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Achievement

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The Effects of Powei Teaching Nathematics on Stuuent Engagement anu Nath

Achievement

Kiisten ueihaiut

Touio 0niveisity

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Introduction

Background and Need

The twenty-first century brings many changes to education and the world. The

demands of our future students in the workplace will require students to think critically,

collaborate with others, communicate their thoughts and ideas, and solve problems

creatively. The role of teacher and student are changing. Students are now expected to

pay an active part in their own learning. “Work, learning, and citizenship in the twenty-

first century demand that we all know how to think-to reason, analyze, weigh evidence,

problem-solve and to communicate effectively.” (Wagner 2008) Traditional lecture and

paper and pencil work does not lend itself to problem solving and critical thinking or

communicating (Bernero 2000). Students need opportunities to discuss problems, share

strategies, and work together to solve real world problems. The Power Teaching Math

program, created by Johns Hopkins University School of Education, does just that. It is

an instructional framework of cooperative learning strategies intended to increase

engagement and student achievement.

Magnet schools are required to develop programs that are different from other district

programs in order to attract students from across the attendance boundaries. Alta Heights

Magnet School became a magnet school in 2010. One way that our school is different is

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that we started using Power Teaching Mathematics to engage students in structured

cooperative learning and collaboration activities to meet the needs of twenty-first century

learners. We chose the strategy because it fits perfectly with the expectations of the

common core standards and our focus on doing math differently at our school. It also fits

with the district goals of instilling 21

st

century skills. It engages students throughout the

entire math lesson with focused interactive activities and team cooperation goals.

Teachers do teach and model lessons, but when it is time to do the math problems,

student start with a team huddle in which they all look at the problem, share their

strategies for solving it, work together to plan a solution and solve. Each team member

must be ready to report on the strategy of the team. It is the team’s responsibility to

prepare all of its members to explain their reasoning. Team mastery comes next, where

students work on problems independently first, and then check their answers with a

partner. If the answers are the same, partners assume the solution is correct. If they are

not the same, partners and groups are responsible for helping group members come up

with the correct solution. Teams also have a daily cooperation goal that they work on.

Teams are awarded team points when they meet the goal. Points add up at the end of the

cycle for team celebration. According to Slavin (1998), the highest successes are made

by cooperative groups that have group goals as well as individual accountability

measures. Power Teaching Math has both.

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Statement of the Problem

At Alta Heights Magnet School, this is our first year of implementation of the

Power Teaching Mathematics (PTM) program and the “fidelity” in using the program is

varied across the school. Some teachers are using the program as it was written, and

some are using just parts of the program. Others show no evidence of using the program

at all. We paid a lot of money for the initial program, training, and a year of coaching.

Our current contract with the company has ended and we are now planning for next year.

If the program is successful in the classes where teachers are using it on a regular basis,

we have more of an incentive to continue the coaching and try to figure out a way to pay

for it. If there isn’t a lot of success in both student engagement and achievement, we may

not continue the coaching. I need to know if the program is having positive effects on

both student engagement and math achievement, as well as teacher interest, dedication to

the program and pedagogy shifts.

Purpose of the Study

The purpose of this project is to investigate the effects of structured cooperative

learning strategies (Power Teaching Mathematics) on student engagement and math

achievement. I also wanted to find out how much fidelity we have in implementation of

the program.

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Research Questions

1. What is the effect of cooperative learning activities (Power Teaching Mathematics) on

student achievement?

2. What is the effect of cooperative learning activities (Power Teaching Mathematics) on

perceived student engagement?

Review of the Literature

Cooperative Learning and Student Achievement

This literature review will address the areas related to cooperative learning and

engagement/motivation. The first section will address research related to cooperative

learning. The second section will focus on research about the effects of structured

cooperative groups on student engagement/motivation.

Johnson and Johnson (2009) state that if done right, cooperative learning can have

many outstanding results on student achievement, self-esteem, and on positive social

relationships. The effective structure for cooperative learning includes common group

goals, which make students interdependent, along with individual accountability.

Effective cooperative groups practice social skills through their interactions and there is

an opportunity to reflect on learning.

Nolinske and Millis (1999) showcased the many types of structured cooperative

learning experiences that teachers can use to increase student engagement and get away

from a lecture type lesson. The authors wrote about the cooperative learning strategies

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with adult occupational therapy students used to increase active learning, promote

problem solving, promote group work, and increase the use of technology. The

strategies are the same strategies used in classrooms in K-12. The authors talk about the

need to change pedagogy to a more learning centered structure where student learning

and success are the “ends” as opposed to what is taught in a lecture based program. The

teacher is now the facilitator and assists student learning through coaching and

questioning strategies.

The author listed and explained many cooperative learning strategies such as Think,

Pair, Share, Numbered Heads Together, Structured Problem Solving, Round Table, Three

Step Interview, Send/Pass a Problem, Generic Question Stems, and Double Entry

Journals. The importance of positive interdependence, individual accountability,

appropriate grouping, group maintenance and cooperation skills within the learning

activities are important to student success.

Slavin (1998) discusses the effectiveness of cooperative learning on the skills,

abilities, and positive relationships of all groups of students including regular education,

bilingual students, and special education students. Not all cooperative learning has the

positive effects. Cooperative groups that had group goals as well as individual

accountability measures made the highest gains. Group goals with no student individual

accountability have been ineffective in raising achievement.

