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Spotty-Handed Villainesses by Margaret Atwood Speaker Margaret Atwood is a Canadian novelist, poet, critic and social campaigner born in 1939 She was a feminist campaigner in the 1960s – but was not an extremist. She supports feminism, but criticises it for its extremism. Audience Mostly middle-aged, intellectual and literary women readers - familiar with all the literary and cultural references The speech was given at various events in 1994, for example the American Bookseller Convention and other women’s luncheons Extreme feminists – criticised Atwood for misunderstanding feminism Context Delivered in 1994 In the 1960s, there was a strong feminist push, known as second wave feminism. It focused upon fighting the oppression of women in society and the need for equal rights. By the early 1990s (when Atwood made this speech), this had become third wave feminism. It was in a way a response to the backlash of second wave feminism. There was a clash between extreme feminists and counter feminists. There was questions of what feminism meant and the changed roles of men/women. Purpose • To entertain, inform & challenge • Attempted to provide the audience with an entertaining insight into the portrayal of women, especially female villains in novels, short stories and plays • Initially felt it necessary to outline the aims of fiction and the process by which it is created- purpose is to explore the scope and genres of fiction, answering questions which are posed by this area of academic interest • Moved on to explore the pressing issue of feminisms influence on literature • She wishes to inform and challenge the views and attitudes of her audience • Established the idea that it was acceptable to portray some women as evil in literature- accurate reflection of society which consists of ‘the murderers, the seducers, the espionage agents, the cheats, the bad mothers and the stepmothers’ as well as a plethora of good women • Aim appeared to defend the current portrayal of both good and bad female characters in fictional works and to differentiate herself from the feminist movement • she explores good & bad women in literature & deals particularly with the role of women & how literature portrays them • She asks for women to be behaving in a range of ways in literature that places them at all points on the moral spectrum • Says flawed characters are necessary for making a story believable & interesting “…create a flawless character and you create an insufferable one; which may be why I’m interested in spots.”

Atwood – “Spotty-handed villainesses”

Context A speech given “here and there” to educated audiences in 1994. What speech is about  Women in literature  Feminism and the perceived view of being evil  Themes: women in society, literature reflecting reality Techniques Personal anecdote  “I did, after all, have curls”  Her daughter putting on a play in which nothing happened but breakfast Effect: introduces a personal tone to the speech, making it more accessible and interesting to the audience, while also giving examples of the literature she is talking about. Colloquialism  “Flogging a few dead horses”  “No-no’s of writing”  “Authors need to get some words down before they can fiddle with them”  “Female-obilia” Effect: makes the speech more engaging and of more interest to the audience, and also adds a humorous edge to the speech. The conversational tone of the piece ensures that Atwood is able to keep the audience’s attention. Literary references  Lady Macbeth, Ophelia, Imogen, Iago  Emily Dickinson – “we tell it slant”  Shaw, Ibsen, Pinter, Warhol  Henry James, Bram Stoker’s Dracula Effect: these references are specific examples used to illustrate Atwood’s arguments and back them up. They also help to engage her audience, who are highly educated. Rhetorical questions  “Is it not today – well, somehow unfeminist – to depict a woman behaving badly?”  “What kind of something?”  “How do I know this?”

Women. static perfection. They also introduce to the audience the topic of each section. to different audiences. if anything. “How should I go about creating them?” Effect: these rhetorical questions prompt the audience into thought. inviting consideration of the possible responses to the questions. Reception Because her speech was originally given to an academic audience. The speech is continually valued for the same reasons. women’s place in society Complexity of women’s character and human condition o Challenges dichotomy of female behaviour. o Need both good and bad ‘need…something disruptive to static order’ uses motif of ‘eternal breakfast’ as a metaphor for dull. o Cumulative rhetorical questions engage the audience and force them to reflect ‘when bad women get into literature. real and literary. relationship between literature and reality. and also for its intelligent humour. o Keeps tone light while dealing with this controversial issue by employing humour and conversational tone ‘…or a good pet canary’ ‘Flogging a few dead horses’ ‘there is a widespread tendency to judge characters as if they were job applicants’. what are they doing there. speech presented on a number of occasions throughout 1994. and are they permissible. they greatly valued it because of its abundant literary references and because of Atwood’s insightful messages about feminism. Illustrates divide and makes issue accessible. Attwood Notes  Context: Well known Canadian author. Intended audience educated. well-read Our context: still questioning what it means to be human. the ‘angel/whore split so popular among the Victorians’ o Criticises the way in which the Women’s Movement oversimplifies issues facing women and polarises morality by gender. do we need them for? o References a few motifs all the way through (breakfast and spots)continuity o Quotes others to validate her opinions ‘evil enough in all of us’ Rebecca Dame West Exploration of the nature of literature    . and what. need depth to their character ‘something more than breakfast’ o Uses personal anecdotes of the children’s rhyme which her brother teased her about. older.

“Isn’t bad behavior supposed to be the monopoly of men?” this creates doubt in the responder’s minds.  Adjective: “…a sensible middle class…woman who can snare an appropriate man with a good income” questions whether women having to attain success from a man.  Irony where “create flawless character you create an insufferable one” this depicts women face inequality. as human being. and if she cannot reach this standard. evidently.” ->Implies Margaret Atwood has not done this. as they are required to live up to a flawless. or whether it is expected by men more than women. Engages and boosts confidence of audience o Explores trends in literature. which also imply that women can also have anything in between.  allusion “Adam is so subject to temptation that he sacrificed eternal life for an apple” making him seem inferior and foolish in order to amplify the equality of women. shows that it is dynamic ‘once upon a time…the first would have been more…believable to the reader. and when she was bad. due to the display of her imperfections.compares the novelist to God ‘God started with chaos…a void. the composer must portray men in a less equal way. Demonstrates humility through low modality ‘let me’ and presents herself as inferior to the audience ‘let me first go over some essentials which may be insulting to your intelligence. seen in Margaret Atwood’s speech. she quickly becomes unbearable. So does the novelist. Then god makes one detail at a time.o Attempts to define the novel by listing what it is not. but comforting to mine’. In order to portray a positive sense of identity of women. as she forces them to choose between these identities.’ & ‘that once forbidden but now red-hot topic’ o The creation of literature.’ Humorous. disproving all women as “villainesses”. . perfect standard. quirky analogy engages audience. but times have changed and art is what you can get away with. these two sides of a woman exist. or are they capable of doing it themselves? To allow women to establish their full potential. However. Theme: Identity of a Woman/equality. the composer portrays women as having two extreme opposite personalities.  rhetorical questioning. o Lists the ‘how-to questions’ of the novelist o Many allusions to establish rapport with educated audience States: “Each character is desperately trying to acquire a stable selfconcept.  antithesis of “good” and “bad” in “When she was good. whether women are the expected gender to be engaged in bad behavior. she was very very good. she was horrid!” Here. we must give women an equal opportunity to portray themselves. and so does the novelist.

