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Name:______________________________________Date:___________________________Period:__________ AP Statistics Unit 3 Study Guide Show work on a separate sheet of paper.

For numbers 1-3, analyze the design of each research example reported. Is it a sample survey, an observational study, or an experiment? If a sample, what are the population, the parameter of interest, and the sampling procedure? If it is an observational study, was it retrospective or prospective? If an experiment, describe the factors, treatment, randomization, response variable, and any blocking, matching, or blinding that may be present. In each, what kind of conclusions can be reached? 1) Researchers identified 242 children in the Cleveland area who had been born prematurely (at about 29 weeks.) They examined these children at age 8 and again at age 20, comparing them to another group of children not born prematurely. Their report, published in the New England Journal of Medicine, said “preemies” engaged in significantly less risky behavior than the others. Differences showed up in the use of alcohol and marijuana, conviction of crime, and teenage pregnancy. 2) Researchers at the Purina Pet Institute studied Labrador retrievers for evidence of a relationship between diet and longevity. At two weeks of age, two puppies of the same sex and weight were randomly assigned to one or two groups – a total of 48 dogs in all. One group was allowed to eat all they wanted, while the other group was fed a diet 25% lower in calories. The median lifespan of dogs fed the restricted diet was 22 months longer than that of other dogs. 3) Almost 90,000 women participated in a 16-year study of the role of vitamin folate in preventing colon cancer. Some women had family histories of colon cancers in close relatives. In this at-risk group, the incidence of colon cancer was cut in half among those who maintained a high folate intake. No such difference was observed in those with no family risk. 4) In restaurant, servers rely on tips as a major source of income. Does serving candy after a meal produce larger tips? To find out, two waiters determined randomly whether or not to give candy to 92 dining parties. They recorded the sizes of the tips and reported that the guests getting candy tipped an average of 17.8% of the bill, compared to 15.1% of those who got no candy. (a) Was this an experiment or an observational study? Explain. (b) Is it reasonable to conclude that the candy caused the guests to tip more? Explain. (c) The researchers said that the difference was statistically significant. Explain in this context what this means. 5) A college statistics class conducted a survey concerning a community attitude about the college’s large homecoming celebration. That survey drew its sample in the following manner: Telephone numbers were generated at random by selecting one of the local telephone exchanges (first three digits) at random and then generating a random four-digit number to follow that exchange. If the person answered the call and the call was to a residence,





then the person was taken to be the subject for the interview. (Undergraduate students and those underage were excluded, as was anyone who could not speak English.) Calles were placed until a sample of 200 eligible voters were selected. (a) Did every telephone number that could occur in this community have an equal chance of being generated? (b) Did this method of generating phone numbers result in a simple random sample of local residences? Explain. (c) Did this method generate an SRS of local voters? Explain. (d) Is this method unbiased in generating samples of households? Explain. Medical studies indicate that smokers are less likely to develop Alzheimer’s disease than people who never smoked. (a) Does this prove that smoking may offer protection against Alzheimer’s? Explain. (b) Offer an alternative explanation for this association. (c) How would you conduct a study to investigate this? Does the content of a television program affect viewers’ memory of the products advertised in commercials? Design an experiment to compare the ability of viewers to recall brand names of items featured in commercials during programs with violent content, sexual content, or neutral content. Vineyard owners have problems with birds that like to eat ripening grapes. Some vineyards use scarecrows to keep birds away. Others use netting that covers the plants. Owners would really like to know if either method works, and if so, which one is better. One owner has offered to let you use his vineyard for an experiment. Propose a design. Carefully indicate how you would set up the experiment, specifying the factor(s) and response variable. Research reported in the spring of 2002 cast doubt on the effectiveness of arthroscopic knee surgery for patients with arthritis. Patients who suffered arthritis pain and volunteered in the study were randomly divided into groups. One group received the arthroscopic knee surgery. The other group underwent “placebo” surgery during which incisions were made in their knees, but no surgery was actually performed. Follow up evaluations over a 2 year period found that the difference between the two groups were not statistically significant. (a) Why did the researchers find it necessary to have some of the patients undergo “placebo surgery?” (b) Because patients had to consent to participate in this experiment, the subjects were essentially self-selected. Explain why this does not invalidate the findings of this experiment. (c) What does “statistically significant” mean in this context?