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6.1

**Combined Axial Load and Bending
**

GENERAL REMARKS

Structural members are often subject to combined bending and axial load either in tension or in compression. In the 1996 edition of the AISI Speciﬁcation, the design provisions for combined axial load and bending were expanded to include speciﬁc requirements in Sec. C5.1 for the design of cold-formed steel structural members subjected to combined tensile axial load and bending. When structural members are subject to combined compressive axial load and bending, the design provisions are given in Sec. C5.2 of the AISI Speciﬁcation. This type of member is usually referred to as a beam-column. The bending may result from eccentric loading (Fig. 6.1a), transverse loads (Fig. 6.1b), or applied moments (Fig. 6.1c). Such members are often found in framed structures, trusses, and exterior wall studs. In steel structures, beams are usually supported by columns through framing angles or brackets on the sides of the columns. The reactions of beams can be considered as eccentric loading, which produces bending moments. The structural behavior of beam-columns depends on the shape and dimensions of the cross section, the location of the applied eccentric load, the column length, the condition of bracing, and so on. For this reason, previous editions of the AISI Speciﬁcation have subdivided design provisions into the following four cases according to the conﬁguration of the cross section and the type of buckling mode:1.4 1. Doubly symmetric shapes and shapes not subject to torsional or torsional–ﬂexural buckling. 2. Locally stable singly symmetric shapes or intermittently fastened components of built-up shapes, which may be subject to torsional–ﬂexural buckling, loaded in the plan of symmetry. 3. Locally unstable symmetric shapes or intermittently fastened components of built-up shapes, which may be subject to torsional–ﬂexural buckling, loaded in the plan of symmetry. 4. Singly symmetric shapes which are unsymmetrically loaded.

360

6.2

COMBINED TENSILE AXIAL LOAD AND BENDING

361

Figure 6.1 Beam-columns. (a) Subject to eccentric loads. (b) Subject to axial and transverse loads. (c). Subject to axial loads and end moments.

The early AISI design provisions for singly symmetric sections subjected to combined compressive load and bending were based on an extensive investigation of torsional–ﬂexural buckling of thin-walled sections under eccentric load conducted by Winter, Pekoz, and Celibi at Cornell University.5.66,6.1 The behavior of channel columns subjected to eccentric loading has also been studied by Rhodes, Harvey, and Loughlan.5.34,6.2–6.5 In 1986, as a result of the uniﬁed approach, Pekoz indicated that both locally stable and unstable beam-columns can be designed by the simple, well-known interaction equations as included in Sec. C5 of the AISI Speciﬁcation. The justiﬁcation of the current design criteria is given in Ref. 3.17. The 1996 design criteria were veriﬁed by Pekoz and Sumer using the available test results.5.103 6.2 6.2.1 COMBINED TENSILE AXIAL LOAD AND BENDING Tension Members

For the design of tension members using hot-rolled steel shapes and built-up members, the AISC Speciﬁcations1.148,3.150 provide design provisions for the following three limit states: (1) yielding of the full section between connections, (2) fracture of the effective net area at the connection, and (3) block shear fracture at the connection. For cold-formed steel design, Sec. C2 of the 1996 AISI Speciﬁcation gives Eq. (6.1) for calculating the nominal tensile strength of axially loaded tension members, with a safety factor for the ASD method and a resistance factor for the LRFD method as follows: Tn ϭ AnFy

⍀t ϭ 1.67 (for ASD)

(6.1)

t ϭ 0.95 (for LRFD)

362

COMBINED AXIAL LOAD AND BENDING

where Tn ϭ nominal tensile strength An ϭ net area of the cross section Fy ϭ design yield stress In addition, the nominal tensile strength is also limited by Sec. E.3.2 of the Speciﬁcation for tension in connected parts. When a tension member has holes, stress concentration may result in a higher tensile stress adjacent to a hole to be about three times the average stress on the net area.6.36 With increasing load and plastic stress redistribution, the stress in all ﬁbers on the net area will reach to the yield stress as shown in Fig. 6.2. Consequently, the AISI Speciﬁcation has used Eq. (6.1) for determining the maximum tensile capacity of axially loaded tension members since 1946. This AISI design approach differs signiﬁcantly from the AISC design provisions, which consider yielding of the gross cross-sectional area, fracture of the effective net area, and block shear. The reason for not considering the fracture criterion in the 1996 AISI Speciﬁcation is mainly due to the lack of research data relative to the shear lag effect on tensile strength of cold-formed steel members. In 1995, the inﬂuence of shear lag on the tensile capacity of bolted connections in cold-formed steel angles and channels was investigated at the University of Missouri-Rolla. Design equations are recommended in Refs. 6.23 through 6.25 for computing the effective net area. This design information enables the consideration of fracture strength at connections for angles and channels. The same study also investigated the tensile strength of staggered bolt patterns in ﬂat sheet connections. On the basis of the results of recent research, Sec. C2 of the Speciﬁcation was revised in 1999. The AISI Supplement to the Speciﬁcation includes the following revised provisions for the design of axially loaded tension members:

1.333

C2 Tension Members For axially loaded tension members, the nominal tensile strength, Tn, shall be the smaller value obtained according to the limit states of (a) yielding in the gross section, (b) fracture in the net section away from connections, and (c) fracture in the effective net section at the connections:

Figure 6.2 Stress distribution for nominal tensile strength.

6.2

COMBINED TENSILE AXIAL LOAD AND BENDING

363

**(a) For yielding: Tn ϭ AgFy
**

⍀t ϭ 1.67 (ASD)

(6.2)

t ϭ 0.90 (LRFD)

**(b) For fracture away from the connection: Tn ϭ AnFu
**

⍀t ϭ 2.00 (ASD)

(6.3)

t ϭ 0.75 (LRFD)

where Tn Ag An Fy Fu

ϭ ϭ ϭ ϭ ϭ

nominal strength of member when loaded in tension gross area of cross section net area of cross section yield stress as speciﬁed in Section A7.1 tensile strength as speciﬁed in Section A3.1 or A3.3.2

(c) For fracture at the connection: The nominal tensile strength shall also be limited by Sections E2.7, E.3, and E4 for tension members using welded connections, bolted connections, and screw connections, respectively.

From the above requirements, it can be seen that the nominal tensile strength of axially loaded cold-formed steel members is determined either by yielding of gross sectional area or by fracture of the net area of the cross section. At connections, the nominal tensile strength is also limited by the capacities determined in accordance with Speciﬁcation Sections E2.7, E3, and E4 for tension in connected parts. In addition to the strength consideration, yielding in the gross section also provides a limit on the deformation that a tension member can achieve. 6.2.2 Members Subjected to Combined Tensile Axial Load and Bending When cold-formed steel members are subject to concurrent bending and tensile axial load, the member shall satisfy the following AISI interaction equations prescribed in Sec. C5.1 of the Speciﬁcation for the ASD and LRFD methods:

C3. and Sft are deﬁned in Sec.4b) where T ϭ required tensile axial strength Tn ϭ nominal tensile axial strength determined in accordance with Sec. (6. C5.2. Mnyt ϭ SftFy Sft ϭ section modulus of the full section for the extreme tension ﬁber about the appropriate axis ⍀b ϭ 1. Mny.5b) where Tu ϭ required tensile axial strength Mux. Mnyt. C2 (or Art.90 for laterally unbraced beams (Sec. C3 (or Ch. In the AISI Speciﬁcation.67 for bending strength (Sec.1.0 b Mnxt b Mnyt tTn Mux Muy Tu ϩ Ϫ Յ 1. Eq.5a) (6.2. C3.95 Tn. Mnx.1) or for laterally unbraced beams (Sec. Mux.1) Mx. Mx. 4) Mnxt. Mny ϭ nominal ﬂexural strengths about the centroidal axes determined in accordance with Sec. and My shall satisfy the following interaction equations: ⍀bMx ϩ ⍀bMy ϩ ⍀tT Յ 1. C3. Mnxt.90 or 0. My ϭ required ﬂexural strengths with respect to the centroidal axes of the section Mnx.1.1). and Muy shall satisfy the following interaction equations: Mux Muy T ϩ ϩ u Յ 1.2.67 C5.1.1) ⍀t ϭ 1.2 LRFD Method The required strengths Tu.1.1.95 for bending strength (Sec.1.1. C3.0 Mnxt and ⍀bMx Mnyt Tn (6.4a) serves as an ASD design criterion to prevent yielding of the tension ﬂange of the member subjected to combined . or 0.4a) Mnx ϩ ⍀bMy Mny Ϫ ⍀tT Tn Յ 1.0 (6.1 ASD Method The required strengths T.0 b Mnx b Mny tTn (6.1) t ϭ 0. 6.1 Combined Tensile Axial Load and Bending C5. Muy ϭ required ﬂexural strengths with respect to the centroidal axes b ϭ 0.364 COMBINED AXIAL LOAD AND BENDING C5.1.

