3.$'3/.,(3/* L$'/*2 "',)13$, the Fiench juuge's investigation of a
sepaiate hacking opeiation was

"pickeu up by a special cybeiciime unit of the Fiench Inteiioi Ninistiy, |anuj
leu to a Fiench computei specialist, Alain Quiios...As the Fiench authoiities
uelveu moie ueeply into Ni. Quiios's computei, they founu a copy of the haiu
uiive of Yannick }auot, the foimei campaign uiiectoi of uieenpeace Fiance,
as well as that of Fiéuéiik-Kaiel Canoy, a Fiench lawyei anu shaieholuei
iights activist who has battleu some of the countiy's laigest companies,
incluuing vivenui anu Euiopean Aeionautic Befense & Space, the paient of
the aiiciaft manufactuiei Aiibus..Ni. Loiho |a foimei Fiench intelligence
agent anu heau of Kaigus Consultantsj also aumitteu that he hau collecteu
uata on uieenpeace. Bis client that time, he saiu, was Electiicité ue Fiance,
which hau paiu him foi 'stiategic intelligence' on anti-nucleai campaigneis.
Ni. Loiho has saiu his contacts at E.B.F. weie 'peifectly awaie' of the hacking
anu that such activities weie unueistoou to be incluueu unuei the two one-
yeai contiacts he signeu with the company..The investigation founu that in
auuition to infoimation on uieenpeace in Fiance, E.B.F. obtaineu uata on the
enviionmental oiganization's activities in Spain, Belgium anu Biitain, wheie
E.B.F. last yeai agieeu to buy the laigest nucleai powei company theie,
Biitish Eneigy.. In an inteiview with an intelligence Web site,
Leienseignement.com, Ni. Loiho saiu he assumeu 'full iesponsibility' foi
hacking into the uieenpeace computei, but he auueu that ''I woulu like to see
E.B.F., which sponsoieu the opeiation, take iesponsibility foi its pait.''
78


Theie is eviuence that EBF not only spieu on uieenpeace Fiance, but othei uieenpeace
offices in Euiope. Accoiuing to the J1/'2,/3,

"A Fiench investigation into allegations that Fiance's state eneigy giant EBF
spieu on uieenpeace has taken a new tuin aftei a suggestion in couit
uocuments that the company may have monitoieu enviionmentalists acioss
Euiope, incluuing Biitain..|Thej Fiench news website Neuiapait, which has
seen uocuments fiom the investigation, this week publisheu extiacts of the

77
"Nucleai Conflict." "#$ X6(3(+,-., Apiil 2S, 2uu9.
78
Baviu }olly, "Cycling Inquiiy Exposes Coipoiate Woilu of Spies anu Backeis." The
Inteinational Beialu Tiibune, August 1, 2uu9. See also Angelique Chiisafis, "Eneigy Boss
Accuseu 0f Spying 0n uieenpeace." uuaiuian, Apiil 2, 2uu9.
25
testimony by an EBF secuiity executive anu foimei police commanuei who is
unuei investigation foi conspiiing to conuuct illegal suiveillance..Askeu
about a CB-iom of infoimation fiom uetectives that was founu in his office
safe, he saiu it containeu infoimation about enviionmental gioup stiuctuies
anu summaiies of meetings. 'It was a question of the |uieenpeacej non-
goveinmental gioup's oiganisation in Belgium, Spain, peihaps Biitain, let's
say Euiope,' he auueu."
79


L.CN]Scott|sh kesources Group]Scott|sh Þower]Ver|co|a]kebecca 1odd vs. the Camp
for C||mate Act|on

The Camp foi Climate Action ("Climate Camp") is a climate activist gioup that staiteu in the
0K. It suppoits uecommissioning of coal-fiieu powei plants to mitigate caibon uioxiue
emissions that cause climate change. 0n 0ctobei 17-18, 2uu9, appioximately 1,uuu
activists fiom Climate Camp anu othei gioups gatheieu to conuuct civil uisobeuience to
shut uown the Ratcliffe-on-Soai coal plant.
8u


Sixteen months latei, the J1/'2,/3 iepoiteu that thiee laige eneigy companies hiieu the
piivate secuiity fiim veiicola to infiltiate the climate change activists.
81
The companies
conuucting the espionage weie:

• E.0N, "one of the woilu's laigest investoi-owneu powei anu gas companies. At
facilities acioss Euiope, Russia, anu Noith Ameiica, oui moie than 72,uuu
employees geneiateu appiox. E0R1S2 billion in sales in 2u12."
82
It is cuiiently the
woilu's 1S
th
laigest company.

• Scottish Resouices uioup, "the laigest suiface mining coal piouucei in the 0K anu
the countiy's seconu laigest coal mining company."
8S


• Scottish Powei, a subsiuiaiy of Ibeiuiola, a global Foitune Suu company anu the
S9
th
laigest eneigy company in the woilu.
84


79
Angelique Chiisafis, "EBF Spieu on Enviionmentalists in Biitain, Couit Bocuments
Suggest." J1/'2,/3, Apiil 17, 2uu9.
8u
Natt Foiu, "The Eco Activists Who Aie Camping Against Climate Change." CNN, 0ctobei
2u, 2uu9. Natt Bickinson anu Banielle Bwyei, "Police Aiiest 8u In Powei Station Climate
Piotest." Piess Association Neuiapoint, 0ctobei 18, 2uu9.
81
Rob Evans anu Paul Lewis, "Revealeu: Bow Eneigy Fiims Spy on Enviionmental
Activists." J1/'2,/3, Febiuaiy 14, 2u11. Paul Lewis anu Rob Evans, "Special Repoit: uieen
uioups Taigeteu Polluteis As Coipoiate Agents Biu In Theii Ranks." J1/'2,/3, Febiuaiy
1S, 2u11.
82
http:¡¡www.eon.com¡en¡about-us¡piofile.html
8S
http:¡¡www.scottishiesouices.com¡About¡SummaiyInfo.aspx
84
http:¡¡top2Su.platts.com¡Top2SuRankings¡2u12¡Region¡Inuustiy
26

Accoiuing to emails obtaineu by the J1/'2,/3, veiicola's chief executive, Rebecca Touu
spieu on activists by using "alias email auuiesses to expiess an inteiest in campaigns,
subsciibing to activist-only mailing lists.in }uly 2uu9, Touu saiu she was an activist.who
wanteu to make 'a positive contiibution to the planet'."
8S


8urger k|ng and D|p|omat|c 1act|ca| Serv|ces vs. the Coa||t|on of Immoka|ee Workers

The Coalition foi Immokalee Woikeis is a community oiganization that auvocates foi the
inteiests of low-wage immigiant woikeis in Floiiua. In 2uu8, CIW was conuucting a
campaign against Buigei King, iegaiuing the company's iefusal to pioviue faii
compensation to tomato pickeis.

0ne uay, CIW oiganizei Naic Rouiigues took a call fiom Caia Schaffei, who claimeu she
was a stuuent at Biowaiu Community College. She wanteu to volunteei foi CIW. But
Rouiigues became suspicious when Schaffei askeu about an upcoming confeience call.
When Rouiigues googleu Schaffei, he founu that she owns Biplomatic Tactical Seivices, "a
secuiity anu investigative fiim that auveitises its ability to place 'opeiatives' in the ianks of
taiget gioups."
86


Buigei King has confiimeu that it hiieu Biplomatic Tactical seivices "foi yeais" anu useu it
to obtain infoimation about CIW's plans, anu that "}ohn Chiusey, the chief executive of
Buigei King, knew about the use of Biplomatic Tactical Seivices."
87


1he Þharmaceut|ca| kesearch and Manufacturers Assoc|at|on and others vs. Iames
Love]know|edge Lco|ogy Internat|ona|

}ames Love is the Biiectoi of Knowleuge Ecology Inteinational, an oiganization that woiks
to impiove access to essential uiugs, to ieuuce phaimaceutical uiug piices woiluwiue, anu
to piotect consumeis in copyiight. Love is an awaiu-winning auvocate; in 2uu6, KEI won a
NacAithui Awaiu foi Cieative anu Effective Institutions, anu in 2u1S, Love won a Pioneei
Awaiu fiom the Electionic Fiontiei Founuation.

0n occasion, Love has been the taiget of coipoiate spying.

8S
Paul Lewis anu Rob Evans, "Special Repoit: uieen uioups Taigeteu Polluteis As
Coipoiate Agents Biu In Theii Ranks." J1/'2,/3, Febiuaiy 1S, 2u11.
86
Amy Bennett Williams, "Tomato Pickeis Feeling Spieu on; Aiue Says Infiltiatois Bave
Been at Neetings." A$?-PH'$-- (Foit-Nyeis, FL), Apiil 12, 2uu8. See also Paul Bemko,
"Coipoiate Spooks: Piivate Secuiity Contiactois Infiltiate Social }ustice 0iganizations."
Y.3$ D$/2$', }anuaiy-Febiuaiy 2uu9.
87
Eiic Schlossei, "Buigei With a Siue of Spies." "#$ A$? Q('< ",+$-, Nay 7, 2uu8.
27
Shoitly aftei the passage of the Affoiuable Caie Act, Love says he ieceiveu a visit in his
offices fiom a man who saiu he was iecently let go fiom his job at Phaimaceutical Reseaich
anu Nanufactuieis of Ameiica (PhRNA). "Be saiu his job involveu monitoiing what I was
uoing, eveiy uay." Love saiu. "Be tolu me that PhRNA hau hiieu a piivate investigatoi to
investigate us, fiom the West Coast." Sepaiately, fiom 2uu7 to 2uu8, Love says that PhRNA
anu some companies in the copyiight sectoi funueu effoits to investigate the souices of
funuing foi Nu0s woiking on intellectual piopeity issues, anu to piess those founuations to
enu theii suppoit of consumei auvocacy.
Aiounu 2uu8 oi 2uu9, ueneial Electiic, Niciosoft, Pfizei anu othei fiims funueu an effoit
by the National Foieign Tiaue Council (NFTC) to pioviue intelligence on Nu0s woiking on
intellectual piopeity issues. Love says, "They appioacheu someone we knew, with a
pioposal to pioviue infoimation on Knowleuge Ecology Inteinational anu othei Nu0s
woiking on intellectual piopeity issues, as pait of a piogiam to countei Nu0 auvocacy
effoits on behalf of consumeis." Eventually, Love says, the NFTC contiacteu with the
Romulus ulobal Issues Nanagement, an "inteinational policy consultancy" that auvises
"seveial membeis of the Foitune 1uu."
88
The managing paitnei of Romulus is }ohn Stubbs,
whose wife is victoiia A. Espinel, a foimei Romulus employee. Espinel was 0.S. Intellectual
Piopeity Enfoicement Cooiuinatoi (IP czai) foi the 0bama auministiation, anu is cuiiently
the CE0 anu Piesiuent of the Business Softwaie Alliance (BSA).
89


Ie|d Lnterta|nment vs. ÞL1A, ÞAWS and other an|ma| protect|on groups

People foi the Ethical Tieatment of Animals (PETA) has long opposeu the exploitation of
animals in the Ringling Biotheis anu Bainum & Bailey Ciicus. In 2uu2, PETA fileu a lawsuit
alleging that Kenneth Felu, chaiiman anu CE0 of Felu Enteitainment Inc., hau hiieu Claii E.
ueoige, a foimei CIA ueputy uiiectoi foi opeiations, to suiveil anu uisiupt PETA anu othei
animal iights gioups.
9u
Felu Enteitainment is the paient company of the ciicus. PETA's
lawsuit was uismisseu in 2uu6.

Accoiuing to PETA, Felu's espionage opeiations weie "iun on a uaily basis by a piivate eye
nameu Richaiu Fioemming.. Fiom 1988 to 1998, Fioemming anu his seveial shell entities
(with no employees oi functions) weie paiu moie than $8.8 million by Felu entities."
91


The espionage opeiations succeeueu in placing "appioximately 16 unueicovei opeiatives
at PETA, the Peifoiming Animal Welfaie Society (PAWS), the Elephant Alliance (EA), In
Befense of Animals (IBA), anu possibly othei animal piotection gioups," accoiuing to PETA.
These opeiatives "illegally iecoiueu conveisations in Califoinia anu obtaineu highly
confiuential bank account numbeis anu bank infoimation fiom Bank of Ameiica, cieuit

88
http:¡¡www.goiomulus.com¡piofile¡.
89
Tony Romm, "Foimei White Bouse IP auvisei victoiia Espinel to leau BSA." H(*,.,6(,
August 28, 2u1S.
9u
"Rights uioup Says Ciicus Spieu on It." "#$ A$? Q('< ",+$-, }une 1, 2uu2.
91
http:¡¡www.peta.oig¡featuies¡iingling-bios-elephantgate.aspx.
28
caiu infoimation, peisonal meuical infoimation, confiuential inteinal financial iecoius, anu
peisonnel infoimation."
92


In auuition, both @/*(3 anu the K/-#,34.(3 H(-. publisheu long aiticles iecounting the
elaboiate eight-yeai effoits of Kenneth Felu anu Claii ueoige to siuetiack a fieelance
iepoitei fiom wiiting about animal welfaie scanuals within the ciicus.
9S


8AL vs. Campa|gn Aga|nst the Arms 1rade

In Septembei 2uuS, the @132/0 ",+$- of Lonuon iepoiteu that BAE Systems
94
-- the woilu's
biggest weapons fiim
9S
-- hau hiieu a piivate intelligence-gatheiing fiim to infiltiate
activists opposeu to the global aims tiaue.
96
Accoiuing to the @132/0 ",+$-, BAE paiu
£12u,uuu pei yeai "foi at least foui yeais" to a consultancy leu by Evelyn Le Chene to
infiltiate the Campaign Against Aims Tiaue. The gioup was infiltiateu "by at least half a
uozen agents in the 199us." Buiing this time, CAAT opposeu the sale of BAE's Bawk jets to
Inuonesia. Accoiuing to the @132/0 ",+$-, agents woiking foi BAE

"uownloaueu computei files, iifleu thiough peisonal uiaiies, conuucteu
suiveillance on campaigneis anu passeu on bank account uetails. Letteis to
anu fiom senioi Laboui politicians incluuing }ack Stiaw when he was home
secietaiy, the NP Ann Clwyu anu Baviu Claik while he was the opposition
spokesman on uefence, weie copieu anu sent to BAE. Neetings with NPs
weie iepoiteu on."
97


BAE's espionage opeiations weie effective, in pait because BAE secuieu the seivices of
"peihaps the most successful coipoiate spy of iecent times, Naitin Bogbin." Accoiuing to
the J1/'2,/3, "In 2uuS secuiity consultant Evelyn Le Chene was allegeu to have been
ieceiving emails fiom Bogbin, S8, who hau spent six yeais iising thiough the CAAT. So
successful was the allegeu opeiation that Bogbin became a taiget foi Net suiveillance.
0fficeis weie convinceu he was a key 'uomestic extiemist'."
98



92
http:¡¡www.peta.oig¡featuies¡iingling-bios-elephantgate.aspx.
9S
}eff Stein, "The uieatest venuetta on Eaith." @/*(3, August Su, 2uu1. }eff Stein, "Senu in
the Clowns." @/*(3, August S1, 2uu1. Richaiu Leiby, "Senu in the Clowns." "#$ K/-#,34.(3
H(-., Novembei 2u, 2uuS.
94
0ntil Novembei 1999, BAE Systems was calleu Biitish Aeiospace.
9S
"SIPRI Rankings Say BAE Woilu's Biggest Weapons Fiim." I4$36$ T'/36$PH'$--$, Apiil
11, 2u1u.
96
"Aims Fiim Wageu Biity Wai 0n Piotesteis." "#$ @132/0 ",+$-, Septembei 28, 2uuS.
See also ueoige Nonbiot, "The Paiallel 0niveise 0f BAE: Coveit, Bangeious anu Beyonu the
Rule of Law." J1/'2,/3, Febiuaiy 1S, 2uu7.
97
"Aims Fiim Wageu Biity Wai 0n Piotesteis." "#$ @132/0 ",+$-, Septembei 28, 2uuS.
98
Paul Lewis anu Rob Evans, "uieen uioups Taigeteu Polluteis As Coipoiate Agents Biu In
Theii Ranks." J1/'2,/3, Febiuaiy 14, 2u11.
29
In 2uu7, the Campaign Against the Aims Tiaue took legal action to foice uisclosuie of the
spying. It uncoveieu that Paul Neicei hau been paiu £2,Suu pei month by BAE's secuiity
uepaitment to spy on CAAT. Accoiuing to the J1/'2,/3,

"Ni. Neicei obtaineu a CB with uetails of confiuential legal auvice ieceiveu
fiom the peace campaigneis' lawyeis anu at the enu of last yeai passeu it to
Nichael Ncuinty, heau of BAE's secuiity uepaitment..The litigation ievealeu
that Ni. Neicei, who hau a histoiy of infiltiating peace gioups such as CNB
|Campaign foi Nucleai Bisaimamentj, hau uisguiseu his uealings with BAE
fiom his home in Loughboiough..The Neicei opeiation came to light because
BAE passeu the infoimation to its lawyeis, Allen & 0veiy, who ueciueu they
hau to uisclose it to the couit. BAE then fought to iesist uisclosuie of theii
agent's iuentity."
99


G|oba| Cpen

Seveial news aiticles iepoit that ulobal 0pen conuucts espionage against nonpiofit
oiganizations. Accoiuing to its website, ulobal 0pen (Euiope) "auvises oui existing base of
moie than 9u clients"
1uu
anu pioviues seivices such as intelligence gatheiing foi "clients at
a moie seiious level of thieat fiom activism." Such seivices incluue, foi example, a "24-
houi waining seivice inuicating, wheievei possible, if a company is about to be taigeteu,"
anu "|ijmmeuiate ciiculation of new activist tactics," anu "|cjiiculation of the movement of
activist gioups."
1u1
Accoiuing to the J1/'2,/3,

"The company best-known foi monitoiing piotest gioups is ulobal 0pen,
founueu a uecaue ago by Rou Leeming, a foimei special bianch officei.|Itj
maintains 'a uiscieet watch' on piotest gioups that coulu uamage a fiim's
ieputation. It is unueistoou to have offeieu to employ seveial ex-police
officeis, incluuing |Naikj Kenneuy, who saiu he was hiieu by Leeming last
yeai..Couit uocuments ieveal ulobal 0pen to be one of two companies
involveu in the monitoiing of the Campaign Against the Aims Tiaue foi aims
manufactuiei BAE."
1u2


99
Rob Evans anu Baviu Leigh, "BAE Spy Nameu By Campaigneis Is Fiienu 0f Leauing Toiy."
J1/'2,/3, Apiil 19, 2uu7. See also Naik Thomas, "Naitin anu Ne." J1/'2,/3, Becembei 4,
2uu7.
1uu
http:¡¡www.globalopen-uk.com¡about_us¡
1u1
http:¡¡www.globalopen-uk.com¡seivices¡
1u2
Paul Lewis anu Rob Evans, "Special Repoit: uieen uioups Taigeteu Polluteis As
Coipoiate Agents Biu In Theii Ranks." J1/'2,/3, Febiuaiy 1S, 2u11. See also Rob Evans,
Amelia Bill, Paul Lewis anu Patiick Kingsley, "Naik Kenneuy: Seciet Policeman's Siueline
as Coipoiate Spy." J1/'2,/3, }anuaiy 1S, 2u11.
30

Inkerman Group and C2| vs. Þ|ane Stup|d

Accoiuing to the J1/'2,/3, anothei company that conuucts "monitoiing |ofj piotesteis" is
the Inkeiman uioup. Accoiuing to its website, the Inkeiman uioup is an "inteinational
business iisk anu intelligence company."
1uS
The uuaiuian iepoits that the Inkeiman uioup

"employs foimei Net commissionei Loiu Imbeit as a stiategic auvisei. A
'iestiicteu' iepoit piouuceu by the company thiee yeais ago wains of a
giowing thieat of 'eco-teiioiism'. 0nuei a section on 'iecent acts of eco-
teiioiism', the uocument lists a numbei of peaceful campaign gioups,
incluuing the anti-aviation collective Plane Stupiu. Some of those nameu in
the Inkeiman uocument weie in fact spieu on by Toby Kenuall, who woikeu
foi anothei secuiity fiim, C2i Inteinational. Be poseu as 'Ken Tobias' in an
attempt to infiltiate the anti-aviation collective Plane Stupiu. Activists
became suspicious of him as he appeaieu so eagei to take pait in uiiect
action. Bis tiue iuentity was uiscoveieu on a social netwoiking website,
Bebo.. C2i has saiu Kenuall was opeiating on his own."
1u4


8rown & W||||amson]Invest|gat|ve Group vs. Ieffrey W|gand

In 199S, }effiey Wiganu was fiieu by the tobacco company Biown & Williamson Tobacco
Coip. Be latei became peihaps the most impoitant tobacco inuustiy whistleblowei evei.
Wiganu maue a numbei of high-piofile allegations against the company, incluuing that
B&W Chaiiman Thomas Sanuefui lieu to Congiess unuei oath about nicotine auuiction.

