# The following pages of data and physical properties are provided as references in the use and

application of Spiral pipe and fittings.
The complexity of air system design engineering
has changed dramatically since the 1950’s even
though the basic formulas have still remained
the same. There have been significant additional
theories added with new extremely complex
and systematic formulas needed to satisfy these
computations and provide for further enhancement
of the overall systems of today. We have tried to
give you the basic information needed for both
methods. The old rule of thumb method seems to
be the simplest method for smaller and moderate
jobs. For complex jobs, we still recommend a
certified engineer.
The new method of static loss calculations is far too
complex for the average Joe. Therefore, we have
given you the quick reference chart approach to
simplify and speed up the process.
Basic Definitions
The following are used to describe airflow and will
be used extensively in this catalog. Standard air
is defined at standard atmospheric pressure (14.7
psia), room temperature (700 F) and zero water
content; its value is normally taken to be 0.075 lbs/
ft3.
The volumetric flow rate, many times referred to as
“volumes,” is defined as the volume or quantity of
air that passes a given location per unit of time, i.e.
(cfm). It is related to the average velocity and the
flow cross-section area in ft2 by the equation
Q=VA
where Q = volumetric flow rate or cfm,
V= average velocity or fpm, and
A= cross-sectional area in ft2.
Given any two of these three quantities, the third
can readily be determined as follows:
Q=VA or V=Q/A or A=Q/V
There are three different but mathematically related
pressures associated with a moving air stream.
Static pressure (SP) is defined as the pressure in
the duct that tends to burst or collapse the duct
and is expressed in inches of water gage (˝wg).

Engineering Data

Velocity pressure (VP) is defined as that pressure
required to accelerate air from zero velocity to
some velocity (V) and is proportional to the kinetic
energy of the air stream. Using standard air, the
relationship between V and VP is given by
Ó

VP will only be exerted in the direction of airflow
and is always positive.
Total pressure (TP) is defined as the algebraic sum
of the static and velocity pressures or TP=SP+VP.
Total pressure can be positive or negative with
respect to atmospheric pressure and is a measure
of energy content of the air stream, always
dropping as the flow proceeds downstream through
a duct. The only place it will rise is across the fan.
Total pressure can be measured with a pitot tube
pointing directly upstream and connected to a
manometer.
Principles of air flow
Two basic principles of fluid mechanics govern
the flow of air in industrial ventilation systems:
conservation of mass and conservation of energy.
These are essentially bookkeeping laws which state
that all mass and all energy must be completely
accounted for and it is important to know what
simplifying assumptions are included in the
principles discussed below:
1. Heat transfer effects are neglected. However,
if the temperature inside the duct is significantly
different than the air temperature surrounding
the duct, heat transfer will occur. This will lead to
changes in the duct air temperature and hence in
the volumetric flow rate.
2. Compressiblity effects are neglected. However,
if the overall pressure drop from the start of the
system to the fan is greater than about 20 ˝wg, then
the density needs to be accounted for.
3. The air is assumed to be dry. Water vapor in the
air stream will lower the air density, and correction
for this effect, if present, should be made.
4. The weight and volume of the contaminant in
the air stream is ignored. This is permissible for
the contaminant concentrations in typical exhaust
ventilation systems. For high concentrations of
solids or significant amounts of some gases other
than air, corrections for this effect should be
included. (Continued on page 54)

50

spiralmfg.www.com Engineering Data Static Pressure (SP) Loss for 90° and 45° Die-Formed Elbows -Ì>ÌVÊ*ÀiÃÃÕÀiÊÃÃÊvÊ.