war Techniques Repetition  “We do not know” x6  “One of the _ Australians”  “We have lost”. This also shows that Australia‟s war dead have become part of our national identity. therefore it is acceptable for women to be imperfect. high modality in “something else has to happen” where the composer stresses the fact that the story must have a protagonist in it. What speech is about  Honouring and remembering the Australian war dead. “us”  “He is one of us”  “On all sides”  “All those men and women” Effect: Keating creates a sense of unity in his audience. representatives of the armed forces and other distinguished guests. without seeking to glorify war  Themes: honour and remembrance. Keating builds up a picture of an ordinary person who served his nation. and links this to patriotism by the phrase “one of us”. have blemishes or ‘spots’ and not fill the expectation of perfectionism. emphatic phrases used throughout the piece. “we have gained”  The pronoun “he” Effect: in stating all that is unknown about him. brutal. thus invoking the audience‟s patriotism. awful struggle” . Context Remembrance Day (11th November) 1993. Present at the occasion would have been politicians. at the Funeral Service of the Unknown Australian Soldier: remembrance for all Australians who have suffered or died in armed conflict. patriotism. This year (1993) was the 75th anniversary of the WWI armistice. Emotive language  “Vast and all-consuming”  “Mad. He builds an image of the ordinary Australians who became heroes and this is reinforced by the repetitive. Keating – “Funeral service of the unknown Australian soldier” Speaker Keating was a Labor prime minister during the early 1990s and an intellectual. Repeating the pronoun “he” personalises Keating‟s argument. Inclusive language  “We”.

creating a sense of pride for the country and unity in everyone.  Antithesis: “his tomb is a reminder of what we have lost in war and what we have gained. and contrasts greatly with the bleak view of war given by the negative diction. They also authenticate Keating‟s claims.  Hyperbole: “laid down their lives for Australia” -> shows the great loss they have suffered and great pride they have for their country. a sense of . rather than among those commanding them. Reception This speech was. “Transcended the horror and tragedy and inexcusable folly”  “Enshrine a nation‟s love of peace” Effect: the positive diction associates the soldiers with heroism and invokes the audience‟s patriotism. Theme: Unity Critic: James Curran. considered to be one of the great Australian speeches. Sydney Morning Herald 2012. This is turn unites the Australians to the same extent. since the British race. National Identity. by showing the vast contribution of Australians to international war efforts. to show war‟s futility and the fact that the glory lay among the lower ranks. but to the people…” ->Keating attributes the victory to all Australians  Connotations: “grandeur”. Statistics  “45 000 Australians who died on the Western Front”  “416 000 Australians who volunteered in WWI”  “324 000 Australians who served overseas in the war”  “60 000 Australians who died on foreign soil”  “100 000 Australians have died in wars this century” Effect: the statistics inspire pride in Australians.  Listing of occupation: “…not the generals and politcians. Chris Martin. “nobility” ->empowers the common Australian.  Pragmatism: “…real nobility and grandeur belongs not to empires and nations. and is.  Symbolism: “bonds of mate ship…” ->symbolic of Australian Widely held values. because it is not a triumphalist speech and because it recognises and commemorates the great contribution of Australians while still maintaining that war is something that should be avoided at all costs.”  Positive connotation: “…they were the heroes of that war…” ->even though of the hardships of that war the soldiers were successful in uniting Australian citizens in a bond of a Strong. but the soldiers and sailors and nurses…” ->empowers the common man. which unites the people further. Professor of History at the University of Sydney -> compares “when they were waving the union Jack. era…” creates a sense of unity and national pride that unites the Australians after federation 1901.

victory from the war. audience and unknown soldier – public realises we share qualities of “mateship”. equality. all those from Australia who fought in World War I Audience: All Australians Structure: Short. balance is achieved by variation in sentence length. makes it more accessible to wide audience Contrast of binary opposites – “city or the bush”. eliminating hierarch. peace. class Historical reception: Received tremendously well.supports the textual integrity of the speech Dramatic pause – represented by commas and hyphens – give audience time to consider what is being said – establishes pathos Conjunctions Discourses: Nationalistic. Short sentences – arouse simple emotions and achieve maximum impact Long sentences – information and facts Ascends “ladder”. democratic. eulogy style Emphatic dictation – negative connotations -“never”. generates extremely negative image to force the audience to recognise the value of peace Colloquial language – establishes connect between speaker and audience. historical. “courage” and “resilience” No contractions – formal. “ours”. “sacrifice”. freedom . gender.builds drama and interest.“we” – creates link between speaker. “married or single” – appeals to widest possible range of audience Successive adjectives – illustrate the barren nature of the “mad. Paul Keating Context: Eulogy at the funeral service to honour the “Unknown Australian Soldier”. identity. Unknown Soldier” – develops unity and national spirit Emotive language – establishes pathos. Honoured the war dead and unified the country creating a sense of national identity and pride Concepts explored: Unity. religious. as Victory belongs to “all Australians” [unity] Funeral Service of the Unknown Australian Soldier” Speaker: Then Prime Minister. “all of us” Repetition – “we do not know” – emphasises anonymity of unknown soldier “Australia. sacrifice. “tragedy” – positive – “nations”. brutal awful struggle” that is war – achieves dramatic effect while concentrating on the issue at hand Metonymy Contrast of individuality and anonymity – emotional effect at individual and national level Paradox Juxtaposition of antithetical opposites – antithesis of “loss” and “gain” emphasises the futility of war Religious connotations Rhetorical devices: Statistics . “terrible”. dissimilar to a journalistic style Language: Inclusive . flow-on paragraphs – maintain the sombre mood and allow audience to reflect on what has been said. “horrible”.

