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Jessica Chu Period-6 Chapter #16: The South and the Slavery Controversy Big Picture Themes 1.

. Cotton ran the South before the Civil War it was "King Cotton." The entire southern economy was based on cotton. 2. The South had developed a pyramid-like social structure. From top-to-bottom: planter aristocrats, small farmers, the white majority (who owned no slaves), free blacks, slaves. 3. Life as a slave could be wildly variedsome slave owners were kind toward their slaves, some were immensely cruel. In all situations, slaves were not free to do as they pleased. 4. Abolition (move to abolish slavery) began with the Quakers. Frederick Douglass became the main spokesman against slavery. And William Lloyd Garrison printed "The Liberator", a radical abolition newspaper. 5. Southerners countered that northern workers were treated even worse than slaves. Slave owners, they said, had a vested interest in their slaves. Northern factory workers exploited then fired their workers. IDENTIFICATIONS: Nat Turner He was a semiliterate visionary black preacher who led an uprising in 1831 that slaughtered about sixty Virginians, mostly women and children. His rebellion sent a wave of hysteria seeping over the snowy cotton fields, and planters in growing numbers slept with pistols by their pillows Sojourner Truth She was also known simply as Isabella, and held audiences spellbound with her deep, resonant voice and the religious passion, with which she condemned the sin of slavery. She was a freed black woman in New York who fought for black emancipation and womens rights Theodore Dwight Weld A prominent abolitionist inflamed by the religious spirit of the Second Great Awakening. He had been evangelized by Charles Grandison Finney in New Yorks Burned Over District in the 1820s. Self -educated and simple in manner and speech, Weld appealed with special power and directness to his rural audiences of untutored farmers Harriet Beecher Stowe She was a novelist and daughter of the formidable Lyman Beecher, who presided over the Lane Theological Seminary. Greatly influenced by Welds pamphlet, American Slavery as It Is, Stowe wrote the well known novel, Uncle Toms Cabin William Lloyd Garrison Garrison was a radical abolitionist who passionately decried the evils of slavery through his newspaper- The Liberator. His words antagonized both sides of the issue David Walker Walker was an African American abolitionist who wrote An Appeal to the Colored Citizens of the World. He called for complete social equality between blacks and white GUIDED READING QUESTIONS: "Cotton is King!" Know: Eli Whitney, Cotton Gin 1. What is meant by "Cotton is King?" How did its sovereignty extend beyond the South? What implications did its rule have? Cotton is King meant that cotton was the most lucrative and important crop in the south. The fact

Jessica Chu Period-6 that southern farmers made so much money off it made it top priority in the south. Its sovereignty extended beyond the south because of Britains dependency on the United States for raw materials, especially due to their large textile industry. The implications its rule had were that the south became completely dependent on the production of cotton, which foreshadowed rough times ahead since they did not grow anything else. The Planter "Aristocracy" Know: Chivalry 2. In what ways was the south "basically undemocratic?" The South was heavily influenced by a planter aristocracy. In 1850, only 1,733 families owned more than 100 slaves each, and this select group provided the political and social leadership of the section and nation. The planter aristocrats enjoyed a large share of southern wealth and could educate their children in the finest schools, often in the North or abroad. The dominance by a favored aristocracy was basically undemocratic, and widened the gap between the rich and poor. Slaves and the Slave System Know: One crop economy 3. What were the weaknesses of the South's dependence on cotton? Cotton wasted the land it was grown on. Slaves and land were over speculated, causing financial instability. A complete focus on cotton led to a neglect of agriculture and industry, which forced the South to be dependent on the West for grain and the North for trade goods. The White Majority Know: Yeoman Farmer, hillbilly 4. Why did many whites who did not own slaves support slavery? Many whites who did not own slaves supported slavery because of two main reasons. First, they hoped to one day move up the ranks and own slaves of their own. Also, they fiercely believed in white superiority, and thought that the idea would disappear if slaves were ever freed. Free Blacks: Slaves Without Masters Know: Emancipate, mulattoes 5. Would it have been better to be a free Black in the North or in the South? Explain. It would have been better to be a free Black in the South, because most of these free blacks were mulattoes, or freed children of a white planter and his black mistress. Some of these freed men were slaves who purchased their freedom with earnings from labor after hours. Also, these free blacks owned property, especially in New Orleans, where a sizable mulatto community prospered. However, in the North, free blacks were often severely mistreated and had to compete with Irish immigrants for gruesome and often menial jobs. Also, the anti-black feeling was often stronger in the North than in the South. Plantation Slavery Know: Chattel, natural increase, Harriet Beecher Stowe 6. "...planters regarded slaves as investments [like a mule]...." Explain what was positive and what was negative about this situation for slaves. The positive part about this situation for slaves was that slave owners who treated them as investments were less likely to harm them or mistreatment for fear of lowering their value.