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5CLR) Elbows @ 4000 ft/min with .5 2140 3080 4194 0 Elbow Loss Factor Based per 100 feet duct length • viscosity (cP).999 (VP) Size 3” 4” 5” 6” 7” 8” 9” 10” 12” 14” Straight Duct Loss (inches Water): 10. • Minneapolis.56 0.14 2.5 342.22 3.70 2.86 1.48 Total Duct Loss (˝wg) 900 Stamped 10.3 534.38 4.46 4.8 770.01 2.37 3.39 1.63 3.0005 • Flow region Turbulent.W. MN 55448-3158 Phone: 763-755-7677 • 800-426-3643 • Fax: 763-755-6184 .62 2.56 3. 4000fpm • friction factor 0.2 1068 1396 1732.02 • velocity pressure .15 Total Duct Loss (˝wg) 45 Stamped 10.999 51 11419 Yellowpine Street N.24 1.95 2.18 5.63 0.30 7.32 1.55 2.018 • Inlet pressure (psig) 0 • Temp (F) 70° • Galvanized metal roughness (ft) .075 Flow Rate: SCFM 192.94 1.22 7.Õ > Ê ÌiÀ iÃ V Ê ÎÊÊ { i   £]xää > £]äää ää nää Çää Èää °ääxÊÊÊÊÊÊÊ°ääÇxÊÊ°ä£Ê°ä£ÓxÊ°ä£xÊÊÊÊ°äÓÊÊ°äÓxÊÊ°äÎÊÊÊÊÊ°ä{ÊÊÊ°äxÊÊÊÊÊÊÊÊ°äÇxÊÊÊÊÊÊ°£ÊÊÊÊ°£ÓxÊ°£xÊÊÊÊÊÊ°ÓÊÊÊÊ°ÓxÊÊÊÊ°ÎÊ°ÎxÊÊ°{°{xÊ°x -Ì>ÌVÊ*ÀiÃÃÕÀiÊÃÃ]ÊViÃÊvÊ7>ÌiÀ Table 51-1: Duct Pressure Loss Results for Stamped (1.30 3.49 2.79 1.31 4.15 7.11 5.04 5.

5-Gore and 3-Gore Elbows -Ì>ÌVÊ*ÀiÃÃÕÀiÊÃÃÊvÊx}ÀiÊäcÊ LÜÃ Ç]äää È]äää >ÀÌÊxÓ£ x]äää 6iVÌÞ]Ê* {]äää Î]äää Ó]xää nä Îä xä £äÊ Óä iÃ V Ê { Ê ÌiÀ i > ÌÊ.Engineering Data Static Pressure (SP) Loss for 90° and 45°.

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79 2.22 3.999 (VP) 3” 4” 5” 6” 7” 8” 9” 10” 12” 14” Straight Duct Loss (inches Water): Size 10.15 7.8 770.65 3.48 4.21 2.018 • Inlet pressure (psig) 0 • Temp (F) 70° • Galvanized metal roughness (ft) .72 0.72 2.39 7.5CLR) Elbows @ 4000 ft/min with .48 2.31 4.24 Total Duct Loss (“wg) 450 3 Gore 10.65 0.41 1.48 Total Duct Loss (“wg) 900 5 Gore 10.49 2.72 3.999 52 .24 1.46 3.39 3.5 342.55 2.32 7.03 1.96 1. 4000fpm • friction factor 0.21 5.79 1.25 5.0005 • Flow region Turbulent.17 Flow Rate: SCFM 192.3 534.2 1068 1396 1732 2140 3080 4194 Elbow Loss Factor Based per 100 feet duct length • viscosity (cP). >   Ó]äää iÃ V Ê  iÀÊ £]xää £]äää ää nää Çää Èää °ääxÊÊÊÊÊÊÊ°äänÊÊÊÊ °ä£ä ä£ÎÊ°ä£xÊÊÊÊ°äÓÊÊÊ°äÓxÊÊ ° °äÎÊÊÊÊÊ°ä{ÊÊÊÊÊ°äxÊÊÊÊÊÊÊÊ°äÇxÊÊÊÊÊÊÊ°£ÊÊÊÊ°£ÎÊ°£xÊÊÊÊÊÊÊ°ÓÊÊÊÊ°ÓxÊÊÊÊ°ÎÊÊ°Îx °{Ê°{xÊ°x -Ì>ÌVÊ*ÀiÃÃÕÀiÊ­-°*°®ÊÃÃ]ÊViÃÊvÊ7>ÌiÀ -Ì>ÌVÊ*ÀiÃÃÕÀiÊÃÃ]ÊViÃÊvÊ7>ÌiÀ Table 52-1: Duct Pressure Loss Results for Gored (1.04 5.19 2.55 4.95 2.02 • velocity pressure .

spiralmfg.www.W.com Engineering Data 53 Static Pressure (SP) Loss in 90° Tees & Conical Tees 11419 Yellowpine Street N. MN 55448-3158 Phone: 763-755-7677 • 800-426-3643 • Fax: 763-755-6184 . • Minneapolis.