The purpose of Slavin’s study was to compare the different forms of cooperative

learning to see which had the highest effect on student achievement. They compared

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group goals with individual accountability, group goals only, individual accountability

only, and no group goals or individual accountability.

Cooperative learning groups were compared to randomly selected and matched

control groups. Various cooperative grouping methods were studied and measured in 4-

10 week studies. The studies were compiled and results were measured. Groups that had

group goals as well as individual accountability made the highest gains. (Results: group

goals with individual accountability (.30), group goals only (.04), individual

accountability only (.12), and no group goals or individual accountability (.06). The

results also indicated that in addition to increasing student achievement in the group and

individual accountability groups, the students made positive gains in interpersonal

relationships, self-esteem, and the ability to work with others. In looking at cooperative

learning strategies, it is important to look for strategies that include both group and

individual goals.

Bancroft (2010) conducted an action research project to investigate cooperative

learning effects on achievement and student motivation. The author did a study of the

research on cooperative learning. The first study she looked at was Stevens’ and

Slavin’s two-year study of 1012 second through sixth grade students in five elementary

schools in Maryland done in 1995. The control groups were closely matched for SES,

ethnicity, and student disabilities. The treatment school adopted Slavin’s cooperative

learning model and received training in Cooperative Integrated Reading and Composition

(CIRC), Team Assisted Individualization Mathematics (TAI) curriculum, Jigsaw 11,

Teams-Games-Tournaments (TGT), and Student Teams Achievement Division. The

teachers used these cooperative learning techniques on a daily basis after receiving

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training. The control schools continued teaching as they always had with no training in

cooperative learning.

Beginning achievement levels of the students was done with the California

Achievement Test (CAT) Form C and was administered in the fall of the first year of the

study. The total reading, total language, and total math scores were used for the study.

To measure exiting achievement, teachers administered a subset of the CAT, Form E in

the spring of both study years. Students were also given a pre and posttest to measure

attitudes. Students were asked to rate their attitude toward and ability perception in

reading, language, and math. The last measure was social relations. Students were asked

to list their friends in class to get a measure of the acceptance of mainstreamed students.

Posttests after the first year showed significant differences favoring the treatment group

in reading vocabulary. No significant differences were found in the other areas. Posttests

after the second year showed significant differences in reading vocabulary, reading

comprehension, language expression and math computation (from .21-.29). Looking at

student attitude measures and perceived ability in the first year, there were not significant

differences between control and treatment groups. However, after the second year, the

treatment group had higher perceived ability in reading and language arts (.21 and .26).

When measuring social relations, there was no significant difference in premeasured

results for the first year. After the second year, cooperative learning groups listed

significantly more friends that the comparison schools (+.42). Other results included

significant learning gains for handicapped and gifted students after 2 years.

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Cooperative learning helps to increase student achievement when it is structured and

teachers receive necessary training. Social relations are increased as well as self -esteem

and attitudes toward school. All students, including handicapped and gifted students,

benefit from cooperative learning. The biggest results occurred after the second year of

implementation.

Cooperative Learning and Student Motivation

Direct teaching is the mode that most of us are used to learning with. Learning in this

way tends to very passive and individualistic. In Bornero’s (2000) study on motivation

and achievement, the author wanted to see if moving away from direct instruction and

using cooperative learning in a second grade math classroom would reduce math anxiety,

generate more interest in math, and improve social skills.

The researcher used Plus-Minus Interesting (PMI) reflections to gauge student like or

dislike for math and school in general. Teacher surveys were distributed to find out how

teachers perceived math anxiety and low math interest, as well as questions about their

teaching pedagogy including the amount of time they spend with direct teaching and

cooperative learning. The study included 25 students (15 boys and 10 girls, 25%

Hispanic and 75% black). From the initial PMI from the second grade students, 20%

showed a dislike for school in general and 40% showed a lack of enjoyment for math in

particular.

Teachers established cooperative learning goals/rules and role played different

scenarios modeling positive ways of working together. Teachers began implementing

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cooperative learning one to two times a week at the beginning of the five month study.

At the end of the study, teachers reported team interactions and social acceptance

gradually improved. The social environment of the class became more positive and

mainstreamed students were accepted and felt part of the group. Teachers noted

improved self-confidence in slower learners. There were fewer discipline problems and

students improved academically. 80% of final test scores were average or above,

compared to 40% the previous year. Student views toward math changed from 45%

responding with a neutral or negative response to over 90% responding with a positive

response by the end of the project. Students went from two thirds of the class preferring

to work alone to three-fourths of the class preferring to work cooperatively.

The challenges to using cooperative groups included teacher tolerance for the

increased noise level, challenges with student disagreements, and keeping groups on task.

Spending the time needed to ensure positive group work is essential. Pedagogy changes

usually mean that there will be a shift in classroom expectations. Students working

together do make more noise, and teachers need to be prepared for that and set up

appropriate expectations. The positive effects on student attitudes toward math and

achievement gains far outweigh the challenges.

In an article by Johnson and Johnson (2009), the authors elaborate on the application

of the interdependence theory on which cooperative learning is built in education. The

main points are that social interdependence exists when those involved are affected by

their own actions as well as those of the team or group. Members are interdependent

through common goals but have individual accountability. The essential elements of

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cooperative learning include positive interdependence, individual accountability,

promotive interaction, (facilitating others to do their best), the appropriate use of social

skills, and group processing or reflection.

In 1989, Johnson and Johnson did a study of research of cooperative learning on effort

to achieve, positive interpersonal relationships and psychological health. They looked at

the results of cooperative learning vs. individualistic and competitive learning situations.

The average person cooperating was found to achieve an effect size of .67 above the

average person in a competitive or individualistic situation. Cooperators spend more

time on task (effect size .76 than competitors and .17 compared to individualistic.) Use

of insight and higher-level cognitive and moral reasoning of cooperators was higher (.93

for individualistic and .97 for individualistic.). The cooperative efforts had greater

interpersonal attraction than competitor (.67) and individualistic (.60). When comparing

minority effect sizes, cooperative groups had a higher attraction, .52 and .44 respectively.

Cooperative experiences promote higher self-esteem than competitive (.58) and

individualistic (.44).

Alison Bacon (2012) studied the effects of different teaching strategies on student

motivation and focus in struggling 3

rd

grade math students. The research and data was

collected over the period of 2 months at Greenfield Elementary School. The goal was to

understand and use the most successful strategies to increase motivation and focus and

increase achievement.

The teacher gave a student survey on students’ feelings about math, working with

others, working alone, homework, math problem solving, and student desire to work

hard. The teacher implemented the Everyday Math curriculum supplemented with hands

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on, real world, authentic tasks, manipulatives, and technology. The teacher asked each

student to choose a goal for math. They wrote the goal in their math notebook and had an

interview with the teacher to discuss the goal. The teacher provided interactive

cooperative experiences, integrated technology, used manipulatives, white boards,

prepared interactive study guides, used the interactive white board, hands on activities,

and repeatedly asked students to reflect on their goal and if they were making progress.

Students all increased their content learning on a pre/post test as well as the student

survey. They reported higher levels of motivation and a more positive attitude about

math. Students reported an increase in focus when lessons were presented in an

interactive model. 100% of students reported that they were more motivated to try their

best and that they felt their achievement was a result of the new teaching methods.

The positive results from this small group were influential. The author got first hand

results using the interactive teaching methods. The author shared her research project

with her PLC and will continue to support these motivating methods in the school.

Summary

People entering jobs are expected to be able to work together and problem solve.

Teamwork is a highly valued skill in the workplace. Making these shifts is critical for

success in the 21

st

century. Power Teaching Mathematics focuses on these important

skills. Power Teaching Mathematics has both team cooperation goals and individual

achievement goals that contribute to the team’s overall point total. All group members

are important in accumulating individual and team points.

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If done right, cooperative learning can have many outstanding results on student

achievement, self-esteem and positive social relationships. Our current school systems

are changing to include with students with disabilities and increased diversity. The use of

cooperative learning helps to create positive relationships among these diverse groups.

The structuring of cooperative groups to promote interdependence can change more than

student achievement. Common goals, individual accountability, practicing social skills

and reflecting on learning are all a part of the structure and proven to be the most

successful method.

Research Methods

To collect data on the use or fidelity to the program and teacher attitudes, I conducted

a Google survey and sent to all teachers using the program. I plan to analyze the

information for teacher attitudes, impressions of student achievement and student

motivation as well as teacher use of the program. I did a survey with students that

included 20 statements related to motivation/engagement and attitudes toward math and

math achievement. In addition, I looked at environmental elements of the PTM program

in each classroom and did a check off of the components that I saw in use.

The teacher survey questions are below:

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1. How many days a week do you use Power Teaching Math

strategies in your classroom?

1 uay u u%

2 uays u u%

S uays 2 18%

4 uays 2 18%

S uays 7 64%

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2. On average, which parts of the program do you use daily?

Check all that apply.

Get the Goof 9%

Mental Math 12%

Homework Check 4%

Cooperative Learning 7%

Team Huddle 15%

Team Mastery 6%

Random Reporter 13%

Quick Checks 7%

Team Cooperation Points 10%

Power Teaching Signals 6%

Team Score Sheets 3%

Team Recognition 6%

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3. If you don’t use certain components, please explain why.

Not age appropriate. The team score sheets were a little much for 2nd graders to

handle. We tried reworking it, but it was still hard for them to do independently

and was too time consuming when learning the new program at the same time.

Score sheets don't work for me. Scoreboard is better. Due to the broad span of

abilities and behaviors in my class this year, I have not been able to implement the

program as it is designed. There are several students pulled out for smaller groups

guided by an adult. My students have been successful in partner groups, not

groups of four so I've been working on building on that success. Having said that,

during the last few weeks, my students have made incredible progress in this area

and we are just now trying out groups of four. I don't use team points, but I do

recognize team cooperation daily, which works well for me. n/a for my grade

level. It was a bit difficult to do Power Teaching in a combo class. Not age

appropriate. It depends on how much time I have--I can't do it at all Wednesdays

because System 44 kids don't come back until after recess. Then after recess, they

go to Art/Movement, and when they get back from that, half the class leaves to go

to band! That then leaves me with about 20 min. to have them write their

homework, etc. It's also difficult to do a full Power Teaching session on Fridays

because of all my students that leave for Strings! What I do and when really

depends on what's going on that day. Too much here. Simplicity is better! The

chips/trinkets etc. are silly when I use class points and that-a-gators. I don't use

Get the Goof daily, but most days. I do a modified Team Huddle and Mastery

because my students are in pairs. The others I don't do often. Don't have time to fit

it all in.

