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The Effects of Powei Teaching Nathematics on Stuuent Engagement anu Nath

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Introduction

Background and Need

The twenty-first century brings many changes to education and the world. The
demands of our future students in the workplace will require students to think critically,
collaborate with others, communicate their thoughts and ideas, and solve problems
creatively. The role of teacher and student are changing. Students are now expected to
pay an active part in their own learning. “Work, learning, and citizenship in the twenty-
first century demand that we all know how to think-to reason, analyze, weigh evidence,
problem-solve and to communicate effectively.” (Wagner 2008) Traditional lecture and
paper and pencil work does not lend itself to problem solving and critical thinking or
communicating (Bernero 2000). Students need opportunities to discuss problems, share
strategies, and work together to solve real world problems. The Power Teaching Math
program, created by Johns Hopkins University School of Education, does just that. It is
an instructional framework of cooperative learning strategies intended to increase
engagement and student achievement.
Magnet schools are required to develop programs that are different from other district
programs in order to attract students from across the attendance boundaries. Alta Heights
Magnet School became a magnet school in 2010. One way that our school is different is
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that we started using Power Teaching Mathematics to engage students in structured
cooperative learning and collaboration activities to meet the needs of twenty-first century
learners. We chose the strategy because it fits perfectly with the expectations of the
common core standards and our focus on doing math differently at our school. It also fits
with the district goals of instilling 21
st
century skills. It engages students throughout the
entire math lesson with focused interactive activities and team cooperation goals.
Teachers do teach and model lessons, but when it is time to do the math problems,
student start with a team huddle in which they all look at the problem, share their
strategies for solving it, work together to plan a solution and solve. Each team member
must be ready to report on the strategy of the team. It is the team’s responsibility to
prepare all of its members to explain their reasoning. Team mastery comes next, where
students work on problems independently first, and then check their answers with a
partner. If the answers are the same, partners assume the solution is correct. If they are
not the same, partners and groups are responsible for helping group members come up
with the correct solution. Teams also have a daily cooperation goal that they work on.
Teams are awarded team points when they meet the goal. Points add up at the end of the
cycle for team celebration. According to Slavin (1998), the highest successes are made
by cooperative groups that have group goals as well as individual accountability
measures. Power Teaching Math has both.




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Statement of the Problem
At Alta Heights Magnet School, this is our first year of implementation of the
Power Teaching Mathematics (PTM) program and the “fidelity” in using the program is
varied across the school. Some teachers are using the program as it was written, and
some are using just parts of the program. Others show no evidence of using the program
at all. We paid a lot of money for the initial program, training, and a year of coaching.
Our current contract with the company has ended and we are now planning for next year.
If the program is successful in the classes where teachers are using it on a regular basis,
we have more of an incentive to continue the coaching and try to figure out a way to pay
for it. If there isn’t a lot of success in both student engagement and achievement, we may
not continue the coaching. I need to know if the program is having positive effects on
both student engagement and math achievement, as well as teacher interest, dedication to
the program and pedagogy shifts.

Purpose of the Study

The purpose of this project is to investigate the effects of structured cooperative
learning strategies (Power Teaching Mathematics) on student engagement and math
achievement. I also wanted to find out how much fidelity we have in implementation of
the program.


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Research Questions
1. What is the effect of cooperative learning activities (Power Teaching Mathematics) on
student achievement?
2. What is the effect of cooperative learning activities (Power Teaching Mathematics) on
perceived student engagement?