Table 54-1: Equivalent Resistance in Feet of Straight Duct Size 300 450 Size 300 450 3” 3 4 20” 18 28 4” 4 6 22” 20 31 5” 5 7 24” 22 34 6” 6 9 26” 24 37 7” 6 10 28” 26 40 8” 7 11 30” 28 43 9” 8 13 32” 29 45 10” 9 14 34” 31 48 12” 11 17 36” 33 51 14” 13 20 38” 35 54 16” 15 23 40” 37 57 18” 17 26 42” 39 60 54 .>ÌÊrÊ r {äää 61 H ÀÊ >ÀÌ\Ê£°xÊ. Any losses due to acceleration of combined flow should be added to the calculations in the outlet pipe. If the effects discussed on page 51 are negligible. Enlargement regain should not be included in branch entry enlargements. the sum of the two flow rates that enter the fitting must be equivalent to the total leaving the fitting.>ÌÊrÊ ÊÊÊÊÊ1«ÃÌÀi>Ê6iVÌÞÊ­61®Ê ÊÊÊÊÊÊÊÊÊÊÊÊÊÊÊÊÊÊÊÊÊÊÊÊÊÊÊÊÊÊÊÊÊÊÊ ÊÊÊÊÊÊÊÊÊÊÊÊÊÊÊÊÊÊ-iiVÌÊVÕÀÛiÊVÀÀiÃ«`}ÊÌÊÌÃÊÀ>ÌÊ>`Ê Ê Ê `iÌiÀiÊLÀ>VÊÃÌ>ÌVÊ«ÀiÃÃÕÀiÊÃÃÊ>ÃÊ>Ê Ê vÕVÌÊvÊLÀ>VÊÛiVÌÞ° -Ì>ÌVÊ*ÀiÃÃÕÀiÊÃÃ]ÊViÃÊvÊ7>ÌiÀ Branch Entries Outlet Branch 1 Branch Angle Branch 2 (Continued from page 50) Conservation of mass requires that the net change of mass flow rate must be zero. At a branch entry.Engineering Data Static Pressure (SP) Loss in 45° Laterals & Branch Entry Loss -Ì>ÌVÊ*ÀiÃÃÕÀiÊÃÃÊÊ{xcÊ>ÌiÀ>Ã Ý>«i\Ê>Ê­61®ÊrÊ{äää]Ê À>VÊ­6 ®ÊrÊÈäää 6 Èäää rÊ£°x 6iVÌÞÊ. Note that branch entry loss is assumed to occur in the branch for calculations. the flow rate that enters a hood must be the same as the flow rate that passes through the duct leading from the hood.>ÌÊJÊÈäääÊv°«°°ÊrÊ£°»Ê-°*°ÊÃÃ 61 6 À>VÊ6iVÌÞ]Êv°«°°Ê­6 ÊÊ® >ÀÌÊxÎ£ ° °n £°ä £°Óx £°x Ó°ä Î°ä À>VÊ6iVÌÞÊ­6 Ê®Ê Ê >VÕ>ÌiÊ6iVÌÞÊ. then the density will be constant and the net change of volumetric flow rate (Q) must be zero. Therefore.

