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20th

C: MODERN ISLAMIC CHINESE JAPANESE

FILIPINO ARCHITECTURE

history of architecture

INDIAN
FILIPINO

FILIPINO ARCHITECTURE
20th C: MODERN ISLAMIC CHINESE JAPANESE

INFLUENCES
A. HISTORY Pre-Colonial: immigrants of Malay origin, food gatherers and hunters 3000 BC, joined by advanced agricultural race from Indonesia barangays as tribal system converted to Islam in 1300 AD trade center of the Orient Spanish Rule: 1521 Ferdinand Magellan landed 1564 Miguel Lopez de Legazpi brought Christianity until 1900's nationalist movement by Jose Rizal, unsuccessful revolt by Aguinaldo

American Rule: islands ceded to America, as a result of Spanish war with USA fighting self-government Japanese Invasion: December 1941 puppet government liberation by Gen. McArthur in July 1945 independence in 1946 3rd largest English-speaking country in the world citadel of Christianity and democracy in East Asia mixture of races: Malay, Chinese, Spanish B. RELIGION Roman Catholics Islam Protestants Aglipayan Iglesia ni Kristo

history of architecture

INDIAN
FILIPINO

20th C: MODERN ISLAMIC CHINESE JAPANESE

FILIPINO ARCHITECTURE ARCHITECTURAL CHARACTER


A. DESCRIPTION tropical architecture open and transparent light SCHOOLS: Escuela Practica Y Profecional de Artes Oficio de Manila (1890) taught maestros de obras Liceo de Manila MO-P Maestros de Obra-Practica MO-A Maestros de ObraAcademia Escuela de Ingenieria Y Arquitectura closed after one year

history of architecture

Mapua Institute of Architecture (1925) 1st school of Architecture Adamson University 2nd school of Architecture UST College of Architecture (1930) 3rd school of architecture ORGANIZATIONS: Philippine Architects Society Philippine Institute of Architects League of Philippine Architects Association of Phil. Government Architects PIA + LPA + APGA = United Architects of the Philippines

INDIAN
FILIPINO

EXAMPLES
PRE-SPANISH HOUSES Bahay Kubo style of dwelling well- adapted to tropical climate of wood, bamboo, and palm leaves

FILIPINO ARCHITECTURE
Cordillera Region
20th C: MODERN ISLAMIC CHINESE JAPANESE

Mindanao & Sulu Region

history of architecture

INDIAN
FILIPINO

Isneg

Kalinga

Badjao

Samal

Yakan Bontoc Ifugao Island of Panay

Maranao

Kankanai Ivatan, Mangyan, Subanun, Mandaya

Bahay Kubo

FILIPINO ARCHITECTURE
Cordillera Region
20th C: MODERN ISLAMIC CHINESE JAPANESE

ISNEG BINURON homes of the Isneg boatpeople pyramidal or hipped roof annex on one or both ends removable sidings for special occasions

history of architecture

INDIAN
FILIPINO

FILIPINO ARCHITECTURE
Cordillera Region
20th C: MODERN ISLAMIC CHINESE JAPANESE

ISNEG BINURON

history of architecture

INDIAN
FILIPINO

FILIPINO ARCHITECTURE
Cordillera Region
20th C: MODERN ISLAMIC CHINESE JAPANESE

ISNEG BINURON

history of architecture

INDIAN
FILIPINO

FILIPINO ARCHITECTURE
Cordillera Region
20th C: MODERN ISLAMIC CHINESE JAPANESE

KALINGA BINAYON octagonal or rectangular painted round human figures roof ridge perpendicular to river loft or granary hides roof

history of architecture

INDIAN
FILIPINO

FILIPINO ARCHITECTURE
Cordillera Region
20th C: MODERN ISLAMIC CHINESE JAPANESE

KALINGA BINAYON

history of architecture

INDIAN
FILIPINO

FILIPINO ARCHITECTURE
Cordillera Region
20th C: MODERN ISLAMIC CHINESE JAPANESE

KALINGA BINAYON

history of architecture

INDIAN
FILIPINO

FILIPINO ARCHITECTURE
Cordillera Region
20th C: MODERN ISLAMIC CHINESE JAPANESE

BONTOC HOUSES SAGADA house within a house shelter for rice, chickens, pigs, and people

