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**Notations and Terminology
**

A set is a well-deﬁned collection of objects. Any object in the set is called an element or member of the set. A set is ﬁnite if it is possible to list down all its elements. Otherwise, it is said to be inﬁnite. The set {1, 2, 3, 4, 5} is a ﬁnite set while the set of all counting numbers {1, 2, 3, . . . , } is an inﬁnite set. • Uppercase letters will denote a set and braces will be used to enclose the elements of a set. • If a is an element of set A, we denote this by a ∈ A. • If a is not an element of set A, this will be denoted by a ∈ / A. • The empty or null set is a set without any elements and is denoted by ∅ or {}. • The universal set U is the set consisting of all elements under consideration. • n(A) denotes the cardinality of a ﬁnite set A, that is, the number of elements contained in A.

Describing Sets

1. Listing/Roster method - listing all the elements . Example: A = {a, e, i, o, u} 2. Rule method - using a descriptive phrase. Example: A = {x|x is a vowel in the English alphabet}

Relations on Sets

Deﬁnition. Let A and B be sets in a universal set U . 1. A is a subset of B (A ⊆ B) if every element of A is an element of B . The power set of A, (P (A)), is the set of all subsets of A. 2. A is a proper subset of B (A ⊂ B) if A is a subset of B and there exists an element of B which is not in A. 3. A and B are equal (A = B) if they have precisely the same elements. 4. A and B are in one-to-one correspondence if to each element of A, there corresponds a unique element of B and vice-versa. 5. A and B are equivalent (A ∼ B) if and only if they have the same number of elements, or equivalently, if sets A and B are in one-to-one correspondence. Example: A = {m, a, t, h} and B = {e, a, s, y } are equivalent.

Operations on Sets

Let A and B be sets. We can use Venn Diagrams to visualize sets, their relations and operations. Union (A ∪ B) Intersection (A ∩ B) Diﬀerence (A − B) Complement of A (Ac )

the set of elements that belong to A, B or both.

the set of elements that belong to A and B .

the set of elements in A which are not in B .

the set of elements in U which are not in A.

Deﬁnition. 1. An ordered pair (a, b) is a set with two elements in which we distinguish a ﬁrst and second element. (a, b) = (x, y ) if and only if a = x and b = y . 2. The Cartesian product of non-empty sets A and B , denoted (A × B), is the set of ordered pairs (a, b) where a ∈ A and b ∈ B . Properties of Operations Let A, B , and C be subsets of a universal set U . 1. A ∪ A = A 2. A ∩ A = A 3. A ∪ U = U 4. A ∩ U = A 5. A ∪ B = B ∪ A 6. A ∩ B = B ∩ A 7. If A ⊆ B , then A ∪ B = B 8. If A ⊆ B , then A ∩ B = A 9. Distributive Laws (a) A ∪ (B ∩ C ) = (A ∪ B ) ∩ (A ∪ C ) (b) A ∩ (B ∪ C ) = (A ∩ B ) ∪ (A ∩ C ) 10. De Morgan’s Laws (a) (A ∪ B )c = Ac ∩ B c (b) (A ∩ B )c = Ac ∪ B c

Example: Let U = {x|x is a counting number less than 10} = {1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9} and consider its subsets A = {1, 2, 3, 4}, B = {2, 4, 6, 8}, C = {3 , 5 , 2, 8, 9}, D = { 7, 8}, E = { 1, 3 , 5 }.

c. if A ∪ B = A then Ac ⊆ B c . y. −3. ∅} and B = {m. c.} Integers Z = {. 8)} The Subsets of the Set of Real Numbers Deﬁnition. 3. . (m) If A is a ﬁnite set and B is an inﬁnite set. e} Y = {e. 4. 2. . (c) Let A ⊆ B . 1. then x ∈ (Ac ∪ B )c . 8). . p. ∅. 4. . A ∩ B = {2. g. b. a. a. 1. A ∪ B = {1. . then (A ∪ B )c ∪ B = (A ∩ B )c ∪ A. Irrational Numbers Q = the set of nonterminating. 3. (1. z } A = {t. then A = C . repeating decimals. 5)} 6. r. nonrepeating decimals Real Numbers R = Q ∪ Q Exercises. E × D = {(1. q. (3. (k) If A ⊆ B and A ⊆ C . 3. . 3). 0. 7} 4. (l) If A = {x. . c. . if A = B and B = C . a. q = 0} = the set of terminating or nonterminating. (b) Given 3 non-empty sets A. n. 4} 5. q ∈ Z. (g) If x is an element of A and B . e. . then A ∩ B = ∅. D × E = {(7. s} B = {s. (e) For any two sets A and B . 4} 3. . Given the sets: U = {a. h. 6. . . A − C = {1. o. then B = A. . i. x. 8} 2. C = {1. (8.} Whole Numbers W = N ∪ {0} = {0. 7).1. c. (8. g. u. (5. e. TRUE or FALSE. 6. then A × B is a ﬁnite set. (f) If A is empty. a. If n(B ) = 5 and n(A ∩ B ) = 3. (7. 1. (3. r. s} Z is the set of all distinct letters of the word ”estimate” Find: (a) n(X ∩ U ) (b) Y ∩ (Z ∩ U )c (c) U − (X ∪ Y ) (d) X c ∩ (Z ∪ X ) (e) (Y ∩ Z c ) × (X c ∪ Y ) . then for any set B . (h) Q ∩ Qc is a subset of the set of real numbers. Given the sets: U = {k | k is a distinct letter of the word ”mathematics”} X = {s. A ∪ B = B .} Rational Numbers Q = {x|x = p/q. l. (7. Natural Numbers or Counting Numbers N = {1. 2. 7). 7). 1). h. y. (d) All sets are disjoint with the empty set. . −1. 3). 3. 1). 8). then B ∩ C = A. 2. (a) If A ∩ B = A. −2. 2. B and C . i. n}. (i) N ∩ Z ⊆ Q ∩ R (j) If A = B . e} C = {d. n} Find: (a) (A ∪ (B ∩ C )) (b) ((Ac ∩ B c ) ∩ C ) (c) ((A ∪ B ∪ C ) − U ) (d) ((A ∩ (B ∪ U )) ∩ (B ∩ C )) (e) ((A ∩ C ) × B ) 3. t. . t. (5. then n(B − A) = 2. 2. (8. 5). .

Lecture Handout on Algebraic Sets

Lecture Handout on Algebraic Sets

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