Review of the Literature


Cooperative Learning and Student Achievement
This literature review will address the areas related to cooperative learning and
engagement/motivation. The first section will address research related to cooperative
learning. The second section will focus on research about the effects of structured
cooperative groups on student engagement/motivation.
Johnson and Johnson (2009) state that if done right, cooperative learning can have
many outstanding results on student achievement, self-esteem, and on positive social
relationships. The effective structure for cooperative learning includes common group
goals, which make students interdependent, along with individual accountability.
Effective cooperative groups practice social skills through their interactions and there is
an opportunity to reflect on learning.
Nolinske and Millis (1999) showcased the many types of structured cooperative
learning experiences that teachers can use to increase student engagement and get away
from a lecture type lesson. The authors wrote about the cooperative learning strategies
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with adult occupational therapy students used to increase active learning, promote
problem solving, promote group work, and increase the use of technology. The
strategies are the same strategies used in classrooms in K-12. The authors talk about the
need to change pedagogy to a more learning centered structure where student learning
and success are the “ends” as opposed to what is taught in a lecture based program. The
teacher is now the facilitator and assists student learning through coaching and
questioning strategies.
The author listed and explained many cooperative learning strategies such as Think,
Pair, Share, Numbered Heads Together, Structured Problem Solving, Round Table, Three
Step Interview, Send/Pass a Problem, Generic Question Stems, and Double Entry
Journals. The importance of positive interdependence, individual accountability,
appropriate grouping, group maintenance and cooperation skills within the learning
activities are important to student success.
Slavin (1998) discusses the effectiveness of cooperative learning on the skills,
abilities, and positive relationships of all groups of students including regular education,
bilingual students, and special education students. Not all cooperative learning has the
positive effects. Cooperative groups that had group goals as well as individual
accountability measures made the highest gains. Group goals with no student individual
accountability have been ineffective in raising achievement.
The purpose of Slavin’s study was to compare the different forms of cooperative
learning to see which had the highest effect on student achievement. They compared
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group goals with individual accountability, group goals only, individual accountability
only, and no group goals or individual accountability.
Cooperative learning groups were compared to randomly selected and matched
control groups. Various cooperative grouping methods were studied and measured in 4-
10 week studies. The studies were compiled and results were measured. Groups that had
group goals as well as individual accountability made the highest gains. (Results: group
goals with individual accountability (.30), group goals only (.04), individual
accountability only (.12), and no group goals or individual accountability (.06). The
results also indicated that in addition to increasing student achievement in the group and
individual accountability groups, the students made positive gains in interpersonal
relationships, self-esteem, and the ability to work with others. In looking at cooperative
learning strategies, it is important to look for strategies that include both group and
individual goals.
Bancroft (2010) conducted an action research project to investigate cooperative
learning effects on achievement and student motivation. The author did a study of the
research on cooperative learning. The first study she looked at was Stevens’ and
Slavin’s two-year study of 1012 second through sixth grade students in five elementary
schools in Maryland done in 1995. The control groups were closely matched for SES,
ethnicity, and student disabilities. The treatment school adopted Slavin’s cooperative
learning model and received training in Cooperative Integrated Reading and Composition
(CIRC), Team Assisted Individualization Mathematics (TAI) curriculum, Jigsaw 11,
Teams-Games-Tournaments (TGT), and Student Teams Achievement Division. The
teachers used these cooperative learning techniques on a daily basis after receiving
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training. The control schools continued teaching as they always had with no training in
cooperative learning.
Beginning achievement levels of the students was done with the California
Achievement Test (CAT) Form C and was administered in the fall of the first year of the
study. The total reading, total language, and total math scores were used for the study.
To measure exiting achievement, teachers administered a subset of the CAT, Form E in
the spring of both study years. Students were also given a pre and posttest to measure
attitudes. Students were asked to rate their attitude toward and ability perception in
reading, language, and math. The last measure was social relations. Students were asked
to list their friends in class to get a measure of the acceptance of mainstreamed students.
Posttests after the first year showed significant differences favoring the treatment group
in reading vocabulary. No significant differences were found in the other areas. Posttests
after the second year showed significant differences in reading vocabulary, reading
comprehension, language expression and math computation (from .21-.29). Looking at
student attitude measures and perceived ability in the first year, there were not significant
differences between control and treatment groups. However, after the second year, the
treatment group had higher perceived ability in reading and language arts (.21 and .26).
When measuring social relations, there was no significant difference in premeasured
results for the first year. After the second year, cooperative learning groups listed
significantly more friends that the comparison schools (+.42). Other results included
significant learning gains for handicapped and gifted students after 2 years.
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Cooperative learning helps to increase student achievement when it is structured and
teachers receive necessary training. Social relations are increased as well as self -esteem
and attitudes toward school. All students, including handicapped and gifted students,
benefit from cooperative learning. The biggest results occurred after the second year of
implementation.

Cooperative Learning and Student Motivation

Direct teaching is the mode that most of us are used to learning with. Learning in this
way tends to very passive and individualistic. In Bornero’s (2000) study on motivation
and achievement, the author wanted to see if moving away from direct instruction and
using cooperative learning in a second grade math classroom would reduce math anxiety,
generate more interest in math, and improve social skills.
The researcher used Plus-Minus Interesting (PMI) reflections to gauge student like or
dislike for math and school in general. Teacher surveys were distributed to find out how
teachers perceived math anxiety and low math interest, as well as questions about their
teaching pedagogy including the amount of time they spend with direct teaching and
cooperative learning. The study included 25 students (15 boys and 10 girls, 25%
Hispanic and 75% black). From the initial PMI from the second grade students, 20%
showed a dislike for school in general and 40% showed a lack of enjoyment for math in
particular.
Teachers established cooperative learning goals/rules and role played different
scenarios modeling positive ways of working together. Teachers began implementing
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cooperative learning one to two times a week at the beginning of the five month study.
At the end of the study, teachers reported team interactions and social acceptance
gradually improved. The social environment of the class became more positive and
mainstreamed students were accepted and felt part of the group. Teachers noted
improved self-confidence in slower learners. There were fewer discipline problems and
students improved academically. 80% of final test scores were average or above,
compared to 40% the previous year. Student views toward math changed from 45%
responding with a neutral or negative response to over 90% responding with a positive
response by the end of the project. Students went from two thirds of the class preferring
to work alone to three-fourths of the class preferring to work cooperatively.
The challenges to using cooperative groups included teacher tolerance for the
increased noise level, challenges with student disagreements, and keeping groups on task.
Spending the time needed to ensure positive group work is essential. Pedagogy changes
usually mean that there will be a shift in classroom expectations. Students working
together do make more noise, and teachers need to be prepared for that and set up
appropriate expectations. The positive effects on student attitudes toward math and
achievement gains far outweigh the challenges.
In an article by Johnson and Johnson (2009), the authors elaborate on the application
of the interdependence theory on which cooperative learning is built in education. The
main points are that social interdependence exists when those involved are affected by
their own actions as well as those of the team or group. Members are interdependent
through common goals but have individual accountability. The essential elements of
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cooperative learning include positive interdependence, individual accountability,
promotive interaction, (facilitating others to do their best), the appropriate use of social
skills, and group processing or reflection.
In 1989, Johnson and Johnson did a study of research of cooperative learning on effort
to achieve, positive interpersonal relationships and psychological health. They looked at
the results of cooperative learning vs. individualistic and competitive learning situations.
The average person cooperating was found to achieve an effect size of .67 above the
average person in a competitive or individualistic situation. Cooperators spend more
time on task (effect size .76 than competitors and .17 compared to individualistic.) Use
of insight and higher-level cognitive and moral reasoning of cooperators was higher (.93
for individualistic and .97 for individualistic.). The cooperative efforts had greater
interpersonal attraction than competitor (.67) and individualistic (.60). When comparing
minority effect sizes, cooperative groups had a higher attraction, .52 and .44 respectively.
Cooperative experiences promote higher self-esteem than competitive (.58) and
individualistic (.44).
Alison Bacon (2012) studied the effects of different teaching strategies on student
motivation and focus in struggling 3
rd
grade math students. The research and data was
collected over the period of 2 months at Greenfield Elementary School. The goal was to
understand and use the most successful strategies to increase motivation and focus and
increase achievement.
The teacher gave a student survey on students’ feelings about math, working with
others, working alone, homework, math problem solving, and student desire to work
hard. The teacher implemented the Everyday Math curriculum supplemented with hands
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on, real world, authentic tasks, manipulatives, and technology. The teacher asked each
student to choose a goal for math. They wrote the goal in their math notebook and had an
interview with the teacher to discuss the goal. The teacher provided interactive
cooperative experiences, integrated technology, used manipulatives, white boards,
prepared interactive study guides, used the interactive white board, hands on activities,
and repeatedly asked students to reflect on their goal and if they were making progress.
Students all increased their content learning on a pre/post test as well as the student
survey. They reported higher levels of motivation and a more positive attitude about
math. Students reported an increase in focus when lessons were presented in an
interactive model. 100% of students reported that they were more motivated to try their
best and that they felt their achievement was a result of the new teaching methods.
The positive results from this small group were influential. The author got first hand
results using the interactive teaching methods. The author shared her research project
with her PLC and will continue to support these motivating methods in the school.