4. What is your plan for implementing more of the components

next year?

Be more consistent. Possibly reworking the score sheets again so that midyear we

can try to implement them fully. Use more of the jargon specific to PTM. Add Get

the Goof 3 times a week. Alternate with Problem of the Day and Mental Math. I

plan on using all of the program, but I prefer not using the team points. I have had

great success in the past without the use of points to provide motivation and

meaningful on-task work together. Not planning on implementing more of the

components. I will be starting fresh next year, trying to implement all aspects of

Power Teaching. Be more consistent. I think I will do the same thing I'm doing

this year--if I have time, I will do it all, if not, then I'm going to have to pick and

choose (depending on what we're working on, what the kids need, etc.) None. It is

just fine as is. I want to implement Random Reporter more often. Trying to

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incorporate one or two more components to what I'm already doing.

5. Do you use PTM strategies at any other time of the day? If so,

when?

Language Arts Yes- the PT signals are used throughout the day. No. Throughout

the day/across the curriculum...PTM strategies are actually sound instructional

practices that have been infused into the Power Teaching program. Any time the

strategies will work. Yes, I use the cheers, and all cooperative group strategies,

especially in science. Language Arts. I refer to the team cooperation goals any

time that they are working in groups (Science, Lang. Arts, etc.) Partner work in

science and language arts, which I learned from trainings at another school, not

here. I use the hand signal intermittently throughout the day. I am using partners

more for reading, too. No.

6. How has the on-task behavior (students focused on the job,

completing tasks, talking about math in their groups, etc.) in your

class changed as a result of using PTM? (Compared to last year).

Check your answer.

Students are more on-task

7 64%

No change

4 36%

Students are less on-task

0 0%

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7. How would you compare your current class to last year’s class

on motivation to learn during math? Check your answer.

Students are a lot less motivated than

last year

0 0%

Students are slightly less motivated

than last year

0 0%

No change from last year 5 45%

Students are slightly more motivated

than last year

5 45%

Students are a lot more motivated than

last year

1 9%

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8. Do your students seem to like math this year?

1 Strongly Disagree 0 0%

2 Disagree 0 0%

3 No Opinion 4 36%

4 Agree 6 55%

5 Strongly Agree 1 9%

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9. How would you describe student achievement in math this year?

It has increased 4 36%

No change 6 55%

It has decreased 0 0%

Not sure 1 9%

10. Do you notice your teams/partners helping each other?

1 Strongly Disagree 0 0%

2 Disagree 0 0%

3 No Opinion 2 18%

4 Agree 7 64%

5 Strongly Agree 2 18%

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11. Are teams able to explain their ideas and tell why?

1 Strongly Disagree 0 0%

2 Disagree 0 0%

3 No Opinion 5 45%

4 Agree 5 45%

5 Strongly Agree 1 9%

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12. Do you feel like your students are more successful socially as a

result of using PTM?

1 Strongly Disagree 1 9%

2 Disagree 2 18%

3 No Opinion 3 27%

4 Agree 4 36%

5 Strongly Agree 1 9%

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13. Do you feel like your students are more successful academically

as a result of using PTM?

1 Strongly Disagree 0 0%

2 Disagree 3 27%

3 No Opinion 4 36%

4 Agree 4 36%

5 Strongly Agree 1 0%

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14. Do you enjoy teaching with Power Teaching Math?

1 Strongly Disagree 0 0%

2 Disagree 2 18%

3 No Opinion 2 18%

4 Agree 6 55%

5 Strongly Agree 1 9%

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15. Is using PTM a priority for you this year?

Yes 8 73%

No 3 27%

16. What is the biggest challenge in using PTM?

The wide range of student abilities. Remembering to give the students specific comments

when handing out celebration points. I usually just want to hand them out and move on.

Learning the program I was unable to try all of its components due to my class composite

and being out for the second trimester. If I had a class that was more academically,

behaviorally, and socially balanced, it would've been easier. Also, if I hadn't missed so

much of the year, I believe we would've been able to try it sooner. Having enough time.

The wide range of student abilities. Getting the less motivated and mathematically

challenged kids to participate more and actually ask for help when they don't

understand!!! It's also a challenge sometimes to get the kids that do understand math

concepts to take the initiative to ask who needs help and help them (in a nice,

encouraging way)! As stated above, way too much going on. Too many components that

become a drag to teach. I believe in partner work and being able to explain your answers

and why, but I think in primary grades it is TOO much! Some lessons don’t lend

themselves to PTM. Lots of components.

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17. What would you say is the biggest positive outcome from using

PTM in your classroom?