Accoiuing to the K/** @.'$$. O(1'3/*, B&W iesponueu by hiiing a "foimiuable team" of
lawyeis anu piivate uetectives to investigate anu uiscieuit him, incluuing:

"lawyeis fiom the big New Yoik fiim Chaubouine & Paike anu Atlanta's King
& Spaluing, anu top New Yoik public-ielations auvisei }ohn Scanlon. They aie
woiking with the Investigative uioup Inc., a leauing Washington-baseu
uetective fiim whose New Yoik office is iun by a foimei |anu cuiientj New
Yoik City police commissionei, Raymonu Kelly. This is the fiim Ivana Tiump
hiieu to investigate hei iival Naila Naples anu that Sen. Euwaiu Kenneuy
useu to check into an opponent in his 1994 campaign."
1uS


1uS
http:¡¡www.inkeiman.com¡gb¡home.
1u4
Paul Lewis anu Rob Evans, "Special Repoit: uieen uioups Taigeteu Polluteis As
Coipoiate Agents Biu In Theii Ranks." J1/'2,/3, Febiuaiy 1S, 2u11.
1uS
Suein L. Bwang anu Nilo ueyelin, "uetting Peisonal: Biown & Williamson Bas Suu-Page
Bossiei Attacking Chief Ciitic --- Couit Files, Piivate Letteis, Even a Suspicious Floou Aie
Fouuei foi Sleuths --- Ivana Tiump's Piivate Eye." "#$ K/** @.'$$. O(1'3/*, Febiuaiy 1,
1996. See also the movie "The Insiuei."
31


The O(1'3/* iepoiteu that

"Repiesentatives of B&W offeieu the fiuits of theii investigation to "#$ K/**
@.'$$. O(1'3/*: a Suu-page file beaiing the title 'The Nisconuuct of }effiey S.
Wiganu Available in the Public Recoiu.' Subheauings incluue 'Wiganu's Lies
About Bis Resiuence,' 'Wiganu's Lies 0nuei 0ath' anu '0thei Lies By Wiganu.'
A close look at the file, anu inuepenuent ieseaich by this newspapei into its
key claims, inuicates that many of the seiious allegations against Ni. Wiganu
aie backeu by scant oi contiauictoiy eviuence. Some of the chaiges --
incluuing that he pleaueu guilty to shoplifting -- aie uemonstiably untiue."

She||]8Þ]Manfred Sch||ckenr|eder]nak|uyt vs. Greenpeace

In 2uu1, the @132/0 ",+$- of Lonuon iepoiteu that the piivate investigative fiim Backluyt,
which has "close links" to the Biitish spy agency NI6, hiieu a spy nameu Nanfieu
Schlickeniieuei to infiltiate uieenpeace on behalf of oil companies, incluuing Shell anu
BP.
1u6
Accoiuing to the Sunuay Times, Schlickeniieuei "poseu as a left-wing sympathisei
anu film makei" to "betiay plans of uieenpeace's activities against oil giants.. 0ne of his
assignments fiom Bakluyt was to gathei infoimation about the movements of the motoi
vessel uieenpeace in the noith Atlantic."

McDona|d's vs. London Greenpeace

In 0ctobei 1989, NcBonalu's hiieu seven piivate investigatois to infiltiate Lonuon
uieenpeace. Accoiuing to the >(- I34$*$- ",+$-, the infiltiatois "took notes, followeu
oiganizeis to theii homes, stole letteis anu, to uemonstiate theii bona fiues, eageily
volunteeieu to uistiibute the fact sheet uenouncing the company that hau secietly hiieu
them."
1u7


1u6
Nauiice Chittenuen anu Nicholas Ruffoiu, "NI6 'Fiim' Spieu on uieen uioups." "#$
@132/0 ",+$-, }une 17, 2u11. See also Chaptei 6 of Eveline Lubbeis, @$6'$. E/3($15'$- ,3
.#$ B/'<F G('&('/.$ /32 H(*,6$ @&0,34 (3 I6.,5,-.-9 (Lonuon: Pluto Piess, 2u12).
1u7
Alexanuei Cockbuin, "Naking Nincemeat 0f NcBonalu's." >(- I34$*$- ",+$-, }uly 18,
1996. }onathan Calveit, "Cloaks, Baggeis anu NS • Appeal." "#$ N)-$'5$', }anuaiy 26,
1997. See also Chaptei 4 of Eveline Lubbeis, @$6'$. E/3($15'$- ,3 .#$ B/'<F G('&('/.$ /32
H(*,6$ @&0,34 (3 I6.,5,-.-9 (Lonuon: Pluto Piess, 2u12).
32

Stratfor

0n Febiuaiy 27, 2u12, the non-piofit meuia oiganization WikiLeaks began ieleasing emails
fiom the Texas-baseu piivate intelligence fiim Stiatfoi,
1u8
showing that it hau conuucteu
espionage against human iights, animal iights anu enviionmental gioups, on behalf of
companies such as Coca-Cola anu Bow Chemical.
1u9


Coca-Co|a and Stratfor vs. Þeop|e for the Lth|ca| 1reatment of An|ma|s

In }une 2uu9, Stiatfoi iesponueu to a set of questions fiom a Coca-Cola executive, van C.
Wilbeiuing, who was "looking at PETA |People foi the Ethical Tieatment of Animalsj anu
the potential foi piotests at the |upcoming 2u1uj vancouvei 0lympics..."
11u
Coca-Cola was
a majoi sponsoi of those 0lympic games. Among othei things, Coca-Cola askeu Stiatfoi to
investigate "To what extent aie the actions of PETA in one countiy contiolleu by an
oveisight boaiu¡goveining bouy." anu "What is PETA's methouology foi planning anu
executing activism." Stiatfoi's vice piesiuent of intelligence, Fieu Buiton, iesponueu that
"The FBI has a classifieu investigation on PETA opeiatives. I'll see what I can uncovei."
111

It is uncleai what, if any, infoimation Stiatfoi pioviueu to Coca-Cola iegaiuing this mattei
oi how it iesponueu to Coca-Cola's othei questions.

Dow Chem|ca| and Stratfor vs. 8hopa| [ust|ce act|v|sts

In the evening of Becembei 2, 1984, an explosion at the 0nion Caibiue chemical plant in
Bhopal, Inuia ieleaseu clouus of the toxic gas methyl isocyanate, in what was piobably the
woilu's most ueauly inuustiial uisastei. No one ieally knows how many people weie killeu
on that night anu subsequently; iecent estimates fiom the Inuian goveinment have iangeu
fiom 1S,uuu to 16,uuu.
112
Bowevei, these victims weie nevei auequately compensateu. In
2uu1, 0nion Caibiue became a wholly owneu subsiuiaiy of Bow Chemical.


1u8
Stiatfoi has ieceiveu $7uu,uuu in 49 feueial contiacts since 2uu8, incluuing 48
contiacts with the Bepaitment of Befense, accoiuing to 0SASpenuing.gov (accesseu
0ctobei 28, 2u1S.)
1u9
http:¡¡wikileaks.oig¡the-gifiles.html
11u
Alexi Nostious, Baviu Sanueison anu }ames Bone, "WikiLeaks Reveals Spyciaft Seciets
of the 'Shauow CIA.'" "#$ ",+$- (of Lonuon), Febiuaiy 28, 2u12. WikiLeaks
http:¡¡wikileaks.oig¡gifiles¡uocs¡S447SS2_ie-peta-.html
111
WikiLeaks. http:¡¡wikileaks.oig¡gifiles¡uocs¡S282628_ie-public-policy-question-foi-
coca-cola-.html. See also Petei Luulow, "The Real Wai on Reality." A$? Q('< ",+$-, }une
14, 2u1S.
112
Beshueep Saxena, "Bhopal uas Tiageuy: 27 Yeais on, Beath Toll Still 0nknown." ",+$-
(7 M32,/, 0ctobei 29, 2u11.
33
In Febiuaiy 2u12, WikiLeaks ievealeu emails showing that Bow Chemical hiieu Stiatfoi to
monitoi Bhopal justice activists, incluuing the Yes Nen.
11S


Stratfor and the 1exas Department of Þub||c Safety vs. Cccupy Aust|n and Deep Green
kes|stance

In Novembei 2u11, a Stiatfoi opeiative nameu Koiena Zucha iecounteu that she hau a
"new souice" who was pioviuing hei with infoimation about an enviionmental
oiganization nameu Beep uieen Resistance. She iuentifieu the souice as a "Texas BPS
agent," meaning an agent of the Texas Bepaitment of Public Safety.
114


In an email, the Stiatfoi opeiative also iepoiteu on hei unueicovei woik at 0ccupy Austin:

"Theie is a gioup you may be familiai with calleu Beep uieen
Resistance..Whethei anyone in the Feu oi elsewheie classifies this gioup as
eco-teiioi oi not, I uon't know, but they aie nothing but anu shoulu be
watcheu..The local Austin chaptei was pait of the 0ccupy Austin ciowu at
city hall, howevei, things weie not "iauical" enough foi them since they uo
not believe in woiking within the system. When I was woiking 0¡C on Nov.
Sth, some of my contacts tolu me that at the ueneial Assembly on Nov. 4th,
theie was some conflict between iegulai 0ccupy people anu Beep uieen."
11S


Monsanto, 8|ackwater and 1ota| Inte|||gence So|ut|ons vs. unnamed act|v|sts

}eiemy Scahill iepoiteu in the A/.,(3 magazine that the secuiity fiim "Blackwatei, thiough
Total Intelligence, sought to become the 'intel aim' of Nonsanto, offeiing to pioviue
opeiatives to infiltiate activist gioups oiganizing against the multinational biotech fiim."
116

In iecent yeais, Blackwatei has twice been ie-nameu: fiist as •E Seivices anu again as
Acauemi.
117


11S
WikiLeaks, http:¡¡wikileaks.oig¡gifiles¡ieleaseuate¡2u12-u2-27-uu-stiatfoiu-
monitoieu-bhopal-activists-incluuing.html. See also 0liik NcKnight, "A Wickeu Leak:
Stiatfoi, Bow Chemicals, anu Inuia." The Inuia Site, 2u12. Neha Thiiani, "Newswallah:
Long Reaus Euition." A$? Q('< ",+$- blogs, Naich 18, 2u12. Petei Luulow, "The Real Wai
on Reality." A$? Q('< ",+$-, }une 14, 2u1S.
114
http:¡¡wikileaks.oig¡gifiles¡uocs¡1842S6_ie-alpha-insight-us-occupy-austin-anu-ueep-
gieen-iesistance.html
11S
http:¡¡wikileaks.oig¡gifiles¡uocs¡SS16uS8_ie-alpha-insight-us-occupy-austin-anu-
ueep-gieen-iesistance.html. See also Nichael King, "Stiange Beufellows: Stiatfoi, the Texas
BPS ... anu 0ccupy Austin." I1-.,3 G#'(3,6*$, Febiuaiy S, 2u12.
116
}eiemy Scahill, "Blackwatei's Black 0ps." "#$ A/.,(3, Septembei 1S, 2u1u.
117
Acauemi has ieceiveu $2.1 billion in feueial contiacts, incluuing $1.S billion with the
State Bepaitment anu $6u7 million with the Befense Bepaitment, accoiuing to
0SASpenuing.gov (accesseu 0ctobei 28, 2u1S).
34

Accoiuing to uocuments he obtaineu, Scahill iepoiteu in the A/.,(3 that,

Thiough Total Intelligence anu the Teiioiism Reseaich Centei, Blackwatei
also uiu business with a iange of multinational coipoiations. Accoiuing to
inteinal Total Intelligence communications, biotech giant Nonsanto÷the
woilu's laigest suppliei of genetically mouifieu seeus÷hiieu the fiim in
2uu8-u9. The ielationship between the two companies appeais to have been
soliuifieu in }anuaiy 2uu8 when Total Intelligence chaii Cofei Black tiaveleu
to Zuiich to meet with Kevin Wilson, Nonsanto's secuiity managei foi global
issues.