161 When a doubly symmetric open section is subject to axial compression and bending about its minor axis. .6) ϭ ƒa ϩ ƒ b where ƒ ϭ combined stress in compression ƒa ϭ axial compressive stress ƒb ϭ bending stress in compression Figure 6. If a doubly symmetric I-section is subject to an axial load P and end moments M. as shown in Fig. However.6) as long as the member remains straight: fϭ P Mc P M ϩ ϭ ϩ A I A S (6. the member may fail ﬂexurally at the location of the maximum moment by either yielding or local buckling. the member may fail ﬂexurally or in a torsional–ﬂexural mode because the eccentric load does not pass through the shear center.3 COMBINED COMPRESSIVE AXIAL LOAD AND BENDING 365 tensile axial load and bending.3a.4b) provides a requirement to prevent failure of the compression ﬂange. For torsionally stable shapes. such as closed rectangular tubes.1 Shapes Not Subjected to Torsional or Torsional–Flexural Buckling1. depending on the amount of eccentricities. the combined axial and bending stress in compression is given in Eq. 6.5b) are used to prevent the failure of the tension ﬂange and compression ﬂange. Equation (6. (6. but when the member is bent about its major axis. (6. when the bending moment is applied about the minor axis. when the section is subject to an eccentric load that produces a bending moment about its major axis. it can fail ﬂexurally about the major or minor axis. 6. Eqs.6.3 COMBINED COMPRESSIVE AXIAL LOAD AND BENDING (BEAM-COLUMNS) 6. respectively.3.3 Beam-column subjected to axial loads and end moments. the member may fail ﬂexurally in the region of maximum moment. For the LRFD method.5a) and (6.

9) applied axial load ϭ Aƒa allowable axial load ϭ AFa applied moment ϭ Sƒb allowable moment ϭ SFb Equation (6. Therefore Eq. It can be used with reasonable accuracy for short members and members subjected to a relatively small axial load. 6. the combined stress should be limited by certain allowable stress F. ƒa ϩ ƒb Յ F or ƒa ƒ b ϩ Յ 1.366 COMBINED AXIAL LOAD AND BENDING P A M c I S ϭ ϭ ϭ ϭ ϭ ϭ applied axial load cross-sectional area bending moment distance from neutral axis to extreme ﬁber moment of inertia section modulus It should be noted that in the design of such a beam-column using the ASD method.0 Pa Ma where P Pa M Ma ϭ ϭ ϭ ϭ (6. (6.7) may be modiﬁed as follows: ƒa ƒb ϩ Յ 1.9) is a well-known interaction formula which has been adopted in some ASD speciﬁcations for the design of beam-columns. the safety factor for the design of compression members is different from the safety factor for beam design. that is. Eq. it will be bent as shown in Fig.7) (6.3b due to the applied moment M and the secondary moment resulting . 4.0 F F As discussed in Chaps. It should be realized that in practical application. when end moments are applied to the member. 3.0 Fa Fb where Fa ϭ allowable stress for design of compression members Fb ϭ allowable stress for design of beams If the strength ratio is used instead of the stress ratio. (6.8) can be rewritten as follows: P M ϩ Յ 1. and 5.8) (6.

13) It has been found that Eq. (6. The maximum bending moment of midlength (point C) can be represented by Mmax ϭ ⌽M where Mmax ϭ maximum bending moment at midlength M ϭ applied end moments ⌽ ϭ ampliﬁcation factor.13).12): ⌽M P ϩ Յ 1.14). the following interaction formula [Eq. It can be shown that the ampliﬁcation factor ⌽ may be computed by1.14) In Eq. For this reason. to account for the effect of end moments: P CmM ϩ Յ 1. can be used with reasonable accuracy for braced members with unrestrained ends subjected to an axial load and a uniformly distributed transverse load.9) and (6.161.45 ⌽ϭ (6.14) Cm can be computed by Eq. (6. Eq. (6. ϭ 2EI /(KLb)2. the interaction formula given in Eq. (6. Applying a safety factor ⍀c to Pe.10) 1 1 Ϫ P / Pe (6.6. as shown in Eq.3 COMBINED COMPRESSIVE AXIAL LOAD AND BENDING 367 from the applied axial load P and the deﬂection of the member.15) for restrained compression members braced against joint translation and not subject to transverse loading: .11) may be rewritten as ⌽ϭ 1 1 Ϫ ⍀cP / Pe (6.13) should be further modiﬁed by a coefﬁcient Cm. it could be conservative for compression members in unbraced frames (with sidesway).0 Pa (1 Ϫ ⍀cP / Pe)Ma (6.12) If we use the maximum bending moment Mmax to replace M.0 Pa (1 Ϫ ⍀cP / Pe)Ma (6.2. (6. (6.13)] can be obtained from Eqs. (6.0 Pa Ma or P M ϩ Յ 1. However. developed for a member subjected to an axial compressive load and equal end moments. (6. and for members bent in reverse curvature.11) where Pe ϭ elastic column buckling load (Euler load).

16) are shown in Fig. When the maximum moment occurs at braced points. the interaction equa- Figure 6.15 Pa.1 of the Speciﬁcation.9). Pao ϭ Pno / ⍀c. (6.4 Interaction relations for the ASD method. (6.14). (6. Eq. (6. Similarly.9). and Ma ϭ Mn / ⍀b into Eqs. Therefore when P Յ 0.15) where M1 / M2 is the ratio of smaller to the larger end moments. 6. Furthermore.368 COMBINED AXIAL LOAD AND BENDING Cm ϭ 0.14) controls over the entire range.4.16) should be used to check the member at the braced ends.4 M1 M2 (6.14). P M ϩ Յ 1. and (6.9) may be used for the design of beam-columns. .0 Pa0 Ma (6. Substituting Pa ϭ Pn / ⍀c. the inﬂuence of Cm / (1 Ϫ ⍀cP / Pe) is usually small and may be neglected. (6. C5.16) where Pa0 is the allowable axial load for KL / r ϭ 0. (6.16).6 Ϫ 0. can be obtained.2. Eq. If Cm is unity. (6. Eq. for the condition of small axial load. and (6. the AISI interaction equations for the ASD method (Sec. The interaction relations between Eqs.

C5.3 ϫ 103 ksi (78 GPa) 1 3 J ϭ St. ϭ angle of rotation.6. in.21) 2 2 y y A 0 All primes are differentiations with respect to the z-axis. cPn.2 EIxviv ϩ Pv؆ Ϫ Px0؆ ϩ My؆ ϭ 0 EIyuiv ϩ Pu؆ ϩ Py0؆ Ϫ Mx؆ ϭ 0 ECwiv Ϫ GJ؆ ϩ (Pr2 0 ϩ xMx ϩ yMy)؆ ϩ Py0u؆ Ϫ Px0v؆ Ϫ Mxu؆ ϩ Myv؆ ϭ 0 (6. in. in.3 COMBINED COMPRESSIVE AXIAL LOAD AND BENDING 369 tions for the LRFD method (Sec.4.1 When singly symmetric and nonsymmetric open sections are used as beamcolumns. and bMn. kips Mx. The following discussion is based primarily on Ref. in. E ϭ modulus of elasticity. rad x0 ϭ x-coordinate of shear center.2. The differential equations of equilibrium governing the elastic behavior of such members are given in Eqs. in. ϭ 11.and y-axes.4 Iy ϭ moment of inertia about y-axis. in. (6.18) (6.3.2 of the Speciﬁcation) can be obtained by using Pu.5 ϫ 103 ksi (203 GPa) G ϭ shear modulus. Venant torsion constant of cross section. ϭ 29. My ϭ bending moments about x.2 Open Sections That May Be Subject to Torsional–Flexural Buckling5.66.20) (see Appendix C) (6.19):3. y0 ϭ y-coordinate of shear center. in.17) to (6.17) (6. . 6. 6.4 u ϭ lateral displacement in x direction. – 3 ͚ liti 6 Cw ϭ warping constant of torsion of cross section.-kips and ͵ y(x ϩ y ) dA Ϫ 2y 1  ϭ ͵ x(x ϩ y ) dA Ϫ 2x I x ϭ 1 Ix 2 2 A 0 (6. in. (Appendix B) r0 ϭ polar radius of gyration of cross section about shear center. these members may be subject to torsional–ﬂexural buckling.1. Mu. respectively.6. ϭ 2 2 2 ͙I0 / A ϭ ͙r2 x ϩ ry ϩ x0 ϩ y0 P ϭ applied concentric load.19) where Ix ϭ moment of inertia about x-axis. in. v ϭ lateral displacement in y direction.

370 COMBINED AXIAL LOAD AND BENDING Assume that the end moments Mx and My are due to the eccentric loads applied at both ends of the column with equal biaxial eccentricities ey and ex (Fig.26) (6. .5 Unsymmetrically loaded hat section.25) (6.23) (6.26) is shown in Eq.17) to (6.19) can be rewritten as EIxviv ϩ Pv؆ Ϫ Pax؆ ϭ 0 EIyuiv ϩ Pu؆ ϩ Pay؆ ϭ 0 ECwiv ϩ (Pr 2 0 Ϫ GJ)؆ ϩ Payu؆ Ϫ Paxv؆ ϭ 0 where ax ϭ x0 Ϫ ex ay ϭ y0 Ϫ ey 2 r0 ϭ xey ϩ yex ϩ (6. Eqs.27) (6. (6.24) to (6.22) (6. Then the moments Mx and My can be replaced by Mx ϭ Pey My ϭ Pex Consequently. 6.29) The solution of Eqs.28) I0 A (6. (6.24) (6.30) by using Galerkin’s method: Figure 6.5). (6.