Summary
People entering jobs are expected to be able to work together and problem solve.
Teamwork is a highly valued skill in the workplace. Making these shifts is critical for
success in the 21
st
century. Power Teaching Mathematics focuses on these important
skills. Power Teaching Mathematics has both team cooperation goals and individual
achievement goals that contribute to the team’s overall point total. All group members
are important in accumulating individual and team points.
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If done right, cooperative learning can have many outstanding results on student
achievement, self-esteem and positive social relationships. Our current school systems
are changing to include with students with disabilities and increased diversity. The use of
cooperative learning helps to create positive relationships among these diverse groups.
The structuring of cooperative groups to promote interdependence can change more than
student achievement. Common goals, individual accountability, practicing social skills
and reflecting on learning are all a part of the structure and proven to be the most
successful method.

Research Methods
To collect data on the use or fidelity to the program and teacher attitudes, I conducted
a Google survey and sent to all teachers using the program. I plan to analyze the
information for teacher attitudes, impressions of student achievement and student
motivation as well as teacher use of the program. I did a survey with students that
included 20 statements related to motivation/engagement and attitudes toward math and
math achievement. In addition, I looked at environmental elements of the PTM program
in each classroom and did a check off of the components that I saw in use.
The teacher survey questions are below:







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1. How many days a week do you use Power Teaching Math
strategies in your classroom?




1 uay u u%
2 uays u u%
S uays 2 18%
4 uays 2 18%
S uays 7 64%












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2. On average, which parts of the program do you use daily?
Check all that apply.


Get the Goof 9%
Mental Math 12%
Homework Check 4%
Cooperative Learning 7%
Team Huddle 15%
Team Mastery 6%
Random Reporter 13%
Quick Checks 7%
Team Cooperation Points 10%
Power Teaching Signals 6%
Team Score Sheets 3%
Team Recognition 6%





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3. If you don’t use certain components, please explain why.
Not age appropriate. The team score sheets were a little much for 2nd graders to
handle. We tried reworking it, but it was still hard for them to do independently
and was too time consuming when learning the new program at the same time.
Score sheets don't work for me. Scoreboard is better. Due to the broad span of
abilities and behaviors in my class this year, I have not been able to implement the
program as it is designed. There are several students pulled out for smaller groups
guided by an adult. My students have been successful in partner groups, not
groups of four so I've been working on building on that success. Having said that,
during the last few weeks, my students have made incredible progress in this area
and we are just now trying out groups of four. I don't use team points, but I do
recognize team cooperation daily, which works well for me. n/a for my grade
level. It was a bit difficult to do Power Teaching in a combo class. Not age
appropriate. It depends on how much time I have--I can't do it at all Wednesdays
because System 44 kids don't come back until after recess. Then after recess, they
go to Art/Movement, and when they get back from that, half the class leaves to go
to band! That then leaves me with about 20 min. to have them write their
homework, etc. It's also difficult to do a full Power Teaching session on Fridays
because of all my students that leave for Strings! What I do and when really
depends on what's going on that day. Too much here. Simplicity is better! The
chips/trinkets etc. are silly when I use class points and that-a-gators. I don't use
Get the Goof daily, but most days. I do a modified Team Huddle and Mastery
because my students are in pairs. The others I don't do often. Don't have time to fit
it all in.