The kids talk to each other in a more meaningful way. The students have a deeper

understanding of math this year. Less problems, but more understanding. Also, I don't

feel as stressed out about Math. Before, I would worry that I didn't have time to help ALL

of the students. Now they are helping each other. Student talk about math and varied

strategies to solve. I like that the cooperative learning practices are being implemented

school-wide. The kids enjoy working with each other. Cooperative work. The kids talk to

each other in a more meaningful way. Students have a better understanding of what it

means to work with other students. There's a list of goals for the students and me to

refer to, which helps some kids stay on task. Of course, this is our first year, so

students first have to learn to work together before they can start making more

academic gains. I enjoy Get the Goof. My students work successfully in partners. I

like the IDEA of teamwork, but my students are not able to do it.

18. Would you recommend PTM to other teachers in the district?

Yes 8 73%

No 0 0%

Maybe 3 27%

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Teacher Survey Results

Teacher implementation of the program is varied among teachers. 82% of teachers

use the program at least four days per week. The most used parts of the program are

Mental Math, Team Huddle, and Random Reporter. Those not using the program in its

entirety state issues such as not enough time, too many pieces to the program, it isn’t age

appropriate, and the team score sheets do not work. The biggest positive reported

outcomes include teacher perceptions of deeper understanding of content by students,

students helping each other, kids talking about math in a meaningful way, and that

students are more successful socially as well as more on task. Many teachers are using

the strategies at different times of the day as well. 64% of teachers felt like their students

were more on task as compared to last year, 54% felt students were more motivated that

their students last year, 64% feel like their students liked math this year, 36% feel student

achievement has increased as a result of using the program, and 82% felt that teams and

partners were really helping each other. For 73% of teachers surveyed, teaching with

Power Teaching Mathematics was a priority this year and 64% enjoy teaching with the

program. In addition, 73% would recommend the program to other schools in the

district. Increasing use of the program components was a goal for many teachers.

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behaviois, anu iueas about math achievement. I suiveyeu 188 total stuuents in

giaues 1, 2, 4 anu S. Theie weie 4 classiooms that opteu out of the stuuent suiveys.

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answei oi maikeu two answeis. Foi those that maikeu two answeis, I omitteu the

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The Effects of Powei Teaching Nathematics on Stuuent Engagement anu Nath

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96

120

Strongly

Disagree

Disagree No

Opinion

Agree Strongly

Agree

3

7

9

48

111

I try to earn team points for my group.

Level of Agreement

N

u

m

b

e

r

o

f

S

t

u

d

e

n

t

s

0

20

40

60

80

100

Strongly

Disagree

Disagree No

Opinion

Agree Strongly

Agree

2

8

19

80

79

I stay focused on my math work.

Level of Agreement

N

u

m

b

e

r

o

f

S

t

u

d

e

n

t

s

The Effects of Powei Teaching Nathematics on Stuuent Engagement anu Nath

Achievement

S1

0

20

40

60

80

100

Strongly

Disagree

Disagree No

Opinion

Agree Strongly

Agree

17

14

29

49

76

Math is better when you work with a team.

Level of Agreement

N

u

m

b

e

r

o

f

S

t

u

d

e

n

t

s

0

20

40

60

80

100

Strongly

Disagree

Disagree No

Opinion

Agree Strongly

Agree

6

14

30

62

68

I like working with my group.

Level of Agreement

N

u

m

b

e

r

o

f

S

t

u

d

e

n

t

s

The Effects of Powei Teaching Nathematics on Stuuent Engagement anu Nath

Achievement

S2

0

20

40

60

80

100

Strongly

Disagree

Disagree No

Opinion

Agree Strongly

Agree

11

20

23

60

69

My group helps me when I don't understand.

Level of Agreement

N

u

m

b

e

r

o

f

S

t

u

d

e

n

t

s

0

20

40

60

80

100

Strongly

Disagree

Disagree No

Opinion

Agree Strongly

Agree

2

18

27

77

63

I plan solutions to the problems with my partner or team.

Level of Agreement

N

u

m

b

e

r

o

f

S

t

u

d

e

n

t

s

The Effects of Powei Teaching Nathematics on Stuuent Engagement anu Nath

Achievement

SS

0

20

40

60

80

100

Strongly

Disagree

Disagree No

Opinion

Agree Strongly

Agree

24

13

23

43

82

I look forward to math.

Level of Agreement

N

u

m

b

e

r

o

f

S

t

u

d

e

n

t

s

0

20

40

60

80

Strongly

Disagree

Disagree No Opinion Agree Strongly

Agree

8

12

28

63

74

My team works well together

Level of Afreement

N

u

m

b

e

r

o

f

S

t

u

d

e

n

t

s

The Effects of Powei Teaching Nathematics on Stuuent Engagement anu Nath

Achievement

S4

0

20

40

60

80

100

Strongly

Disagree

Disagree No

Opinion

Agree Strongly

Agree

36

27

25

30

67

Math is my favorite subject.

Level of Agreement

N

u

m

b

e

r

o

f

S

t

u

d

e

n

t

s

The Effects of Powei Teaching Nathematics on Stuuent Engagement anu Nath

Achievement

SS

0

20

40

60

80

100

Strongly

Disagree

Disagree No

Opinion

Agree Strongly

Agree

39

24

31

32

61

I like to work alone on my math.