3 Singly Symmetric Open Shapes Channels.3. The member deﬂects gradually in the plane of symmetry without twisting and ﬁnally fails by yielding or local buckling at the location of maximum moment. 6.3 COMBINED COMPRESSIVE AXIAL LOAD AND BENDING 371 ΄ Pey Ϫ P 0 0 Pex Ϫ P PaxK32 Ј ϪPayKЈ 13 PaxKЈ 23 ϪPayK31 Ј 2 r0 (Pex Ϫ P) ΅Ά · Ά u0 v0 ϭ 0 ϪP2 ͩ P2 eK Pey x 1 P2 Ϫ eK Pex y 2 ayex axey Ϫ K3 Pey Pex Ϫ ͪ · (6. the member will suddenly buckle by torsional–ﬂexural buckling. they may fail in one of the following two ways:* 1. and the eccentricity of the applied load.1.33) where Pey ϭ K11 Pex ϭ K22 Pez ϭ 2EIy L2 2EIx L2 1 2 K33ECw 2 ϩ GJ 2 r0 L ͩ ͪ u0. 2. but when the load reaches a critical value. and hat sections are some of the singly symmetric open shapes. v0. 5. . The member starts with a gradual ﬂexural bending in the plane of symmetry. and 0 are coefﬁcients for deﬂection components.31) (6. The type of failure mode. which will govern the maximum strength of the member. When the bending moment is applied in any plane other than the plane of symmetry. the member will fail only ﬂexurally by yielding or local buckling. *If twisting is prevented by properly designed bracing. angles. depends on the shape and dimensions of the cross section. the column length. If these members are subject to bending moments in the plane of symmetry (x-axis as shown in Fig.30) (6.32) (6. The coefﬁcients K for various boundary conditions are listed in Table 6. the member will fail in the torsional-ﬂexural buckling mode.6.6).

2732 0.0000 1.8834 0.0000 1.1223 4.6597 0.4171 1.1223 K1 1.1223 1.6597 0.2732 ⅐⅐⅐ K2 1.372 TABLE 6.1 Boundary Conditions at z ϭ 0.1 K11 ϭ ϭ ϭ ϭ ϭ ϭ K22 1.6597 KЈ 13 1.1223 4.8834 1.0000 1.1223 1.0000 1.2732 1.0000 1.2732 1.4171 KЈ 31 1.0000 0.0000 4.0000 0.2732 1.1223 1.4171 0.5507 1.0000 0.0000 4.1223 4.1223 4.5507 K23 1. L u؆ u؆ uЈ u؆ uЈ u؆ ϭ ϭ ϭ ϭ ϭ ϭ v؆ vЈ vЈ vЈ vЈ v؆ ϭ ϭ ϭ ϭ ϭ ϭ Coefﬁcients K6.5507 0.0000 0.4171 KЈ 32 1.2732 ⅐⅐⅐ 1.0000 1.0000 1.0000 4.0000 1.5507 KЈ 23 1.5507 1.1223 4.8834 ؆ ؆ ؆ Ј Ј Ј 0 0 0 0 0 0 1.0000 1.4171 1.0000 K33 1.4171 0.0000 1.8834 1.0000 0.2732 ⅐ ⅐ ⅐ ⅐ ⅐ ⅐ ⅐ ⅐ ⅐ ⅐ ⅐ ⅐ K3 1.2732 .5507 1.2732 1.0000 1.0000 0.0000 4.0000 1.

and Eq.37) For members having simply supported ends and subjected to concentric Figure 6.24) to (6.26)].5a. (6. When the eccentric load is applied in the plane of symmetry of the section. (6. If ﬂexural failure governs the maximum strength of the beam-column. the following critical buckling load can be determined by the equation derived from Eq. 6. if the singly symmetric section fails in torsional–ﬂexural buckling.34) represents the behavior of a beam-column deforming ﬂexurally without twist.6.1 for doubly symmetric shapes. the design of singly symmetric shapes is to be based on the interaction formulas similar to those used in Art.35) by setting the determinant of the coefﬁcient equal to zero: PTF ϭ where ϭ1Ϫ (Pex ϩ Pez) (͙ עPex ϩ Pez)2 Ϫ 4 PexPez 2 (6.3 COMBINED COMPRESSIVE AXIAL LOAD AND BENDING 373 The structural behavior discussed above can be explained by the solution of differential equations [Eqs. ey ϭ y0 ϭ 0.34) ΄ Pex Ϫ P PaxKЈ 32 PaxKЈ 23 r2 0(Pex Ϫ P) ΅Ά · v0 0 ϭ0 (6. Equation (6. However.35) is related to torsional–ﬂexural buckling.36) (x0 Ϫ ex)2 2 K 23 2 r0 (6.3. .5a Hat section subjected to an eccentric load in the plane of symmetry.35) in which Eq. 6. (6. as shown in Fig. (6.30) can be changed to the following two formulas: P2 (Pey Ϫ P)u0 ϭ Ϫ eK Pey x 1 (6.

0 PTFO (1 Ϫ PTF / Pe)MT (6.36) it can be seen that the computation of the torsional– ﬂexural buckling load is too time-consuming for design use. (6. ex ϭ 0.2 for axially loaded compression members: PTFO ϭ 1 [(Px ϩ Pz) Ϫ ͙(Px ϩ Pz)2 Ϫ 4PxPz 2 (6. Eq.374 COMBINED AXIAL LOAD AND BENDING loading (that is. if we apply the modiﬁcation factor as given in Eq. (6. the factor CTF is the same as Cm used in Art. (6.1 PTF PTFex ϩ ϭ 1.4.41) can be obtained from the following equation: .41) can be used to determine the theoretical elastic torsional– ﬂexural buckling load PTF for singly symmetric sections under eccentric loads applied on the side of the centroid opposite from that of the shear center. (6. Celebi.3.39). From Eq.40) to the moment PTFex. The critical moment MT used in Eq. A previous study made by Peko ¨ z.39) where PTF ϭ torsional–ﬂexural buckling load for eccentric load having an eccentricity of ex PTFO ϭ torsional–ﬂexural buckling load for concentric load [Eq. and Winter indicated that the torsional–ﬂexural buckling load may be computed by the following interaction formula if the load is applied on the side of the centroid opposite from that of the shear center.36) can be changed to Eq. which was used in Art.1.6. 5. Equation (6. the interaction formula can be written as PTF CTF(PTFex) ϩ ϭ 1.0 PTFO MT (6.1. 6. (6.38).0). 5. K23 ϭ 1.3.41) In the above equation. (6.40) CTF 1 Ϫ PTF / Pe (6. as done previously in Art. 6.38) in which  ϭ 1 Ϫ (x0 / r0)2 as previously deﬁned in Chap. (6.38)] MT ϭ critical moment causing tension on shear center side of centroid In Eq.

49) If the eccentric load is applied on the side of the shear center opposite from that of the centroid. Mc.43) (6. the critical moment causing compression on shear center side of centroid.1) For simply supported end conditions.54) for determining the elastic critical moment for lateral buckling strength.45) ͩ Ίj 2 ϩ r2 0 ͩ ͪͬ t ex 2 0 (6.42) can be simpliﬁed and rearranged as MT ϭ ϪPex j Ϫ or MT ϭ ϪAex j Ϫ where jϭ y 1 ϭ 2 2Iy ex ϭ t ϭ ͫ Ίj 2 ϩ r2 0 (6. can be computed as follows: Mc ϭ Aex j ϩ ͫ Ίj 2 ϩ r2 0 (6.47) (6.50) were used in Eq. (4. (6.48) 2E (KxLx / rx)2 1 2ECw GJ ϩ Ar 2 (KtLt)2 0 ͬ ͩ ͪͬ t ex (6.44) (see Table 6.42) ͩ exyA I0 ͪ ͩ ͪͬ Pez Pex (6. (6.6.46) ͩ͵ ͫ A x3 dA ϩ ͵ xy dAͪ Ϫ x A (6. .3 COMBINED COMPRESSIVE AXIAL LOAD AND BENDING 375 1 MT ϭ Ϫ 2 yPex Ϫ 2K 23 where PЈ 1ϩ ez ϭ Pez K23 ϭ ͙K23 Ј K32 Ј ͫ Ί( P ) ϩ 4K 2 y ex 2 23 PexPe ЈzI0 A ͬ (6.46) and (6.50) Both Eqs. Eq.

Therefore.51) For the case of unequal end moments.51) for lateral buckling strength consideration. the section always fails in ﬂexural yielding when the eccentricity is in region I (that is.4 AISI DESIGN CRITERIA The following are the AISI design provisions included in Sec..51) may be modiﬁed by multiplying by a bending coefﬁcient Cb as follows: Mx ϭ Cb r0 A͙eyt (6. Previous study has indicated that for channels. ey 0.30) on the basis of ex ϭ 0. 6. (4.6a. For bending about the axis of symmetry (i.80.2 of the 1996 edition of the AISI Speciﬁcation for the design of beam-columns: . the allowable load for torsional–ﬂexural buckling in the elastic range can be derived from PTF by using a safety factor of 1. However. small changes in eccentricity result in large changes in failure load. and hat sections. the section will buckle torsional-ﬂexurally at a load PTFO that is smaller than the ﬂexural buckling load Pey. Thus any small inaccuracy in eccentricity could result in nonconservative designs. (6. the section can fail either in ﬂexural yielding or in torsional–ﬂexural buckling. when the eccentric load is applied along the y-axis as shown in Fig.376 COMBINED AXIAL LOAD AND BENDING For the ASD method.e. angles. the type of failure that will govern the maximum strength of the beam-column depends on which type of failure falls below the other for the given eccentricity. the section will fail in ﬂexural yielding if the load is applied in region I. P ϭ 0. Ϫx0 Ͻ ex Ͻ 0). the failure mode changes from torsional–ﬂexural buckling to simple ﬂexural failure. 0 Ͻ ex). 6.7). When the eccentricity is in region III (that is.6a. At a certain eccentricity in region II (that is. ex Ͻ Ϫx0). 6. the following equation for determining the elastic critical moment can be derived from Eq.52) The above equation was used in Eq. 5). This fact can be shown in Fig. (6. The inelastic buckling stress can be computed by the equation that was used for torsional–ﬂexural buckling of axially loaded compression members (Chap. C5. For the given hat section having L / rx ϭ 90. both conditions (ﬂexural yielding and torsional–ﬂexural buckling) should be checked. and Pey ϭ Mx:6.1 Mx ϭ r0͙PeyPez ϭ r0 A͙eyt (6. when the load is applied at the center of gravity. For the given hat section shown in Fig. 6. It can also be seen that in this region. Eq. So far we have discussed the possible failure modes for a singly symmetric section under eccentric load.

