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Sally Tseng Period 1

Chapter #16: The South and the Slavery Controversy – Big Picture Themes 1. Cotton ran the South before the Civil War— it was "King Cotton." The entire southern economy was based on cotton. 2. The South had developed a pyramid-like social structure. From top-to-bottom: planter aristocrats, small farmers, the white majority (who owned no slaves), free blacks, slaves. 3. Life as a slave could be wildly varied—some slave owners were kind toward their slaves, some were immensely cruel. In all situations, slaves were not free to do as they pleased. 4. Abolition (move to abolish slavery) began with the Quakers. Frederick Douglass became the main spokesman against slavery. And William Lloyd Garrison printed "The Liberator", a radical abolition newspaper. 5. Southerners countered that northern workers were treated even worse than slaves. Slave owners, they said, had a vested interest in their slaves. Northern factory workers exploited then fired their workers. IDENTIFICATIONS: Nat Turner Slave from Virginia that led group of slaves to kill their slave holders. Turner was caught and executed on November 11, 1831. Slave states had stricter control on slave population. Sojourner Truth US abolitionist and feminist who was freed from slavery and became a leading advocate of the abolition of slavery and for the rights of women. (1797-1883) Theodore Dwight Weld American abolitionist whose pamphlet Slavery A It Is (1839) inspired Uncle Tom’s Cabin. He put together a group called the “Land Rebles.” Harriet Beecher Stowe Author of the antislavery novel Uncle Tom’s Cabin. William Lloyd Garrison Important abolitionist leader who founded abolitionist newspaper, the Liberator; cofounded the New England Antislavery Society. David Walker Black abolitionist who called for the immediate emancipation of slaves. Wrote the “Appeal to the Colored Citizens of the World.” It called for a bloody end to white supremacy. He believed that the only way to end slavery was for slaves to physically revolt.

Sally Tseng Period 1

GUIDED READING QUESTIONS: "Cotton is King!" Know: Eli Whitney, Cotton Gin 1. What is meant by "Cotton is King?" How did its sovereignty extend beyond the South? What implications did its rule have? “Cotton is King” showed how much cotton ruled the Southern economy. It also spread beyond the South by being a major export good. The Planter "Aristocracy" Know: Chivalry 2. In what ways was the south "basically undemocratic?" The south was “basically undemocratic” because the south was a government heavily influenced by a planter aristocracy. Slaves and the Slave System Know: One crop economy 3. What were the weaknesses of the South's dependence on cotton? The South’s dependence on cotton caused them to overspeculate in land and slaves. Depending on cotton also left the South’s economy at the mercy of world conditions. The White Majority Know: Yeoman Farmer, hillbilly 4. Why did many whites who did not own slaves support slavery? Many whites who did not own slaves still supported slavery because they hoped to attain the American Dream by one day owning their own slaves. Free Blacks: Slaves Without Masters Know: Emancipate, mulattoes 5. Would it have been better to be a free Black in the North or in the South? Explain. It would not be any better as a free black in the north because they were treated maybe even worse than those in the south. They were just as unpopular in the north as they were in the south, and had trouble making a living.

Sally Tseng Period 1

Plantation Slavery Know: Chattel, natural increase, Harriet Beecher Stowe 6. "...planters regarded slaves as investments [like a mule]...." Explain what was positive and what was negative about this situation for slaves. The positive thing of this situation for slaves is that they are taken care of because owners do not want to waste their money on slaves. The negative side is that slaves were thought to be less than a person, and only had a monetary value. Life Under the Lash Know: Overseer, breaker, Old South, Deep South 7. Give evidence to show that slaves developed a separate, unique culture. circumstances made this possible?

What

Slaves developed a separate, unique culture with the blending of American and African cultures. They avoided marriage between first cousins, had their own distinctive religious forms mixing Christian and African elements.