history of architecture

INDIAN
FILIPINO

FILIPINO ARCHITECTURE
Cordillera Region
20th C: MODERN ISLAMIC CHINESE JAPANESE

BONTOC HOUSES SAGADA

history of architecture

INDIAN
FILIPINO

FILIPINO ARCHITECTURE
Cordillera Region
20th C: MODERN ISLAMIC CHINESE JAPANESE

BONTOC HOUSES SAGADA

history of architecture

INDIAN
FILIPINO

FILIPINO ARCHITECTURE
Cordillera Region
20th C: MODERN ISLAMIC CHINESE JAPANESE

IFUGAO
built on the rice terraces near a spring or grove entry faces down slope

history of architecture

INDIAN
FILIPINO

FILIPINO ARCHITECTURE
Cordillera Region
20th C: MODERN ISLAMIC CHINESE JAPANESE

IFUGAO

history of architecture

INDIAN
FILIPINO

FILIPINO ARCHITECTURE
Cordillera Region
20th C: MODERN ISLAMIC CHINESE JAPANESE

KANKANAI BINANGIYAN Similar to the ifugao house ridge parallel to front made of narra or pine

history of architecture

INDIAN
FILIPINO

FILIPINO ARCHITECTURE
Cordillera Region
20th C: MODERN ISLAMIC CHINESE JAPANESE

KANKANAI BINANGIYAN

history of architecture

INDIAN
FILIPINO

FILIPINO ARCHITECTURE
Mindanao & Sulu Region
20th C: MODERN ISLAMIC CHINESE JAPANESE

BADJAO ladder serves as wash area mirrors symbolize the number of children lipa, djenging, and dapang houseboats

history of architecture

INDIAN
FILIPINO

FILIPINO ARCHITECTURE
Mindanao & Sulu Region
20th C: MODERN ISLAMIC CHINESE JAPANESE

BADJAO

history of architecture

INDIAN
FILIPINO

FILIPINO ARCHITECTURE
Mindanao & Sulu Region
20th C: MODERN ISLAMIC CHINESE JAPANESE

SAMAL HOUSE

history of architecture

INDIAN
FILIPINO

FILIPINO ARCHITECTURE
Mindanao & Sulu Region
20th C: MODERN ISLAMIC CHINESE JAPANESE

SAMAL HOUSE

history of architecture

INDIAN
FILIPINO

FILIPINO ARCHITECTURE
Mindanao & Sulu Region
20th C: MODERN ISLAMIC CHINESE JAPANESE

SAMAL HOUSE

history of architecture

INDIAN
FILIPINO

FILIPINO ARCHITECTURE
Mindanao & Sulu Region
20th C: MODERN ISLAMIC CHINESE JAPANESE

YAKAN HOUSE elevated 2 to 3 meters above ground kitchen annex door faces east rooms and steps are odd

history of architecture

INDIAN
FILIPINO

FILIPINO ARCHITECTURE
Mindanao & Sulu Region
20th C: MODERN ISLAMIC CHINESE JAPANESE

YAKAN HOUSE

history of architecture

INDIAN
FILIPINO

FILIPINO ARCHITECTURE
20th C: MODERN ISLAMIC CHINESE JAPANESE

history of architecture

INDIAN
FILIPINO

Mindanao & Sulu Region MARANAO TOROGAN House built for sultans and datus Arranged in a line along the river Elevated 2 to 3 meters above ground Windows face front and right Panolong and okir carvings A lamin or tower built atop the torogan hides the sultans daughter