4. What is your plan for implementing more of the components
next year?
Be more consistent. Possibly reworking the score sheets again so that midyear we
can try to implement them fully. Use more of the jargon specific to PTM. Add Get
the Goof 3 times a week. Alternate with Problem of the Day and Mental Math. I
plan on using all of the program, but I prefer not using the team points. I have had
great success in the past without the use of points to provide motivation and
meaningful on-task work together. Not planning on implementing more of the
components. I will be starting fresh next year, trying to implement all aspects of
Power Teaching. Be more consistent. I think I will do the same thing I'm doing
this year--if I have time, I will do it all, if not, then I'm going to have to pick and
choose (depending on what we're working on, what the kids need, etc.) None. It is
just fine as is. I want to implement Random Reporter more often. Trying to
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incorporate one or two more components to what I'm already doing.

5. Do you use PTM strategies at any other time of the day? If so,
when?
Language Arts Yes- the PT signals are used throughout the day. No. Throughout
the day/across the curriculum...PTM strategies are actually sound instructional
practices that have been infused into the Power Teaching program. Any time the
strategies will work. Yes, I use the cheers, and all cooperative group strategies,
especially in science. Language Arts. I refer to the team cooperation goals any
time that they are working in groups (Science, Lang. Arts, etc.) Partner work in
science and language arts, which I learned from trainings at another school, not
here. I use the hand signal intermittently throughout the day. I am using partners
more for reading, too. No.

6. How has the on-task behavior (students focused on the job,
completing tasks, talking about math in their groups, etc.) in your
class changed as a result of using PTM? (Compared to last year).
Check your answer.








Students are more on-task
7 64%
No change
4 36%
Students are less on-task
0 0%
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7. How would you compare your current class to last year’s class
on motivation to learn during math? Check your answer.



























Students are a lot less motivated than
last year
0 0%
Students are slightly less motivated
than last year
0 0%
No change from last year 5 45%
Students are slightly more motivated
than last year
5 45%
Students are a lot more motivated than
last year
1 9%
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8. Do your students seem to like math this year?









1 Strongly Disagree 0 0%
2 Disagree 0 0%
3 No Opinion 4 36%
4 Agree 6 55%
5 Strongly Agree 1 9%












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9. How would you describe student achievement in math this year?



It has increased 4 36%
No change 6 55%
It has decreased 0 0%
Not sure 1 9%
10. Do you notice your teams/partners helping each other?


1 Strongly Disagree 0 0%
2 Disagree 0 0%
3 No Opinion 2 18%
4 Agree 7 64%
5 Strongly Agree 2 18%
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11. Are teams able to explain their ideas and tell why?


1 Strongly Disagree 0 0%
2 Disagree 0 0%
3 No Opinion 5 45%
4 Agree 5 45%
5 Strongly Agree 1 9%












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12. Do you feel like your students are more successful socially as a
result of using PTM?








1 Strongly Disagree 1 9%
2 Disagree 2 18%
3 No Opinion 3 27%
4 Agree 4 36%
5 Strongly Agree 1 9%







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13. Do you feel like your students are more successful academically
as a result of using PTM?






1 Strongly Disagree 0 0%
2 Disagree 3 27%
3 No Opinion 4 36%
4 Agree 4 36%
5 Strongly Agree 1 0%










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14. Do you enjoy teaching with Power Teaching Math?






1 Strongly Disagree 0 0%
2 Disagree 2 18%
3 No Opinion 2 18%
4 Agree 6 55%
5 Strongly Agree 1 9%















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15. Is using PTM a priority for you this year?




Yes 8 73%
No 3 27%


16. What is the biggest challenge in using PTM?
The wide range of student abilities. Remembering to give the students specific comments
when handing out celebration points. I usually just want to hand them out and move on.
Learning the program I was unable to try all of its components due to my class composite
and being out for the second trimester. If I had a class that was more academically,
behaviorally, and socially balanced, it would've been easier. Also, if I hadn't missed so
much of the year, I believe we would've been able to try it sooner. Having enough time.
The wide range of student abilities. Getting the less motivated and mathematically
challenged kids to participate more and actually ask for help when they don't
understand!!! It's also a challenge sometimes to get the kids that do understand math
concepts to take the initiative to ask who needs help and help them (in a nice,
encouraging way)! As stated above, way too much going on. Too many components that
become a drag to teach. I believe in partner work and being able to explain your answers
and why, but I think in primary grades it is TOO much! Some lessons don’t lend
themselves to PTM. Lots of components.


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17. What would you say is the biggest positive outcome from using
PTM in your classroom?
The kids talk to each other in a more meaningful way. The students have a deeper
understanding of math this year. Less problems, but more understanding. Also, I don't
feel as stressed out about Math. Before, I would worry that I didn't have time to help ALL
of the students. Now they are helping each other. Student talk about math and varied
strategies to solve. I like that the cooperative learning practices are being implemented
school-wide. The kids enjoy working with each other. Cooperative work. The kids talk to
each other in a more meaningful way. Students have a better understanding of what it
means to work with other students. There's a list of goals for the students and me to
refer to, which helps some kids stay on task. Of course, this is our first year, so
students first have to learn to work together before they can start making more
academic gains. I enjoy Get the Goof. My students work successfully in partners. I
like the IDEA of teamwork, but my students are not able to do it.