Level of Agreement

N

u

m

b

e

r

o

f

S

t

u

d

e

n

t

s

0

20

40

60

80

100

Strongly

Disagree

Disagree No

Opinion

Agree Strongly

Agree

8

10

29

74

62

I like to share my ideas with my team.

Level of Agreement

N

u

m

b

e

r

o

f

S

t

u

d

e

n

t

s

The Effects of Powei Teaching Nathematics on Stuuent Engagement anu Nath

Achievement

S6

0

20

40

60

80

100

Strongly

Disagree

Disagree No

Opinion

Agree Strongly

Agree

12

22

39

60

54

My team shares their strategies with me.

Level of Agreement

N

u

m

b

e

r

o

f

S

t

u

d

e

n

t

s

0

20

40

60

80

100

Strongly

Disagree

Disagree No

Opinion

Agree Strongly

Agree

7

24

40

64

53

My team stays focused on math during math time.

Level of Agreement

N

u

m

b

e

r

o

f

S

t

u

d

e

n

t

s

The Effects of Powei Teaching Nathematics on Stuuent Engagement anu Nath

Achievement

S7

Results

Student motivation/engagement during math time is relatively high. 82% of students

surveyed agree or strongly agree that they use active listening (listening with a goal in

mind) while their teacher is talking and 88% report using active listening while their

partners/teams are talking. 72 % reported that they liked to work in a group and 68% feel

that math is better when you work with a team. 89% of students are trying to earn team

points for cooperation, while 62% believe that PTM groups help them learn to solve

problems better. 85% of students report that they stay focused on their math work and

72% report that their teams stay focused during math time. 74% report that their teams

work well together, 75% report that they work with their teams to plan solutions to math

problems, 61% report that their teams share strategies with them, 64% report that they

enjoy sharing strategies with their teams, and 70% report that their group helps when they

do not understand. Overall, student responses to the PTM program were very positive.

Students report being on-task, focused, motivated to learn, and enjoy working in

cooperative teams.

The Effects of Powei Teaching Nathematics on Stuuent Engagement anu Nath

Achievement

S8

What is the effect of coopeiative leaining stiategies (Powei Teaching Nathematics)

on peiceiveu math achievement.

0

20

40

60

80

100

Strongly

Disagree

Disagree No

Opinion

Agree Strongly

Agree

13

17

38

42

71

Power Teaching Math groups help me learn how to solve problems

better than when I work alone.

Level of Agreement

N

u

m

b

e

r

o

f

S

t

u

d

e

n

t

s

0

20

40

60

80

100

Strongly

Disagree

Disagree No

Opinion

Agree Strongly

Agree

18

26

40

52 52

I am better at math this year because I get to work with my team.

Level of Agreement

N

u

m

b

e

r

o

f

S

t

u

d

e

n

t

s

The Effects of Powei Teaching Nathematics on Stuuent Engagement anu Nath

Achievement

S9

0

20

40

60

80

100

Strongly

Disagree

Disagree No

Opinion

Agree Strongly

Agree

14

11

19

54

90

I am good at math.

Level of Agreement

N

u

m

b

e

r

o

f

S

t

u

d

e

n

t

s

0

20

40

60

80

100

Strongly

Disagree

Disagree No

Opinion

Agree Strongly

Agree

19

29

42

45

53

My math scores are higher because I work with my team to figure out

the problems.

Level of Agreement

N

u

m

b

e

r

o

f

S

t

u

d

e

n

t

s

The Effects of Powei Teaching Nathematics on Stuuent Engagement anu Nath

Achievement

4u

Results

Of students surveyed, 62% agreed or strongly agreed that Power Teaching

Mathematics groups helped them to solve problems better than when they worked alone.

Over half (55%) felt that they are better at math this year because they get to work with

their team. Students’ perceptions include 77% of students surveyed who think they are

good at math and 52% who believe that their math scores are higher because they have a

team to help them.

The Effects of Powei Teaching Nathematics on Stuuent Engagement anu Nath

Achievement

41

I also visited classrooms to assess the environment for Power Teaching Math program

components for evidence of use as well as structures for cooperative work for

triangulation purposes.

Room____________________ uiaue level__________________

PTN ENvIR0NNENTAL ELENENTS

Room

17 19 18 16 2S 14 22 7 1u 8 9

PTN Component

uet the uoof E X X X X X X X

Nental Nath E X X X

Bomewoik Check N X X X

Coopeiative Leaining Check¡Team

uoals N

X X X X

Team Buuule E, N X X X X X X X X X

Team Nasteiy A X X X X X X

Ranuom Repoitei A X X X X X X X X X

Quick Checks A X X X

Team Coopeiation Points N X X X X

Powei Teaching Signals E X X X

Team Scoie Sheets¡points N X X

Team Recognition (uoou¡uieat¡Supei

Teams) (weekly oi at enu of cycle) N

X X X X

Besks aie set up foi gioup woik E¡N X X X X X X X X

uioups aie heteiogeneous X X X X X X X X

This uata will allow me to see who neeus fuithei coaching to inciease

implementation of the piogiam. I woulu like to continue to stuuy stuuent

achievement uata to see if it anu coiielates with teachei implementation levels of

the piogiam.