Jessica Chu Period-6 However, the negative part was that they were simply items for slave owners. These slave owners did not see the slaves as people, only as commodities to be bought and sold at their convenience for a profit. Life Under the Lash Know: Overseer, breaker, Old South, Deep South 7. Give evidence to show that slaves developed a separate, unique culture. What circumstances made this possible? Slaves retained elements of their African heritage and fused it with the Evangelical and Baptist movements of the south. Worship services integrated the call and response found in traditional African music. The Burdens of Bondage Know: Peculiar institution, Gabriel Prosser, Denmark Vesey, Nat Turner 8. Thomas Jefferson once said that having slaves was like holding a wolf by the ears, you didn't like it but you couldn't let go. How does this section help to explain this statement? Southern whites lived a backwards society in an age of progress, fearful of slave revolts and struggling to maintain the institution of slavery. They are powerful and outnumber and one wrong move could result in the owners being mauled. Early Abolitionism Know: Abolition, The American Colonization Society, Theodore Weld, Arthur and Lewis Tappan, Harriet Beecher Stowe 9. Describe some of the early abolitionists. Early abolitionists initially wanted to transport blacks back to Africa. Theodore Weld was an earnest and passionate preacher inspired by the evangelical movement who travelled, speaking against slavery. He was aided by the wealth of the Tappan brothers, Arthur and Lewis. Radical Abolitionism Know: William Lloyd Garrison, Wendell Phillips, David Walker, Sojourner Truth, Frederick Douglass 10. How were the attitudes of William Lloyd Garrison and Frederick Douglass different? When dealing with an issue that is moral and political, how rigid should a person be? William Lloyd Garrisons passion for abolition could also be described as militant. His newspaper, The Liberator , created even more tension between the two sides of the slavery debate. He was very stern and unforgiving, and could not even tolerate the idea of slavery. Frederick Douglas, on the other hand, was flexibly practical. He focused on the political way to end slavery rather than inciting more tension with slave owners. The South Lashes Back 11. How did the South defend itself against the attacks of abolitionists? Proslavery whites responded by launching a massive defense of slavery as a positive good. In doing so, they forgot their own sections previous doubts about the morality of the peculiar institution. Slavery, they claimed, was supported by the authority of the Bible and the wisdom of Aristotle. It was good for the Africans, who were lifted from the barbarism of the jungle and clothed with the

Jessica Chu Period-6 blessings of Christian civilization. Slave masters strongly encouraged religion in the slave quarters. They also pointed out that master-slave relationships really resembled those of a family. Southern whites also were quick to contrast the happy lot of their servants with that of the over-worked northern wage slaves, including sweated women and stunted children. The Abolitionist Impact in the North 12. How did Northerners view abolitionists? Did they have any success? The Northerners view of abolitionists was not very good. They did not agree with the tactics of radical antislaveryites. However, these tactics ended up having quite an impact on the northerners view on slavery. Later on, many more people started to think of the South as the land of the unfree and the home of a hateful institution. And while few people wanted to abolish slavery altogether, there were more and more abolitionists in the making.

Jessica Chu Period-6 Chapter #17: Manifest Destiny and Its Legacy Big Picture Themes 1. A boundary dispute with England over Maine was settled peacably. In the long run, the U.S. likely got the better end of the deal. 2. Texas finally joined the U.S. Since the Texas revolution, itd been hanging in the balance. American lawmakers finally decided it was too good of a prize to let slip by, so it was annexed in 1845 3. Oregon was next on the list of lands to seal up. It was shared land, mainly between the U.S. and England. After some negotiating over the border, the 49th parallel was agreed upon. Again, the U.S. likely got the better. 4. The election of 1844 saw James K. Polk run on a Manifest Destiny platform. Americans liked the idea, voted him in, and he went after California. 5. When the Mexican-American war was over, the prize of California that Polk had wanted, was obtained. So was all of the modern American Southwest. IDENTIFICATIONS: John Tyler He was Vice President to William Henry Harrison, and became president after Harrison died of pneumonia. He was described as a Democrat in Whit clothing, and served as president for 204 weeks. He was also incredibly hostile to the notion of a centralized bank Slidells Mission Once Polk heard the rumors that Britain was planning to buy or seize California a grab that Americans could not tolerate under the Monroe Doctrine, he dispatched John Slidell to Mexico City as minister late in 1845. The new envoy, among other alternatives, was instructed to offer a maximum of $25 million for California and territory to the east. But the proud Mexican people would not even permit Slidell to present his insulting proposition John C. Fremont He was a captain, and a dashing explorer, who just happened to be at California with several dozen well-armed men when General Stephen W. Kearny was sent to capture the state in 1846. In helping to overthrow Mexican rule in 1846, he collaborated with American naval officers and with the local Americans, who had hoisted the banner of the short-lived California Bear Flag Republic. Manifest Destiny This was the widespread idea of creating a country that spread from sea to shining sea. It also promoted the idea that Americans had the right to own their surrounding land, and to use it to their advantage. James K. Polk Polk became the eleventh president of the United States, and his idea of western expansionism, inspired by Andrew Jackson, led to the Mexican War and the annexation of California and much of the surrounding territory in the south west. In order to acquire California, which would give the nation ports on each side of the continent, Polk strongly pushed the American troops to the border of Texas, kindling the first attack by the Mexicans. Webster-Ashburton Treaty After an explosive controversy of the early 1840s involving the Maine boundary dispute, Secretary of the State Daniel Webster and conciliatory financier Lord Ashburton made and signed a treaty on August 9, 1842, resolving several border issues between the United States and

Jessica Chu Period-6 the British North American colonies, especially the brawl that broke out near the Maine and New Brunswick border Spot Resolution This resolution was proposed by a rep in the House of Representatives, Abraham Lincoln, who was also part of the Whig party. He stated that Polk tell Congress the specific spot where blood was spilt on American soil, after Polk had asked Congress to declare war on Mexico The Tariff of 1842 This tariff was passed to make even more revenue in the US, as well as act as a protective tariff. Its average rate was 32%, and it was signed by John Tyler, who did not like tariffs in the first place. Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo Mexico ceded a wide swath of nearly half its territory, including Texas and California. In return, the US paid about 10 million in reparations. This enormous territorial gain boosted the power and prestige of the young nation. Wilmot Proviso Resolution that would have banned slavery in the Mexican Cession territory. Southerners blocked its inclusion in the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo.