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Yugntar Institute of Technology and Management, Rajnandgaon

ABSTRACT The principal information of power flow analysis is to find the magnitude and phase angle of voltage at each bus and the real and reactive power flowing in each transmission lines. Load flow study is a technique that provides basic calculation procedure in order to determine the characteristics of power system under steady state condition. In this thesis load flow study for 48-bus 48 bus system is carried by using ETAP simulation software. A 400/220KV substation real time data is collected for the month of June July 2011. The transient characteristic of power system is analyzed using short circuit analysis. A short circuit analysis is done to find the rating of circuit breakers. In this thesis symmetrical three-phase phase fault is considered. Short circuit analysis gives the DC offset current, circuit break breaker er making and breaking currents. The suitability of CB connected to existing system is observed using this technique. It is observed that CB near to fault trips the CB and protect the system from instability. In this thesis there is a scope to analysis the effect of unsymmetrical faults on power system during short circuit. KEY WORD: ETAP simulation software, DC offset current, Single line diagram di design by ETAP software. software I. INTRODUCTION Load flow studies are used to ensure that electrical power transfer from generators to consumers through the grid system is stable, reliable and economic. Conventional techniques for solving the load flow problem are iterative, using the Newton-Raphson Newton or the Gauss-Seidel Seidel methods. In a three phase ac power system active and reactive rea power flows from the generating station to the load through different networks buses and branches. The flow of active and reactive power is called power flow or load flow. Load flow studies are based on a nodal voltage analysis of a power system. system


Journal Of Creative Research Thoughts, Volume 1, Issue.4, April 2013



OBJECTIVE OF LOAD FLOW STUDY IN POWER SYSTEM The power flow study is the magnitude and phase angle of the voltage at each bus, and the real and reactive power flowing in each line. A power flow study usually uses simplified notation such as a one-line diagram and per-unit system, and focuses on various forms of AC power (i.e.: voltages, voltage angles, real power and reactive power). The load flow solution gives the nodal voltages and phase angles and hence the power injection at all the buses and power flows through interconnecting power channels. System transmission loss minimizes. Economic system operation with respect to fuel cost to generate all the power needed. SHORT CIRCUIT ANALYSIS Power system operates under balanced conditions under abnormal condition (fault) the system becomes unbalanced. If the insulation of system fails at any point or if two or more conductor that normally operates with a potential difference comes in contact with each other, a short circuit or a fault is said to be occur. Fault may occur at different point in a power system. Transmission line fault that occurs on a transmission line are broadly classified as: Three phase short circuit (symmetrical fault). Unsymmetrical fault.



EFFECT OF FAULTS Faults can damage or disrupt power system in several ways. Faults give rise to abnormal operating condition, usually excessive current at certain point on the system. Large voltages stress insulation beyond their breakdown value large currents result in of power system component. Fault can cause a system unstable. Hence it is necessary in the occurrence of fault the faulty section should be disconnected as rapidly as possible in order to overcome the normal operation of the rest of the system is not affected. The relay should immediately detect the existence of the fault and initiate circuit breaker operation to disconnect the faulty section.

V. ETAP (ELECTRICAL TRANSIENT AND ANALYSIS PROGRAM) ETAP is the most comprehensive analysis platform for the design, simulation, operation, and automation of generation, distribution, and industrial power systems. ETAP is developed under an established quality assurance program and is used worldwide as high impact software. VI. FEATURE OF ETAP Five Levels of Automatic Error Checking..
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International Journal Of Creative Research Thoughts, Volume 1, Issue.4, April 2013



Merge Independent PowerStation Project Files. Integrated 1-Phase, 3-Phase, & DC Systems. Integrated One-Line Diagram & Underground Raceway Systems. Common Database for all Studies. Typical Data for Motors, Generators, Transformers, Reactors, Governors, & Exciters. No Voltage Limitations. Unlimited Protective & Metering Device Connections to Branches & Loads. Any System Frequency. SINGLE LINE DIAGRAM OF 400/220KV SUBSTATION BY USING ETAP:-


SHORT-CIRCUIT REQUIRED DATA:Bus Data. Required data for short-circuit calculation for buses includes. Nominal kV. Nominal kV (when the prefault voltage option is set to use nominal kV). Type, such as MCC, switchgear, etc., and continuous and bracing ratings.

International Journal Of Creative Research Thoughts, Volume 1, Issue.4, April 2013

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RESULT AND CONCLUSION By the help of this ETAP software we conclude: Input data (practically) is approximately equal to calculated value (software). System losses are calculated by software, practically not possible. Transformer load are calculated (under load or no load). Transmission line losses are calculated. Branch loading and losses. Optimum system running conditions and load distribution. Optimum tap range of transformers. Bus and load current.

X. FUTURE SCOPE In future we calculated the active power (P), reactive power (Q), voltage (V) and load angle ( ) of a slack, generator and load bus with the help of ETAP software. The power flow analysis programming can be further extended for the stability analysis, fault analysis and modification /extension of existing power system. REFRENCES
1. Load flows, Chapter 18, Bus classification, Comparison of solution methods, N-R Method Electrical Power system by C.L.WADHWA. 2. L. P. Singh (1983) Advance power system analysis and dynamics, 4th Edition, New International (P) Ltd Publishers. 3. Hadi Saadat (2002) Power System Analysis, Edition , Tata Mc Graw Hill. 4. Symmetrical Components for Power Systems Engineering by J. Lewis Blackburn.

International Journal Of Creative Research Thoughts, Volume 1, Issue.4, April 2013

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