Aftei the meeting in Zuiich, Black sent an e-mail to othei Blackwatei
executives, incluuing to |Blackwatei ownei anu founuei Eiikj Piince anu
|cooiuinatoi of Blackwatei's CIA business Eniique 'Ric'j Piauo at theii
Blackwatei e-mail auuiesses. Black wiote that Wilson "unueistanus that we
can span collection fiom inteinet, to ieach out, to boots on the giounu on
legit basis piotecting the Nonsanto |bianuj name.... Aheau of the cuive info
anu insight¡heaus up is what he is looking foi." Black auueu that Total
Intelligence "woulu uevelop into acting as intel aim of Nonsanto." Black also
noteu that Nonsanto was conceineu about animal iights activists anu that
they uiscusseu how Blackwatei "coulu have oui peison(s) actually join
|activistj gioup(s) legally." Black wiote that initial payments to Total
Intelligence woulu be paiu out of Nonsanto's "geneious piotection buuget"
but woulu eventually become a line item in the company's annual buuget. Be
estimateu the potential payments to Total Intelligence at between $1uu,uuu
anu $Suu,uuu. Accoiuing to uocuments, Nonsanto paiu Total Intelligence
$127,uuu in 2uu8 anu $1uS,uuu in 2uu9.


35
1hree re|ated stor|es of esp|onage

The following thiee stoiies, while not stiictly about coipoiate espionage against nonpiofit
oiganizations, aie closely ielateu to such activity. The fiist is a case of espionage against an
activist who hau exposeu a poweiful politician's iole as a foimei uiiectoi of a faileu savings
anu loan financial institution. The seconu is a case of espionage against animal iights
activists to uncovei the likelihoou of piotests against coipoiate exhibitois at one of theii
confeiences. The thiiu conceins extensive anu wiue-ianging coipoiate espionage against
non-activists.

nenry nyde, former d|rector of C|yde Iedera| Sav|ngs and Loan vs. 1|m Anderson

In 1998, the G#,6/4( "',)13$ iepoiteu that Einie Rizzo, a piivate investigatoi, hau been
hiieu to investigate Tim Anueison, a foimei bank consultant anu ciitic of 0.S. Rep. Beniy
Byue. Byue was a uiiectoi of Clyue Feueial Savings anu Loan between 1981-84.
118
The S&L
was ueclaieu insolvent in 199u, anu cost the taxpayeis $67 million, but Byue was
appaiently the only uiiectoi who uiu not contiibute to the settlement. At the time that
Rizzo was hiieu to investigate Anueison, Rep. Byue was chaiiman of the 0.S. Bouse
}uuiciaiy Committee.

Rizzo tolu the Capitol Bill newspapei D(** G/** that in 199S "he was askeu by a lawyei
woiking foi Byue to 'finu out what this guy Anueison was talking about anu what he hau.'"
Rizzo then poseu as a television piouucei seeking an investigative stoiy about Byue. 0nuei
false pietenses, he accepteu 4uu pages of uocuments fiom Anueison anu gave them to one
of Byue's lawyeis. Accoiuing to Rizzo, Anueison "was stiiiing up things so bau that they
|Clyue's uiiectoisj coulu nevei settle the case, anu they wanteu to settle it. Anueison kept
stiiiing up iepoiteis."
119
In 1997, the Resolution Tiust Coipoiation finally settleu its $17.2
million lawsuit against Clyue's uiiectois foi a meie $8Su,uuu. Byue latei aumitteu that his
lawyei, }ames Schiiott, hau in fact hiieu Rizzo, anu that Byue hau been infoimeu of the
iesults of the investigation.
12u


118
Nike Boining anu Ray uibson, "Byue Benies Baving Foe Investigateu." G#,6/4( "',)13$,
0ctobei 18, 1998.
119
Bamon Chappie, "Piivate Eye's Woik Linkeu To Byue Investigatoi Poseu As }ouinalist
To Fool Rep.'s Ciitic." D(** G/**, 0ctobei 26, 1998.
12u
Bamon Chappie, "Byue Aumits Lawyei Paiu foi Piivate Investigatoi's Woik." D(** G/**,
0ctobei 29, 1998. Bouglas Fiantz, "Plenty of Biity }obs in Politics anu a New Bieeu of
Biggeis." "#$ A$? Q('< ",+$-, }uly 6, 1999.
36

Soc|ety of 1ox|co|ogy and Informat|on Network Assoc|ates vs. an|ma| r|ghts act|v|sts

The Society of Toxicology is a "piofessional anu scholaily oiganization of scientists fiom
acauemic institutions, goveinment, anu inuustiy..."
121
In 2uu8, the oiganization planneu to
holu its annual confeience in Seattle, but was conceineu about the potential foi piotests
against exhibitois, incluuing Buntinguon Life Sciences. So, it commissioneu a "thieat
analysis" by Infoimation Netwoik Associates, which was founueu by a foimei FBI special
agent as an "investigative anu secuiity solutions pioviuei."
122
The Society of Toxicology
askeu Infoimation Netwoik Associates to evaluate the potential foi piotests anu
uisiuptions at the event. INA's 12-page "thieat analysis" incluues, among many othei
things, iefeiences to the activists' acauemic anu piivate lives, incluuing who was uating
whom.
12S


News Corp.]News Internat|ona|]News Uk]News of the Wor|d

Buiing the last seven yeais, News Coip., its CE0 Rupeit Nuiuoch, anu its subsiuiaiy News
Inteinational
124
have been incieasingly engulfeu in a spiawling scanual ielateu to illegal
hacking of telephone voicemails. Some of the investigations into this mattei aie ongoing.
Following aie some of the key events in this ueveloping stoiy.

In 2uu6, Clive uoouman, the ioyal euitoi at A$?- (7 .#$ K('*2, a now-uefunct newspapei
owneu by News Coip., pleaueu guilty to inteicepting phone messages iegaiuing the Biitish
Royal Family. A piivate investigatoi hiieu by A$?- (7 .#$ K('*2, ulenn Nulcaiie, also
pleaueu guilty.
12S


0n Apiil 8
th
, 2u11, News Inteinational, a subsiuiaiy of News Coip. anu paient company of
A$?- (7 .#$ K('*2, apologizeu anu offeieu compensation to eight people whose phone
voicemails weie hackeu, incluuing the actiess Sienna Nillei anu Tessa }owell, a foimei 0.K.
cabinet ministei.
126


121
Society of Toxicology website. http:¡¡www.toxicology.oig¡gp¡aboutsot.asp
122
Infoimation Netwoik Associates website. http:¡¡www.ina-inc.com¡about-us.php.
Infoimation Netwoiks Associates has ieceiveu $S.1 million in 61 feueial contiacts,
incluuing 21 with the Bepaitment of Bomelanu Secuiity, anu 8 with the Bepaitment of
Befense, accoiuing to 0SASpenuing.gov (accesseu 0ctobei 28, 2u1S.)
12S
Will Pottei, "Coipoiations Tiacking Who Activists Aie Bating." uieen is the New Reu,
}une 6, 2uu8. The Infoimation Netwoik Associates "thieat analysis" is available at:
http:¡¡www.gieenisthenewieu.com¡blog¡wp-content¡Images¡ina_toxexpo_thieat.puf.
124
0n }une 26, 2u1S, News Inteinational ie-nameu itself News 0K. "News Inteinational
Changes Name to News 0K." ;;G, }une 26, 2u1S.
12S
}emima Kiss, "uoouman Pleaus uuilty." J1/'2,/3, Novembei 29, 2uu6.
126
}ames Robinson, "Phone Backing: NI to Apologise to victims Incluuing Sienna Nillei."
J1/'2,/3, Apiil 8, 2u11.
37

0n }uly 4
th
, 2u11 the J1/'2,/3 iepoiteu that A$?- (7 "#$ K('*2 hiieu piivate investigatois
to hack the voicemails of Nilly Bowlei, a missing schoolgiil. Bowlei hau been muiueieu,
but when A$?- (7 .#$ K('*2 ueleteu some of hei voicemails, it gave hei family false hope
that she might be alive. The voicemail ueletions inteifeieu with the police investigation of
hei ueath. Bei family calleu the voicemail hacking "heinous" anu "uespicable."
127


0n }uly 7
th
, 2u11 the B/,*0 "$*$4'/&# iepoiteu that ulenn Nulcaiie, the piivate investigatoi
woiking foi A$?- (7 .#$ K('*2, may have hackeu the voicemails of ielatives of soluieis
killeu in Iiaq anu Afghanistan.
128


Also on }uly 7
th
, the heau uetective sifting thiough the files of ulenn Nulcaiie tolu the
J1/'2,/3 that moie than 4,uuu people may have been taigeteu with phone hacking.
129


0n }uly 11
th
, the B/,*0 E,''(' iepoiteu that A$?- (7 .#$ K('*2 hau askeu a piivate
investigatoi to "hack into the 9¡11 victims' piivate phone uata" anu that "jouinalists askeu
him to access iecoius showing the calls that hau been maue to anu fiom the mobile phones
belonging to the victims anu theii ielatives." The piivate investigatoi, a foimei New Yoik
City police officei, ueclineu the job because "Be knew how insensitive such ieseaich woulu
be, anu how bau it woulu look."
1Su


0n }uly 1S, Biitish Piime Ninistei Baviu Cameion establisheu the Leveson Inquiiy to
investigate the ioles of the meuia anu the police in the phone hacking scanual.
1S1


0n }uly 28th, the J1/'2,/3 iepoiteu that "Saia Payne, whose eight-yeai-olu uaughtei Saiah
was abuucteu anu muiueieu in }uly 2uuu, has been tolu by Scotlanu Yaiu that they have
founu eviuence to suggest she was taigeteu by the A$?- (7 .#$ K('*2's investigatoi ulenn
Nulcaiie, who specialiseu in hacking voicemail."
1S2


0n August 16
th
, a Biitish Bouse of Commons committee ieleaseu a 2uu7 lettei by foimei
A$?- (7 .#$ K('*2 ioyal euitoi Clive uoouman alleging a covei-up of the phone hacking
scanual at A$?- (7 .#$ K('*2. The J1/'2,/3 iepoits that


