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Radiography - Gamma

Radiography - Gamma

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Published by Devendar Ganapuram
gamma ray
gamma ray

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Published by: Devendar Ganapuram on Nov 26, 2013
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0 Rev

08/03/10 Date

For Review & Approval Description

Prepared by TJJC

C ec!ed by TJJC

Reviewed by C"#$

Approved by %"CP$/&'P$



REV. 00

SHT. 1 of 14

GSPL/DJPL-A/ST/JP/STD/35 REV. 2 of 14 .$"' & C5ART' 03 03 03 03 03 03 00 08 08 08 08 . PRCEDURE FOR RADIOGRAPHY TESTING USING GAMMARAY DOCUMENT NO.TABLE OF CONTENTS SN DESCRIPTION PAGE 1*0 /*0 3*0 0*0 2*0 3*0 4*0 8*0 8*0 10*0 11*0 P-RP('" 'C(P" R"F"R")C"' P"R'())"$ 1-A$#F#CAT#() PR(C"D-R" 1-A$#F#CAT#() PR"PARAT#() +"T5(D($(&6 5"A$T57 'AF"T6 & ")%#R()+")T 1-A$#T6 A''-RA)C" & 1-A$#T6 C()TR($ APP")D#C"' / F(R+AT' R"$AT"D TA. 00 SHT.

0 REFERENCES: • • • • • • A'+" 'ection % A'+" Code .elds 9sin.rap y Tec nicians s all carryo9t t e ?ob* T e #nterpretation o: t e res9lts o: t e Radio.0 PURPOSE: T e p9rpose o: t is proced9re is to lay . 3 of 14 .1. s all be carried o9t only by an A')T RT ## #nspector* 5. wit t is proced9re* -.UALIFICATION: Proced9re 19ali:ication test s all be per:or=ed to t e satis:action o: t e co=pany be:ore startin. o: t e wor!* T e Co=pany Representative s all witness all 19ali:ication test* )DT o: a test weld =ay serve as a <9ali:ication test :or t e )DT proced9res and s all be witnessed by t e Co=pany* T e Testin.P' <9ali:ication =ay be 9sed :or )D" Proced9re 19ali:ication* &a==a Radio.' D1*1 A')T ')T TC C1A &'P$ / %"CP$ 'peci:ication +. &a==a Radiations7 :or detectin. GSPL/DJPL-A/ST/JP/STD/35 REV.31*8 AP# 1100 A.0 PROCEDURE . o: . t e discontin9ities in (ns ore Pipeline weld ?oints 9sin.rap s all be per:or=ed and 19ali:ied be:ore t e startin.$"' & ACC"''(R#"'D • &a==a Ray DOCUMENT NO. 00 SHT.UALIFICATION: • • (nly ">perienced &a==a Ray Radio. o: .rap y Ca=era wit #rA18/ 'o9rce and Fil=s o: A&FA D4 / D0 or e<9ivalent :il=s and proper tec ni<9e 9sed to prod9ce t e <9ality Radio. o: wor! at t e wor! site* All t e Radio.:a D4 or $aser or )DT 4 or @oda! AAA000 or F9?i 100 or )P#B 100 or any e<9ivalent :il=s* 3.0 SCOPE: T is Proced9re describes Radio. PRCEDURE FOR RADIOGRAPHY TESTING USING GAMMARAY . $ead screen wit A.rap y tec ni<9e stated in t is proced9re s all be <9ali:ied as per t e tec ni<9e s eet attac ed alon.rap ic e>a=ination :or Dar ! Ja"ra#a! P$%e&$'e Pr (e)* Sec-A* 2.0 PREPARATION 3*1 "1-#P+")T7 C()'-+A.0 PERSONNEL .rap y Testin.9ideline and re<9ire=ents and to establis a =et od or a syste= to control t e radio.rap ic Testin.