18. Would you recommend PTM to other teachers in the district?

Yes 8 73%
No 0 0%
Maybe 3 27%




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Teacher Survey Results

Teacher implementation of the program is varied among teachers. 82% of teachers
use the program at least four days per week. The most used parts of the program are
Mental Math, Team Huddle, and Random Reporter. Those not using the program in its
entirety state issues such as not enough time, too many pieces to the program, it isn’t age
appropriate, and the team score sheets do not work. The biggest positive reported
outcomes include teacher perceptions of deeper understanding of content by students,
students helping each other, kids talking about math in a meaningful way, and that
students are more successful socially as well as more on task. Many teachers are using
the strategies at different times of the day as well. 64% of teachers felt like their students
were more on task as compared to last year, 54% felt students were more motivated that
their students last year, 64% feel like their students liked math this year, 36% feel student
achievement has increased as a result of using the program, and 82% felt that teams and
partners were really helping each other. For 73% of teachers surveyed, teaching with
Power Teaching Mathematics was a priority this year and 64% enjoy teaching with the
program. In addition, 73% would recommend the program to other schools in the
district. Increasing use of the program components was a goal for many teachers.









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"#$%&'# "$()&* +&,$-#,


Stuuent suiveys weie uone in fiist thiough fifth giaue classiooms to measuie
stuuent feelings about math, feelings about coopeiative gioup woik, on task
behaviois, anu iueas about math achievement. I suiveyeu 188 total stuuents in
giaues 1, 2, 4 anu S. Theie weie 4 classiooms that opteu out of the stuuent suiveys.
Theie weie some eiiois on the stuuent suiveys wheie stuuents uiu not maik an
answei oi maikeu two answeis. Foi those that maikeu two answeis, I omitteu the
answei fiom the iesults.

What is the effect of coopeiative leaining activities (Powei Teaching Nathematics)
on stuuent engagement.


0
20
40
60
80
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Strongly
Disagree
Disagree No
Opinion
Agree Strongly
Agree
2
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81
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I use active listening when my teacher is talking.
Level of Agreement
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0
20
40
60
80
100
Strongly
Disagree
Disagree No
Opinion
Agree Strongly
Agree
2
4
15
67
94
I use active listening when my group member is talking.
Level of Agreement
N
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40
60
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Opinion
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5
10
25
80
67
I explain how I solved the math problems.
Level of Agreement
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Achievement



Su








0
24
48
72
96
120
Strongly
Disagree
Disagree No
Opinion
Agree Strongly
Agree
3
7
9
48
111
I try to earn team points for my group.
Level of Agreement
N
u
m
b
e
r
o
f
S
t
u
d
e
n
t
s
0
20
40
60
80
100
Strongly
Disagree
Disagree No
Opinion
Agree Strongly
Agree
2
8
19
80
79
I stay focused on my math work.
Level of Agreement
N
u
m
b
e
r
o
f
S
t
u
d
e
n
t
s
The Effects of Powei Teaching Nathematics on Stuuent Engagement anu Nath
Achievement


S1










0
20
40
60
80
100
Strongly
Disagree
Disagree No
Opinion
Agree Strongly
Agree
17
14
29
49
76
Math is better when you work with a team.
Level of Agreement
N
u
m
b
e
r
o
f
S
t
u
d
e
n
t
s
0
20
40
60
80
100
Strongly
Disagree
Disagree No
Opinion
Agree Strongly
Agree
6
14
30
62
68
I like working with my group.
Level of Agreement
N
u
m
b
e
r
o
f
S
t
u
d
e
n
t
s
The Effects of Powei Teaching Nathematics on Stuuent Engagement anu Nath
Achievement



S2









0
20
40
60
80
100
Strongly
Disagree
Disagree No
Opinion
Agree Strongly
Agree
11
20
23
60
69
My group helps me when I don't understand.
Level of Agreement
N
u
m
b
e
r
o
f
S
t
u
d
e
n
t
s
0
20
40
60
80
100
Strongly
Disagree
Disagree No
Opinion
Agree Strongly
Agree
2
18
27
77
63
I plan solutions to the problems with my partner or team.
Level of Agreement
N
u
m
b
e
r
o
f
S
t
u
d
e
n
t
s
The Effects of Powei Teaching Nathematics on Stuuent Engagement anu Nath
Achievement


SS










0
20
40
60
80
100
Strongly
Disagree
Disagree No
Opinion
Agree Strongly
Agree
24
13
23
43
82
I look forward to math.
Level of Agreement
N
u
m
b
e
r
o
f
S
t
u
d
e
n
t
s
0
20
40
60
80
Strongly
Disagree
Disagree No Opinion Agree Strongly
Agree
8
12
28
63
74
My team works well together
Level of Afreement
N
u
m
b
e
r
o
f
S
t
u
d
e
n
t
s
The Effects of Powei Teaching Nathematics on Stuuent Engagement anu Nath
Achievement



S4




0
20
40
60
80
100
Strongly
Disagree
Disagree No
Opinion
Agree Strongly
Agree
36
27
25
30
67
Math is my favorite subject.
Level of Agreement
N
u
m
b
e
r
o
f
S
t
u
d
e
n
t
s
The Effects of Powei Teaching Nathematics on Stuuent Engagement anu Nath
Achievement


SS







0
20
40
60
80
100
Strongly
Disagree
Disagree No
Opinion
Agree Strongly
Agree
39
24
31
32
61
I like to work alone on my math.
Level of Agreement
N
u
m
b
e
r
o
f
S
t
u
d
e
n
t
s
0
20
40
60
80
100
Strongly
Disagree
Disagree No
Opinion
Agree Strongly
Agree
8
10
29
74
62
I like to share my ideas with my team.
Level of Agreement
N
u
m
b
e
r
o
f
S
t
u
d
e
n
t
s
The Effects of Powei Teaching Nathematics on Stuuent Engagement anu Nath
Achievement



S6











0
20
40
60
80
100
Strongly
Disagree
Disagree No
Opinion
Agree Strongly
Agree
12
22
39
60
54
My team shares their strategies with me.
Level of Agreement
N
u
m
b
e
r
o
f
S
t
u
d
e
n
t
s
0
20
40
60
80
100
Strongly
Disagree
Disagree No
Opinion
Agree Strongly
Agree
7
24
40
64
53
My team stays focused on math during math time.
Level of Agreement
N
u
m
b
e
r
o
f
S
t
u
d
e
n
t
s
The Effects of Powei Teaching Nathematics on Stuuent Engagement anu Nath
Achievement


S7
Results
Student motivation/engagement during math time is relatively high. 82% of students
surveyed agree or strongly agree that they use active listening (listening with a goal in
mind) while their teacher is talking and 88% report using active listening while their
partners/teams are talking. 72 % reported that they liked to work in a group and 68% feel
that math is better when you work with a team. 89% of students are trying to earn team
points for cooperation, while 62% believe that PTM groups help them learn to solve
problems better. 85% of students report that they stay focused on their math work and
72% report that their teams stay focused during math time. 74% report that their teams
work well together, 75% report that they work with their teams to plan solutions to math
problems, 61% report that their teams share strategies with them, 64% report that they
enjoy sharing strategies with their teams, and 70% report that their group helps when they
do not understand. Overall, student responses to the PTM program were very positive.
Students report being on-task, focused, motivated to learn, and enjoy working in
cooperative teams.














The Effects of Powei Teaching Nathematics on Stuuent Engagement anu Nath
Achievement



S8
What is the effect of coopeiative leaining stiategies (Powei Teaching Nathematics)
on peiceiveu math achievement.










0
20
40
60
80
100
Strongly
Disagree
Disagree No
Opinion
Agree Strongly
Agree
13
17
38
42
71
Power Teaching Math groups help me learn how to solve problems
better than when I work alone.
Level of Agreement
N
u
m
b
e
r
o
f
S
t
u
d
e
n
t
s
0
20
40
60
80
100
Strongly
Disagree
Disagree No
Opinion
Agree Strongly
Agree
18
26
40
52 52
I am better at math this year because I get to work with my team.
Level of Agreement
N
u
m
b
e
r
o
f
S
t
u
d
e
n
t
s
The Effects of Powei Teaching Nathematics on Stuuent Engagement anu Nath
Achievement


S9













0
20
40
60
80
100
Strongly
Disagree
Disagree No
Opinion
Agree Strongly
Agree
14
11
19
54
90
I am good at math.
Level of Agreement
N
u
m
b
e
r
o
f
S
t
u
d
e
n
t
s
0
20
40
60
80
100
Strongly
Disagree
Disagree No
Opinion
Agree Strongly
Agree
19
29
42
45
53
My math scores are higher because I work with my team to figure out
the problems.
Level of Agreement
N
u
m
b
e
r
o
f
S
t
u
d
e
n
t
s
The Effects of Powei Teaching Nathematics on Stuuent Engagement anu Nath
Achievement



4u
Results
Of students surveyed, 62% agreed or strongly agreed that Power Teaching
Mathematics groups helped them to solve problems better than when they worked alone.
Over half (55%) felt that they are better at math this year because they get to work with
their team. Students’ perceptions include 77% of students surveyed who think they are
good at math and 52% who believe that their math scores are higher because they have a
team to help them.





























The Effects of Powei Teaching Nathematics on Stuuent Engagement anu Nath
Achievement


41
I also visited classrooms to assess the environment for Power Teaching Math program
components for evidence of use as well as structures for cooperative work for
triangulation purposes.




Room____________________ uiaue level__________________

PTN ENvIR0NNENTAL ELENENTS

Room

17 19 18 16 2S 14 22 7 1u 8 9
PTN Component
uet the uoof E X X X X X X X
Nental Nath E X X X
Bomewoik Check N X X X
Coopeiative Leaining Check¡Team
uoals N
X X X X
Team Buuule E, N X X X X X X X X X
Team Nasteiy A X X X X X X
Ranuom Repoitei A X X X X X X X X X
Quick Checks A X X X
Team Coopeiation Points N X X X X
Powei Teaching Signals E X X X
Team Scoie Sheets¡points N X X
Team Recognition (uoou¡uieat¡Supei
Teams) (weekly oi at enu of cycle) N
X X X X
Besks aie set up foi gioup woik E¡N X X X X X X X X
uioups aie heteiogeneous X X X X X X X X





This uata will allow me to see who neeus fuithei coaching to inciease
implementation of the piogiam. I woulu like to continue to stuuy stuuent
achievement uata to see if it anu coiielates with teachei implementation levels of
the piogiam.