FILIPINO ARCHITECTURE
20th C: MODERN ISLAMIC CHINESE JAPANESE

Mindanao & Sulu Region MARANAO TOROGAN

history of architecture

INDIAN
FILIPINO

FILIPINO ARCHITECTURE
Island of Panay
20th C: MODERN ISLAMIC CHINESE JAPANESE

BAHAY KUBO bamboo house on stilts home to an extended family often surrounded by a garden

history of architecture

INDIAN
FILIPINO

FILIPINO ARCHITECTURE
Island of Panay
20th C: MODERN ISLAMIC CHINESE JAPANESE

BAHAY KUBO

history of architecture

INDIAN
FILIPINO

FILIPINO ARCHITECTURE
Island of Panay
20th C: MODERN ISLAMIC CHINESE JAPANESE

BAHAY KUBO

history of architecture

INDIAN
FILIPINO

FILIPINO ARCHITECTURE
SPANISH CHURCHES
20th C: MODERN ISLAMIC CHINESE JAPANESE

history of architecture

Calasiao, Pangasinan 2nd best bell tower by Fr. Ramon Dalinao

INDIAN
FILIPINO

FILIPINO ARCHITECTURE
SPANISH CHURCHES
20th C: MODERN ISLAMIC CHINESE JAPANESE

history of architecture

Laoag Church, Ilocos Norte by Fr. Joseph Ruiz sinking belltower

INDIAN
FILIPINO

FILIPINO ARCHITECTURE
SPANISH CHURCHES
20th C: MODERN ISLAMIC CHINESE JAPANESE

history of architecture

Las Pinas Church by Fr. Diego Cera

INDIAN
FILIPINO

FILIPINO ARCHITECTURE
SPANISH CHURCHES
20th C: MODERN ISLAMIC CHINESE JAPANESE

history of architecture

Loboc, Bohol biggest number of murals on walls and ceilings

INDIAN
FILIPINO

FILIPINO ARCHITECTURE
SPANISH CHURCHES
20th C: MODERN ISLAMIC CHINESE JAPANESE

history of architecture

Manila Cathedral by Bishop Domingo Salazar

INDIAN
FILIPINO

FILIPINO ARCHITECTURE
SPANISH CHURCHES
20th C: MODERN ISLAMIC CHINESE JAPANESE

history of architecture

Miagao Church, Ilo-ilo by Fr. Fernando Comporedondo

INDIAN
FILIPINO

FILIPINO ARCHITECTURE
SPANISH CHURCHES
20th C: MODERN ISLAMIC CHINESE JAPANESE

history of architecture

Morong Church, Rizal Spanish Baroque style by Fr. Blas dela Madre

INDIAN
FILIPINO

FILIPINO ARCHITECTURE
SPANISH CHURCHES
20th C: MODERN ISLAMIC CHINESE JAPANESE

history of architecture

Panay Church largest bell, from 30 sacks of coins donated by townspeople

INDIAN
FILIPINO

FILIPINO ARCHITECTURE
SPANISH CHURCHES
20th C: MODERN ISLAMIC CHINESE JAPANESE

history of architecture

Quiapo Church restored by Juan Nakpil and Jose Maria Zaragosa

INDIAN
FILIPINO

FILIPINO ARCHITECTURE
SPANISH CHURCHES
20th C: MODERN ISLAMIC CHINESE JAPANESE

history of architecture

San Agustin Church by Fr. Juan Macias

INDIAN
FILIPINO

FILIPINO ARCHITECTURE
SPANISH CHURCHES
20th C: MODERN ISLAMIC CHINESE JAPANESE

history of architecture

San Sebastian one of first steel buildings steel from Belgium by Eiffel

INDIAN
FILIPINO

FILIPINO ARCHITECTURE
SPANISH CHURCHES
20th C: MODERN ISLAMIC CHINESE JAPANESE

history of architecture

Taal Church, Batangas by Fr. Martin Aguirre biggest church

INDIAN
FILIPINO

FILIPINO ARCHITECTURE
SPANISH CHURCHES
20th C: MODERN ISLAMIC CHINESE JAPANESE

history of architecture

Sta. Ana Church, Manila by Fr. Vicente Ingles restored by Juan Nakpil

INDIAN
FILIPINO

FILIPINO ARCHITECTURE
SPANISH CHURCHES
20th C: MODERN ISLAMIC CHINESE JAPANESE

history of architecture

Sto. Nino, Cebu by Diego de Herrera

INDIAN
FILIPINO

FILIPINO ARCHITECTURE
20th C: MODERN ISLAMIC CHINESE JAPANESE

UNESCO WORLD HERITAGE LIST San Agustin, Intramuros Miagao Church, Ilo-ilo San Agustin, Paoay, Ilocos Norte Sta. Monica, Ilocos Sur