GSPL/DJPL-A/ST/JP/STD/35 REV. on t e bac!side o: :il= older to ens9re t e bac! scatterin.• • • • • • • • • • • • • Drive 9nit &9ide t9be Colli=ator '9rvey +eter Dosi=eter .rap y :il=s* T e Fil=s 9sed s all be eit er Class ## ED4 or e<9ivalentF or Class # E D0 or e<9ivalent F7 dependin. 00 SHT. does not ar= t e :il= <9ality* ..rain7 5i. lead no* .rap y de:inition7 it is re<9ired to c ec! bac! scatterin. Contrast Fil=* Class ## Fil=D Fine .rap s s all be obtained 9sin.AC@ 'CATT"R#)&D To ac ieve better Radio. tape "lastic Penetra=eters E#*1*#sF Dar! Roo= Accessories & Cons9=ables 3*/ #+A&" 1-A$#T6 #)D#CAT(R '"$"CT#()D #*1*# s all be placed on so9rce side* #n so=e case on t e :il= side wit =ar!ed G'H* T e re:erence Table :or selection o: Penetra=eter is attac ed to t is Proced9re* 3*3 F#$+ '"$"CT#()D Radio.arnin.e o: :il=sF s all be re=oved :or better res9lts and interpretation* 3*3 PR"%")T#() (F . 9pon application7 'o9rce o: Radiation to obtain t e re<9ired Radio. Rope $ead +ar!ers Crayon or Paint +ar!ers +eas9rin.9larities :ro= t e s9r:ace Eto t e e>tent o: covera. by placin. 4 of 14 .0 /ET0ODOLOG1: :ront & bac! s all be . PRCEDURE FOR RADIOGRAPHY TESTING USING GAMMARAY DOCUMENT NO. Placards Cordonin. Contrast Fil= 3*0 #)T")'#F6#)& 'CR"")'D $ead screen o: t ic!ness *002″/0*1 == or 0*0/ == :or bot 9sed* 3*2 '-RFAC" PR"PARAT#()D As :ar as possible all irre. #nd9strial Radio.rap ic 'ensitivity* Class # Fil=D %ery :ine &rain7 5i.

rap * 4*1 P$AC"+")T (F +AR@"R A)D #*1*#*D $ead =ar!ers s all be !ept to identi:y t e test (b?ect7 Date o: Radio.$" . bot t e walls o: test ob?ect EPipeF and t e i=a.rap y s all be carried o9t 9sin. 5 of 14 .A$$ '#)&$" #+A&"D T is Tec ni<9e is ideal :or pipes o: dia=eter / IJ dia and above & co=ponents E.Radio. PRCEDURE FOR RADIOGRAPHY TESTING USING GAMMARAY 0*0/0 0*030 0*000 DOCUMENT NO.le i=a.A$$ D(-.e o: t e part closest to t e :il= is recorded on t e Radio.rap * C* D(-. ere t e 'in. GSPL/DJPL-A/ST/JP/STD/35 REV.A$$ '#)&$" #+A&"D &a==aA T is Tec ni<9e is ideal :or plates7 & Pipelines or %essels7 Tan!s 'tr9ct9res & Co=ponents* #n t is tec ni<9e t e radiation penetrates t ro9.rap y7 area o: interest o: t e ob?ect7 t e location o: t e Radio.e o: t e 'in.le wall 'in.* D(-. Tec ni<9es wit Radiation* A* '#)&$" .e is not possibleF* #n t is tec ni<9e t e Radiation Penetrates t ro9. sin.e or Do9ble wall 'in. 00 SHT.le i=a.le i=a.F s all be as per t e c art belowD /a*er$a& *2$)3'e44 5$')2e46 U7 /a8$9:9 5$')2e46 -nder / / to 3 (ver 3 to 0 .es o: bot t e walls are recorded on t e Radio.eo=etrical 9ns arpness E-.le i=a.le wall is recorded on t e Radio.rap s and any ot er in:or=ation as speci:ied by t e client* / nos wire type #*1*#* s all be placed appro>i=ately 30== away :ro= t e location =ar!er s9c t at t e s=aller ole o: ole Penetra=eter & t innest wire o: t e wire type Penetra=eter s all be :ar=ost :ro= t e so9rce* #n case o: Panora=ic ">pos9re Tec ni<9es7 0 nos* #*1*#s s all be placed e<9idistant alon.$" #+A&"D T is Tec ni<9e is ideal :or s=all bore pipes o: dia=eter below / IJ & co=ponents Ew ere t e 'in. t e :ollowin.rap * .le wall o: Test (b?ect & i=a.rap ed :or better contrast* 4*/ '(-RC" T( F#$+ D#'TA)C"D 'o9rce to :il= distance s all be s9c t at t e .e is not PossibleF* #n t is tec ni<9e t e radiation penetrates t ro9.le wall sin.$" . bot t e walls o: test ob?ect EPipeF and 'in. t e circ9=:erence* T e :il= wit t e cassette s all be in :ir= contact wit t e ob?ect to be radioA.

"R (F "BP('-R"'D T e n9=ber o: ">pos9res will be s9c t at t e area o: #nterest is co=pletely covered and w en =9ltiple :il=s are 9sed t e overlap between any / :il=s will be a =ini=9= o: /0M* +ini=9= two e>pos9res s all be ta!en in Do9ble .allon o: water* To arrest developin.rade* T e :il= s all be 9nloaded in an. Centi.rains :ro= 9ne>posed or less e>posed part o: :il= & to arden base o: :il=7 t e an.eo=etrical 9ns arpness F A 'o9rce siLe t e =a>i=9= pro?ected di=ension :acin. A . action :il=s are i==ersed in a stop bat * ' a!e an.ers s all be i==ersed in :i>er :or 3 =in9tes to 10 =in9tes* DOCUMENT NO. GSPL/DJPL-A/ST/JP/STD/35 REV. Centi. 6 of 14 S*e% 3. t P%C cassettes or olders* 4*2 )-+. radio. ">pos9re c art or ">pos9re calc9lator* 4*0 F#$+ $(AD#)&D Fil= s all be loaded in t e dar! roo= 9nder proper sa:e li. ereD -.e Tec ni<9e and a =ini=9= o: t ree ">pos9res :or 'in. . t* T e te=perat9re o: t e c e=ical s all be 18 De.le #=a. t7 Filter* Fil=s s all be c9t care:9lly wit o9t any da=a. =ar!s* Developin. t ti.all Do9ble #=a.ers or spools to avoid developin. involves t e :ollowin. steps* All t e steps s all be per:or=ed on a test :il= initially to deter=ine any e::ect o: processin. perpendic9lar to :il= center* D A Distance :ro= so9rce o: radiation to t e speci=en bein. Stop bath: T e stop bat is water wit 2 to 3 drops o: Acetic Acid per .er =ar!s* 'andwic t e :il= between pair o: screens & loaded into li. PRCEDURE FOR RADIOGRAPHY TESTING USING GAMMARAY .t 7 penetrated wall t ic!ness '*F*D7 and :il= speed 9sin. is deter=ined by -.&reater t an 0 T e -.rap ed* E'*F*D*F d A Distance :ro= so9rce side o: t e speci=en to t e :il=* ET ic!nessF 4*3 "BP('-R" T#+"D ">pos9re ti=e s all be calc9lated wit act9al so9rce stren. ti=e s all be / to 3 =in9tes* any 9neven S*e% 2.rade to /3 De.all 'in.e tec ni<9e :or Pipe ?oints* 4*3 F#$+ PR(C"''#)&D Fil= s all be processed in a dar! roo= 9nder sa:e li.le #=a.er :or / to 3 =in9tes in t e stop bat * Fixer: To re=ove t e e>cess silver .e or Do9ble .ers / spools care :9lly to avoid any =ar!s* T e =an9al processin.le . 00 SHT. Developer: ' a!e t e an.all 'in. K FD / d 0*040 .es7 scratc es or :in.D S*e% 1.

ettin.S*e% +. de:ects and =ay be ca9se o: re?ection or repair o: t e weld or base =etal* All Radio.* A'+" 'ec %###7 AP# 1100 * Dia=eter o: t innest wire %isible on t e Radio.rap s s owin.rap y and t e sensitivity wit respect to γ Ray will be as per &overnin.rap M 'ensitivity K AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA × 100 Penetrated t ic!ness at t e area o: interest Edia. or in accordance wit A'+" 'ection %7 Article /7 Table /43 or ac ieve /T or e<9ivalent wire siLe7 in case o: BARay Radio.e Density 'trip s all be 9sed* (ptical density s all be between 1*8 and 3*2 or as speci:ied* 4*8 F#$+ C()TRA'TD Contrast o: t e :il= s all be ade<9ate to =ani:est on t e Radio. intensity Fil= %iewer7 capable o: readin. PRCEDURE FOR RADIOGRAPHY TESTING USING GAMMARAY DOCUMENT NO. of 14 .$'7: Fil= s all be dried in open space or in Dar! roo= by vertically* an.rap even t e s=allest t ic!ness di::erential* . Radio. s all be done 9nder s9bd9ed bac!.reed by clientHs inspector7 s all be considered representin. t intensity* %iewin. GSPL/DJPL-A/ST/JP/STD/35 REV.reater t an re?ection level described in acceptance / re?ection criteria in section /0 o: t is proced9re or as a. S*e% 5.ro9nd li.as at least :or /0 =in9tes* Dr.in.rap s o: Density 9p to 0 & wit ad?9stable li.ent E@oda! P oto:lowF w ere e>cess :i>er will be was ed :ro= t e s9r:ace o: t e :il=* .#)&D T e Fil=s s all be viewed 9nder a i. o: an intensity t at will not ca9se tro9bleso=e re:lections* Fil=s =ay be viewed in case o: re<9ire=ent 9nder wet conditions as well* 4*8 F#$+ D")'#T6D To =eas9re t e :il= density a calibrated densito=eter EorF certi:ied 'tep . Codes o: Acceptance Criteria* e*.etter t e contrast better t e interpretation o: discontin9ity* 4*10 '")'#T#%#T6D T e :il= sensitivity s all be / M or better & s all be con:ir=ed by co=p9tin. 00 SHT. A.nostic areaF 4*11 #)T"RPR"TAT#()D All indications t at are e<9al to or . 4*4 F#$+ %#".ed. :il= =ar!s in t e area o: interest s all be res ot in accordance wit t is proced9re* 4*1/ ACC"PTA)C" (R R"J"CT#() CR#T"R#AD . Water Washing with Wetting Agent: Fil=s s all be !ept in water bat wit . tin.

! of 14 . PRCEDURE FOR RADIOGRAPHY TESTING USING GAMMARAY DOCUMENT NO.Acceptance or re?ection criteria s all be in accordance wit AP# 1100 & &'P$ / %"CP$ 'peci:ications* All de:ect location s all be =ar!ed & / or recorded :or repairin. 00 SHT.* . GSPL/DJPL-A/ST/JP/STD/35 REV.

0 APPENDICES / FOR/ATS i* #nspection Test Plan E&'P$/DJP$/'T/'"CAA/#TP/32 R"%*00F ii* Radio.e w ile per:or=in.UALIT1 CONTROL 19ality Ass9rance s all be =aintained by ens9rin.ard to li.rap y Personnel s o9ld 9se Fil= bad.7 sca::oldin. 00 SHT. " of 14 . t e =ac ine* 'a:ety in t ese )DT =et ods is t e :irst priority* @.rap y is bein.rap y Tec nicians s all ave responsibilities to ens9re to evac9ate t e p9blic and )onAClassi:ied wor!er to t e sa:e distance and t e area w ere radio.4*13 R"T"'TD Retest o: t e repaired area s all be carried o9t in accordance t is proced9re* 4*10 R"P(RT#)&D All details o: inspection and res9lts o: inspection s all be doc9=ented in approved report For=at* 4*12 F#$+ 'T(RA&"D Fil=s s all be stored in dry place wit bo>es wit identi:ication* <.9lations s all be :ollowed* Area will be cordoned o:: d9rin.rap y Personnel s all ave responsibilities to t e=selves and ot er persons wit re.ard to sa:ety and s all ens9re site :acilities are ade<9ate wit re. t e Radio.0 0EALT0= SAFET1 > EN?IRON/ENT: All Radio. PRCEDURE FOR RADIOGRAPHY TESTING USING GAMMARAY DOCUMENT NO.rap ic #nspection ReportE&'P$/DJP$AA/'T/R"P/32 R"%*00F iii* Radio.0 .ARC & ot er a9t orities/re.UALIT1 ASSURANCE > .e . per:or=ed* All Radio. t e syste=atic i=ple=entation o: t is proced9re and ens9re t at necessary <9ality records are .enerated as appended to t is proced9re* 10. GSPL/DJPL-A/ST/JP/STD/35 REV. and t e li!e prior to co==ence=ent o: operations* Radiation sa:ety r9les as per .rap ic P1R E&'P$/DJP$AA/'T/P1R/32 R"%*00F 9=idity less t an 80 M in proper stora. tin.rap y wor!* Calibrated s9rvey =eters s all be 9sed to s9rvey t e radiation area to veri:y sa:e area* All Radio. t e operation* (perators s o9ld always crossc ec! radiation level wit s9rvey =eters be:ore approac in.