The Effects of Powei Teaching Nathematics on Stuuent Engagement anu Nath

Achievement

42

Findings and Implications

The purpose of this project is to investigate the effects of structured cooperative

learning strategies (Power Teaching Mathematics) on student engagement and math

achievement. I also wanted to find out how much fidelity we have in implementation of

the program.

Research Questions

1. What is the effect of cooperative learning activities (Power Teaching Mathematics) on

student achievement?

2. What is the effect of cooperative learning activities (Power Teaching Mathematics) on

perceived student engagement?

Student motivation/engagement during math time is relatively high. Students report

being on-task, focused, motivated to learn, and enjoy working in cooperative teams.

Classroom visits also imply that students are highly motivated and engaged with their

teams. This is a very different look from the traditional classroom. Our students are

gaining important cooperation, communication and collaboration skills through their

teamwork. These skills are important for school and beyond, and we are setting them up

for positive group experiences at a very early age.

After sharing the teacher survey results and student results with teachers, they have

agreed to increased implementation of the Power Teaching Mathematics program school

wide. Teachers were positively motivated by the student responses on engagement. In

The Effects of Powei Teaching Nathematics on Stuuent Engagement anu Nath

Achievement

4S

addition, we have two teachers who have agreed to model their program implementation

for other teachers in the school (and district) and allow peer observations.

With increased coaching for specific program components and increased teacher

experience with the program, student engagement, motivation, and math achievement are

likely to increase across the school. We are moving in the right direction with

implementing this program, which strengthens the collaboration, communication, critical

thinking and problem solving skills student need to be successful in school and beyond.

If done right, cooperative learning can have many outstanding results on student

achievement and engagement.

In the initial plan, I was going to compare our math scores with those of a similar

school not using the PTM program. I was unable to do that because we have rearranged

our curriculum and our teachers are teaching with common core, which is different from

the rest of the district. We did not have a valid control group. When CST scores come

in, I will compare this year’s scores to last year’s to see if our students made gains. In

addition, I will ask our teachers to save their end of year math benchmark data to use as a

comparison for next year.

.

The Effects of Powei Teaching Nathematics on Stuuent Engagement anu Nath

Achievement

44

./0-/12(345*

Bacon, Alison. (2012). Mathematical Student Motivation. Retrieved from

http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/detail?accno=ED528937

Bancroft, B.L. (2010) Enhancing Student Achievement Through Cooperative

Learning at the Elementary Level. Retrieved from

http:// www.nmu.edu/sites/DrupalEducation.

Bernero, J. (2000). Motivating Students in Math Using Cooperative Learning. Retrieved

from http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/detail?accno=ED446999

Johnson, D. W. and Johnson, Roget T. (2009). An Educational Psychology

Success Story: Social Interdependence Theory and Cooperative

Learning. Educational Researcher, Vol. 38, No. 5, pp.365-379.

Nolinske, T., & Millis, B. (1999). Cooperative Learning as an approach to Pedagogy. The

American Journal of Occupational Therapy, 53(1), 31–40.

The Effects of Powei Teaching Nathematics on Stuuent Engagement anu Nath

Achievement

4S

Slavin, R. E. (1988). Cooperative Learning and Student Achievement. ASCD, October

1988.

Wagner, T. (2008). The Global Achievement Gap. New York, NY: Basic Books.

Appendix A

Teacher Survey Power Teaching Math

google survey

* Required

How many days per week do you use Power Teaching Math

strategies in your classroom? *

1 day

2 days

3 days

4 days

5 days

2. On average, which parts of the program do you use daily? Check

all that apply. *

The Effects of Powei Teaching Nathematics on Stuuent Engagement anu Nath

Achievement

46

Get the Goof

Mental Math

Homework Check

Cooperative Learning Check/Team Goals

Team Huddle

Team Mastery

Random Reporter

Quick Checks

Team Cooperation Points

Power Teaching Signals

Team Score Sheets

Team Recognition (Good/Great/Super Teams) (weekly or at end of

cycle)

If you don’t use certain components, please explain why. *

What is your plan for implementing more of the components next

year? *

Do you use PTM strategies at any other time of the day? If so, when?

*

How has the on-task behavior (students focused on the job,

completing tasks, talking about math in their groups, etc. ) in your

class changed as a result of using PTM? (Compared to last year).

Check your answer. *

Students are more on-task

No change

Students are less on-task

How would you compare your current class to last year’s class on

motivation to learn during math? Check your answer. *

Students are a lot less motivated than last year

Students are slightly less motivated than last year

No change from last year

The Effects of Powei Teaching Nathematics on Stuuent Engagement anu Nath

Achievement

47

Students are slightly more motivated than last year

Students are a lot more motivated than last year

Do your students seem to like math this year? *

1 2 3 4 5

How would you describe student achievement in math this year? *

It has increased

No change

It has decreased

Not sure

Do you notice your teams/partners helping each other? *

1 2 3 4 5

Are teams able to explain their ideas and tell why? *

1 2 3 4 5

Do you feel like your students are more successful socially as a

result of using PTM? *

1 2 3 4 5

Do you feel like your students are more successful academically as a

result of using PTM? *

1 2 3 4 5

Do you enjoy teaching with Power Teaching Math? *

1 2 3 4 5

Is using PTM a priority for you this year? *

The Effects of Powei Teaching Nathematics on Stuuent Engagement anu Nath

Achievement

48

Yes

No

What is the biggest challenge in using PTM? *

What would you say is the biggest positive outcome from using PTM

in your classroom? *

Would you recommend PTM to other teachers in the district? *

Yes

No

Maybe

Appendix B

Power Teaching Math Student Survey

Answei on a scale fiom 1-S

l.................................2...........S.............4............S

Stiongly Bisagiee No Agiee Stiongly

Bisagiee 0pinion Agiee

1. I use active listening when my teachei is talking.

l.................................2...........S.............4............S

Stiongly Bisagiee No Agiee Stiongly

Bisagiee 0pinion Agiee

2. I use active listening when my gioup membei is

talking.