Engages and challenges audience  Unknown solider symbolic of ‘the common man’ who ‘proved real nobility belongs. particularly as the last of the Australians that fought in the war have passed. courage and belief in ourselves’ as well as anti-authoritarian tone implied in ‘military formalities’ and ‘political incompetence’ Celebration of the commoner/ underdog  Paradox: ordinary man is not ordinary. I identify with ‘resilience. The ceremony was to be officially recognised as a poignant and powerful symbol of all Australians who have died it the people’ Commonalities – draws on our common history and shared values as Australians to engage the audience and inspire solidarity  Common history ‘ANZAC’ + common values of resilience etc  Equality through contrast. Keating chooses to celebrate the positives that have come of it  While we ‘lost more than 100 000 lives’.. The speech is still important today because of the appreciation of how difficult a task it was for Keating to break down the political divide at hand and unify the country to honour the sacrifice of our war dead. we have ‘gained a legend’ for ‘out of the war came a lesson which transcended the horror and the tragedy’  Positive language when speaking of gains (heroes.rather than focusing on the folly of war. Keating Notes   Context of speech: 1993 delivered as formal eulogy at the interment of the unknown soldier My context today: As a young Australian. Because war still continues and Australians are still dying it remains a significant topic in 21st Australian society. This repetition of contrast stresses that it is our similarities ‘what it means to be Australian’ that matters  Inclusive language  Low modality (inoffensive) Positivity.doesn’t ‘assert a soldier’s character above a civilian’s’ not ‘one race or one nation or one religion above any other’. The national identity that was forged that day is still evident in Australian communities today.. courage.Contemporary significance: 75th anniversary of Armistice Day . one that gravitated around the core values of mateship. A new Australian spirit had been forged. bravery and sacrifice) as opposed to ‘mad brutal awful’ circumstances from which they arose    . resilience and self-believe.11/11/1993 grows with each passing year.

but where there was conflict. Pearson – “An Australian history for us all” Speaker Pearson is an Aboriginal academic. Also in this year. grandeur ‘courage and ingenuity’ 10. The Wik decision in 1996 extended the Mabo findings. responsibility and racism  Argues reconciliation is not about “laying the blame” – about recognising injustices and bearing responsibility  Shows he does not advocate black armband. the Mabo decision invalidated “terra nullius” and gave Aboriginal people the right to claim Native Title where it had not already ceased. which caused debate over how Australians should respond to their past. Direct quoting  Howard. the high rate of reliance on welfare). and advocates increased responsibility for the Aboriginal community. What speech is about  Reflection of history debate (above)  Themes: reconciliation.  Learnt value of ‘soldiers and sailors and nurses’ listing implies equality and fraternity Anaphora ‘it is legend’ emphasises hope. Senator Herron (Minister for Aboriginal Affairs) to demonstrate the views held by the government and the nature of public opinion. making it more accessible to all Australians by giving it a more Australian flavour. who is an activist for Aboriginal issues but is also critical of some aspects of the Aboriginal community (e. pastoral lease would prevail. guilt. but is critical of Howard Techniques Colloquialism  “Hot button issue”  “Prideful bits”  “Opening our hearts a little bit”  “Live and let live” Effect: the speech is formal but these colloquialisms help to appeal to a wider audience than just the academics he is directly addressing. PM Howard criticised the “black armband” view of history. These were the first times legislation and case law recognised Aboriginals as the first inhabitants of Australia.g. In 1992. . Context 1996 – UWS Chancellor’s Club Dinner (academia) – a convivial atmosphere. saying that Native Title could coexist with pastoral leases.

“a legacy of unutterable shame” to describe and emphasise the historical suffering of the Aboriginal people. and its balanced and open-minded views on the topic.  Acknowledges Schroeder.  “Derogation and diminution”.  “Us”. Negative diction  “Stupid”. Repetition  “Ordinary Australians” – to make speech inclusive of greater Australian population and make the speech more accessible.  Academics Robert Hughes and Professor Bill Stanner – to validate his claims. Effect: this negative diction is an attacking device against those whose views he opposes.  Political figures – presenting the debate as a political issue. “ungracious and insensitive” to attack Howard’s views of reconciliation and his promotion of acquiescence and that Australians don’t want to feel guilt. Howard. authoritative public figures. Gaudron and Brennan to back up his claims with the views of respected. the speech is valued for its logical and persuasive argument about Australian history. Pearson Notes . and because of his condemnation of key public figures such as Howard.g. However.  Notion of “open hearts” – to reinforce Keating’s message that reconciliation is about compassion and acknowledgement rather than guilt. e.  “Hot button” cliché – drawing attention to the fact that reconciliation is a major Australian issue and to engage the audience with colloquial language.  Keating – demonstrating the progress made while he was PM. Reception Pearson’s speech would have been received with controversy because of the debate going on at the time about how Australians should respond to their past.  Longest quote is a letter from an Aboriginal writer who emotively challenges the white domination – Pearson uses it as a tool for emotionalism and outrage – by means of the letter he conveys a far more emotive attitude. the academic who taught him – courteous – also subtly establishes his own academic credentials and pays tribute to his teacher. “our” – in relation to Aboriginals – to declare solidarity with Aboriginals and to compel the population to unity and reconciliation. “we”. High Court justices Deane.

intellectual figures suited to audience o ‘Guilt is not a useful emotion’ ‘as to the question of guilt. Revise we historians must. Sarcasm in ‘myth’ and ‘invisibility’ o Doesn’t dwell on injustice – rather calls for ‘a new Australian history’ to ‘tell the story of the other side of the frontier’ in light of modern academic study. ‘Our present national leadership is only thinking in terms of broad characterizations and slogans’. Context: 1996. freedom and reconciliation How to respond to the past. how we ‘respond to the past’ is still a sensitive issue. time of political tension between indigenous and nonindigenous Australians Our context: even after a formal apology by the Rudd Government in 2008. bigoted history is something Australians reject’. Outlines focus of speech immediately ‘the debate is about how Australians should respond to the past’. Pearson objective and rational. but it drags history into propaganda…To preserve complexity and not flatten it under the weight of anachronistic moralizing…’ o Against simplifying and ‘anti-intellectual approach’. o Quotes to validate opinion ‘The reading of history is never static. o Bitter at times over treatment of indigenous Australians ‘the myth of terra-nullius meant that the legal invisibility of Aboriginal people…was embedded within popular belief’. concise. o Calls for open discussion and tolerance. Title inclusive o Must not polarize ‘the need for absolute goodies and baddies runs deep in us. Howard inflammatory and emotive ‘to tell children whose parents were no part of it that we’re all part of a racist. high-profile indigenous activist.’ Robert Hughes. Equality. hope for reconciliation. He logically argues that if we ‘readily celebrate and share in the achievements of the past’. I am myself equivocal’   . promoting ‘collective responsibility’. apportioning of guilt o Directly quotes Howard and shapes his argument by contradicting him. we should also ‘feel responsibility for and express shame in other aspects of our past’ o Clear. so the concepts still resonate. academic audience (accounts for formality). Howard gov opposed Aboriginal land rights movement and had recently criticized the ‘black armband view of Australian history’.