127
Nick Bavies anu Amelia Bill, "Nissing Nilly Bowlei's voicemail Was Backeu by News of
the Woilu." J1/'2,/3, }uly 4, 2u11.
128
Naik Bughes, Buncan uaiuham, }ohn Bingham anu Anuy Bloxham, "Phone Backing:
Families of Wai Beau 'Taigeteu' by News of the Woilu." "#$ B/,*0 "$*$4'/&#, }uly 7, 2u11.
129
Sanuia Laville, "Phone Backing victims Coulu Numbei 4,uuu, Says Senioi Betective."
J1/'2,/3, }uly 7, 2u11.
1Su
Baviu Collins, "Phone Backing: 9¡11 victims 'Nay Bave Bau Nobiles Tappeu by News of
the Woilu Repoiteis.'" B/,*0 E,''(', }uly 7, 2u11.
1S1
Leveson Inquiiy website at http:¡¡www.levesoninquiiy.oig.uk¡.
1S2
Nick Bavies anu Amelia Bill, "News of the Woilu Taigeteu Phone of Saiah Payne's
Nothei." J1/'2,/3, }uly 28, 2u11.
38
"uoouman claims that phone hacking was 'wiuely uiscusseu' at euitoiial
meetings at the papei until |foimei A$?- (7 .#$ K('*2 euitoij Coulson
himself banneu fuithei iefeiences to it; that Coulson offeieu to let him keep
his job if he agieeu not to implicate the papei in hacking when he came to
couit; anu that his own hacking was caiiieu out with 'the full knowleuge anu
suppoit' of othei senioi jouinalists, whom he nameu."
1SS


0n }uly 2S, 2u12, Leveson Inquiiy Beputy Assistant Commissionei Sue Akeis
testifieu that, iegaiuing victims of phone hacking, "In total it is believeu that theie
aie 4,77S such 'potential' victims, of which 1u81 have some auuitional factoi which
means we consiuei them likely to have been victims. These factois incluue auuio
iecoiuing of voicemail messages, PIN numbeis anu¡oi calls to 0nique voicemail
Numbeis."
1S4
Akeis also testifieu that the investigation "uiscoveieu instances wheie
staff at NI |News Inteinationalj titles appeai to have been in possession of mateiial
uownloaueu oi otheiwise obtaineu fiom stolen mobile telephones."
1SS


The FBI was oi is conuucting a pieliminaiy investigation of whethei News Coip. violateu
any 0.S. laws in the phone hacking scanual. News Coip. is heauquaiteieu in New Yoik City
anu incoipoiateu in Belawaie. Accoiuing to the I--(6,/.$2 H'$--, the FBI investigation
incluues whethei News Coip. employees oi contiactois may have biibeu police officeis, in
violation of the Foieign Coiiupt Piactices Act; whethei A$?- (7 "#$ K('*2 hackeu the
phone uata of ielatives of 9¡11 victims; anu whethei the actoi }uue Law hau his phone
hackeu while in the 0niteu States.
1S6
The Bepaitment of }ustice is also investigating
whethei News Ameiica Naiketing, a News Coip. subsiuiaiy, "iepeateuly hackeu" anu stole
key financial infoimation fiom one of its competitois, Flooigiaphics, an auveitising fiim
baseu in New }eisey.
1S7
News Coip. settleu a civil lawsuit on this mattei foi $29.S million,
anu subsequently puichaseu Flooigiaphics.
1S8



1SS
Nick Bavies, "Phone Backing: News of the Woilu Repoitei's Lettei Reveals Covei-0p."
J1/'2,/3, August 16, 2u11. The text of uoouman's lettei is at:
http:¡¡www.guaiuian.co.uk¡meuia¡inteiactive¡2u11¡aug¡16¡clive-goouman-lettei-
phone-hacking.
1S4
Thiiu Witness Statement of BAC Sue Akeis, Leveson Inquiiy. }uly 2S, 2u12, at 12.
http:¡¡www.levesoninquiiy.oig.uk¡wp-content¡uploaus¡2u12¡u7¡Thiiu-Witness-
Statement-of-BAC-Sue-Akeis.puf. See also }osh Balliuay anu Bugalu Baiiu, "Leveson
Inquiiy: Sue Akeis - As It Bappeneu." J1/'2,/3, }uly 2S, 2u12.
1SS
Thiiu Witness Statement of BAC Sue Akeis, Leveson Inquiiy. }uly 2S, 2u12, at 1u.
1S6
Pete Yost, "FBI Inquiiy of Nuiuoch's Empiie: Reliance on Biits." I--(6,/.$2 H'$--, }uly
2S, 2u11.
1S7
Nichael Isikoff, "0S Looks Into Allegeu Backing by News Coip.'s Au Aim." E@A;G, }uly
22, 2u11.
1S8
Foi a biief ieview of News Coip's histoiy of coipoiate espionage anu anticompetitive
behavioi, see Baviu Caii, "Tioubles That Noney Can't Bispel." "#$ A$? Q('< ",+$-, }uly 17,
2u11. See also Biauen uoyette, "What's the Beal With News Coips 0thei, 0.S.-Baseu,
Backing Scanual." H'(H1)*,6/, }uly 22, 2u11.
39
0n August 16, 2u1S, D$1.$'- iepoiteu that "Lonuon police aie actively investigating Rupeit
Nuiuoch's Biitish newspapei business foi possible ciiminal violations ovei allegations of
phone-hacking anu illegal payments to public officials by its jouinalists."
1S9


0n Septembei 18, 2u1S, the B/,*0 "$*$4'/&# iepoiteu that 0.S. Senatoi }ay Rockefellei,
chaiiman of the Committee on Commeice, Science anu Tianspoitation, "visiteu News
Coip's Lonuon heauquaiteis eailiei this yeai, in piepaiation foi a potential Senate
investigation." Accoiuing to the B/,*0 "$*$4'/&#,

The Senate committee is unwilling to launch a full-scale investigation into the
allegeu wionguoing until aftei a seiies of ciiminal tiials of foimei News Coip
staff, uue to begin next month. Bowevei, Senatoi Rockefellei is unueistoou to
be keen to amass as much eviuence as possible aheau of the tiials, so that the
committee can launch a potential investigation once ciiminal pioceeuings
have finisheu.. Last yeai, he wiote to Loiu }ustice Leveson iequesting any
eviuence suggesting ciiminal conuuct hau occuiieu in the 0S, involveu 0S
citizens oi fallen within the juiisuiction of 0S laws. The FBI anu Bo} aie
cuiiently investigating any potential violations of the Foieign Coiiupt
Piactices Act (FCPA). Bowevei, News Coip coulu fall foul of othei laws if
jouinalists aie founu to have inteicepteu voicemails on 0S soil.
14u



1S9
Nichael Boluen anu Naik Bosenball, "Nuiuoch's 0K 0nit Coulu Face Coipoiate Backing
Chaiges: Souice." D$1.$'-, August 16, 2u1S. Roy uieenslaue, "Rupeit Nuiuoch's company
unuei investigation on 'coipoiate chaige.'" J1/'2,/3, August 17, 2u1S.
14u
Katheiine Rushton, "0S Senatoi visiteu News Coip's Lonuon BQ Aheau of Possible
Inquiiy." B/,*0 "$*$4'/&#, Septembei 18, 2u1S.
40
I8I |nvest|gat|ons of nonprof|t organ|zat|ons

Buiing the last uozen yeais, the FBI has impiopeily spieu on oi investigateu nonpiofit
oiganizations anu activists affiliateu with them.
141
The FBI also maue false statements
about one of these inciuents to Congiess, the meuia anu the public.

Following a stiing of news aiticles about FBI investigations of nonpiofit auvocacy gioups,
some Nembeis of Congiess iequesteu that the Inspectoi ueneial of the Bepaitment of
}ustice ieview these cases. The 0ffice of the Inspectoi ueneial issueu its iepoit in
Septembei 2u1u, iegaiuing FBI investigations between 2uu1-u6. The iepoit was shaiply
ciitical of the FBI. The 0ffice of the Inspectoi ueneial

"concluueu that the factual basis of opening some of the investigations of
inuiviuuals affiliateu with the gioups was factually weak..In some cases, we
also founu that the FBI extenueu the uuiation of investigations involving
auvocacy gioups oi theii membeis without auequate basis.. In some cases,
the FBI classifieu some of its investigations ielating to nonviolent civil
uisobeuience unuei its "Acts of Teiioiism" classification."
142


In paiticulai, the 0ffice of the Inspectoi ueneial concluueu that:

• The FBI's investigation of the Thomas Neiton Centei ("Pittsbuigh's peace anu social
justice centei") anu the FBI's misstatements about it "iaiseu the most tioubling
issues in this ieview."
14S
The 0Iu iepoit noteu that an FBI agent was uiiecteu to
attenu a Pittsbuigh peace ially sponsoieu by the Neiton Centei. The agent wiote a
shoit iepoit on it, which boie the synopsis line "|tjo iepoit iesults of investigation
of Pittsbuigh anti-wai activity."
144
The 0Iu iepoit stateu that it founu this FBI
iepoit "extiemely tioubling on its face. It uesciibeu no legitimate puipose foi the
FBI to attenu the event. It cieateu a stiong impiession that the FBI's ieason foi
being theie was to monitoi the Fiist Amenument activities of peisons with anti-wai
views. It supplieu no eviuence oi even suspicion that any ciiminal oi teiioiist

141
The FBI has a iecoiu of conuucting opeiations uesigneu to suiveil, uisiupt anu uiscieuit
activists anu nonpiofit oiganizations. See, foi example, histoiies of C0INTELPR0 fiom
19S6-71, such as }ames Kiikpatiick Bavis, @&0,34 (3 I+$',6/F "#$ T;MC- B(+$-.,6
G(13.$',3.$**,4$36$ H'(4'/+. (Westpoit, CT: Piaegei Publisheis, 1992).
142
"A Review of the FBI's Investigations of Ceitain Bomestic Auvocacy uioups." 0veisight
anu Review Bivision, 0ffice of the Inspectoi ueneial, 0.S. Bepaitment of }ustice, Septembei,
2u1u, at 19u. See also Richaiu A. Seiiano, "FBI Impiopeily Investigateu Activists, }ustice
Bepaitment Review Finus." >(- I34$*$- ",+$-, Septembei 21, 2u1u. Amy uoouman, "FBI
Raius anu the Ciiminalization of Bissent." "#$ N'$4(3,/3, 0ctobei 1, 2u1u.
14S
0Iu iepoit at 174.
144
0Iu iepoit at Su.
41
element was associateu with the Neiton Centei oi likely to be piesent at the
event."
14S


• "|Tjhe FBI's statements to Congiess anu the public about the ieason the agent
attenueu the event |Pittsbuigh peace iallyj weie inaccuiate anu misleauing..the
FBI stateu in a piess iesponse anu |FBIj Biiectoi Nuellei stateu in Congiessional
testimony that the FBI's suiveillance at the event was baseu on specific infoimation
fiom an ongoing investigation anu conuucteu to iuentify a paiticulai inuiviuual.
These statements weie not tiue. We founu no eviuence that the FBI hau any
infoimation at the time of the event that any teiioiism subject woulu be piesent at
the event. Insteau, we founu that FBI peisonnel cieateu two inconsistent anu
eiioneous explanations of the suiveillance of the anti-wai ially, stating inaccuiately
that the suiveillance was a iesponse to infoimation that ceitain peisons of inteiest
in inteinational teiioiism matteis woulu be piesent."
146


• "|Tjhe factual pieuication foi the |FBI'sj pieliminaiy inquiiies.foi a feueial ciime
was thin"
147
iegaiuing membeis of the Pittsbuigh 0iganizing uioup, an "affiliate" of
the Thomas Neiton Centei. The P0u was planning to piotest the Novembei 2uuS
Fiee Tiaue of the Ameiicas meetings in Niami.