The Effects of Powei Teaching Nathematics on Stuuent Engagement anu Nath
Achievement



42
Findings and Implications
The purpose of this project is to investigate the effects of structured cooperative
learning strategies (Power Teaching Mathematics) on student engagement and math
achievement. I also wanted to find out how much fidelity we have in implementation of
the program.
Research Questions
1. What is the effect of cooperative learning activities (Power Teaching Mathematics) on
student achievement?
2. What is the effect of cooperative learning activities (Power Teaching Mathematics) on
perceived student engagement?

Student motivation/engagement during math time is relatively high. Students report
being on-task, focused, motivated to learn, and enjoy working in cooperative teams.
Classroom visits also imply that students are highly motivated and engaged with their
teams. This is a very different look from the traditional classroom. Our students are
gaining important cooperation, communication and collaboration skills through their
teamwork. These skills are important for school and beyond, and we are setting them up
for positive group experiences at a very early age.
After sharing the teacher survey results and student results with teachers, they have
agreed to increased implementation of the Power Teaching Mathematics program school
wide. Teachers were positively motivated by the student responses on engagement. In
The Effects of Powei Teaching Nathematics on Stuuent Engagement anu Nath
Achievement


4S
addition, we have two teachers who have agreed to model their program implementation
for other teachers in the school (and district) and allow peer observations.
With increased coaching for specific program components and increased teacher
experience with the program, student engagement, motivation, and math achievement are
likely to increase across the school. We are moving in the right direction with
implementing this program, which strengthens the collaboration, communication, critical
thinking and problem solving skills student need to be successful in school and beyond.
If done right, cooperative learning can have many outstanding results on student
achievement and engagement.
In the initial plan, I was going to compare our math scores with those of a similar
school not using the PTM program. I was unable to do that because we have rearranged
our curriculum and our teachers are teaching with common core, which is different from
the rest of the district. We did not have a valid control group. When CST scores come
in, I will compare this year’s scores to last year’s to see if our students made gains. In
addition, I will ask our teachers to save their end of year math benchmark data to use as a
comparison for next year.






.
The Effects of Powei Teaching Nathematics on Stuuent Engagement anu Nath
Achievement



44









./0-/12(345*


Bacon, Alison. (2012). Mathematical Student Motivation. Retrieved from
http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/detail?accno=ED528937

Bancroft, B.L. (2010) Enhancing Student Achievement Through Cooperative
Learning at the Elementary Level. Retrieved from
http:// www.nmu.edu/sites/DrupalEducation.


Bernero, J. (2000). Motivating Students in Math Using Cooperative Learning. Retrieved
from http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/detail?accno=ED446999


Johnson, D. W. and Johnson, Roget T. (2009). An Educational Psychology
Success Story: Social Interdependence Theory and Cooperative
Learning. Educational Researcher, Vol. 38, No. 5, pp.365-379.

Nolinske, T., & Millis, B. (1999). Cooperative Learning as an approach to Pedagogy. The
American Journal of Occupational Therapy, 53(1), 31–40.
The Effects of Powei Teaching Nathematics on Stuuent Engagement anu Nath
Achievement


4S

Slavin, R. E. (1988). Cooperative Learning and Student Achievement. ASCD, October
1988.

Wagner, T. (2008). The Global Achievement Gap. New York, NY: Basic Books.








Appendix A


Teacher Survey Power Teaching Math
google survey
* Required
How many days per week do you use Power Teaching Math
strategies in your classroom? *

1 day
2 days
3 days
4 days
5 days
2. On average, which parts of the program do you use daily? Check
all that apply. *

The Effects of Powei Teaching Nathematics on Stuuent Engagement anu Nath
Achievement



46
Get the Goof
Mental Math
Homework Check
Cooperative Learning Check/Team Goals
Team Huddle
Team Mastery
Random Reporter
Quick Checks
Team Cooperation Points
Power Teaching Signals
Team Score Sheets
Team Recognition (Good/Great/Super Teams) (weekly or at end of
cycle)
If you don’t use certain components, please explain why. *




What is your plan for implementing more of the components next
year? *



Do you use PTM strategies at any other time of the day? If so, when?
*

How has the on-task behavior (students focused on the job,
completing tasks, talking about math in their groups, etc. ) in your
class changed as a result of using PTM? (Compared to last year).
Check your answer. *

Students are more on-task
No change
Students are less on-task

How would you compare your current class to last year’s class on
motivation to learn during math? Check your answer. *

Students are a lot less motivated than last year
Students are slightly less motivated than last year
No change from last year
The Effects of Powei Teaching Nathematics on Stuuent Engagement anu Nath
Achievement


47
Students are slightly more motivated than last year
Students are a lot more motivated than last year


Do your students seem to like math this year? *
1 2 3 4 5




How would you describe student achievement in math this year? *

It has increased
No change
It has decreased
Not sure

Do you notice your teams/partners helping each other? *

1 2 3 4 5


Are teams able to explain their ideas and tell why? *

1 2 3 4 5



Do you feel like your students are more successful socially as a
result of using PTM? *
1 2 3 4 5


Do you feel like your students are more successful academically as a
result of using PTM? *