 Hyperbole: in “taking responsibility for the future.  emotive language: “The guilt issue”. ->Also can link to justice and remorseful attitudes. by dealing with the past. Here.  colloquial language: in “They will say that Aborigines…’should get over it.o Contrasts divisive language ‘you and us’ with inclusive ‘our nation’.  Allusion: “black armband view of history” emphasises the dispossession of Indigenous people of Australia and related injustices. Anything less is simply evasion of reality”. In order to attain equality and move a step towards reconciliation. which again creates obstacles in the move towards reconciliation and ultimately inequality. from this we learn the importance of acknowledging aboriginal inequality. Here. Therefore. the word ‘turbulence’ conveys we are going in circles. Pearson implies we should accept Australia’s history and acknowledge the indigenous. itself. Suu Kyi – “Keynote address at the Beijing World Conference on Women” . Noel Pearson evokes the negative emotion of guilt into the audience.  Metaphor: in “…a view from the window has been carefully placed to exclude a whole quadrant of the landscape…” This shows we are not acknowledging the importance of aboriginal people as we have failed to realise the importance of acknowledging the past. Elevates issue to one of national significance o Allusion to Keating in ‘the confusion and turmoil we had to have’ draws on another proponent of reconciliation. unable to move forward with the notion towards reconciliation with indigenous people. as we have not acknowledged the colonial past. By doing this. ‘open our hearts a bit’ ‘open and generous heart’ As we fail to acknowledge the past injustices of the indigenous people. It is the point of view of the non-indigenous people. he implies anything less is as good as destroying reality and life. we are unable to move forward in a step towards reconciliation.’” Here Pearson implies Australians are not concerned or give importance to acknowledging Australian history. which allows people to feel like they should feel guilt. as a way to acknowledge the indigenous people. we must acknowledge the sufferings that the non-indigenous people have faced. in order to move forward to attain reconciliation and equality. which shows the ill-treatment of them should be acknowledged for reconciliation to occur.  adjectival language: ‘turbulence’ in “the colonial past is central to the moral and political turbulence”.

human rights. It is made up of those who are capable of learning. daughter of General Aung San who fought for Burma‟s independence. direct and clear. is the key figure in Burma‟s National League for Democracy. but she was not given power from the reigning Junta). gender inclusive argument her speech is dignified. tolerance Techniques Word choice  “Not least among these obstacles are intolerance and insecurity”  “War toys of grown men”  “Disinformation engendered by men”  “The human race is not divided into two opposing camps of good and evil. “war toys of grown men”) so as not to appear aggressive. Her word choice is simple. equity. They also resonate her theme and her peaceful nature.g. What speech is about  Analysing the role of women in the political process. By maintaining an elegant. She avoids the labels of good and evil and avoids preaching. and the challenges these pose for the oppressed  The international liberation of women  Themes: role of women in society. positive and peaceful. democracy and peace”  “Productivity. By not allowing her passion to manifest itself in the form of anger or aggression. Context 1995. Her linguistic attacking devices are very subtle (e. sustainability and empowerment” Effect: Suu Kyi uses lists of powerful. Her speech was read on video because she cannot leave Burma. human rights and democracy”  “Tolerance. and around the world  Providing an analytical overview of the global forces affecting the quality of life of the human community. security. Personalising of argument  “My own experience during the years I have been engaged in the democracy movement in Burma has convinced me of the need to emphasise the positive aspects of tolerance” . Since winning national elections in 1990 (by 82%. She is very peaceful and positive and a staunch Buddhist.Speaker Aung San Suu Kyi.” Effect: Her word choice ensures that her speech is not aggressive or overly passionate. her language is unifying and powerful. and those who are incapable of doing so. Listing  “Peace. Beijing – her audience is women (and men) around the globe. and what she sees to be the most important of the issues for the human race to move towards. She advocates peaceful resistance. she has been in and out of house arrest. weighty abstracts to emphasise and reiterate her message.

intolerance. tolerance still issue in divided world. smuggled out via video. equality o Inclusive language ‘us’ our’ ‘common hopes’ ‘I want to try to voice some of the common hopes which firmly unite us in all our splendid diversity’ ‘our sisters everywhere’ o References to UN and ‘International Year for Tolerance’ add authority and provides international context o Metaphor of light vs dark. and because it gives an insight into what are some of the most important issues facing the world today – and always – without placing blame on any person or group Aung San Suu Kyi Notes  Context: Icon for non-violent political change. It shows the logical structure and development of her argument and supports it with recognised authority. she is appealing to the global community and also re-iterating the message that there is a global instinct for peace. By giving a specific example of a nation. “The struggle for democracy and human rights in Burma is a struggle for life and dignity”  “In my country at present…”  “The Buddhist pavarana ceremony” Effect: Suu Kyi supports and justifies her argument by bearing personal witness to her message. given to predominantly female international audience  Our context – women’s place in society. whereas dark is status quo. ‘patriarchal domination and degradation’ . partnership and trust. mutual respect’. Reception Suu Kyi‟s speech was greatly valued by her original audience because she was addressing a world conference on women. Scientific research and statistics are seen as validation. Her speech is continuingly relevant because of its peaceful nature. Suu Kyi is supporting her claims. where the issues she spoke about were particularly important. Her reference to Buddhism combines the desire for religious truth with modern democracy and the desire for a democratic process. Light represents hope and female values of ‘loving kindness. Cronulla  Tolerance. under house-arrest by Burmese Gov. particularly in Burma. unity. Authoritative evidence  UN quotes: “Human security is not a concern with weapons – it is a concern with human life and dignity”  Statistical: “14 out of the 485 elected MPs were women… less than 3% of the total successful candidates”  Scientific: “recent scientific research on the human brain has revealed that women are better at verbal skills while men tend towards physical action” Effect: by giving concrete evidence.