PRCEDURE FOR RADIOGRAPHY TESTING USING GAMMARAY DOCUMENT NO.11. T0ICBNESS IN 99 1* /* 3* 0* 2* 3* 4* 8* 8* 10* 11* 1/* 13* 10* 12* 13* 3*/00 /*230 /*000 1*300 1*/80 1*000 0*800 0*300 0*200 0*000 0*3/0 0*/20 0*/00 0*130 0*1/2 0*100 D#) 3/ F" 1 #'( 4 D#) 3/ F" 3 #'( 1/ D#) 3/ F" 10 #'( 13 T ic!ness will ave to be considered :or 'ensitivity Calc9lations / Penetra=eter selection* .0 RELATED TABLES > C0ARTS: TABLE FOR DIN AIRE T1PE AND ALSO ISO PENETRA/ETER AIRE NO. 10 of 14 . 00 SHT. GSPL/DJPL-A/ST/JP/STD/35 REV.

etween 1*8 and 3*2 in so9nd weld 6es As per ClientHs/Cons9ltantHs re<9ire=ent +an9al Developer7 stop bat 7 Fi>er7 wettin. c e=icals Acceptance Criteria Reportin.etter As per AP# 1100 80° Depend 9pon t e (b?ect siLe #n F9ll contact 0*2 == or less D4 or D0 e<9ivalent7 class ##7 =edi9= speed Depend 9pon t e (b?ect siLe 20 == on eit er side "ntire len.le wit respect to weld and :il= Foc9s to :il= distance (b?ect to :il= distance &eo=etrical -n appiness Fil= type Fil= di=ensions (verlap o: :il= Dia. Processin. 00 SHT.t #*1*# Type 'ensitivity Tec ni<9e as speci:ied in Radiation an.9tt .e and len. a.elds o: Pipelines %ario9s siLes 100M Carbon 'teel & (t ers A"A T"C5)($(&#"' '")T#)"$ 330 / A+"RT"'T 330 As per Re<9ire=ent D#) . #denti:ication o: repairs .t o: t e :il= $ead 0*1 == Front and .t #ntensi:yin.ent AP# 1100 / A)'# .nostic :il= len. 11 of 14 . screens 'creen t ic!ness +a>i=9= base :o. For=atA 0*8 F 00/ / ClientHs :or=at RA:or repair7 R.ac! 0*3 . level Fil= density C ec! on bac! scatter #denti:ication on :il= Fil= processin.all t ic!ness ran.RAD#(&RAP5#C "BA+#)AT#() T"C5)#1-" 5PIPELINE RADIOGRAP016 1* /* 3* 0* 2* 3* 4* 8* 8* 10* 11* 1/* 13* 10* 12* 13* 14* 18* 18* /0* /1* //* /3* /0* /2* /3* /4* /8* /8* (b?ect .rap ed +a!e o: "<9ip=ent Type o: "<9ip=ent 'o9rce 'tren.A :or reweld7 RT :or Reta!e7 R' :or Res oot DOCUMENT NO.t ">tent o: ">a=ination +aterial to be Radio. PRCEDURE FOR RADIOGRAPHY TESTING USING GAMMARAY . GSPL/DJPL-A/ST/JP/STD/35 REV. 31*3 & ClientHs speci:ications 'tandard Reportin.ire Type /M or .