• Regaiuing an FBI agent's ieciuitment of a souice to suiveil the P0u, "the agent's
puipose in ieciuiting this souice.was to establish his paiticipation in the souice
piogiam, not to pievent oi uetect teiioiism. Because of this impiopei puipose, we
concluueu that the FBI's collection of infoimation about P0u membeis' Fiist
Amenument activities was not 'peitinent to anu within the scope of an authoiizeu
law enfoicement activity' anu theiefoie iaiseu seiious questions unuei the Piivacy
Act, the Attoiney ueneial's uuiuelines, anu FBI policy."
148


• Regaiuing the FBI's investigation of a staff membei of People foi the Ethical
Tieatment of Animals, "The Fielu Bivision's uecision to opeiate the case as a full
investigation contiibuteu to the case iemaining open foi 6 yeais. We concluueu that
the lengthy uuiation of the investigation was unieasonable anu was inconsistent
with FBI policy iequiiing that an investigation with potential impacts on Fiist
Amenument activity 'not be peimitteu to extenu beyonu the point at which its
unueilying justification no longei exists.'"€
149



14S
0Iu iepoit at S9.
146
0Iu iepoit at 176.
147
0Iu iepoit at 179.
148
0Iu iepoit at 179.
149
0Iu iepoit at 181.
42
• Regaiuing the FBI's investigation of PETA itself, "The investigation iemaineu open
foi a total of 1S months, uuiing which time the case ieceiveu S 9u-uay
extensions.we questioneu the factual basis foi the thiiu extension."
1Su


• "We iuentifieu one PETA-ielateu case that we believe uiu not have a sufficient
factual basis even foi a pieliminaiy inquiiy."
1S1


• Regaiuing an FBI investigation of uieenpeace anu its membeis, "the FBI aiticulateu
little oi no basis foi suspecting a violation of any feueial ciiminal statute..the FBI's
opening EC |electionic communicationj uiu not aiticulate any basis to suspect that
they weie planning any feueial ciimes..We also founu that the FBI kept this
investigation open foi ovei S yeais, long past the coipoiate shaieholuei meetings
that the subjects weie supposeuly planning to uisiupt..We concluueu that the
investigation was kept open 'beyonu the point at which its unueilying justification
no longei existeu,' which was inconsistent with the FBI's Nanual of Investigative
anu 0peiational uuiuelines (NI0u)."
1S2


• Regaiuing the investigation of the Catholic Woikei anu its membeis, "the FBI's
classification of one of these matteis unuei the Acts of Teiioiism classification was
inappiopiiate, because the acts in question (tiespass on a militaiy facility) uiu not
incluue the use of violence oi foice."
1SS





1Su
0Iu iepoit at 181.
1S1
0Iu iepoit at 182.
1S2
0Iu iepoit at 182-S.
1SS
0Iu iepoit at 18S.
43
Surve|||ance of the Cccupy Wa|| Street movement

Theie aie numeious news accounts anu iepoits of local police, Bepaitment of Bomelanu
Secuiity anu FBI suiveillance of the 0ccupy Wall Stieet movement. Foi example, Natthew
Rothschilu of the H'(4'$--,5$ magazine iepoiteu that:

"0vei the last few yeais, the Bepaitment of Bomelanu Secuiity anu local law
enfoicement officeis have engageu in wiuespieau uomestic spying on
0ccupy Wall Stieet activists, among otheis, on the shaky piemise that these
activists pose a teiioiist thieat. 0ften, Bomelanu Secuiity anu othei law
enfoicement agencies have cooiuinateu with the piivate sectoi, woiking on
behalf of, oi in coopeiation with, Wall Stieet fiims anu othei companies the
piotesteis have ciiticizeu..The uocuments ieveal many instances of such
misuiiecteu woik by law enfoicement aiounu the countiy. The pictuie they
paint of law enfoicement in the Phoenix aiea is a case in point. The police
uepaitments theie, woiking with a statewiue fusion centei anu heavily
financeu by the Bepaitment of Bomelanu Secuiity, uevoteu tiemenuous
iesouices to tiacking anu infiltiating 0ccupy Phoenix anu othei activist
gioups."
1S4


Similaily, in Naich 2u12, the A$? Q('< ",+$- iepoiteu that "Foi the last few
months, piotest oiganizeis say, police officeis oi uetectives have been posteu
outsiue builuings wheie piivate meetings weie taking place, have visiteu the homes
of oiganizeis anu have questioneu piotesteis aiiesteu on minoi chaiges." It tells
the stoiy of foui people who weie aiiesteu, stiip-seaicheu anu questioneu about
0ccupy piotests, even though they weie moie than a uozen blocks away fiom an
0ccupy Wall Stieet "uay of action."
1SS


1S4
Natthew Rothschilu, "Spying on 0ccupy Activists." "#$ H'(4'$--,5$, }une 2u1S. See also
Nichael Bastings, "Exclusive: Bomelanu Secuiity Kept Tabs on 0ccupy Wall Stieet." D(**,34
@.(3$, Febiuaiy 28, 2u12. }ason Cheikis anu Zach Caitei, "FBI Suiveillance of 0ccupy Wall
Stieet Betaileu." L177,34.(3 H(-., }anuaiy S, 2u1S. Bominique Bebucquoy-Bouley, "FBI
Consiueieu 0ccupy Novement Potential Thieat, Bocuments Say." GAA, Becembei 27, 2u12.
Spencei Nanuel, "I Spy an 0ccupy: 0bama's BBS Suiveils Legit Piotesteis." K#(K#/.K#0,
Nay 21, 2u12. Nick Pinto, "0ccupy's 0nueicovei Cop: 'Shauy,' 0biquitous, Willing To uet
Aiiesteu." J(.#/+,-., 0ctobei 1u, 2u1S. Lisa uiaves, "Bow the uoveinment Taigeteu
0ccupy; The 0niteu States Spent Nillions Spying on Anti-coipoiate Activists." M3 "#$-$
",+$-, Nay 21, 2u1S. Nichael Isikoff, "0nawaie of Tsainaev Wainings, Boston
Counteiteiioi 0nit Tiackeu Piotesteis." A;G A$?-, Nay 1u, 2u1S. Touu uitlin, "The
Wonueiful Ameiican Woilu of Infoimeis anu Agents Piovocateuis." "(+C- B,-&/.6#, }une
27, 2u1S. Beau Bouai, "Bissent oi Teiioi: Bow the Nation's Countei Teiioiism Appaiatus,
In Paitneiship With Coipoiate Ameiica, Tuineu on 0ccupy Wall Stieet." Centei foi Neuia
anu Bemociacy anu BBA Piess, Nay 2u, 2u1S.
1SS
Colin Noynihan, "Wall Stieet Piotesteis Complain of Police Suiveillance." A$? Q('<
",+$-, Naich 11, 2u12.
44
InfraGard: an I8I-corporate |nte|||gence partnersh|p

uiven the well-uocumenteu abuses both by coipoiations anu the FBI in spying on
nonpiofits, the question aiises whethei the secietive FBI-coipoiate intelligence
paitneiship calleu Infiauaiu is oi coulu become anothei vehicle oi tool foi unethical oi
illegal espionage against nonpiofit oiganizations.

The covei of the Naich 2uu8 issue of "#$ H'(4'$--,5$ featuieu an aiticle about Infiauaiu, a
little-known paitneiship between piivate inuustiy, the FBI anu the Bepaitment of
Bomelanu Secuiity.
1S6
As of then, Infiauaiu claimeu the paiticipation of "moie than 2S,uuu
iepiesentatives of piivate inuustiy," incluuing SSu of the Foitune Suu companies. The
Infiauaiu website claims that its "piimaiy focus.is to shaie actionable intelligence
infoimation foi investigative puiposes."
1S7


Accoiuing to "#$ H'(4'$--,5$,

"0ne of the auvantages of Infiauaiu, accoiuing to its leauing membeis, is that
the FBI gives them a heaus-up on a secuie poital about any thieatening
infoimation ielateu to infiastiuctuie uisiuption oi teiioiism.. 'We get veiy
easy access to secuie infoimation that only goes to Infiauaiu membeis,'
|Chaiiman of the Boaiu of Biiectois of the Infiauaiu National Nembeis
Alliance Phyllisj Schneck says. 'People aie happy to be in the know.'.. In
ietuin foi being in the know, Infiauaiu membeis coopeiate with the FBI anu
Bomelanu Secuiity. 'Infiauaiu membeis have contiibuteu to about 1uu FBI
cases,' Schneck says.
1S8


The Ameiican Civil Libeities 0nion is conceineu about the special auvantages gianteu to
coipoiations unuei Infiauaiu. Accoiuing to the ACL0's }ay Stanley,

"'The FBI shoulu not be cieating a piivilegeu class of Ameiicans who get
special tieatment..Theie's no 'business class' in law enfoicement. If theie's
infoimation the FBI can shaie with 22,uuu coipoiate bigwigs, why uon't they
just shaie it with the public. That's who theii ieal 'special ielationship' is
supposeu to be with. Seciecy is not a paity favoi to be given out to
fiienus..This beais a uistuibing iesemblance to the FBI's hanuing out
'goouies' to coipoiations in ietuin foi foluing them into its uomestic
suiveillance machineiy.'"
1S9




1S6
Natthew Rothschilu, "The FBI Beputizes Business." "#$ H'(4'$--,5$, Naich, 2uu8.
1S7
http:¡¡www.infiagaiu.net¡faq.php.mn•1&sm•1-2.
1S8
Natthew Rothschilu, "The FBI Beputizes Business." "#$ H'(4'$--,5$, Naich, 2uu8.
1S9
Natthew Rothschilu, "The FBI Beputizes Business." "#$ H'(4'$--,5$, Naich, 2uu8.
45
Irequent|y asked quest|ons about corporate esp|onage
now common |s corporate esp|onage aga|nst nonprof|ts?

We uon't ieally know. Beie's what we uo know.

Nost majoi companies have cieateu an institutionalizeu inteinal chief secuiity position - a
chief intelligence officei of some soit. These people often stait by asking the question:
what "thieats" exist to oui company. In some cases - but we uon't know how many --
coipoiations iuentify nonpiofit oiganizations as "thieats." They may ieseaich the
nonpiofits by accessing public iecoius anu news stoiies, oi consulting public ielations
fiims. But if they finu the "thieat" seiious enough, they may wish to obtain human, physical
oi electionic intelligence about the oiganization's plans anu activities. Anu if the
coipoiation is uespeiate enough, anu its ethics aie pliable enough, its leaueis may even
conuuct unethical oi illegal intelligence-gatheiing against nonpiofits.

Nost of the cases of coipoiate espionage we know about in iecent yeais have been
uncoveieu by acciuent. Theie has been no compiehensive, systematic effoit by feueial oi
state goveinment to ueteimine how much coipoiate espionage is actually occuiiing, anu
what tactics aie being useu. It is likely that coipoiate espionage against nonpiofits occuis
much moie often than is known.

Regaiuing coipoiate espionage in the 0niteu Kinguom, the J1/'2,/3 iepoiteu that
"Piivately, senioi officeis claim theie aie 'without question' moie coipoiate spies
embeuueu in the piotest movement than police officeis. Among theii numbei aie foimei
police officeis cashing in on theii suiveillance skills foi a host of companies that taiget
piotesteis."
16u


Anothei estimate of the pievalence of coipoiate espionage - but peihaps a self-seiving one
-- comes fiom Russell Coin, managing uiiectoi of Biligence, a coipoiate intelligence agency.
Coin says that "piivate spies make up 2S pei cent of eveiy activist camp. 'If you stuck an
inteicept up neai one of those camps, you woulun't believe the amount of outgoing calls
aftei eveiy meeting saying, 'Tomoiiow we'ie going to cut the fence',' he smiles. 'Easily one
in foui of the people theie aie taking the coipoiate shilling.'"
161


Who actua||y conducts the esp|onage?

When a nonpiofit campaign is so successful that it may impaii a company's piofits oi
ieputation, companies may employ theii own in-house espionage capabilities, oi they may
ietain the seivices of an inteimeuiaiy with expeiience in espionage. Typically, such

16u
Paul Lewis anu Rob Evans, "Special Repoit: uieen uioups Taigeteu Polluteis As
Coipoiate Agents Biu In Theii Ranks." J1/'2,/3, Febiuaiy 1S, 2u11.
161
Stephen Aimstiong, "The New Spies." A$? @./.$-+/3, August 7, 2uu8.
46
inteimeuiaiies aie public ielations fiims, ciisis management fiims, anu law fiims. The
auvantage of an inteimeuiaiy, fiom the coipoiate peispective, is that it pioviues the
appeaiance of uistance between the coipoiation anu its intelligence gatheiing - in othei
woius, plausible ueniability if something goes wiong.

The inteimeuiaiy may hiie a piivate investigations fiim that eithei has multiple espionage
capacities oi that specializes in the paiticulai kinu of intelligence neeueu - such as human
intelligence anu the infiltiation of nonpiofits, oi electionic oi physical suiveillance. These
piivate investigations fiims may subcontiact out espionage to expeiienceu opeiatives,
which gives coipoiations access to specializeu talent while fuithei incieasing the level of
plausible ueniability.
162


What |s the extent of |nvo|vement of current and former po||ce, CIA, NSA, I8I, Secret
Serv|ce, and other m|||tary, |nte|||gence and |aw enforcement off|c|a|s?

0ne of the tioubling aspects of iecent coipoiate espionage against nonpiofits is the use of
cuiient anu foimei police, cuiient goveinment contiactois, anu foimei CIA, NSA, FBI,
militaiy, Seciet Seivice anu othei law enfoicement officeis.

Even active-uuty CIA opeiatives aie alloweu to sell theii expeitise to the highest biuuei, "a
policy that gives financial fiims anu heuge funus access to the nation's top-level intelligence
talent," wiites Eamon }aveis. Little is known about the CIA's moonlighting policy, oi which
coipoiations have hiieu cuiient CIA opeiatives. Accoiuing to }aveis, "Theie is much about
the policy that is uncleai, incluuing how many officeis have availeu themselves of it, how
long it has been in place anu what types of outsiue employment have been alloweu."
16S

Regaiuing the CIA piocess foi appioving moonlighting, 0.S. Rep. Anna Eshoo saiu "Ny
sense is that it is a iubbei stamp ueal..No one's ieally looking at it oi keeping a close eye
on it."
164


In effect, coipoiations aie now able to ieplicate in miniatuie the seivices of a piivate CIA,
employing active-uuty anu ietiieu officeis fiom intelligence anu¡oi law enfoicement.

Biiing foimei intelligence, militaiy anu law enfoicement officials has its auvantages. Fiist,
these officials may be able to use theii status as a shielu. Foi example, cuiient law
enfoicement officials may be uisinclineu to investigate oi piosecute foimei intelligence oi
law enfoicement agents. They may be moie likely to get a "pass" because of theii

162
See, foi example, Russell Nokhibei anu Robeit Weissman, "Coipoiate Spooks." Naich 6,
2uu1.
16S
Eamon }aveis, "CIA Noonlights in the Coipoiate Woilu." H(*,.,6(, Febiuaiy 1, 2u1u. See
also 0.S. Bouse of Repiesentatives, Peimanent Select Committee on Intelligence. "Annual
Thieats Assessment, Pait I." Beaiing tiansciipt, Febiuaiy S, 2u1u. Kasie Bunt, "CIA
Noonlighting to be Investigateu." H(*,.,6(, Febiuaiy S, 2u1u. Eamon }aveis, ;'(<$'= "'/2$'=
>/?0$'= @&0. (New Yoik: BaipeiCollins, 2u1u), p. 198.
164
Eamon }aveis, "Rep. Taigets CIA Noonlighting." H(*,.,6(, Febiuaiy 2S, 2u1u.
47
goveinment seivice. In effect, coipoiations aie hiiing that "pass" anu sometimes using it to
conuuct unethical oi even illegal intelligence gatheiing against nonpiofits.

Lawlessness committeu by this piivate intelligence anu law enfoicement capacity, which
appeais to enjoy neai impunity, is a thieat to uemociacy anu the iule of law. In essence,
coipoiations aie now able to hiie a piivate law enfoicement capacity - which is baiely
constiaineu by legal anu ethical noims -- anu use it to subveit oi uestioy civic gioups. This
gieatly eioues the capacity of the civic sectoi to counteivail the tiemenuous powei of
coipoiate anu wealthy elites.
16S


In effect, the ievolving uooi foi intelligence, militaiy anu law enfoicement officials is yet
anothei aspect of the coipoiate captuie of the feueial agencies, anu anothei goveinment
subsiuy foi coipoiations. Taxpayei funus aie expenueu to tiain the officials who woik foi
the CIA, NSA, Seciet Seivice, militaiy anu othei intelligence anu law enfoicement agencies.
When these employees leave foi employment in the piivate sectoi, coipoiations ieap the
benefits of this taxpayei-funueu euucation, tiaining anu expeiience. It's a gieat ueal foi the
companies that hiie these foimei agents, but not foi taxpayeis.

What techn|ques are used |n corporate esp|onage aga|nst nonprof|ts?

We may not ieally know all of them. Theie may be intelligence-gatheiing techniques that
aie useu against nonpiofits about which theie is little oi no public knowleuge.

We uo know that foi almost two uecaues, coipoiations have employeu a wiue vaiiety of
human, physical anu electionic suiveillance techniques.

To obtain human intelligence, in the cases that aie publicly-known, many coipoiations
have hiieu spies -- eithei uiiectly oi thiough inteimeuiaiies - who use a false oi misleauing
iuentity to infiltiate an oiganization. 0ften the spy poses as a volunteei oi suppoitei, to
secietly haivest infoimation ovei a long peiiou of time, oi as a jouinalist, to gathei a lot of
infoimation quickly. The spy may weai a iecoiuing uevice to captuie all veibal
communication that occuis neai him.


16S
See }ames Riugeway, "The Biity Bistoiy of Coipoiate Spying." J1/'2,/3, Febiuaiy 1S,
2u11. "The piivate uetective fiims woiking foi coipoiations can uevelop infoimation
against theii own taigets anu finu eagei iecipients among feueial anu local law
enfoicement agencies, some of whose employees enu up ietiiing into piivate-sectoi
uetective woik. The coipoiate spy business thus amounts to a shauow paia-law
enfoicement system that basically can get aiounu any of the safeguaius set out in the
Ameiican legal system; it ought to be subject fiist to tianspaiency, anu then to banning.
That's not likely to happen any time soon, but what coulu happen, anu what has been so fai
unsuccessfully iequesteu of Congiess, is a thoioughgoing investigation of this paia-legal
appaiatus with a view to exposing its uangeis anu figuiing out the best way of eliminating
its abuses."
48
To obtain physical intelligence such as uocuments, the most common technique appeais to
be uumpstei uiving: collecting tiash anu iecycling, even fiom ieceptacles on the taiget's
piopeity. Such ieceptacles can be accesseu by tiespass, oi by employing a moonlighting
active-uuty law enfoicement officei, such as a local police officei oi state tioopei.
Coipoiations may also hiie the seivices of expeiienceu nonpiofit infiltiatois who may pose
as volunteeis, to scout out woikplaces anu to steal uocuments left unattenueu oi
unguaiueu. Coipoiate spies may also plant bugs to obtain anu tiansmit veibal
communication. Both offices anu homes may be taigeteu foi the gatheiing of physical
intelligence.

The techniques of electionic espionage aie fai too uiveise anu complex to tieat fully in this
biief iepoit. Bowevei, heie is a sketch of the moie salient ones.

• ](:+,./R*:*0% .,),/.VF. A coipoiate spy may begin an electionic intelligence
gatheiing effoit by assessing the compaiative vulneiabilities of a nonpiofit's
computeis, netwoiks anu electionic communications.

• -#<"(0,. F/V$*+2. Theie aie many uiffeient techniques available to coipoiate
spies who wish to hack a computei oi computei netwoik. Some of the moie
obvious ones may incluue vulneiability scanning (checking computeis anu
netwoiks foi known secuiity flaws), peisistent softwaie implants anu cieation of
custom malwaie, passwoiu ciacking, phishing (obtaining passwoius by posing as a
tiustwoithy entity), Tiojan hoises (establishing a back uooi into a computei oi
netwoik that can be exploiteu latei) anu key loggeis (iecoiuing of all keystiokes on
a computei foi latei ietiieval).

• 6R0/*+*+2 "F#+, .,V#.U). This often involves the piactice of pietexting, oi using a
false iuentity oi pietenses to tiick a phone pioviuei into ieleasing iecoius of phone
calls. Coipoiate spies may also bieach online account auministiation tools that aie
maue available to phone customeis.

• E*.,0/""*+2. Coipoiate spies may tap phones in many ways, incluuing implanting
bugs in a hanuset oi anywheie along a phone line, tapping outsiue phone boxes anu
using iauio scanneis.

• =F#+, Q#*V,</*: F/V$*+2. Some phone voicemail systems can be easily hackeu via
web-baseu spoofing seivices, which coipoiate spies can use to make theii calls seem
like they aie coming fiom the voicemail that they aie hacking into.

• SF,50 #5 V#<"(0,.). Computei uata can be obtaineu by theft - especially of
laptops.

49
What other offens|ve tact|cs can corporate sp|es use?

• H*)*+5#.</0*#+. Coipoiate spies may cieate anu uisseminate uisinfoimation to
cieate uissention within an oiganization, oi to uiscieuit an oiganization. They may
also cieate false infoimation that, if ieleaseu by the oiganization to the public,
woulu uamage the oiganization's cieuibility.

• ;+Q,)0*2/0*+2 0F, ".*Q/0, :*Q,) #5 /V0*Q*)0) -- incluuing theii spouses, chiluien,
ieligious activities -- to gain leveiage ovei them.

• ':/V$</*:. Coipoiations can blackmail activists to tiy to foice them to stop theii
campaign against a coipoiation.

• -.,/0*#+ #5 5/:), U#))*,.). Coipoiations can hiie law fiims oi piivate investigatois
to compile false oi misleauing uossieis to uiscieuit an activist oi whistleblowei.

Wh|ch nonprof|ts get targeted for corporate esp|onage?

In geneial, theie aie two pieconuitions foi a nonpiofit to be taigeteu with coipoiate
espionage.

Fiist, it iequiies a coipoiation that is willing to use the tools of espionage anu the iisks
associateu with it.

Seconu, it iequiies a nonpiofit that impaiis oi at least thieatens a company's assets oi
image sufficiently. Naik Floegel of uieenpeace says that uieenpeace has been iepeateuly
taigeteu foi espionage because "We'ie effective at what we uo." But he also notes that
some PR fiims (which sometimes subcontiact with piivate uetective fiims) "have a
symbiotic ielationship with uieenpeace." Be says that on seveial occasions, PR fiims have
contacteu the coipoiate taigets of uieenpeace by saying "Bon't let uieenpeace embaiiass
you." Floegel says that uieenpeace is "ieally goou foi the PR economy."

now much do compan|es spend on esp|onage aga|nst nonprof|ts?

We uon't ieally know.

Theie aie inuications that some companies anu tiaue associations pay millions foi
espionage against nonpiofit oiganizations. Foi example, Beiico Technologies, BB uaiy
Feueial anu Palantii Technologies pioposeu a $2 million monthly buuget to Bunton &
Williams foi a 0.S. Chambei of Commeice campaign against 0.S. Chambei Watch anu othei
ciitics of the Chambei of Commeice.
166



166
http:¡¡i+/4$-V9/+$',6/3&'(4'$--9('4W"#,3<H'(4'$--W.#$+,-&*/39&279
50
Þo||cy recommendat|ons: now to protect nonprof|t organ|zat|ons
from corporate esp|onage

The failuie to holu coipoiations oi theii contiactois accountable foi coipoiate espionage
against nonpiofits may well encouiage othei coipoiations to conuuct espionage against
nonpiofits.

Self-iegulation of coipoiate espionage - by coipoiations themselves, theii piivate
investigatois, public ielations fiims, law fiims, anu theii contiactois - is an abject failuie.
Baseu on the cases anu activities ievieweu in this iepoit, it is cleai that these fiims aie
eithei unwilling oi unable to police themselves auequately to pievent illegal oi unethical
espionage against nonpiofit oiganizations.

Theie aie many things that can be uone to piotect both nonpiofits anu oui uemociacy fiom
illegal oi unethical coipoiate espionage.

1. Congiess shoulu holu heaiings on coipoiate espionage against nonpiofits.
Congiessional committees shoulu subpoena uocuments anu testimony fiom
coipoiations, PR fiims, piivate uetective fiims, law fiims anu contiactois known oi
suspecteu of conuucting espionage against nonpiofits. They shoulu ask questions of
these fiims, such as:

• Which nonpiofits have you (oi youi contiactois oi subcontiactois) conuucteu
espionage against.

• What espionage tactics have you (oi youi contiactois oi subcontiactois) useu
against nonpiofits.

• Bave you (oi youi contiactois oi subcontiactois) evei taken any actions that
may have been unethical, illegal oi potentially illegal. If so, what weie they.

• Bow much have you paiu to conuuct espionage against nonpiofits. Bow much
weie you paiu to conuuct espionage against nonpiofits.

• Bave you evei employeu the seivices of cuiient oi foimei police, CIA, NSA, FBI,
Seciet Seivice militaiy, anu¡oi othei law enfoicement oi intelligence agents.
What kinus of espionage tactics have they useu.

• Bas any cuiient oi foimei law oi intelligence official evei useu theii official
position oi official status on youi behalf. If so, how.

2. Congiess shoulu also holu heaiings on moonlighting by feueial intelligence anu law
enfoicement officials to assist in coipoiate intelligence gatheiing activities.
Nembeis of Congiess shoulu ask these questions:

51
• Bow often uo active-uuty oi ietiieu intelligence oi law enfoicement officials
paiticipate in coipoiate espionage against nonpiofits.

• What is the natuie of the ieview conuucteu by Besignateu Agency Ethics 0fficials
(BAE0s) anu¡oi othei agency officials iegaiuing moonlighting to conuuct
coipoiate espionage against nonpiofits.

• Bow often, if evei, uo BAE0s oi othei agency officials uisallow intelligence oi
law enfoicement staff fiom engaging in specific moonlighting piojects.

• Aie theie any iestiictions on contiacting with piivate intelligence companies
that conuuct espionage against Ameiican citizens on behalf of coipoiations.

• What pievents goveinment agencies fiom hiiing inuiviuuals with a iecoiu of
violating citizens' iight to piivacy oi othei activities that violate Ameiicans'
constitutional iights.

S. Law enfoicement - especially the 0.S. Bepaitment of }ustice - shoulu piioiitize
investigating coipoiate espionage against nonpiofit oiganizations. This coulu easily
have a potent ueteiient effect, as well as biinging wionguoeis to justice.

4. Congiess shoulu enact a "Citizen-uioup Espionage Act" to ciiminalize the theft of
confiuential, noneconomic infoimation.
167

Such a statute, if enfoiceu, woulu also be
a poweiful ueteiient to coipoiate espionage against nonpiofits.

S. Congiess anu state legislatuies shoulu piohibit commeicial uumpstei uiving -- the
piactice of iummaging thiough tiash to gain access to tiaue seciets anu othei
valuable oi confiuential infoimation.

6. Congiess anu state legislatuies shoulu piohibit active uuty law enfoicement officials
- incluuing state anu local police, FBI, NSA, CIA, 0S militaiy anu Seciet Seivice --
fiom conuucting coipoiate espionage against nonpiofit oiganizations.

7. Congiess shoulu legislate full tianspaiency iegaiuing espionage against nonpiofits,
by iequiiing all publicly-tiaueu coipoiations that expenu funus - eithei uiiectly oi
inuiiectly via law fiims, PR fiims oi piivate investigatois - to conuuct espionage
against nonpiofits to uisclose the cost, tactics anu taigets of the espionage.

8. Congiess anu state legislatuies shoulu iequiie all contiactois with law enfoicement
oi intelligence agencies -- incluuing state anu local police, FBI, NSA, CIA, 0S militaiy
anu Seciet Seivice - to affiim in theii contiacts that they will not conuuct espionage

167
Anuiew Fiohlich, "volunteeiing to Beceive: Ciiminalizing Citizen-uioup Espionage."
J$('4$ K/-#,34.(3 >/? D$5,$?, Apiil, 2u1u. 78 ueo. Wash. L. Rev. 668.
52
against nonpiofit oiganizations.

9. Congiess shoulu uiiect the Inspectoi ueneial of the Bepaitment of }ustice to
piepaie an annual iepoit on law enfoicement suiveillance of nonpiofits. Special
attention shoulu be given to the eviuence useu to open investigations anu to how
long investigations iemain open, to ensuie that goveinment iesouices aie being
useu foi actual law anu oiuei anu not as taxpayei-funueu coipoiate secuiity.

1u. Congiess anu state legislatuies shoulu enact legislation sanctioning any police
officei who abuses his oi hei authoiity when moonlighting (i.e., "using the bauge" to
gain access to aieas oi infoimation unavailable to the public).

11. Leaueis of 0.S. law enfoicement anu intelligence agencies shoulu wain both active
uuty anu ietiieu membeis of theii agencies that coipoiate espionage against
nonpiofit oiganizations is unethical, intoleiable anu often illegal.

12. Founuations anu piivate uonois shoulu establish anu funu fiee-of-chaige nonpiofit
secuiity auvisois, who can uispense auvice to nonpiofits about how to piotect
against coipoiate espionage.
53
Ior further read|ng

}essica Bell anu Ban Spaluing, "Secuiity Cultuie foi Activists." The Ruckus Society. A basic
piimei on how activists can piotect themselves fiom goveinment anu coipoiate espionage.

Eamon }aveis, ;'(<$'= "'/2$'= >/?0$'= @&0. (New Yoik: BaipeiCollins, 2u1u).

Biian ulick, K/' /. L(+$F G(5$'. I6.,(3 I4/,3-. Y9@9 I6.,5,-.- /32 K#/. K$ G/3 B( I)(1. M..
(Cambiiuge, NA: South Enu Piess, 1989).

Tom Bevine anu Taiek F. Naassaiani, "#$ G('&('/.$ K#,-.*$)*(?$'C- @1'5,5/* J1,2$. (San
Fiancisco, Beiiett-Koehlei Publisheis, 2u11).

}ohn Staubei anu Sheluon Rampton, "(U,6 @*124$ ,- J((2 T(' Q(1F >,$-= B/+3 >,$- /32 .#$
H1)*,6 D$*/.,(3- M321-.'0. (Nonioe, NE: Common Couiage Piess, 199S.) See especially
chaptei S, "Spies foi Biie."

Eveline Lubbeis, @$6'$. E/3($15'$- ,3 .#$ B/'<F G('&('/.$ /32 H(*,6$ @&0,34 (3 I6.,5,-.-9
(Lonuon: Pluto Piess, 2u12).

Beiui Boghosian, @&0,34 (3 B$+(6'/60F J(5$'3+$3. @1'5$,**/36$= G('&('/.$ H(?$' /32
H1)*,6 D$-,-./36$. (San Fiancisco: City Lights Books, 2u1S).
Crgan|zat|ons
The Electionic Fiontiei Founuation has an assoitment of useful mateiials iegaiuing
electionic communications secuiity. www.eff.oig. See especially mateiials on "Suiveillance
Self-Befense." https://ssd.eff.org/.

0vei the yeais, the Centei foi Neuia anu Bemociacy has wiitten many aiticles about
coipoiate spying on nonpiofit oiganizations. www.prwatch.org. See also theii iesouices on
SouiceWatch. www.souicewatch.oig.

Nuch of what we know about coipoiate espionage uuiing the last seventeen yeais was
coveieu - oi coveieu fiist - in the J1/'2,/3. www.guaiuian.co.uk.

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