(b) Stress vs. ex. ex.4 AISI DESIGN CRITERIA 377 Figure 6.6 Strength of eccentrically loaded hat section. .6.6.1 (a) Load vs.

2. C5.15 the following equation may be used in lieu of the above two equations: ⍀cP ϩ ⍀b Mx ϩ ⍀b My Յ 1. whichever results in a lower permissible value of P. C4. Pn ϭ nominal axial strength determined in accordance with Sec. Mx. and My shall satisfy the following interaction equations: ⍀cP ϩ ϩ ⍀bCmxMx ⍀bCmyMy ϩ Յ 1.0 Pn Mnx Mny (6.54) Pno Mnx ϩ ⍀b My Mny Յ 1.378 COMBINED AXIAL LOAD AND BENDING Figure 6.2 Combined Compressive Axial Load and Bending C5.1 ASD Method The required strengths P.7 Hat section subjected to an eccentric load applied along the y-axis.0 When ⍀cP / Pn Յ 0. My ϭ required ﬂexural strength with respect to the centroidal axes of the effective section determined for the required compressive axial strength alone.53) (6. C4 Pno ϭ nominal axial strength determined in accordance with Sec.0 Mny␣y Mnx␣x ⍀b Mx Pn ⍀cP (6. with Fn ϭ Fy . For angle sections.55) where P ϭ required compressive axial strength Mx. My shall be taken either as the required ﬂexural strength or the required ﬂexural strength plus PL / 1000.

1.59) PEy PEx ϭ PEy ϭ 2EIx (Kx Lx)2 2EIy (KyLy)2 ⍀b ϭ 1.56) (6. Mny ϭ nominal ﬂexural strength about the centroidal axes determined in accordance with Sec.60) M1 / M2 is the ratio of the smaller to the larger moment at the ends of that portion of the member under consideration which is unbraced in the plane of bending.6 Ϫ 0.57) (6. C3 ␣x ϭ 1 Ϫ ␣y ϭ 1 Ϫ ⍀cP PEx ⍀cP (6. C3.80 Ix ϭ moment of inertia of the full.4 AISI DESIGN CRITERIA 379 Mnx. Cmy ϭ coefﬁcients whose value shall be taken as follows: 1.1) or for laterally unbraced beams (Sec. unreduced cross section about the y-axis Lx ϭ actual unbraced length for bending about the x-axis Ly ϭ actual unbraced length for bucking about the y-axis Kx ϭ effective length factor for buckling about the x-axis Ky ϭ effective length factor for buckling about the y-axis Cmx. in lieu of such analysis. For compression members in frames braced against joint translation in the plane of loading and subject to transverse loading between their supports.4 (M1 / M2) (6. the following values may be used: . For compression members in frames subject to joint translation (sidesway) Cm ϭ 0.2) ⍀c ϭ 1. unreduced cross section about the x-axis Iy ϭ moment of inertia of the full.6.85 2. 3. However.1. the value of Cm may be determined by rational analysis. For restrained compression members in frames braced against joint translation and not subject to transverse loading between their supports in the plane of bending Cm ϭ 0.58) (6. M1 / M2 is positive when the member is bent in reverse curvature and negative when it is bent in single curvature.67 for bending strength (Sec. C3.

90 for laterally unbraced beams (Sec.2.63) where Pu ϭ required compressive axial strength Mux.1).2. PEx.e. C3. (6.1. Muy. Mux.64) (6. the clockwise moment is positive and counterclockwise moment negative).95 for bending strength (Sec.1.0 C5. For angle sections. and Cmy are deﬁned in Sec. The subscripts x and y in Eqs. The effective length in the direction of bending is to be used for computing PEx or PEy whichever is applicable. ␣x ϭ 1 Ϫ ␣y ϭ 1 Ϫ Pu PEx Pu PEy (6.90 or 0. Mnx. which is similar to Refs.0 cPn bMnx␣x bMny␣y Pu Mux ϩ cPno bMnx ϩ (6.2 LRFD Method The required strengths Pu.53) to (6.62) Muy Յ 1. Iy. Kx.1. shall satisfy the following interaction equations: Pu CmxMux CmyMuy ϩ ϩ Յ 1. PEy.15. Mny. Ky..85 Pn. C3. 1. whichever results in a lower permissible value of Pu.6. Ix. Muy ϭ required ﬂexural strengths with respect to the centroidal axes of the effective section determined for the required compressive axial strength alone. Cm ϭ 0. Pno. In categories A and B the effective length of the member should be used in computing Pn. or 0.0 cPn b Mnx b Mny (6.380 COMBINED AXIAL LOAD AND BENDING (a) for members whose ends are restrained.2) c ϭ 0.2. The sign convention for the end moments is the same as that used for the moment distribution method (i.0 bMny When Pu / cPn Յ 0. Muy shall be taken either as the required ﬂexural strength or the required ﬂexural strength plus PuL / 1000.85 (b) for members whose ends are unrestrained. Lx. Cmx. Cm ϭ 1. . Ly. The values of Cm are summarized in Table 6.65) indicate the axis of bending about which a particular moment or design property applies.65) b ϭ 0. C5.61) (6. the following equation may be used in lieu of the above two equations: Pu Mux Muy ϩ ϩ Յ 1.148 and 6.

148 Loading Conditions ⍀cP / Pn Ͼ 0.62) for LRFD Check both Eqs.61) and (6.54) for ASD.4 ע ͩ ͪ M1 M2 (ASD)* M1 Ͻ M2.6.53) and (6.1.85 For members whose ends are unrestrained.2 Values of Cm6.61) and (6.61) * In lieu of this formula the following values of Cm may be used: For members whose ends are restrained. (6. (6. (6. Cm ϭ 1.62) M2 or M3 (whichever is larger). (6. (6.53) and (6.15 (LRFD) Category A M M2 Cm 0. (6.62) for LRFD C Transverse loading.54) for ASD. M1 / M2 negative as shown.62) for LRFD 381 . joint translation prevented M2 Using Eq.61) and (6.53) or (6. (6.53) and (6. no transverse loading. Cm ϭ 0. Using Eq.85 Remarks Computed moments maximum at end.54) or (6. joint translation not prevented B Computed moments maximum at end. (6.15 (ASD) Pu / cPn Ͼ 0.6–0. joint translation prevented M2 0. no transverse loading. Check both Eqs.TABLE 6.54) for ASD.0 1ϩ ⍀cP PE 1ϩ Pu (LRFD)* PE Check both Eqs.

148.0 1 Ϫ 0.2 1 Ϫ 0.1 Check the adequacy of the tubular section described in Example 5.150 Example 6.2 PE ⍀cP PE ⍀cP PE ⍀cP Ϫ0.2 ⍀cP LRFD 1.4 Ϫ0. Use the ASD and LRFD methods.0.6 Cm ϭ 1 ϩ (ASD) PE Pu Cm ϭ 1 ϩ (LRFD) PE where ␦ M0 PE ϭ ϭ ϭ ϭ ⍀cP (6.67.8). 6.6.4 1 Ϫ 0.3 ASD 1.0 1 Ϫ 0.148.4 1 Ϫ 0.-kips (Fig. Values of and Cm5.2 PE ⍀cP PE .1. The member is assumed to be bent in single curvature.5.3 Ϫ0.1 if it is used as a beam-column to carry an axial load of 30 kips and end moments of 60 in.2 Pu PE Pu PE Pu PE Pu PE Pu PE 0 Ϫ0.3.1.382 COMBINED AXIAL LOAD AND BENDING In category C the actual length of the member (K ϭ 1.66b) ( 2␦EI / M0L2) Ϫ 1 maximum deﬂection due to transverse loading maximum moment between supports due to transverse loading PEx or PEy whichever is applicable Values of are given in Table 6. For this case.3 1 Ϫ 0.150 Cm Case TABLE 6. the value of Cm can be computed by using the following equations:5.3.2 1 Ϫ 0.4 1 Ϫ 0. The unbraced length is 10 ft and Kx ϭ Ky ϭ 1. The yield point of steel is 40 ksi.0) is to be used for all calculations.4 Ϫ0.3 for various loading conditions and end restraints.4 1 Ϫ 0.66a) (6. Assume that the dead-to-live ratio is 1/5.3 1 Ϫ 0.67.67.

1. Applied Axial Load and Moments P ϭ 30 kips Mx ϭ 60 in.53) is used to check the beam-column for the stability requirement between braced points. Application of Eqs. 4.2.212 in. 5. ASD Method 1.6.15 use Eqs. Solution A.686 Ͼ 0. Consideration should be given to section strength and lateral–torsional buckling strength.273 in. .738 ϭ 0. (6. Based on the design procedure discussed in Chap.8 Example 6. Sectional Properties of Full Section. From Example 5.53) and (6.1 as Pnϭ 78.-kips My ϭ 0 3. The nominal ﬂexural strength about x-axis should be determined according to Art.738 kips ⍀cP / Pn ϭ 1.53) and (6.54). a.80 (30)/78. 2.54) to check the adequacy of the tubular section. Computation of Mnx. the sectional properties of the full section are as follows: A ϭ 3. Equation (6.4 AISI DESIGN CRITERIA 383 Figure 6.4 rx ϭ ry ϭ 3. 4. the nominal axial strength was computed in Example 5. (6.1. Selection of Design Equations.763 in.2 Ix ϭ Iy ϭ 33.