Vigan Houses Antillan Houses Ivatan Houses

history of architecture

PARTS FIRST FLOOR: Zaguan, for caroza Quadra, horse stable Bodega, storeroom SECOND FLOOR: Stairway Caida, ante-sala from stairs Sala, living room Comedor, dining room Cocina, kitchen Dispensa, pantry Letrina or Comun, toilet Bao, bath Azotea, open terrace Aljibe, water cistern Cuarto, Alcoba, Dormitorio Entresuelo, vault Balcon, balcony Patio, courtyard

INDIAN
FILIPINO

SPANISH HOUSES: BAHAY-NABATO


evolved from the Bahay Kubo: tropical house steep, hip roof post and lintel construction light and airy structure elevated living quarters economy of materials space flowing from one room to next Spanish, Neo-Classical, Gothic, and Baroque influence: grandeur and solidity ornamentation

FILIPINO ARCHITECTURE
20th C: MODERN ISLAMIC CHINESE JAPANESE

history of architecture

INDIAN
FILIPINO

FILIPINO ARCHITECTURE
20th C: MODERN ISLAMIC CHINESE JAPANESE

history of architecture

INDIAN
FILIPINO

FILIPINO ARCHITECTURE
20th C: MODERN ISLAMIC CHINESE JAPANESE

INDIAN
FILIPINO

MORE VERNACULAR TERMS: Unosinotra, alternate/staggered Liyabe, anchor Batidura, astragal Medya Agua, awning Barandillas, baluster Rodapis, baseboard Tirante, bottom chord Pie de Gallo, brace Ladrillo, brick Kostilyahe, ceiling joists Sinturon, collar Larga Masa, concrete slab Escondro, crushed stone Abang, dowel Tubo de Banada, downspout Escombro, earth fill Alero, eaves Tabike, exterior siding Piye, feet Batidura, fillet Dotal, floorboards Soleras, floor joists Guililan, floor sill Suelo, flooring Alahado, flush

Kapatas, foreman Balangkas, framework Dos Aguas, gable roof Kuling, girder Sepo, girt Canal, groove Alulod o Kanal, gutter Caida, hall Bisagra, hinge Pulgada, inches Pendulum, king post Piyon, laborer Asinta, laying of CHB Sibe, lean-to roof Dulang, low table Kantero, Mason Kanto Mesa, miter Paupo, mortar Kostura, mortar joints Estanyo, Nikolite bar Truerka, nut Estopa, oakum De Bandeha, panel door Lingueta, GI strap Tapon, plug

history of architecture

FILIPINO ARCHITECTURE
20th C: MODERN ISLAMIC CHINESE JAPANESE

INDIAN
FILIPINO

MORE VERNACULAR TERMS: Hulog, plumb bob Bolado, projection Reostra, purlins Masilya, putty Media Cana, quarter round Vaciada, rabbet Kabilya, reinforcing bars Kaballete, ridge roll Takip Silipan, riser Rimatse, rivets Lastillas, sand and gravel Andanyo, scaffolding Rebokada, scratch coat Dutcha, shower Prigadero, sink Krokis, sketch plan Estanyo, soldering bar Biento, spacing Staka, stake Madre de Escalera, closed stringer Trabe Anzo, horizontal stud Pilarete, vertical stud Latero, tinsmith Baytang, tread

Pergola, trellis Kilo, truss Asolehos, wainscoting tiles Bagad, wall post Pitsa, washer Pasamano, window sill Poleya, wiring knob Haspe, wood grain Tabla, wood plank Plantsuela, wrought iron strap Palitada, plaster Kalinya, aligned Trankilya, barrel bolt Biga, beam Hiero, iron Kisame, ceiling Baral de Kadena, chain bolt Poste, column Kontratista, constructor Kanto, corner Dish rack, bangguerahan Sumbrero Pintuan, door head Hamba Pintuan, door jamb Senepa, fascia board Tambak, fill

history of architecture

FILIPINO ARCHITECTURE
20th C: MODERN ISLAMIC CHINESE JAPANESE

AMERICAN PERIOD Early American Period Notable architects: Daniel Burnham city plan of Manila and Baguio William Parsons Juan Arellano Tomas Mapua 1st registered architect in country Alejandro Legardo Antonio Toledo Carlos Barredo