3 213 Exposure Arrangement F%'4 – D R*-%o So/01(-)('--F%'4 A00*#&(4(#5 <=< P(#(50*4(5(0 &0*89 .'( # T-2 6 <=< P(#(50*4(5(0 So/01( S%-( P'*1(4( T#5 2 .3 213 Lo1*5%o# S%#&'( -)*'' + T2 1.UES [Contd…] F%'4 .12* 3 F%'4 S%-( T2 . REV.1 E78o6/0( R*-%o &0*89 S%#&' V%(.*'' Exposure Arrangement – A A#$ So/01 ( T-2 6 A#T*.D.'( T-2 6 E%59(0 S%-( T-2 5. P'*1(4(# 12 5 of 14 DOUBLE AALL RADIOGRAP0IC TEC0NI.3 F%'4 S%-( T2 .*'' Exposure Arrangement – B T-2 6 A#T*.1 A#$ S%#&' (. 1 So/01( 2. V%(.12 .3 T2 5.%# (& - So/01(-)('--F%'4 A00*#&(4(#5 E#.UES T-2 6 A#S('(15%o T*.1 #5 2. S%-( V%(.V%(.P%8( O.3 E%59(0 S%-( T2 5.'( T-2 6 F%'4 S%-( T2 .1 2.'()*''+ T-2 1./ S%#&'((+ )*'' T-2 1.%# PRCEDURE FOR RADIOGRAPHY TESTING USING & E#V%(.D.UES Do/.*'' F%'4 SINGLE AALL RADIOGRAP0IC TEC0NI.3 S%-( T2 ./ ( O85%o#*' So/01( Lo1*5%o# Lo1*5%o# M*0>(0 SHT. E78o6/0( T(19#%.1 21 3 DOUBLE AALL RADIOGRAP0IC TEC0NI. A#$ .12 .12* 3 M*0>(0 F%'4 S%-( P'*1(4( T-2 5. T(19#%. S('(15%o P'*1(4(# GSPL/DJPL-A/ST/JP/STD/35 00 # 5 GAMMARAY P%8( O. S%-( V%(.2 2*3 A5 L(*65 4 E78o6/0(6 120° To E*19 O59(0 Fo0 Co48'(5( Co:(0*&( S%#&' (. DOCUMENT NO.

12* 3 F%'4 S%-( T2 . 13 of 14 .12 .2 2*3 A5 L(*65 4 E78o6/0(6 120° To E*19 O59(0 Fo0 Co48'(5( Co:(0*&( S%#&' (.'( T-2 6 So/01( S%-( T2 . 00 SHT.*'' O85%o#*' So/01( Lo1*5%o# T-2 6 A#T*.'()*''+ T-2 1.3 E%59(0 S%-( T-2 5. PRCEDURE FOR RADIOGRAPHY TESTING USING GAMMARAY DOCUMENT NO.A#$ Do/. GSPL/DJPL-A/ST/JP/STD/35 REV.1 2.3 213 Exposure Arrangement – 4 E So/01( F%' F%'4 So/01( F%'4 .

GSPL/DJPL-A/ST/JP/STD/35 REV.2 Exposure Arrangement - 31/2″ o0 '(66 Do/.3 E%59(0 S%-( T-2 5.'()*'' + R(*S/8(0<48o6(So/01( S%-( A#F%'4 S%-( <4*&(6 T-2 6 A#T*.3 213 A5 L(*65 2 E78o6/0(6 A5 "0° To E*19 O59(0 Fo0 Co48'(5( Co:(0*&( Do/.'( T-2 6 So/01( S%-( T2 .'()*'' + T-2 1.2 Exposure Arrangement .12 .31/2″ o0 '(66 Do/. 14 of 14 . 00 SHT.2 2.'( T-2 6 So/01( S%-( T2 .12 .G .3 E%59(0 6%-( T 2 5.'()*'' 2E''%86(3 + R(*Off6(5 So/01( S%-( A#F%'4 S%-( <4*&(6 T-2 6 A#T*.'()*'' + T-2 1.2 2?3 223 A5 L(*65 3 E78o6/0(6 A5 60° O0 120° To E*19 O59(0 Fo0 Co48'(5( Co:(0*&( Do/. PRCEDURE FOR RADIOGRAPHY TESTING USING GAMMARAY DOCUMENT NO.

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