415 in.22 / ϭ 1 Ϫ /1.619) ͙4.377 ϭ 0.637RЈ ϭ 0.0525 0.9475 Ly2 (in.415) ϭ 4.545 in. Section strength.522 ycg ϭ 124.415 28.931 124.052 (70.0000 7. According to Art.673 Ί29.500 1. w ϭ 8 Ϫ 2(R ϩ t) ϭ 8 Ϫ 2(0.320 5.1875 ϩ 0.545 2 ϫ 0.K. the nominal moment Mn can be computed on the basis of the initiation of yielding (Procedure I of the AISI Speciﬁcation) as follows: Corner element RЈ ϭ R ϩ Arc length L ϭ 1.239 0. 1.830 2 ϫ 0.280 46.368 ͪ ͩ ͪ b ϭ w ϭ (0. 2 O.619 Ͻ 500 ϭ ϭ t ϭ 0. Location of neutral axis and computation of Ix and Sx.57RЈ ϭ 0.) 0.) 4.522 ϭ 4.240 in.368 ϭ 0.013 0.588 468.0 ϭ 1Ϫ ͩ 0.613)(7.927 58.8605 7.754 7. the neutral axis can be located as follows: Distance from Top Fiber y (in. w / t ϭ 7.013 237.352 752. Ͼ d / 2 ϭ 8 / 2 ϭ 4. 4.368 Ͼ 0.415/0.105 ϭ 70.1395 4.754 2 ϫ 7.153 in.384 COMBINED AXIAL LOAD AND BENDING i.2.377 ϭ 0. c ϭ 0.3) 0.377 in.613 1. 28.2) 0. By using the effective width of the compression ﬂange and assuming the web is fully effective.105 59.2.000 in.105) ϭ 7. For the compression ﬂange.298 .400 in.298 Ly (in.248 Element Compression ﬂange Compression corners Webs Tension corners Tension ﬂange Effective Length L (in.22 0.415 ϭ 14.052 w t ͙k ͩ ͪΊ ƒ E 40 ϭ 1.

5.052 (70. 3. b2 ϭ be /2 ϭ 3.341 ksi ƒ2 ϭ Ϫ40(3.371 h / t ϭ 7.3075/4.). 6.9 Stress distribution in webs using fully effective webs.236.4 AISI DESIGN CRITERIA 385 The maximum stress of 40 ksi occurs in the compression ﬂange as summed in the calculation.236 k ϭ 4 ϩ 2(1 Ϫ )3 ϩ 2(1 Ϫ ) ϭ 4 ϩ 2[1 Ϫ (Ϫ0. b1 ϩ b2 ϭ 5.2 to check the effectiveness of the web element.805 Ͻ Ϫ0.1075 in. ƒ1 ϭ 40(4. .1075/4.673 Ί29.400) ϭ Ϫ30.805)]3 ϩ 2[1 Ϫ (Ϫ0. b1 ϭ be /(3 Ϫ ) ϭ 1.805)] ϭ 19. 1.371 37.1.341 ϭ 0. Because the computed value of (b1 ϩ b2) is greater than the compression portion of the web (4.105 ϭ 70.415 in. From Fig.500 be ϭ h ϭ 7.949 in.601 Ͻ 0.068/37.619) ͙19.400) ϭ 37.9.341 ϭ Ϫ0. Since Ͻ Ϫ0.068 ksi (compression) (tension) ϭ ƒ2 /ƒ1 ϭ Ϫ30.415/0.619 Ͻ 200 ϭ O. Check the effectiveness of the web. Use Art.6.708 in.K.657 in. the web is fully Figure 6.

2.248 820.3 IЈ x ϭ The actual moment of inertia is 272.4 or Sec. (4.386 COMBINED AXIAL LOAD AND BENDING effective.4 (b ϩ d) 2(8 Ϫ 0.105) ϭ ϭ 51.849 in.763/4 ϭ 8.40)2 ϭ Ϫ547. 4. Lu ϭ in which Cb ϭ 1.415) ϭ 67.2.105) 0.105)4(0.499)(40) ϭ 259.78).499 in.597/4. the lateral buckling strength of the member can be checked by using Art.-kips ii.3 4 Ix ϭ I Ј x (t) ϭ (272.348)(0.3 The nominal moment for section strength is Mnx ϭ SexFy ϭ (6.3.298)(4. Lateral buckling strength. According to Eq.2 of the Supplement to the 1996 edition of the AISI Speciﬁcation. Because the tubular member is a box section.1.960 in.67 in.3 ͚ (Ly2) ϭ Iz ϭ Ϫ(͚ L)( ycg)2 ϭ Ϫ(28. The section modulus relative to the extreme compression ﬁber is Sex ϭ 28.348 in. The moment of inertia based on line element is 1 3 2IЈ web ϭ 2(–– 12 )(7.0 for combined axial load and bending Jϭ 2b2d 2t 2(8 Ϫ 0.597 in.40 ϭ 6.105) ϭ 28.36Cb ͙EIyGJ FySf Sf ϭ 33. C3.949 752.197 in.44 in.3 Therefore .

36(1) ͙(29.763) ϭ ϭ 682.104 Ͼ 1. . lateral– torsional buckling will not govern the design. Fn ϭ Fy ϭ 40 ksi).54) is used to check the beamcolumn for the yielding requirement at braced points.960 in. Since the unbraced length of 120 in.738 (259.921) ϭ 1. ␣x ϭ 1 Ϫ PEx where PEx ϭ 2EIx 2(29. (6. Using Eq. (6.0 60 c. Computation of ␣x.4 M1 M2 ͩ ͪ Ϫ ⍀cP 60 ϭ 1. Cmx ϭ 0.60).554. ⍀cP ϩ ⍀bCmxMx (180)(30) (1. a. (6. Using Eq.653 kips (KxLx)2 (1 ϫ 10 ϫ 12)2 ␣x ϭ 1 Ϫ 1.67) 40 ϫ 8.96)(0.-kips b. Computation of Cmx. Nominal moment Mnx. Computation of Pno.4 ϭ 0. Check Eq.80(30) 682.763)(11.7 in. (6. (6. is less than Lu.6–0.. iii. From the above calculations. Equation (6. For stiffened compression elements.921 d. Application of Eq. Mnx ϭ 259.44 ϭ 2.0 (no good) Pn 3.56). The nominal axial strength Pno is computed for KL / r ϭ 0 (i.53).6–0.53).67)(1)(60) ϭ ϩ Mnx␣x 78.500)(33.e.300)(51.500)(33.653 ϭ 0.54).6.4 AISI DESIGN CRITERIA 387 Lu ϭ 0. Substituting the above computed values into Eq.

038 Ͼ 1. Check Eq. Ae ϭ 3.67)(60) ϩ 82.673 Ί29. ⍀cP ϩ ⍀bMx ϭ Pno Mnx (1.4 PD ϩ PL ϭ 1. (6.2 Pno ϭ AeFn ϭ (2.545 in. Required Strengths.3. LRFD Method 1.415 Ϫ 4.415) ϭ 4. 3.4(10) ϩ 50 ϭ 64 in.368 Ͼ 0. it can be seen that the given tubular member is inadequate for the applied load and end moments.500 b ϭ w ϭ (0. From the given data. Based on the load factors and load combinations discussed in Art.4(5) ϩ 25 ϭ 32 kips (Mux)1 ϭ 1. B. (Pu) ϭ 1.545)(0.273 Ϫ 4(7.613)(7.0 ϭ 1Ϫ ͩ 0.052 (70.720 kips b.368 ͪ 40 ϭ 1.2.-kips ML ϭ 50 in.068)(40) ϭ 82. PD ϭ 5 kips PL ϭ 25 kips MD ϭ 10 in.368 ϭ 0.2.-kips .613 1.0 (no good) Based on the above calculations for the ASD method.388 COMBINED AXIAL LOAD AND BENDING ϭ 1.5a).80)(30) (1.105) ϭ 2. (3.22 /1. the required strengths Pu and Mux can be computed as follows: From Eq.068 in. Applied Axial Load and Moments.619) ͙4.54).4 MD ϩ ML ϭ 1.720 259.-kips 2.96 ϭ 1.

(6.95)(259.6 Ϫ 0.64).15.960 in.6. Since Pu / cPn ϭ 46/(0.96)(0.2 PD ϩ 1. Pn ϭ 78.62) to check the adequacy of the tubular section.933) ϭ 1.933 PEx 682.5b).738 kips Pno ϭ 82. use Eqs.738) ϭ 0.6 Ϫ 0. Selection of Design Equations.85)(78. and b are known.-kips 4. ␣x ϭ 1 Ϫ M1 92 ϭ 0.-kips Use Pu ϭ 46 kips and Mux ϭ 92 in. Mux. calculations are needed only for Cmx and ␣x as follows: From Eq.738) (0.2 (5) ϩ 1. Mnx. (6. Nominal Axial Strength and Nominal Flexural Strength.653 Using Eq.653 kips Mnx ϭ 259. (3. Application of Eq. Pn.6 (25) ϭ 46 kips (Mux)2 ϭ 1. 5.1 and the above calculations for the ASD method.2 MD ϩ 1.087 Ͼ 1.0 (no good) .6 PL ϭ 1.61). c. Pu CmxMux 46 (1)(92) ϩ ϭ ϩ cPn b Mnx␣x (0. Since the values of Pu.61).0 M2 92 ͩ ͪ Pu 46 ϭ1Ϫ ϭ 0.-kips 3. Pno.687 Ͼ 0.60). (6. PEx.6 ML ϭ 1.61) and (6.85 ϫ 78.4 Ϫ ϭ 1.720 kips PEx ϭ 682. (Pu)2 ϭ 1. (6.6 (50) ϭ 92 in.2 (10) ϩ 1. From Example 5. Cmx ϭ 0.4 AISI DESIGN CRITERIA 389 From Eq.4 Based on (6.

