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Kratom Alkaloid Breakdown

Concentration percentages given come from different studies of alkaloid concentrations in Mitragyna speciosa - Kratom leaf. Some of the alkaloids given in this list still need to be studied more specifically in order to determine their potential activity. Ajmalicine (Raubasine): Cerebrocirculant, antiaggregant, anti-adrenergic (at alpha-1), sedative, anticonvulsant, smooth muscle relaxer. Also found in Rauwolfia serpentina. Akuammigine Ciliaphylline: antitussive, analgesic. < 1% of total alkaloid content found in Kratom leaf. Corynantheidine: μ -opioid antagonist, also found in Yohimbe. < 1% of total alkaloid content found in Kratom leaf. Corynoxeine: Calcium channel blocker. < 1% of total alkaloid content found in Kratom leaf. Corynoxine A and B: Dopamine mediating anti-locomotives. < 1% of total alkaloid content found in Kratom leaf. Epicatechin: Antioxidant, antiaggregant, antibacterial, antidiabetic, antihepatitic, anti-inflammatory, anti-leukemic, antimutagenic, antiperoxidant, antiviral, potential cancer preventative, alpha-amylase inhibitor. Also found in dark chocolate. 9-Hydroxycorynantheidine: Partial opioid agonist 7-hydroxymitragynine: Analgesic, antitussive, antidiarrheal; primary psychoactive in Kratom, Roughly 2% of total alkaloid content found in Kratom leaf. Isomitraphylline: Immunostimulant, anti-leukemic. < 1% of total alkaloid content found in Kratom leaf. Isomitrafoline: < 1% of total alkaloid content found in Kratom leaf. Isopteropodine: Immunostimulant Isorhynchophylline: Immunostimulant. < 1% of total alkaloid content found in Kratom leaf. Isospeciofoline: < 1% of total alkaloid content found in Kratom leaf. Mitraciliatine: < 1% of total alkaloid content found in Kratom leaf.

. All contained mitragynine.Mitragynine: Indole alkaloid. < 1% of total alkaloid content found in Kratom leaf. Stipulatine Tetrahydroalstonine: Hypoglycemic. Speciofoline Speciogynine: Smooth muscle relaxer. Speciociliatine: Weak opioid agonist. muscle relaxer. Mitraversine Paynantheine: Indole alkaloid. 6. Roughly 66% of total alkaloid content found in Kratom leaf. which has lead some teams (Shellard et al. <1% of total alkaloid contents of Kratom leaf. at different leaf harvest times. possible immunostimulant. antiaggregant. Smooth muscle relaxer. Mitragyna speciosa Kratom alkaloid content varies quantitatively from geographical location. Mitragynine oxindole B. calcium channel blocker. Anti-leukemic. and from month to month. antihypertensive. Speciophylline: Indole alkaloid. anti-leukemic. possible psychedelic (5-HT2A) antagonist. unique to Kratom.8% to 1% of total alkaloid content of Kratom leaf. Mitrafoline: < 1% of total alkaloid content found in Kratom leaf. anti-inflammatory. anti-arrhythmic. <1% of total alkaloid contents in Kratom leaf. in the 1970s) to conclude that there may be different geographical variants within the same species. Vasodilator. Mitraphylline: Oxindole alkaloid. antiamnesic. Malaysia. anti-adrenergic (at alpha-2) As previously mentioned. antidiarrheal. and Papua New Guinea between 1961 and 1970.6% to 9% of total alkaloid contents in Kratom leaf. 0. The Chelsea College Pharmacognosy Research Laboratories collected thirty samples of Kratom from Thailand. 8. antimalarial. antipyretic.6% to 7% of total alkaloid contents of Kratom leaf. diuretic. Analgesic. adrenergic. antithelmintic. antitussive. Rhynchophylline: Vasodilator. antihypertensive. < 1% of total alkaloid content found in Kratom leaf.

specionoxeine. but another research team. it is clear Mitragyna speciosa Kratom is much more than a simple opioid-like narcotic and mild stimulant. while it made up only 12% of the alkaloids from the Malaysian sample. speciogynine. as thorough research has only just begun. Takayama. traces of (C9) methoxy-oxindoles. later revised the structure of the mitragynaline and corynantheidaline alkaloids. effects and potential applications. paynantheine. Yet other Thai plants contained distinct alkaloidal profiles. paynantheine. in very young leaves. and other indoles and oxindoles.5. as well as mitralactonal. speciogynine. . mitrasulgynine and 3. corynantheidalinic acid. For red and green/ white leaved plants of Thailand. also found that Thai and Malay Kratom had the alkaloids mitragynine. Working with the leaves of Malay Mitragyna Kratom plants. paynantheine. Specimens from Papua New Guinea contained mitragynine. one contained mitragynine. traces of ajmalicine. yet it made up 66% of the total alkaloid in the Thai Kratom sample. speciogynine. lead by Pr. ajmalicine. paynantheine and 7-hydroxymitragynine in common. mitragynaline and mitragynalinic acid). while others contained mitragynine. speciofoline. In both Thai and Malay samples. and isospecionoxeine. These new alkaloids were reported as having an unusual skeleton.but also proved to have considerable variation in the alkaloid makeup. mitragynine was the most abundant alkaloid. speciociliatine. showing that there was actually no substitution on the 14 position. speciociliatine. The variety of alkaloids discovered in diverse Kratom samples to this day still calls for further studies and experimentation. investigating their specific activity. With 7-hydroxymitragynine now clearly identified out as the principal psychoactive alkaloid in Kratom. with a carbon function at the C14 position (in comparison with previously known monoterpenoid indoles). and traces of other indoles. and their synergetic role and activity in the general pharmacology of Mitragyna speciosa Kratom is not yet fully understood. nearly all chemical studies of Kratom activity focused on mitragynine with the assumption that mitragynine was the main active alkaloid. speciociliatine. many elements of these studies need to be revised. some with many more alkaloids. speciogynine. Prior to the late 1990’s.6-tetradehydromitragynine.4. Takayama et al. The Malay Kratom sample had mitragynaline and pinoresinol as major components. the most common alkaloidal profile was mitragynine. and (C9) methoxy-oxindoles. Many of the secondary chemicals found in Mitragyna speciosa Kratom are present in small yet appreciable quantities. traces of indoles. speciociliatine. Through its makeup and tradition of use. the Houghton and Said team found 4 new types of indole alkaloids (corynantheidaline. In the Malay specimens.