• Minneapolis.69 15” 1.12 1.36 0.43 0.43 1.40 0.26 0.79 13” 1.40 0.45 9” 2.37 0.29 0.84 2.34 3.75 2.51 1.27 4.36 6.39 12” 1.51 30” 0.92 58” 0.55 5” 4.com Engineering Data Equivalent Resistance & Friction Loss Quick Reference Charts Table 55-1: Elbow Equivalent Resistance In Feet Of Straight Pipe By Center Line Radius (CLR) 1.35 0. 55 11419 Yellowpine Street N.www.51 48” 0.02 3.74 14” 1.16 5.56 0.20 1.09 1.5 CLR 0 0 2.32 0.5 CLR 0 0 0 Size 90 Elbow 60 Elbow 45 Elbow 30 Elbow 90 Elbow 60 Elbow 45 Elbow 30 Elbow 90 Elbow 600 Elbow 450 Elbow 300 Elbow 3” 5 3 3 2 3 2 2 1 3 2 2 1 4” 6 4 3 2 4 3 2 1 4 3 2 1 5” 9 6 5 3 6 4 3 2 5 3 3 2 6” 12 8 6 4 7 5 4 2 6 4 3 2 8” 13 9 7 4 9 6 5 3 7 5 4 2 10” 15 10 8 5 10 7 5 3 8 5 4 3 12” 20 13 10 7 14 9 7 5 11 7 14” 25 17 13 8 17 11 9 6 16” 30 20 15 10 21 14 11 7 18” 36 24 18 12 24 16 12 8 20” 41 28 21 14 28 19 14 9 22” 46 31 23 15 32 21 16 11 24” 57 38 29 19 40 27 20 13 30” 74 50 37 24 51 34 26 17 36” 93 62 47 31 64 43 32 21 40” 105 70 53 35 72 48 36 24 48” 130 87 65 43 89 60 45 29 6 4 7 5 1 3 2 1 4 35 73 49 Losses in Elbows and Fittings. Hence roughness of material has but slight effect over a wide range of moderately smooth materials.84 44” 0.75 9.40 1. 3500 4000 4500 5000 Duct Dia.88 3.93 1.43 10” 1.00 56” 0.99 1. expressed as “wg per 100 feet of pipe.34 0.80 10.33 38” 0.53 0.46 7.53 1.45 0.13 32” 0.24 0.31 0.62 1.01 1.38 0.25 0.78 4.82 1.65 16” 1.29 0.68 0.W. Table 55-2: Friction Loss In Inches Of Water (˝WG) Per 100 Feet Of Spiral Pipe Velocity FPM Duct Velocity FPM Velocity FPM Dia.28 0.61 Ó°Ç{ This equation gives the friction losses.34 0.47 0.55 36” 0.38 0.14 40” 0.85 60” 0.79 0.51 0.43 24” 0.99 12.42 0. When an air stream undergoes change of either direction or velocity.).05 2.40 0.81 34” 0.33 0.56 0.88 1.77 0.03 8.47 8” 2.27 0.31 0.48 0. 3500 4000 4500 5000 Duct Dia.03 2. 3500 4000 4500 5000 3” 7.00 28” 0.70 8.90 1.60 0.75 0.72 46” 0.91 2.55 22” 0.01 1.60 0.28 0.23 1.075 lbm/ft3 density flowing through average.52 0.61 0.37 0.67 2.87 1. Unlike friction losses in straight duct.26 0. for standard air of 0.36 6.52 6” 3.56 0.42 0.50 0.spiralmfg.70 0.55 4.98 42” 0.30 1.50 15.62 3. MN 55448-3158 Phone: 763-755-7677 • 800-426-3643 • Fax: 763-755-6184 .21 0.01 54” 0.23 0.65 0.09 2. a dynamic loss occurs.75 18” 0.45 0. or directly in inches of water gage (˝wg).30 1. round galvanized pipe having approximately 40 slip joints per 100 feet (k = 0.58 4” 5.0 CLR 0 0 0 0 2.22 0. clean.30 2.19 20” 0.65 0.99 1.61 26” 0.29 5.78 2.40 1. or as a fraction of velocity pressure.72 0.41 11” 1.34 50” 0. fitting losses are due to internal turbulance rather than skin friction.0005 ft.49 7” 2.56 3.47 0.35 0.30 2. Fitting losses can be expressed as equivalent length of straight duct.32 0.20 0.18 1.33 4.59 2.21 52” 0.27 17” 0.44 5.76 3.

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www.com Compression & Deflection Properties of Spiral Pipe.spiralmfg. Static Pressure (SP) Loss in Flexible Rubber Hose Engineering Data *ÞÃV>Ê*À«iÀÌiÃÊvÊ-«À>Ê*«i Óxä £Ê Ê «ÀiÃÃÊ>`} Ê Ê*Õ`ÃÊ*iÀÊi>ÊÌ Ê «ÀiÃÃÊ>`} ÊÊ*Õ`ÃÊ*iÀÊi>ÊÌ {ää Îxä Îää ÓäÊ Óxä Ó£Ê Óää ÓÓÊ * Ê7 .

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S. ˝wg ** ** ** ** ** ** 304 193 111 83 66 47 44 39 36 35 33 33 33 *** *** *** *** *** *** *** *** PSI ** ** ** ** ** ** 11.4 1.7 1. and Strength Properties of Spiral Pipe Nominal Diameter (inches) Bursting Pressure (Seam Failure) P. * * * * * 460 375 325 275 240 220 185 170 160 145 140 120 100 87 78 68 60 55 52 48 37 32 Calculation of wall thickness to diameter ratio: Internal Negative Pressure To Collapse Standard Pipe In.0 7.0 4.0 2.Engineering Data Diameter.25 1. 24 24 24 24 24 24 24 24 24 24 24 24 24 24 24 24 24 24 22 22 22 22 22 22 22 22 22 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 20 22 24 26 28 30 32 34 36 42 48 Max. Gauge. Collapsing & Bursting Pressures Diameters. Gauge & StrengthProperties. * 500 350 275 220 175 150 135 115 95 85 80 72 65 58 53 47 41 48 42 37 33 30 28 27 29 25 Max.2 1.2 *** *** *** *** *** *** *** *** ­ .3 1.4 1. 22 20 18 18 18 18 18 18 18 18 18 18 18 18 18 18 18 18 18 18 18 18 18 18 18 18 18 Std.I Steel Guage Std.2 1.6 1.0 3.