3 rx ϭ 3.390 COMBINED AXIAL LOAD AND BENDING 6. 6.96) ϭ 1.4 Cw ϭ 70. the given tubular member is also inadequate for the applied load and moments. the moment diagram can be drawn as shown in Fig.435 in. From Example 5.2. ry ϭ 1.40 in.10 Example 6. Example 6.2 If the I-section used in Example 5. The positive and negative moments are J ϭ 0. what is the maximum allowable transverse load PЈ applied at the midspan length? Assume that the axial load is 20 kips and that the beam is laterally supported at A. B.1 in.95)(259. (6. The difference between the ASD and LRFD methods is less than 1.24 in. . Based on Eq.2 is to be used as a beamcolumn as shown in Fig.53 in.027 Ͼ 1. C.2.2 Ix ϭ 22.720) (0.15 in.20 in. D. Sectional Properties of Full Section. Pu Mux 46 92 ϩ ϭ ϩ cPno b Mnx (0. (6. the sectional properties of the I-section are as follows: A ϭ 2. 2.00418 in.62). Figure 6.3 Iy ϭ 4.0 (no good) According to the above calculations for the LRFD method. Application of Eq.5%.10. Solution 1. 6.4 Sx ϭ 5.37 in. Use Fy ϭ 33 ksi and the ASD method.6 r0 ϭ 3.11. Applied Axial Load and Moments. Since the continuous beam is subject to symmetric loads PЈ in two equal spans.62).4 Sy ϭ 1. and E.70 in.85)(82.

1.13 ksi The nominal buckling stress. Elastic torsional buckling.80 Ͻ 200 Fe ϭ 2E 2(29. From Eq. Elastic ﬂexural buckling.6.15 ϭ 38. .2.70) [(11.00418) ϩ (2.5 PЈ 16 16 ϩMB ϭ in.24)(3.300)(0.500)(70. C3.-kips in. Computation of Pn a. By using Eq.500) ϭ ϭ 151.e. (5. the torsional buckling stress is Fe ϭ t ϭ ϭ 1 2ECw GJ ϩ 2 Ar 0 (KtLt)2 ͩ ͪ 1 2(29.4.K.10 KyLy / ry ϭ (1 ϫ 5 ϫ 12)/1.1(a) of the AISI Speciﬁcation.4 AISI DESIGN CRITERIA 391 Figure 6.. Fn i.56).80)2 O. the elastic ﬂexural buckling stress can be computed as follows: KxLx / rx ϭ (1 ϫ 10 ϫ 12)/3.75 PЈ 32 32 3 3 ϪMC ϭ PЈL ϭ PЈ(10)(12) ϭ 22. i.22) of Art. the applied axial load is P ϭ 20 kips 3.1 or Sec. Nominal buckling stress. 5. (5. is determined by using the smaller value of the elastic ﬂexural buckling stress and torsional buckling stress. ii.77 ksi (KL / r)2 (43.435)2 (5 ϫ 12)2 ͪ ϭ 218. 5 5 PЈL ϭ PЈ(10)(12) ϭ 18.11 Moment diagram for the continuous beam.-kips As given in the problem.37 ϭ 43. Fn.

.2(a).50/40.6625 in.6580.05] Ϫ ͙0. From Example 5.43/4}3(0.0022 ϭ 0.4 O.2.075)4 ϭ 0. Effective width of the compression ﬂange S ϭ 1. (3.8.5313 in.13 ksi 2 2 b. at the stress Fn. Ia ϭ 399{[(w2 / t)/ S] Ϫ ͙ku /4}3t 4 ϭ 399{[35. w2 / t ϭ 35.426 ϭ 1.000937 in.50 Since S /3 Ͻ w2 / t Ͻ S. Effective area. Fn ϭ (0.5..77 ksi c ϭ 33 ϭΊ ϭ 0.3.77 y e From Eq.466 Ͻ 1. w3 / t ϭ 102. ﬂange and web are w1 ϭ 0.5313)3(0.084 Ͻ 14 w2 ϭ 2.075)/12 ϭ 0.K.500/30.574 D / w2 ϭ 0. O.6625 in. Ae..13 ϭ 40.5 ΊF F 151.50 w3 ϭ 7. n ϭ 1/2 Is ϭ d 3t /12 ϭ (0.K.658c )Fy ϭ (0.426 C1 ϭ 2 Ϫ C2 ϭ 2 Ϫ 0.263 Since D / w2 Ͻ 0. .28͙E / f ϭ 1.35 w2 / t ϭ 35.7/2.000937/0. the ﬂat widths of edge stiffener.54).6625 ϭ 0. (5.392 COMBINED AXIAL LOAD AND BENDING Fe ϭ 151.86).28͙29.167 Ͻ 500 i.05 S /3 ϭ 13.4 C2 ϭ Is / Ia ϭ 0.0022 in.466 )(33) ϭ 30. w1 / t ϭ 7. use Case II of Art. from Eq. 3.

426)(0.167) ͙4.893 in. Effective width of web elements w3 / t ϭ 102.717 ͪ 30.052 (102.718 to compute the effective width of the compression ﬂange. Effective width of edge stiffeners wt / t ϭ 7.22 /1.41) through (3.508)(7.6. (3.893)](0.724 Ͼ 0. iii.5313 in.5(3.22 0.718 ϭ 1Ϫ ͩ 0.673 Ί29. ϭ 1.44).5313 Ϫ 0.724 ϭ 0.673 Ί29.43) ϩ 0.500 ͪ b ϭ w2 ϭ (0.084 ϭ 1.6625) ϭ 2.500 ds Ј ϭ w1 ϭ 0.935 Ͻ 4.43 30.2 .0 k ϭ Cn 2(ka Ϫ ku) ϩ ku ϭ (0.717 ϭ 0.4 AISI DESIGN CRITERIA 393 ka ϭ 5.5313) ϭ 0.226) ϩ 4(2.724 ͪ ͩ 30. Ae Ae ϭ 2.673 Ί29.561 in.561) ϩ 2(7. Effective area. ds ϭ C2d Ј s ϭ (0.25 Ϫ 5(D / w2) ϭ 5.363 Ͻ 0.K.25 Ϫ 5(0.13 ϭ 0.053 (7.084) ͙0.553 in.718 Use k ϭ 2.962)(2.052 (35.500 b ϭ w3 ϭ (0.22 / ϭ 1 Ϫ /0.226 Ͻ d s Ј O.717 Ͼ 0.13 ϭ 1.24 Ϫ [4(0.075) ϭ 1. iv.6625) ϭ 3.0 ϭ 1Ϫ ͩ 0. From Eqs.962 0.508 1.13 ϭ 0.50) ͙2.263) ϭ 3.935 Ϫ 0. ii.6625 Ϫ 2.43 ϭ 2.6625 Ϫ 3.167 ϭ 1.426)0.

200 60.53) and (6.824 0. Following the same procedure used in Item 3.2. RЈ ϭ R ϩ The arc length is L ϭ 1.620 337.1313 in.79 kips 4.206 in.b.184 in.6625 0.368 15.096 61. For the compression edge stiffener.430 0. the effective width for ƒ ϭ Fy ϭ 33 ksi is b ϭ 2.2608 4. Application of Eq.9148 7.769 Ͼ 0.025 245.553)(30.5313 0. Section strength based on initiation of yielding (Art.007 0.589 .80)(20)/46.522 42. (6. the effective length of the edge stiffener at a stress of 33 ksi is 0.15 use Eqs.2. the compression stress is conservatively assumed to be ƒ ϭ Fy ϭ 33 ksi. c ϭ 0.182 0. 5.6625 ϭ ϭ ϭ ϭ ϭ ϭ ϭ 4.54). 2 2 Element Compression ﬂange Compression corners Compression stiffeners Webs Tension stiffeners Tension corners Tension ﬂange 2 4 2 2 2 4 2 Effective Length L (in.206 0.53) a.325 1.300 8.206 2.3) 0. By using the effective widths of the compression ﬂange and edge stiffener and assuming the web is fully effective. (6. Pn Pn ϭ AeFn ϭ (1.0000 7. 4.0375 0.13) ϭ 46.0836 in. the neutral axis can be located as follows: Distance from Top Fiber y (in.075 ϭ 0.042 6. Nominal load.860 0.063 0. Computation of Mnx i.430 in.79 ϭ 0.589 ycg ϭ 118.1).637 RЈ ϭ 0. For corner element.824 5.09375 ϩ ϭ 0.5656 7.9625 t 0.400 118.311 2.070 0.612 ϭ 4.) 0.006 0.610 695.612 Ly2 (in.843 51.2) 0. Selection of Design Equations ⍀cP / Pn ϭ (1. 28.394 COMBINED AXIAL LOAD AND BENDING c.0852 0.184 7.57 RЈ ϭ 0. For the compression ﬂange.149 in.) ϫ ϫ ϫ ϫ ϫ ϫ ϫ Ly (in.325 28.