National Museum 1st was the Legislative Building Intendencia Building adjacent to Manila Cathedral Luneta Hotel 2nd hotel in Asia French Baroque style Army and Navy Club rest and recreation for American soldiers De La Salle College by Tomas Mapua Rizal Monument obelisk Sta. Isabel College

history of architecture

INDIAN
FILIPINO

Masonic Temple, Escolta 1st concrete building in Escolta Philippine Normal School Phil. Normal University University of the Philippines Padre Faura

FILIPINO ARCHITECTURE
20th C: MODERN ISLAMIC CHINESE JAPANESE

EXAMPLES

history of architecture

INDIAN
FILIPINO

Manila Hotel 1st hotel in Asia 1st with elevator renovated by Locsin in 1975

UST Main Building by Roque Rueno

Philippine General Hospital by William Parsons

Post Office Building by Juan Arellano

FILIPINO ARCHITECTURE
AMERICAN PERIOD
20th C: MODERN ISLAMIC CHINESE JAPANESE

Ideal Theater, Avenida Rizal by Pablo Antonio Jai Alai Building demolished in 2001 Art Deco, streamline style Ambassador Hotel by Fernando Ocampo 1st skyscraper in the country (4 storeys) Syquia Apartments, Malate by Pablo Antonio Natividad Building, Escolta by Andres Luna y San Pedro Regina Building, Escolta by Andres Luna y San Pedro

Commonwealth Period Notable architects: Juan Nakpil 1st National Artist for Arch. Pablo Antonio 2nd National Artist for Arch. Enrique Bautista Gonzalo Barreto Fernando Ocampo Andres Luna y San Pedro Leandro Locsin 3rd National Artist for Arch. Agriculture & Finance Building Crystal Arcade, Escolta Quezon Institute By Juan Nakpil Lyric Theater, Escolta By Juan Nakpil

history of architecture

INDIAN
FILIPINO

FEU Main Building by Pablo Antonio

FILIPINO ARCHITECTURE
20th C: MODERN ISLAMIC CHINESE JAPANESE

EXAMPLES

history of architecture

INDIAN
FILIPINO

Metropolitan Theater

The Iglesia Ni Cristo Cathedrals by Carlos Santos Viola

The Church of the Risen Lord, UP by Cesar Concio

FILIPINO ARCHITECTURE
20th C: MODERN ISLAMIC CHINESE JAPANESE

EXAMPLES

history of architecture

INDIAN
FILIPINO

Philippine Heart Center

The Meralco Building by Jose Zaragoza

The Quiapo Mosque by Jorge Ramos

FILIPINO ARCHITECTURE
20th C: MODERN ISLAMIC CHINESE JAPANESE

EXAMPLES

history of architecture

INDIAN
FILIPINO

SM Megamall by Antonio Sindiong

Robinsons Galleria by William Coscolluela

FILIPINO ARCHITECTURE
20th C: MODERN ISLAMIC CHINESE JAPANESE

EXAMPLES

history of architecture

INDIAN
FILIPINO

The Central Bank of the Philippines

Asian Institute of Management The Quezon Monument by Federico Ilustre by Gabriel Formoso

FILIPINO ARCHITECTURE
20th C: MODERN ISLAMIC CHINESE JAPANESE

EXAMPLES

history of architecture

INDIAN
FILIPINO

The Parish of the Holy Sacrifice, UP Diliman

The New Istana, Brunei

The Philippine Stock Exchange The Cultural Center of the Philippines by Leandro Locsin

FILIPINO ARCHITECTURE
20th C: MODERN ISLAMIC CHINESE JAPANESE

EXAMPLES

history of architecture

INDIAN
FILIPINO

The Enterprise

RCBC Tower

GT Tower

Robinson Summit