l.................................2...........S.............4............S

Stiongly Bisagiee No Agiee Stiongly

Bisagiee 0pinion Agiee

S. I explain how I solveu the math pioblems.

l.................................2...........S.............4............S

Stiongly Bisagiee No Agiee Stiongly

Bisagiee 0pinion Agiee

The Effects of Powei Teaching Nathematics on Stuuent Engagement anu Nath

Achievement

49

4. I tiy to eain team point foi my gioup.

l.................................2...........S.............4............S

Stiongly Bisagiee No Agiee Stiongly

Bisagiee 0pinion Agiee

S. Powei Teaching Nath gioups help me leain how to

solve pioblems bettei than when I woik alone

l.................................2...........S.............4............S

Stiongly Bisagiee No Agiee Stiongly

Bisagiee 0pinion Agiee

6. I stay focuseu on my math woik.

l.................................2...........S.............4............S

Stiongly Bisagiee No Agiee Stiongly

Bisagiee 0pinion Agiee

7. Nath is bettei when you woik with a team.

l.................................2...........S.............4............S

Stiongly Bisagiee No Agiee Stiongly

Bisagiee 0pinion Agiee

8. I like woiking with my gioup.

l.................................2...........S.............4............S

Stiongly Bisagiee No Agiee Stiongly

Bisagiee 0pinion Agiee

9. Ny gioup helps me when I uon't unueistanu.

l.................................2...........S.............4............S

Stiongly Bisagiee No Agiee Stiongly

Bisagiee 0pinion Agiee

1u. I plan a solution to the pioblems with my paitnei

oi team.

l.................................2...........S.............4............S

Stiongly Bisagiee No Agiee Stiongly

Bisagiee 0pinion Agiee

11. I look foiwaiu to math.

l.................................2...........S.............4............S

Stiongly Bisagiee No Agiee Stiongly

Bisagiee 0pinion Agiee

12. I am goou at math.

l.................................2...........S.............4............S

Stiongly Bisagiee No Agiee Stiongly

Bisagiee 0pinion Agiee

1S. Ny team woiks well togethei.

l.................................2...........S.............4............S

Stiongly Bisagiee No Agiee Stiongly

Bisagiee 0pinion Agiee

14. Nath is my favoiite subject.

l.................................2...........S.............4............S

Stiongly Bisagiee No Agiee Stiongly

Bisagiee 0pinion Agiee

The Effects of Powei Teaching Nathematics on Stuuent Engagement anu Nath

Achievement

Su

1S. I am bettei at math this yeai because I get to woik

with my team.

l.................................2...........S.............4............S

Stiongly Bisagiee No Agiee Stiongly

Bisagiee 0pinion Agiee

16. I like to woik alone on my math.

l.................................2...........S.............4............S

Stiongly Bisagiee No Agiee Stiongly

Bisagiee 0pinion Agiee

17. Ny team shaies theii stiategies with me.

l.................................2...........S.............4............S

Stiongly Bisagiee No Agiee Stiongly

Bisagiee 0pinion Agiee

18. Ny math scoies aie highei because I woik with my

team to figuie out the pioblems.

l.................................2...........S.............4............S

Stiongly Bisagiee No Agiee Stiongly

Bisagiee 0pinion Agiee

19. I like to shaie my iueas with my team.

l.................................2...........S.............4............S

Stiongly Bisagiee No Agiee Stiongly

Bisagiee 0pinion Agiee

2u. Ny team stays focuseu on math uuiing math time.

l.................................2...........S.............4............S

Stiongly Bisagiee No Agiee Stiongly

Bisagiee 0pinion Agiee

The Effects of Powei Teaching Nathematics on Stuuent Engagement anu Nath

Achievement

S1

Appendix C

Room____________________ uiaue level__________________

PTN ENvIR0NNENTAL ELENENTS

Room

17 19 18 16 2S 14 22 7 1u 8 9

PTN Component

uet the uoof E

Nental Nath E

Bomewoik Check N

Coopeiative Leaining Check¡Team

uoals N

Team Buuule E, N

Team Nasteiy A

Ranuom Repoitei A

The Effects of Powei Teaching Nathematics on Stuuent Engagement anu Nath

Achievement

S2

Quick Checks A

Team Coopeiation Points N

Powei Teaching Signals E

Team Scoie Sheets¡points N

Team Recognition (uoou¡uieat¡Supei

Teams) (weekly oi at enu of cycle) N

Besks aie set up foi gioup woik E¡N

uioups aie heteiogeneous

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