229/2 ϭ 3.842 in. b1 ϩ b2 ϭ 1.66 ϭ 0.943(7. b1 ϭ 7.4 AISI DESIGN CRITERIA 395 Since ycg Ͼ d /2 ϭ 4.1. ƒ1 ϭ 33(3.229 in.6625) ϭ 7.116 ϭ 1Ϫ ͩ 0. 6.925 (compression) (tension) k ϭ 4 ϩ 2(1 ϩ 0.673 Ί29.167 ϭ 1.456 in.236.052 (102.749 ͪ 31.229/(3 ϩ 0.116 h / t ϭ w3 / t ϭ 102.749 ϭ 0.925)3 ϩ 2(1 ϩ 0. Because the computed value of (b1 ϩ b2) is greater than the com- Figure 6.000 in.29 ksi ϭ ƒ2 /ƒ1 ϭ Ϫ29. the maximum stress of 33 ksi occurs in the compression ﬂange as assumed in the above calculation. b2 ϭ 7.149) ϭ 31.614 ϭ 5.22 /0.66 ksi ƒ2 ϭ Ϫ33(3.842 ϩ 3.167) ͙22.5.749 Ͼ 0. Since Ͻ Ϫ0.12 Stress distribution in webs.29/31.6.943 0.149) ϭ Ϫ29.925) ϭ 1. 3.9802/4.2.500 be ϭ 0.614 in. From Fig. .925) ϭ 22.66 ϭ Ϫ0.6822/4.12. The effectiveness of the web is checked according to Art..

3 Iz ϭ Ϫ(͚ L)( ycg)2 ϭ Ϫ(28.864/4.183)(0.029 in.73a).137 Ix Јϭ The actual moment of inertia is 278.6625)3 ϭ 12 1 (0. (4.3 The nominal moment for section strength is Mnx ϭ SexFy ϭ (5.864 in.029)(33) ϭ 165.3 Ix ϭ I x Ј(t) ϭ (278.184)3 ϭ 12 1 (0.396 COMBINED AXIAL LOAD AND BENDING pression portion of the web (3.183 in.9802 in.149)2 ϭ Ϫ492.).001 0. According to Eq. the web is fully effective.075) ϭ 20. Cb ϭ 1. Fe ϭ 2ECbdIyc Sf L2 In the above equation.320 in. . The moment of inertia based on line elements is 2I web Ј ϭ2 2I comp.983 0. L ϭ 5 ft.531)3 ϭ 12 ͚ (Ly2) ϭ 74.4 The section modulus relative to the extreme compression ﬁber is Sex ϭ 20. Lateral buckling strength.589)(4.311 770. Ј 2I tension Ј stiffener ϭ2 ϭ2 stiffener ͩͪ ͩͪ ͩͪ 1 (7.149 ϭ 5. For segment AB.96 in.-kips ii.025 695.0 according to the deﬁnition of Cb given on page 208 for members subject to combined compressive axial load and bending moment.

2(29. Computation of Cmx. Mnx ϭ 165.0 for the member subject to combined axial load and bending moment.500)(1. Fc ϭ Fy ϭ 33 ksi Mnx ϭ ScFc ϭ 165.-kips For segment BC. the nominal moment for lateral buckling is Mnx ϭ ScFc ϭ (5.78 Fy ϭ 91.3.6.53)(5 ϫ 12)2 0.029)(33) ϭ 165.-kips b.4 AISI DESIGN CRITERIA 397 Therefore.-kips Based on section strength and lateral–torsional buckling strength.70 ksi (5.70 ksi (5. MB ϭ 18.96 in.0 .75PЈ and Mc ϭ 22.20/2) ϭ 245. Fe ϭ 2(29.48 ksi 2.96 in.78 Fy.500)(1. L ϭ 5 ft. Based on Case 3 of the deﬁnition of Cmx.74 ksi Since Fe Ͼ 2.00)(8)(4.53)(5 ϫ 12)2 Fe ϭ Since Fe Ͼ 2.00)(8)(4. The value of Cb is also 1.96 in.5PЈ in.20/2) ϭ 245.-kips. Fc ϭ Fy ϭ 33 ksi Because the elastic section modulus of the effective section calculated at a stress of ƒ ϭ 33 ksi in the extreme compression ﬁber is Sc ϭ Sex ϭ 5.029 in. use Cmx ϭ 1.78 Fy.56 Fy ϭ 18.

96 PЈ ϭ 1.2 Pn0 ϭ AeFn ϭ 48.469 in.2.53). which is governed by the stability requirement.919 d.919) Pn PЈ ϭ 0. ␣x ϭ 1 Ϫ 1.500)(22.53) and (6.67)(1)(22.5PЈ) ϭ ϩ ϭ 1. Ae(for Fy ϭ 33 ksi) ϭ 1.137 kips 7. Based on Eqs.80)20 (1.79 (165.96)(0.56).1) ϭ (KxLx) (1 ϫ 10 ϫ 12)2 ϭ 446. For the LRFD method. For KL / r ϭ 0. (6.48 kips b.398 COMBINED AXIAL LOAD AND BENDING c.62) should be used with the load factors and combinations given in Art.0 Mnx␣x 46.3. (6.5PЈ ϩ ϭ 1.84 ϭ 0.84 kips Therefore. Application of Eq. ⍀cP ϩ ⍀bCmxMx (1. Using the same procedure illustrated in Item 3. Fn ϭ Fy ϭ 33 ksi.48 165. .67)22.54). the allowable load based on the ASD method is 0.2. (6.0 48. Allowable Load PЈ. 3.54) ⍀cP ϩ ⍀bMx ϭ Pno Mnx (1.936 kips.53). ␣x ϭ 1 Ϫ ⍀cP PEx where PEx ϭ 2EIx 2(29. Allowable load PЈ based on Eq. (6.80(20) 446. (6. Computation of Pno. Eqs. Using Eq.80)20 (1. Allowable load PЈ based on Eq. (6.54) a.61) and (6. Using Eq. Computation of ␣x. (6.936 kips 6.

Sx ϭ 3.075 in. r0 ϭ 3.12 in.4 Cw ϭ 24.4 Sy ϭ 0.794 in.56 in.553 in. ex ϭ ϩ2. determine the allowable load if the load at both ends are eccentrically applied at point A (that is.3 For the braced channel column shown in Fig.6 j ϭ y /2 ϭ 4. Assume Kx Lx ϭ Ky Ly ϭ Kz Lz ϭ 14 ft.1.13a).876 in. Applied Axial Load and End Moments 4 x ϭ 0.20 in. 6.97 in.159 the following full section properties can be computed: A ϭ 1. x0 ϭ 2. Iy ϭ 1.125 in.124 in. Solution 1.3.1 in. Figure 6. Use Fy ϭ 50 ksi and the ASD method. J ϭ 0. .) along the x-axis (Fig.844 in. 2.0571 in. From the equation given in Part I of the AISI Design Manual. Properties of Full Section.6.13 Example 6.2 Ix ϭ 15.781 in.13.3 rx ϭ 3.4 AISI DESIGN CRITERIA 399 Example 6. 6.3 ry ϭ 1.

Elastic ﬂexural buckling stress. Since KxLx ϭ KyLy and rx Ͼ ry. .921 ksi use Fe ϭ 11.793)2 Ϫ 4(0.28)2 ii.500) ϭ ϭ 100. KL / r ϭ KyLy / ry ϭ (1)(14 ϫ 12)/1.97) (1 ϫ 14 ϫ 12)2 ͫ ͬ ͬ ϭ 12.793) 2(0.97 2 ϭ 0.418 ksi (KxLx / rx)2 (1 ϫ 14 ϫ 12/3.20 3.K.921 ksi.28 Ͻ 200 Fe ϭ O.500) ϭ ϭ 11. Fn i.418)(12.693) Ϫ͙(100.075 ϭ 156. (5.57).00571) ϩ 2 (1. According to Eq. Computation of Pn a. (KL / r)2 (156. Fe ϭ where ϭ1Ϫ ex ϭ t ϭ ϭ 1 [(ex ϩ t) Ϫ ͙(ex ϩ t)2 Ϫ 4ext 2 ͩͪ x0 r0 2 ϭ1Ϫ ͩ ͪ 2.269 Ͼ 11. Elastic torsional-ﬂexural buckling stress.124P in.-kips 3. 2E 2(29.793 ksi.500)(24.418 ϩ 12.400 COMBINED AXIAL LOAD AND BENDING P ϭ axial load to be determined Mx ϭ 0 My ϭ 2.1) (11300)(0. Therefore Fe ϭ 1 [(100.693 2E 2(29. Nominal buckling stress.921 ksi for computing Fn.553)(3.418 ϩ 12.693)(100.793)] ϭ 12.12)2 1 2ECw GJ ϩ 2 Ar 0 (KtLt)2 ͫ 1 2(29.