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H2O) *** Less than 1.0336 24 .7 ˝wg 1 ˝wg = .0361 PSI Properties are approximate. for lower charts.0635 18 .0516 20 .0023 Above reference.7 PSI (-407 in. to predict bursting and collapsing pressures./ ® = .0296/13 = .2 PSI £x xää ÌiÀ>Ê i}>ÌÛiÊ*ÀiÃÃÕÀiÊÌÊ >«Ãi]Ê«°Ã°° Þ`ÀÃÌ>ÌVÊ*ÀiÃÃÕÀiÊÌÊ>ÕÀi]Ê«°Ã°° >ÀÌÊÌÊ«Ài`VÌÊLÕÀÃÌ}Ê «ÀiÃÃÕÀiÃÊvÊÃÌiiÊ-«À>Ê««i {ää >ÀÌÊÌÊ«Ài`VÌÊV>«Ã} «ÀiÃÃÕÀiÃÊvÊÃÌiiÊ-«À>Ê««i £ä  Îää Óxä Óää £xä £ää ä nä Çä Èä xä n Ç È x { Î Ó £°x {ä Îx Îä °ää£ °ääÓ °ääÎ °ää{ .0396 22 .0276 26 .0217 1 PSI = 27.>ÌÊvÊ7>Ê/ViÃÃ ÌÊ. Gauge Mean Thickness 16 . based on both empirical and extrapolated data *Did not fail at 500 PSI ** Did not fail at -14.