The Burdens of Bondage Know: Peculiar institution, Gabriel Prosser, Denmark Vesey, Nat Turner 8. Thomas Jefferson once said that having slaves was like holding a wolf by the ears, you didn't like it but you couldn't let go. How does this section help to explain this statement? Many people of the south did not like slavery, but had to uphold the practice because they depended on slave labor to maintain the southern economy, and their own lives. Early Abolitionism Know: Abolition, The American Colonization Society, Theodore Weld, Arthur and Lewis Tappan, Harriet Beecher Stowe 9. Describe some of the early abolitionists. Some early abolitionists wanted to transport slaves back to Africa. Their spirits were also further bolstered by the Second Great Awakening and the news that Britain had freed the slaves in the West Indies. Radical Abolitionism Know: William Lloyd Garrison, Wendell Phillips, David Walker, Sojourner Truth, Frederick Douglass 10. How were the attitudes of William Lloyd Garrison and Frederick Douglass different? When dealing with an issue that is moral and political, how rigid should a person be? William Lloyd Garrison was a nonresistant pacifist while Frederick Douglass was practical where Garrison was principled.

Sally Tseng Period 1

The South Lashes Back 11. How did the South defend itself against the attacks of abolitionists? The south defended itself against attacks from abolitionists by arguing that they treated slaves better than the north treated their wage slaves. They also claimed that the slaves did not have to fear unemployment like workers in the north faced. The Abolitionist Impact in the North 12. How did Northerners view abolitionists? Did they have any success? Northerners viewed abolitionists as unconstitutional and many mob outbursts were provoked by extreme abolitionists.

Sally Tseng Period 1

Chapter #17: Manifest Destiny and Its Legacy – Big Picture Themes 1. A boundary dispute with England over Maine was settled peacably. In the long run, the U.S. likely got the better end of the deal. 2. Texas finally joined the U.S. Since the Texas revolution, it’d been hanging in the balance. American lawmakers finally decided it was too good of a prize to let slip by, so it was annexed in 1845 3. Oregon was next on the list of lands to seal up. It was shared land, mainly between the U.S. and England. After some negotiating over the border, the 49th parallel was agreed upon. Again, the U.S. likely got the better. 4. The election of 1844 saw James K. Polk run on a Manifest Destiny platform. Americans liked the idea, voted him in, and he went after California. 5. When the Mexican-American war was over, the prize of California that Polk had wanted, was obtained. So was all of the modern American Southwest.

IDENTIFICATIONS: John Tyler took office after the death of William Henry Harrison in 1841. He was a democrat but was swayed by his adoptive Whig Party. He signed a law to end the independent treasury but he vetoed attempts to create a Fiscal Bank. “His accidency.” Slidell’s Mission Prior to the Mexican American war president Polk sent John Slidell to Mexico to negotiate an agreement between that the Rio Grande River would be the southern border of Texas. Instructed to offer 30 million for California. Mexico denied Slidell’s mission and war was declared on May 13,1846. John C. Fremont American military officer, explorer, and the first candidate of the Republican Party for the office of president of the US but lost. He opposed slavery, and was the Senator of California. Manifest Destiny Popular expression in the 1840s that showed Americans’ belief that the US was destined to secure territory from “sea to sea” from the Atlantic to the Pacific Ocean.

Sally Tseng Period 1

James K. Polk 11th president of the US (1845-1849). Defeated Henry Clay in 1844. Promised to annex Texas and was a leader of the Jacksonian Democracy. Foreign policy successes split ownership of Oregon with England. When Mexico rejected Annexation of Texas, the nation was led to victory in the Mexican American war followed by the Mexican cession. He served for only one term, and did not run for reelection. Webster-Ashburton Treaty signed in August 9, 1842, was a treaty resolving several border issues between the US and the British North American colonies, particularly a dispute over the location of the Maine-New Brunswick border. Also banned the slave trade (on the ocean). Spot Resolution Offered in House of Representatives by Abraham Lincoln (Whig) requested Polk to provide congress with the exact location upon which blood was spilt on American soil, as Polk had claimed in 1846 when asking congress to declare war on Mexico. The Tariff of 1842 Tax of about 32% on dutiable goods. Tyler didn’t like protective tariffs but knew the revenue was needed. Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo Peace treaty largely dictated by the Us to the government of military occupied in Mexico City which ended the Mexico American War (1846-1848). Mexico surrendered to the US and entered negotiation to end the war. Negotiated by Nicholas Trist and General Winfield Scott. US gained Mexican Cession and the Rio Grande river was the southern boundary of the Us and Texas. Wilmot Proviso Proposed in 1846 that congress ban slavery in all southwestern lands that might become states; passed in the House but not by the Senate; slave states saw it as a northern attack on slavery.