1 2 3 4 5



Do you enjoy teaching with Power Teaching Math? *

1 2 3 4 5

Is using PTM a priority for you this year? *

The Effects of Powei Teaching Nathematics on Stuuent Engagement anu Nath
Achievement



48
Yes
No

What is the biggest challenge in using PTM? *



What would you say is the biggest positive outcome from using PTM
in your classroom? *



Would you recommend PTM to other teachers in the district? *

Yes
No
Maybe

Appendix B

Power Teaching Math Student Survey


Answei on a scale fiom 1-S

l.................................2...........S.............4............S

Stiongly Bisagiee No Agiee Stiongly
Bisagiee 0pinion Agiee

1. I use active listening when my teachei is talking.


l.................................2...........S.............4............S

Stiongly Bisagiee No Agiee Stiongly
Bisagiee 0pinion Agiee
2. I use active listening when my gioup membei is
talking.


l.................................2...........S.............4............S

Stiongly Bisagiee No Agiee Stiongly
Bisagiee 0pinion Agiee
S. I explain how I solveu the math pioblems.
l.................................2...........S.............4............S

Stiongly Bisagiee No Agiee Stiongly
Bisagiee 0pinion Agiee
The Effects of Powei Teaching Nathematics on Stuuent Engagement anu Nath
Achievement


49


4. I tiy to eain team point foi my gioup.
l.................................2...........S.............4............S

Stiongly Bisagiee No Agiee Stiongly
Bisagiee 0pinion Agiee
S. Powei Teaching Nath gioups help me leain how to
solve pioblems bettei than when I woik alone

l.................................2...........S.............4............S

Stiongly Bisagiee No Agiee Stiongly
Bisagiee 0pinion Agiee
6. I stay focuseu on my math woik.


l.................................2...........S.............4............S

Stiongly Bisagiee No Agiee Stiongly
Bisagiee 0pinion Agiee
7. Nath is bettei when you woik with a team.


l.................................2...........S.............4............S

Stiongly Bisagiee No Agiee Stiongly
Bisagiee 0pinion Agiee
8. I like woiking with my gioup.


l.................................2...........S.............4............S

Stiongly Bisagiee No Agiee Stiongly
Bisagiee 0pinion Agiee

9. Ny gioup helps me when I uon't unueistanu.


l.................................2...........S.............4............S

Stiongly Bisagiee No Agiee Stiongly
Bisagiee 0pinion Agiee
1u. I plan a solution to the pioblems with my paitnei
oi team.


l.................................2...........S.............4............S

Stiongly Bisagiee No Agiee Stiongly
Bisagiee 0pinion Agiee
11. I look foiwaiu to math.


l.................................2...........S.............4............S

Stiongly Bisagiee No Agiee Stiongly
Bisagiee 0pinion Agiee
12. I am goou at math.
l.................................2...........S.............4............S

Stiongly Bisagiee No Agiee Stiongly
Bisagiee 0pinion Agiee
1S. Ny team woiks well togethei.


l.................................2...........S.............4............S

Stiongly Bisagiee No Agiee Stiongly
Bisagiee 0pinion Agiee
14. Nath is my favoiite subject.


l.................................2...........S.............4............S

Stiongly Bisagiee No Agiee Stiongly
Bisagiee 0pinion Agiee
The Effects of Powei Teaching Nathematics on Stuuent Engagement anu Nath
Achievement



Su













1S. I am bettei at math this yeai because I get to woik
with my team.


l.................................2...........S.............4............S

Stiongly Bisagiee No Agiee Stiongly
Bisagiee 0pinion Agiee
16. I like to woik alone on my math.



l.................................2...........S.............4............S

Stiongly Bisagiee No Agiee Stiongly
Bisagiee 0pinion Agiee
17. Ny team shaies theii stiategies with me.


l.................................2...........S.............4............S

Stiongly Bisagiee No Agiee Stiongly
Bisagiee 0pinion Agiee
18. Ny math scoies aie highei because I woik with my
team to figuie out the pioblems.

l.................................2...........S.............4............S

Stiongly Bisagiee No Agiee Stiongly
Bisagiee 0pinion Agiee
19. I like to shaie my iueas with my team.


l.................................2...........S.............4............S

Stiongly Bisagiee No Agiee Stiongly
Bisagiee 0pinion Agiee

2u. Ny team stays focuseu on math uuiing math time.


l.................................2...........S.............4............S

Stiongly Bisagiee No Agiee Stiongly
Bisagiee 0pinion Agiee
The Effects of Powei Teaching Nathematics on Stuuent Engagement anu Nath
Achievement


S1











Appendix C


Room____________________ uiaue level__________________

PTN ENvIR0NNENTAL ELENENTS

Room

17 19 18 16 2S 14 22 7 1u 8 9
PTN Component
uet the uoof E
Nental Nath E
Bomewoik Check N
Coopeiative Leaining Check¡Team
uoals N

Team Buuule E, N
Team Nasteiy A
Ranuom Repoitei A
The Effects of Powei Teaching Nathematics on Stuuent Engagement anu Nath
Achievement



S2
Quick Checks A
Team Coopeiation Points N
Powei Teaching Signals E
Team Scoie Sheets¡points N
Team Recognition (uoou¡uieat¡Supei
Teams) (weekly oi at enu of cycle) N

Besks aie set up foi gioup woik E¡N
uioups aie heteiogeneous