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5593 1661.5454 0.9044 2463.922 1017.014 17.500 13.226 15.562 12.906 11.7672 1.069 12.3478 2827.spiralmfg.6354 2123.3963 1.860 804.722 14.062 226.2761 3.617 9” 0.0873 0.0686 6.5763 1.098 28.566 4” Sq.754 706.470 314.4418 153.6212 8.938 63.086 18.9088 4.1964 113.5410 1809. In.7854 0. Ft. New York.com . MN 55448-3158 Phone: 763-755-7677 • 800-426-3643 • Fax: 763-755-6184 5891 5504 5131 4771 4424 4091 3770 3462 3168 2886 2618 2363 2121 1892 1676 1473 1283 1106 942 792 655 530 473 419 368 321 236 164 133 105 80 59 41 26 15 300 6872 6422 5986 5567 5162 4772 4398 4039 3696 3367 3054 2757 2474 2207 1955 1718 1497 1290 1100 924 764 619 552 489 430 374 275 191 155 122 94 69 48 31 17 350 7854 7339 6842 6362 5899 5454 5027 4616 4224 3848 3491 3150 2827 2522 2234 1964 1710 1475 1257 1056 873 707 631 559 491 428 314 218 177 140 107 79 55 35 20 400 8836 8257 7697 7157 6637 6136 5655 5193 4752 4330 3927 3544 3181 2837 2513 2209 1924 1659 1414 1188 982 795 709 628 552 481 353 245 199 157 120 88 61 39 22 450 EXHAUST GRILLES 9818 9174 8552 7952 7374 6818 6283 5771 5280 4811 4363 3938 3534 3153 2793 2454 2138 1844 1571 1320 1091 884 788 698 614 535 393 273 221 175 134 98 68 44 25 500 10799 10091 9407 8747 8111 7499 6912 6348 5808 5292 4800 4332 3888 3468 3072 2700 2352 2028 1728 1452 1200 972 867 768 675 588 432 300 243 192 147 108 75 48 27 550 650 700 750 800 900 1000 HORIZONTAL SUPPLY DUCTS 1200 11781 11009 10263 9543 8849 8181 7540 6925 6336 5773 5236 4725 4241 3783 3351 2945 2566 2212 1885 1584 1309 1060 946 838 736 641 471 327 265 209 160 118 82 52 29 12763 11926 11118 10338 9586 8863 8168 7502 6864 6254 5672 5119 4595 4098 3630 3191 2779 2397 2042 1716 1418 1149 1025 908 798 695 511 355 287 227 174 128 89 57 32 13745 12843 11973 11133 10324 9545 8796 8079 7391 6735 6109 5513 4948 4414 3910 3436 2993 2581 2199 1848 1527 1237 1103 977 859 748 550 382 309 244 187 137 95 61 34 14726 13761 12828 11928 11061 10227 9425 8656 7919 7216 6545 5907 5301 4729 4189 3682 3207 2765 2356 1980 1636 1325 1182 1047 920 802 589 409 331 262 200 147 102 65 37 15708 14678 13683 12723 11798 10908 10053 9233 8447 7697 6981 6301 5655 5044 4468 3927 3421 2950 2513 2112 1745 1414 1261 1117 982 855 628 436 353 279 214 157 109 70 39 17672 16513 15394 14314 13273 12272 11310 10387 9503 8659 7854 7088 6362 5675 5027 4418 3848 3318 2827 2376 1964 1590 1419 1257 1104 962 707 491 398 314 241 177 123 79 44 19635 18348 17104 15904 14748 13635 12566 11541 10559 9621 8727 7876 7069 6305 5585 4909 4276 3687 3142 2640 2182 1767 1576 1396 1227 1069 785 545 442 349 267 196 136 87 49 59 23562 22017 20525 19085 17698 16363 15080 13849 12671 11545 10472 9451 8482 7566 6702 5891 5131 4424 3770 3168 2618 2121 1892 1676 1473 1283 942 655 530 419 321 236 164 105 27489 25687 23946 22266 20647 19090 17593 16157 14783 13470 12217 11026 9896 8827 7819 6872 5986 5162 4398 3696 3054 2474 2207 1955 1718 1497 1100 764 619 489 374 275 191 122 69 1400 29453 27522 25656 23857 22122 20453 18850 17312 15839 14432 13090 11814 10603 9458 8378 7363 6414 5531 4712 3960 3273 2651 2364 2094 1841 1604 1178 818 663 524 401 295 205 131 74 1500 EXHAUST MAINS QUANTITY OF AIR FLOWING. 9.446 1520. 300 to 2400 FPM www.6870 3. In.3050 5. Velocity FPM Q = CFM V = VELOCITY A = AREA IN FT2 Q = VA Capacity of Round Pipe 3 to 60 Inches Diameter.59 176.534 10.635 5” 0.0690 0.W.134 452. The Industrial Press.390 530.274 6” 0. • Minneapolis.7481 2290. 3” Dia.5851 4. AREA Sq.266 8” 0.3491 14” 50.8758 7.715 201.118 1256.930 615.981 254.1817 1.2272 1.1043 2642.250 907.6350 15” 16” 17” 18” 20” 22” 24” 26” 28” 30” 32” 34” 36” 38” 40” 42” 44” 46” 48” 50” 52” 54” 56” 58” 60” 11419 Yellowpine Street N.2673 78.878 1134.0491 10” 7.6398 2.540 38.5664 1963.1364 12” 19.160 380. IN CFM 600 SUPPLY FLUES AND RISERS EHAUST RISERS AND VENT STACKS 35343 33026 30788 28628 26547 24544 22620 20774 19007 17318 15708 14176 12723 11349 10053 8836 7697 6637 5655 4752 3927 3181 2837 2513 2209 1924 1414 982 795 628 481 353 245 157 88 1800 39270 36696 34209 31809 29496 27271 25133 23082 21119 19242 17453 15752 14137 12610 11170 9818 8552 7374 6283 5280 4363 3534 3153 2793 2454 2138 1571 1091 884 698 535 393 273 175 98 2000 43197 40365 37629 34990 32446 29998 27646 25390 23230 21167 19199 17327 15551 13871 12287 10799 9407 8111 6912 5808 4800 3888 3468 3072 2700 2352 1728 1200 972 768 588 432 300 192 108 2200 47124 44035 41050 38170 35395 32725 30159 27698 25342 23091 20944 18902 16965 15132 13404 11781 10263 8849 7540 6336 5236 4241 3783 3351 2945 2566 1885 1309 1060 838 641 471 327 209 118 2400 GASES AND FUMES Reproduced in part by permission from Handbook of Air Conditioning Heating and Ventilating.485 7” 0.1416 2.7267 7.640 1385.440 19.