they are ‘valued’. interest and appreciate the text more!]  alliteration in “The education and empowerment of women” which enables a link between education. Women and Men should be valued in the eyes.  Simile: as women are “brave as lionesses. women have to face the harsh challenges of the outside world…” empowers of women. This allows the figure of a woman to become more equal with that of men. as the stereotypical values of women are questioned.  colloquial language: in “…menfolk are unable to give them protection. allowing a woman’s value to be re-evaluated.  rhetorical questioning: in “…women talk too much. of women by giving women a sense of empowerment.  diction in “…women not merely ‘tolerated’. which empowers women’s identity. individual womanly figure that is able to fend for herself like that of a lioness. When women are empowered. they can do great things. we value the equality of men and women. and allows equality of the sexes. therefore the we should strive for it.o Burmese proverb ‘the dawn only rises when the rooster crows’ disproved by ‘scientific reason’ implies that ‘it is not the prerogative of men alone to bring light to this world’. allows a change in tone. as it shows women are able to stand up for themselves and be individual. women must be valued in the eyes of the people. This change in word. empowers women them to be lifted from a state of unjust. o Positive language ‘generation of happiness and harmony’ ‘splendid diversity’ o Rhetorical questions ‘How much more could they achieve if given the opportunity to work in their own right for the good of their country and of the world? o Recurring motif of ‘freedom’ and ‘community’ give speech continuity/cohesion In order to create equality between men and women. which again. defending their young…” shows a strong. . so that together we can promote equality and allow women to reach their full potential. [this allows women to take part. But is this really a weakness…? This creates doubt in the responders mind.  metaphor as we should let the “shackles of prejudice and intolerance fall from our limbs…together we can strive”. Here the composer conveys we should stop judging women based on stereotypical views. we should strive for equality between men and women.  learn. as in our modern context.

 Hyperphora in “what is reconciliation about. ‘terrible utterances’ excused ‘in the name of free speech’. although some people ignore this. the terrible indignities” The change in tone from a positive. to negative >reinforces the negative aspect of Australian history and creates emotion in the audience to step towards’s about rights.” Creates emphasis and a creating a community free from reconciliation. issues persist. we must strive for a sense of reconciliation. as it allows for a sense of equality. This allows the audience to reconsider their words. as being recognised in legislation allows equality and reconciliation.. Our context: after formal apology.In order to attain a sense of equality between Indigenous and the NonIndigenous people. so that we can live in harmony with indigenous Australians. From this. we learn it is important to allow indigenous people to be part of the Australian community.  change in tone: as “…there is a need to heal the wounds of the past. as part of their community. promoting equality.  rhetorical language “why is it so hard to find our commonalities” this allows the audience to consider the similarities between indigenous and non-indigenous people. as it is obvious there are commonalities. then we must”.” This implies rights are an important part of acknowledging indigenous people. Bandler Notes  Context of speech: social and political landscape of mistrust and racial tension.  Repetition: “it’s about rights…it’s about those rights being enshrined in legislation. This shows we should not hold back on reconciliation. from recognising indigenous Australians as part of the Australian community. by acknowledging the Indigenous.  diction in “ask not what is in it for me... so continually relevant  . In order to create equality between the indigenous and non-indigenous. Purpose of Faith Bandler’s speech: motivates us to seek productive social change to make sure the indigenous people are not left out of the Australian community in any way.  positive connotation: “enshrined” promotes a positive outcome.  Metaphor: as “they are chained in their stubbornness… and if we need to go forward without them. allowing the aboriginals to become equal with nonindigenous Australians. due to some people who do not support the notion of equality between the indigenous and non-indigenous people. it is important to include them as part of our Australian community.. but what is in it for us”.

 Cultural understanding + common ground  doesn’t polarise discourse between black and white. an ecumenical service combines the various denominations of Christian churches. adds credence common aspirations ‘working together’ ‘finding our commonalities’ sarcasm – ‘it took some time for me to understand. ‘we’ inclusive Emotive calls to action ‘we are free’ ‘if not us who?” Comparison by contrast ‘we should ask not what is in it for me but in it for us’ echoes JFK. instead divides along lines of sight vs. It is those that ‘patiently bear the brunt of many misdeeds and indecencies’ who are praise worthy    Addresses audiences as ‘friends’.why our differences should matter’  uses irony to say that exaggerating differences is senseless    Overcoming adversity   Continued metaphor of battle = opposition ‘ramparts’ ‘fierce battles and conflict’ ‘fight’ ‘mobilise forces’ ‘struggle’ High modality ‘we must’ and ‘it’s time’ imparts sense of resilience against ‘tremendous odds’  People-power – ‘can move more than governments.. a group of tourist were swept to death in a flash flood. In the accident. ‘I feel’ with legislation. Context The speech was delivered at the ecumenical service for those who died in Switzerland in a canyoning accident in July 1999.. A reflection of this is that a highly placed person (Deanne) was asked to speak at the service in Switzerland. blindness ‘willingly blind to others way of life’ ‘deliberately blinkered’  blends personal with political. draws on success of people’s movements Deanne – “On the occasion of an ecumenical service for the victims of the canyoning tragedy” Speaker William Deanne is a High Court judge who became Governor General in 1995 and held office to 2001. 14 of the 21 victims were Australian thus it gained a lot of media attention. it can move mountains’. It is important to . He played a role in the Marbo case and maintained a reputation of commitment to reconciliation.

” “…this was a day to forget rivalries” . Hyperbole  “On every night since the accident…” Effect: Highlights that the tragedy is felt by all but ironically uses the exaggeration to indicate a negative situation can have positive results (connection w/ Switzerland) Aliteration  “the competence. 2011: Katy Kronin: “…Governor General accompanied by Swiss President Ruth Dreyfus. Media attention was also very positive. His dignified comments and delivery presented Australia in a very positive international light. representing Australia as a nation that handled this event in a stately manner. UNITY: In order for individual’s to unite. there must be a sense of feeling welcomed and a sense of commonality. It is Essentially a funeral impacting on the formal reserved language.consider the role and position of governor general in Australia. What the speech is about  The loss of these Australians is felt by both the families and all Australians  The accident has brought a unity between Switzerland and Australia  Recognising the tragedy from the loss Techniques Youth Imagery/Repetition  “young people”  “delight of youth”  “young Australians” Effect: This emphasis on youth highlights the great loss to Australia.  Critic: ABD Radio Transcript. The “great sadness” of mourning connects them all despite nationality. the compassion and the kindness”  “shock and sorrow” Effect: Shows thanks for Switzerland‟s fast response to the tragedy and consideration which is used to balance the grief of the speech with thanks to Switzerland Reception The speech was very well received as way of bringing the nation together to face this tragic loss of Australian lives. making the image even more emotive and argument stronger Inclusive Language  “We are gathered”  “We pray with them”  “We remember that” Effect: Is used to ensure that the listeners be they Australian or other nationalities feel they are being addressed as well. offering only support and praise rather than condemnation. as young people are often associated with light and beginnings rather than death.

Intertextuality: “John Donne wrote. such as Thredbo. 2 Swiss. Yet…effects of disaster bring our two countries closer together…” [commonality.” [creates unity. that we all suffer and experience death. ‘No man is an Island” [humans cannot function is isolation] we need unity. promoting international relations and companionship. Port Arthur etc. 2 South African & 1 New Zealand o “…21 young people [who] were killed in the canyoning accident here. Hundreds of people. “Compatible” Tone of thankfulness: creates recognition: “…abide in gratitude…” [Australia needs to recognise Swiss’s rescue efforts for unity and good political relations. including family of deceased. and survivors of tragedy – both Australian and Swiss audience Delivered on 5 August 1999 at Interlaken.” Purpose was to mourn and pray for those who were killed. leaders of other countries. On the Occasion of an Ecumenical Service for the Victims of the Canyoning Tragedy Context & Purpose        Sir William Deane = Governor General of the Commonwealth of Australia Was well favoured by the public Avoided political controversy Also delivered speeches at other tragedies. 2 Briton. because we are all involved in mankind” [commonality ->human. 14 Australia. Switzerland – site of tragedy in a memorial service 21 people were killed. Imagery: “…Australia and Switzerland are on opposite sides of the globe. Alliteration: “death diminishes us all. sorrow] High Modality: “…little part of Switzerland…will always be…part of Australia. allows us to unite in the loss] Sir William Deane. last week.” -> able to unite and form peace. and to offer comfort to audience o “We are gathered in great sadness to mourn the deaths of the 21 young people…”  .      Symbolism: “…Sprigs of wattle our National floral emblem…bringing a little Australia to them. able to form peace.

Factual Information o “The deaths of the 21 young people” o “Fourteen of the victims of the tragedy came from Australia” Construction         Language Techniques    . the exuberance and the delight of youth.” o “Yesterday. and with…. together with family members and friends of the Australian victims. tight and effective Stating that mourning is occurring o “We are gathered in great sadness to mourn the deaths of the 21 young people…” Like the Keating speech – no sense of blame Traits of victims are unifying o “The exuberance and the delight of youth” Stressing significant loss o “Collectively. my wife and I” Focuses on the unity of Switzerland and Australia through the tragedy o “One effect of the disaster has been to bring our two countries closer together” Short. my wife and I. Madam President. in this age of modern telecommunications... we will remember…” Emotive language o “Gathered in great sadness” o “The young Australians – who have been killed all shared the spirit of adventure.” o “And when we are back in Australia.” o Yesterday. the joy of living. my wife and I together with family members…. I pay tribute to the bravery of all those who worked…” o “We remember that and so many wonderful things about them as we mourn.Content & Subject Matter      Did not mention who was to blame for the accident – was a speech to mourn rather than accuse The speech was fairly personalised o “I have as the Governor General of Australia.” Ecumenical service– The gathering of many Christian variants Mourn the deaths of the 21 individuals o “We are gathered in great sadness to mourn the deaths of the 21 young people…” To unite the Swiss and Australian nation o “Yet. one effect of the disaster has been to bring our two countries closer together” Sombre Very inclusive throughout the speech o “I have. as Governor General” o “I have already had the privilege of meeting with you” o “Yesterday. with Senator John Herron…” o “I have already had the privilege of meeting with you. their deaths represent probably the greatest single peacetime loss of young Australians outside our own country” Inclusive language o “We are gathered in great sadness to mourn…” o “I have already had the privilege of meeting with you…In particular.

which we had brought with us…” Patriotism o “Rather. New Zealand. /no man is an island’. South Africa and The United Kingdom. Switzerland. Audience: The friends and family of the deceased and political leaders of the five affected nations. to some extent. then Governor General of Australia and former Justice of the High Court of Australia.        Reception      Religious Connotation o “…in the words of our Lord (Matthew Ch5. it is to suggest that a little part of Switzerland has become.” Symbolism o “We cast into the Saxetenbach 14 sprigs of wattle.” Received well by audience Dignified Uniting of nations Praise rather than condemnation o “I pay tribute to all of those who worked on the rescue efforts” Media attention was well handled Unity among nations Tragedy of loss of youth Patriotism International relations Linking humanity The positive light of death Themes       On the occasion of an ecumenical service for the victims of the canyoning tragedy Speaker: Sir William Deane. they will truly be comforted o “May they all rest with God" Juxtaposition o “Australia and Switzerland are on opposite sides of the globe” Hyperbole o “On every night since the accident” Sibilence o “…experienced the shock and sorrow of overseas tragedies in the past” Alluding/quoting o “As John Donne wrote. v4). They were from Australia.” Metaphor o “It is still winter at home. just as these young men and women were in the flower of their youth. but the golden wattles are coming in to bloom. our national floral emblem. . Social justice advocate and strong supporter of racial tolerance and a multicultural Australia Context: Ecumenical service for the 21 young people killed in a canyoning accident. part of Australia. and and will always be.

He speaks in international generalisations to establish a connection between the five countries that have been unified by the tragedy. On the occasion of an ecumenical service for the victims of the canyoning tragedy is a prime example of nations uniting to support one another in their times of grief. nationhood + as young Australian particularly meaningful Common humanity o Allusion to John Donne ‘No man is an island’ o Inclusive language ‘our humanity’ ‘collective loss’   . “delight”.highlight the skills of those who supported the survivors and relatives of the victims. the compassion and the kindness”. Cumulation – “the competence. in thanking them for their rescue efforts creating a sense of familiarity. “competence and compassion”. “we felt that was bringing a little bit of Australia to them”. “bravery” – highlight the contrast between the sense of loss and praise for the deceased and their rescuers. He uses it as a natural image of beauty to represent the young Australians who died in the “flower of their youth”. Rhetorical devices: Religious allusions such as “spirits” and “pray” and the imbedding of biblical quotes add a reverent tone to the speech. The speech is not political in nature and for that reason has not received great negative backlash from the public.Structure: He makes a direct address to the Swiss. It is important for nation leaders to put aside political differences and lend aid to one another in times of need. religious Historical reception: Consequentially because of the speech and the tragedy preceding it Australia. Much of the speech is plainly worded in colloquial vocabulary. Concepts explored: Unity. Switzerland and The United Kingdom have become unified and more of supportive of one another. Language: The sombre. He uses a water flower motif to symbolise Australian nationhood and patriotism. New Zealand. casting them into the water represents their journey of their spirits back to Australia. add to the dramatic effect and formal style of the speech. “shock and sorrow”. exploring a religious discourse. Inclusive language such as the use of the words “we” and “us” show a shared experience with the audience. Deane Notes  Context of speech: 1999 commemorating the ‘deaths of 21 young people in a canyoning accident’ the ‘greatest single peace time loss of Australians outside our country’ Our Context: values still resonate. Discourses: Nationalistic. equality Contemporary significance: Nations are becoming increasingly supportive and unified in the face of tragedy and crisis. identity. “joy”. equality and unity. peace. South Africa. Emotive language – “profound tragedy”. melancholy tone is appropriate for a eulogy. Alliteration – “families and friends”.

participatory terms help create an air of support. who returned the country to a political system based on multiple parties. compassion and kindness’ from those who ‘helped look after survivors’ o ‘bring our two countries closer together’ and ‘increased awareness’ o Brought Switzerland into ‘every Australian home’ o Repetition of ‘home’ suggests humanity as family. such that Egypt was expelled from the Arab League. the all powerful Egypt and Israel can be united Peace is possible and desirable Peace must be based on justice for both sides Inclusive Language  “our sons and brothers”  “let us be frank”  “we must all rise above” Effect: These terms invite the listener to join the speaker in the common dream of peace. The speech was translated from Hebrew so it may well seem „stilted‟ or somewhat „awkward‟ to the ear of a native English speaker What the speech is about     We submit to God. and succeeded in signing a peace treaty with Israel.o Listing Australia last  avoid partiality + imply differences superficial  Silver lining o ‘Competence. He was on a mission to establish peace with Israel and achieve recognition by each of the other‟s territorial boundaries. allowing them to be part of the speech but empowers them to also be part of the solution. However this treaty made him extremely unpopular with Islamists. He was a radical leader. names and documents Techniques . connections that transcend borders o Metaphor of light  Lit the lives of all who knew them  A shining part of our humanity o Seasons  Winter at home  current sorrow  Golden wattles coming into bloom life affirming. We can understand why he chose his words carefully. hopeful Sadat – “Statement to the Knesset” Speaker Anwar Sadat was the Egyptian President from 1970 til his assassination in 1981. This language unites the audience. Referencing of facts. a willingness to believe and hope that there might be a change. dates. Context The Statement to the Knesset (Israeli „Parliament‟) is highly charged with the context of the events about Sadat‟s life as outlined above.

The speech was a success in that the agreement with Israel was reached and a treaty signed in 1979 but it also lead to Sadat‟s assassination. not just Israelis and Arabs. or lost family and friends due to his military initiative. this makes it more believable and truthful to the audience. Repetition  “Permanent peace based on justice” (x4)  “durable and just peace” (x3) Effect: Highlights the importance Sadat places on peace and his mantra is repeated as it is the main value of the speech so the audience can remember and connect to it. to diffuse tension he speak in generalisations. Structure: Formal address – direct address to audience establishes a connection between speaker and listeners Language: Considering he was addressing a Jewish audience. Audience: The speech was telecast across the whole world while his immediate audience consisted of Israeli government and citizens. adding strength to his argument. it may have been viewed as insensitive or provocative that he open his speech speaking Arabic. The repeated use of the conversational “Let us be frank” and “yes” lets the audience feel as though they are being spoken to directly. Alliteration. Emotive language. some of whom would have personally fought in the battles started by Sadat. Statement to the Knesset Speaker: Anwar Sadat. nondivisive statements about religion.    “On 4 February 1971” “16 October 1973” “Balfour Declaration” “the Geneva Conference” Effect: The mention of these specifics adds realism and historical authenticity to his speech. Egyptian President (1970 -1981) Context: Sadat had initiated a war between Egypt and Israel only four years before. Yet on 20/11/1977 he travelled to Jerusalem to speak directly to the parliament of his then-enemies to begin negotiations for a peace agreement. Imagery  “There was a huge wall…”  “It was a wall that warned us…” Effect: Imaginatively engages the audience. and demonstrates the barriers between the two nations to stress why there is not peace between them and to also illustrate the need for peace. This is effective as the value of peace has value for all listeners. his visit and overture of full and genuine peace in return for recovery of land seized by Israel was described by UN Secretary General as “an extraordinary leap of faith and imagination”. dramatic adjectives and metaphors are three imagery devices used to establish pathos. Repetition is used to reinforce unity . making the point that all the world is menaced by conflicts. assonance and rhyming emphasise specific points that the speaker is making. He makes inclusive. Reception Sadat‟s mission was hailed by political commentators as „historic‟.

and urgency. Rhetorical devices: Asyndeton – the omission of conjunctions where they would normally be included allows the speaker to ensure that a train of thought continues uninterrupted. ensuring that the audience is undistracted and creates a strong mental image of what is being said Personal anecdotes – encourage a connection between the audience and speaker. when addressing the Knesset. to do anything to save Arab and Israeli lives and prevent suffering. racial. the significance of the push for peace by not only Sadat. Sadat uses the extended metaphor of a wall/barrier to explore the concept of division. but his acceptance by the Israeli Prime Minister. Sadat Notes  Context: 1977 Israel and Egypt in conflict. against the advice of his fellow Arab nations. and ability to recognise his own faults and follies make Anwar Sadat’s Statement to the Knesset a timeless and universal speech that’s ideas are relevant to future audiences and differing contexts. sacrifice Contemporary significance: While Sadat’s move for true and lasting peace was not the first or last attempt. In an interview states that purpose of speech ‘What I want from this visit is that the wall created between us . The peace agreement between the two nations has remained in effect since the Egyptian-Israeli Peace Treaty was signed and in that way is an important achievement that is still recognised in a global 21st century culture. historical Historical reception: Initially Israelis and Arabs alike were suspicious of Sadat and wondered whether he had ulterior motives behind his visit. While his visit to Israel resulted in him being named Time Magazine’s Man of the Year and recipient of the Nobel Peace Prize. though the negative implications of the treaty signing can make the initiative seem a failure. democratic. honesty. his actions were still enormously unpopular amongst other Arabs and the wider Muslim world. Egypt was the first Arab country to officially recognise Israel. equality. it also contributes to the believability and textual integrity of the speech Enumeration – dictates importance of points and train of thought Rhetorical questions – leave the audience with a resonating thought Imbedded text – achieves a religious discourse through the incorporation of religious quotations Specific dates and statistics – contribute to the textual integrity of the speech Discourses: Religious. justice. Egypt spending 30% national budget on defence. if read alternatively. political. sense of responsibility. resonates more than three decades on. vision for the future. resulting in Egypt being suspended from the Arab League at the time. his life. this ultimately resulted in his assassination by fundamentalist army officers from his own country. A “straight line” metaphor is used to argue for honesty and directness. acceptance. One can admire the courage of Sadat and his ultimate sacrifice. impoverished. “Open and closed doors” are used to indicate the need for acceptance. Sadat was the first Arab leader to ever visit a Jewish state. unity. His personal integrity. idealism. Concepts explored: Peace.

later assassinated. ‘permanent peace based on justice’ and ‘we are advocates of justice and peacemakers’ o Speaks in universal terms ‘any life lost in war is a human life. solutions. Sadat uses children to address the suffering. irrespective of its being that of an Israeli or an Arab’. Structures speech around 5 facts. presents not just concepts but strategies. to allow a long-term united relationship to build. ‘we proceeded’ ‘we are’. Focuses on precise issues ‘disengagement agreement in Sinai’ o Second person engages audience. ‘we all. worship God and no one but God’ o Presents himself as an equal.and Israel. you should be truthful of past injustices. be knocked down. Reference to God Almighty (both believe in) draws on common faith in order to unite. which is common in both Egypt and Israel. Muslims. therefore it acts as a uniting force. give speech cohesion. Christians and Jews.  conversational ‘yes’: in “We had…our claims. High land-based demands in return for peace. does not speak ‘from a position of weakness or hesitation’.” Here. the psychological wall. We used to brand you as the so-called Israel yes. gesture of friendship – speak same language o Inclusive language ‘our fate’ stresses that the issue involves them all. world rife w conflict etc  Peace and common humanity o Very clear. humanist terms ‘sons and brothers’ o High modality to emphasise progress so far and lend speech positive tone ‘we signed’. Conveys sense of honesty. o Denounces war: ‘destructive wars’ that leave ‘neither victor nor vanquished’ In order to attain unity between people.’ Highly contentious.  Inclusive language: “Innocent children …are ours be they living on Arab or Israeli land. makes message powerful o Delivered in Hebrew. not ‘verbal juggling’ or ‘political tactics’. unambiguous ‘I come to you today on solid ground to shape a new life and to establish peace’. but simultaneously broad and international  Our context: call for peace irrespective of context. Israel must return all Arab lands they have gained since 6 day war in 1967 o Peace and justice recurring motifs. yes. Maintains it’s sincere.” This acknowledgement of treating the Israeli’s . and openness with phrases ‘to be absolutely frank with you’ ‘we really and truly seak peace’ o Idealistic yet bluntly realistic. Audience – specifically Knesset. Shock value of taking the initiative is partly why such a diplomatic success.

which persuades the people of Israel to engage in productive social change. with full security and safety. in order to attain peace. Here Sadat identifies his aim for a permanent peace. This shows Sadat has gone through great lengths to deliver his message of unity to change the attitudes of the people. creating equal treatment for all. This educates us the importance of admitting the truth as it allows long-term relationships to build. This educates me. and to establish it very quickly. whether she be an Arab or an Israeli” emphasises the fact that Sadat does not care whether someone is an Arab or an Israel. it is difficult to be united.  hyperbole as Sadat will go to “…the farthest corner of the world…to address members of the Knesset”. it is important your intentions are clear and distinctive. swayed by opinion. you communicate to the audience to let them know your motives are honest and compassionate.  Accumulation: “…Peace that is not shaken by storms. as he wants to attain peace before the opportunity slips away. . in order to allow the force of unity to take place. that there should be an element of honesty in my motives. it is important to illustrate your intentions clearly and distinctively. is a powerful tool to engage the Israeli’s and understand Sadat’s motives of unity. allowing the people of Israel to believe his intentions are true. Sadat creates credibility. From this we learn. and wants to create it very strong that it is not broken. and create unity with Israel. This persuades us.  epistrophe in “Any life lost in war is a human life irrespective…Arab or Israeli. or jeoporadised by ill intentions. This is also seen through use of  repetition: “…before us today lies the appropriate chance for peace…a chance that time cannot afford once again. [check learn statement!] In order to attain a strong sense of peace between two Nations. Metaphor: “…we were a nation reduced to a motionless corpse” which shows the treatment of Israel by Egyptians was ill and by acknowledging this. we really and truly welcome you to live among us…” emphasized the feelings felt to welcome Israel. A wife…entitled to a happy family life.” From this we can see Sadat’s intentions of welcoming Israel in the notion of peace by informing them. therefore unity. In order to attain unity. to accept Sadat’s offer of unity as his intentions are honest and compassionate. that their treatment will be secure and safe. unwell.  Alliteration: “we welcome you among us.  anaphora in “…we really and truly seek peace. as when you are enemies with other.” This emphasises the urgency felt by Sadat to establish peace. persuades them to accept his offer of unity.

it is important to allow a sense of cooperation by pointing out the commonalities between them. and in need of peace.In order to attain peace. as these differences form unity.  emotive language in “moaning under the cruel pains of widowhood and bereavement…” allows the audience to remember both Israel and Egypt feel the suffering after war. Can also use: extended metaphor of “peace based on Justice” used throughout the speech to shows Sadat wants permanent peace. as he refers to them as human.  repetition of life in “Any life lost in war is a human life…”.  inclusive language in “…We all Muslim. which shows how unnecessary and futile war is. . which ultimately leads to peace. Here Sadat draw upon the commonality between the people. Christians and Jews…” creates inclusiveness of whether you are a Muslim. Christian or Jew. and ultimately peace between the nations. between Israel’s and the Egyptians. creating unity in humanity. not just peace. as the loss of human life in war is not valued by society.