877 Fy ϭ (50) ϭ 10.992] Ϫ ͙0.0 5.335 Since D / w Ͻ 0.81/2.0 C1 ϭ 2 Ϫ C2 ϭ 1.877 0. Effective width of the compression ﬂange S ϭ 1.4 From Eq. Ae. Fn ϭ ͫ ͬ ͫ 0.455 ϭ 67.K.3.00121 in.4 n ϭ 1/2 Is ϭ d 3t /12 ϭ (0. use Case II of Art.216 ϫ 104 Ն 1.105)4 ϭ 5.5175)3(0. Since S /3 Ͻ w / t Ͻ S.00121 ϭ 2. 3.43/4}3 (0.2(a) Ia ϭ 399{[(w / t)/ S] Ϫ ͙ku /4}3t 4 ϭ 399{[23/67.83).415/0.048)2 ͬ b.992 S /3 ϭ 22.5 ΊF ϭ Ί11. (5. (3.46 ϫ 10Ϫ8 in.8. . from Eq. Effective area.46 ϫ 10Ϫ8 C2 ϭ Is / Ia ϭ Use C2 ϭ 1.415 ϭ 0.0 D / w ϭ 0.86).105 ϭ 23 Ͻ 60 O.500/10.4 AISI DESIGN CRITERIA 401 c ϭ 50 ϭ 2.5.455 ksi 2 c (2.6.28͙E /ƒ ϭ 1.664 w / t ϭ 2.105)/12 ϭ 0.921 Fy e From Eq. at the stress Fn i. 0.55).28͙29.048 Ͼ 1. (3.

w / t ϭ 7.402 COMBINED AXIAL LOAD AND BENDING ka ϭ 5. Effective area.25 Ϫ 5(D / w) ϭ 5. ii.455) ϭ 16. ds ϭ C2d s Ј ϭ (1)(0.335) ϭ 3.673 Ί29.500 b ϭ w ϭ (0. iii. The ﬂange is fully effective.069 kips .929 Ͻ 14 ϭ O. iv.105 ϭ 70.699 Ͼ 0.415/0.22 /0.673 Ί29.699 ϭ 0.267 in.43 ϭ 3.980)(7.980 0.500 b ϭ w ϭ 2.929) ͙0.K.241 Ͻ 0.5175 in. Nominal load Pn Pn ϭ AeFn ϭ (1.537 in. Effective width of edge stiffeners w / t ϭ 0.5175 in.052 (23) ͙3.105 ϭ 4. The edge stiffener is fully effective.5(3.575 10. 1.105) ϭ 1.415) ϭ 7. Ae Ae ϭ 1.K.267)(0.500 ds Ј ϭ d ϭ 0.52 (4.415 in.415 Ϫ 7.575 ϭ 1.619 Ͻ 500 ϭ O.43 10.5175) ϭ 0.5175/0.455 ϭ 0.149 Ͻ 0.699 ͪ 10.537)(10.43) ϩ 0.455 ϭ 0.052 (70.2 b. 10.0 ϭ 1Ϫ ͩ 0.553 Ϫ (7.619) ͙4.0 k ϭ Cn 2(ka Ϫ ku) ϩ ku ϭ (1)0.673 Ί29.455 ϭ 0.575 Ϫ 0. Effective width of web element.25 Ϫ 5(0.575 Ͻ 4.

6. use Eqs. Assume that the maximum compressive stress of ƒ ϭ Fy ϭ 50 ksi occurs in the extreme ﬁber of edge stiffeners and that both ﬂanges are fully effective as shown in Fig.80)P /16.15.326 Ͻ 0.53) and (6. Application of Eq.500 b ϭ w ϭ 0.4 AISI DESIGN CRITERIA 403 4. Selection of Design Equations ⍀cP / Pn ϭ (1. ϭ 1. Figure 6. (6. Section strength based on initiation of yielding.14.54) to determine the allowable load P. (6.14 Stress distribution in ﬂanges.069 ϭ P /8. For edge stiffeners.052 ͙0. .927 Assume that ⍀cP / Pn Ͼ 0.53) a.5175 in. Computation of May i. 5.673 Ί29. 6.43 (4.929) 50 ϭ 0.

728 ϩ 1. the ﬂange is fully effective. (4.793 ksi (see Item 3.114 ksi ƒ2 ϭ Ϫ50(0.a. the elastic critical lateral–torsional buckling stress for bending about the centroidal axis perpendicular to the symmetry axis for singly symmetric channel section is Fe ϭ where Cs A ex t j ϭ ϭ ϭ ϭ ϭ Ϫ1 Cs Aex 2 j ϩ Cs ͙j2 ϩ r0 (t / ex) CTFSf ͫ ͬ 1.404 COMBINED AXIAL LOAD AND BENDING To check if ﬂange is fully effective.415 in.8315 in.276 Ͻ 0. In view of the fact that all elements are fully effective.3 Mny ϭ SeFy ϭ 0.ii) 12.500 be ϭ w ϭ 2. ƒ1 ϭ 50(1. Since Ͻ Ϫ0.222 ϭ 1. From Fig.553 in. According to Eq.8315/2.5835/2.736 ksi (compression) (tension) ϭ ƒ2 /ƒ1 ϭ Ϫ13.052 (23) ͙11.2 in.844(50) ϭ 42.2075 ϭ 1.418 ksi (see Item 3.673 Ί29.124) ϭ Ϫ13.222 43.736/43. 6.56 in. b2 ϭ be /2 ϭ 2.ii) 4.).415/3.844 in.9355 in.124) ϭ 43.236.2 (see Item 1) 100. (see Item 1) . ii.2075 in. Because the computed value of (b1 ϩ b2) is greater than the compression portion of the ﬂange (1.236 k ϭ 4 ϩ 2(1 Ϫ )3 ϩ 2(1 Ϫ ) ϭ 4 ϩ 2(1.a.319) ϭ 11. the section modulus relative to the extreme compression ﬁber is Se ϭ Sy (for full section) ϭ 0.319)3 ϩ 2(1.319 ϭ 0.415/2 ϭ 1. b1 ϩ b2 ϭ 0.114 ϭ Ϫ0.14.66).114 ϭ 0.319 Ͻ Ϫ0. b1 ϭ be /(3 Ϫ ) ϭ 2.-kips for section strength. Lateral–torsional buckling strength.728 in.

56Fy ϭ 0. use Eq.e.0) ϭ 1. the elastic section modulus of the effective section calculated at a stress of ƒ ϭ Fc ϭ 36.972 (12.4(Ϫ1.78(50) ϭ 139 ksi Since 2. (4.141 ksi in the extreme compression ﬁber is Sc ϭ Sy ϭ 0.744 ksi ϭ 0.793/100.a.56 Ϫ ͙4.64b) to compute Fc.4 AISI DESIGN CRITERIA 405 r0 ϭ 3. Use the smaller value of Mn computed for section strength and lateral–torsional buckling strength.503 in.3 (see Item 1) Substituting all values into the equation for Fe. (6.60).553)(100.6 Ϫ 0.418)[4.3 Mn ϭ ScFc ϭ 30.i. Based on Eq.78Fy Ͼ Fe Ͼ 0.4(M1 / M2) ϭ 0.503 in.0 . Computation of Cmy.-kips b.97 in.744 ͩ ͪ ͪ ϭ 36. (4.844 in..418)] (1)(0.0 [see Eq.. i.562 ϩ 3.56(50) ϭ 28 ksi 2.844 in. Mny ϭ 30.56Fy. the elastic critical buckling stress is Fe (Ϫ1.78Fy ϭ 2.e.6 Ϫ 0. (see Item 1) CTF ϭ 1.6.141 ksi Following the same procedure used in Item 5.844) ϭ 39. i.71)] Sf ϭ Sy ϭ 0. Cmy ϭ 0. Fc ϭ ϭ 10Fy 10 Fy 1 Ϫ 9 36Fe ͩ 10 10 ϫ 50 (50) 1 Ϫ 9 36 ϫ 39.-kips for lateral– torsional buckling strength iii. Controlling Nominal Moment Mny.

507 kips 2 (KyLy) (14 ϫ 12)2 ␣y ϭ 1 Ϫ (1. (6.537 in. Using Eq. However.267 in. . is relative to the centroid of the full section.876 Ϫ 0. 6.80P /18.0525] ϭ 0. The effective area was found to be 1.2 For this reason. the actual eccentricity is reduced slightly in Fig.415 Ϫ 7.507) ϭ 1 Ϫ 0. the eccentricity of ex ϭ 2. Eccentricity of the applied load based on effective area.794) PEy ϭ ϭ ϭ 18.105)][0.500)(1. 1.15.0083 in.iv.415 in.124 in.57) ␣y ϭ 1 Ϫ (⍀cP / PEy) where ⍀c ϭ 1.267)(0.15 Movement of the centroid. the effective width b of 7. in the calculation of Item 3. The movement of the centroid can be computed as follows: [(7.537 The eccentricity relative to the centroid of the effective section is Figure 6. Computation of ␣y. is less than the ﬂat width of 7. it was found that for the web element. In the given data.b.0973P d.406 COMBINED AXIAL LOAD AND BENDING c.80 2EIy 2(29.

(6. Allowable load P based on Eq.0973P) P ϭ 3. the reader is referred to Refs. (6.503 P ϭ 6.116 in. 6. (6.67)(2.5 ADDITIONAL INFORMATION ON BEAM-COLUMNS For additional information on beam-columns.54) a. Ae ϭ 1.53).0 16. (6.116)P ϩ ϭ 1.48 kips. and 5.5 ADDITIONAL INFORMATION ON BEAM-COLUMNS 407 ex ϭ 2. ⍀cP ϩ ϭ ⍀bCmyMy Mny␣y Pn (1. Fn ϭ Fy ϭ 50 ksi.135.53).116)P ϩ ϭ 1. For KL / r ϭ 0. 5. Application of Eq. Using the same procedure illustrated in Item 3.7 through 6.176(50) ϭ 58.80 kips b. Allowable Load P.103.176 in. Computation of Pno. Allowable load P based on Eq.124 Ϫ 0.48 kips 6.2 Pn0 ϭ AeFn ϭ 1.069 (30.83 kips 7. Using Eq.6. . e.53) and (6. (6. the allowable load P is 3.54) ⍀cP ϩ ⍀bMy ϭ Pn0 Mny (1. 6. Based on Eqs.35.0 58.54).503)(1 Ϫ 0. which is governed by the stability requirement.80)P (1.0083 ϭ 2.80 30.80)P 1.67(1)(2.

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