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FULL ADDER

OBJECTIVE

The student will be able to do the following: a. Design a one-bit full adder with carry-in and carry-out. b. Use truth table, Karnaugh map, and Boolean Algebra theorems in simplifying a circuit design. c. Implement a full adder circuit based from the design. Map Simplification Boolean expression may be simplified by algebraic manipulation. Due to duality of the boolean function, though uniquely represented by truth table, the expression may appear in different forms. Another form that we may simplify boolean expression is the use of Karnaugh map or K-map. The map is a diagram made up of squares, with each square representing one minterm of the function. Expressed in graphical form, alternate expressions can be derived from the same equation. Two-variable Map. This map consists of four squares. As seen on Figure 1(b), 0 and 1 are marked on the left and top side of the map to designate the values of the variables. The column and row represent the complement and uncomplement of the X and Y variables.

Figure 1(a) represents the 4 minterms you could placed on the K-map. Figure 1(c) simplifies the functions of adjacent cells.

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A rectangle of 8 squares represents a product term of one literal. Figure 3(a) consists of 16 squares as we apply minterm numbering system on the map. Four-variable Map. combination of squares during simplification process is as follows: One square represents a minterm of four literals(variables). Figure 3(b) shows how the four corners derived the simplified terms. Take note also of adjacent cells in simplifying the equation.Three-variable Map. Figure 2(b) marks 0 and 1 on the left ant top side of the map to designate the values of the variables. In general. A rectangle of 4 squares represents a product term of two literals. This map consists of eight squares. Simplifying adjacent cells can also mean by folding the map vertically and horizontally. Page 2 of 7 . A rectangle of 2 squares represents a product term of three literals. A rectangle of 16 squares produces a function that is equal to logic 1.

Half Adder A half adder is an arithmetic circuit that generates the sum of two binary digits. The circuit is composed of two inputs and two outputs. The input variables (X and Y) serve as the augend and addend bits; the output variables (S and C) produce sum and carry. Table 1 defines the truth table operations of the half adder circuit. Inputs X Y Outputs C S

0 0 1 1

0 1 0 1

0 0 0 1

0 1 1 0

Table 1. Truth Table of Half Adder From the given truth table and using a two-variable K-map we could obtain the circuit Boolean equation of the half adder: S=X Y C = XY Full Adder A full adder is a combination of arithmetic sum of three input bits. The two input variables (X and Y) represents the significant bits to be added and the third bit, Cin, represents the carry from the low significant position. Just like a half adder circuit, full adder has S and Cout that serve its output. Table 2 shows the truth table operations of full adder circuit. Inputs Y 0 0 1 1 0 0 1 1 Outputs Cout S 0 0 0 1 0 1 1 0 0 1 1 0 1 0 1 1

X 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 1

Cin 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 1

Table 2. Truth Table of Full Adder

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1 meter long) Digital ICs: 7486 Quad XOR 7408 Quad AND 7432 Quad OR K-MAP Page 4 of 7 . Full Adder Simplified Diagram EQUIPMENT Prototyping board (breadboard) DC Power Supply 5V or 9V Battery Light Emitting Diode (LED) (2) Solid-core wire (gauge 22.The following equations can be derived as we simplify the equation using K-maps: S=X Y Cin Y) Cout = XY + Cin (X Figure 4 represents the simplified diagram of full adder circuit: Cin X FA S Cout Y Figure 4.

Plot the design using logic gates in breadboard. 6. 4. 5. What do you think the basic reasons on why we need to use other options in simplifications? _______________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________ Page 5 of 7 . Was there any simplification you have used other than K-map derivation? Explain your answer. Draw the equivalent circuits in the CIRCUIT DIAGRAM section. Derive the equation. Based from the given truth table in Table 2. 2.CIRCUIT DIAGRAM PROCEDURE 1. _______________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________ 7. Designate LED for S and Cout. simplify S and Cout using K-map. Simplify further (if any) using Boolean theorems. Test all input combinations and check if you arrive on the same output result from the truth table (Table 2). Show your simplification in the K-map section. Assign IC and pin numbers on each gate that you will use. 3.

Truth Table of Two-bit Full Adder A0 B0 FA0 S0 Cout0 Cin1 A1 FA1 S1 Cout1 B1 Figure 5.8. Given with connected Full Adders (Figure 5). fill-up the possible output of the truth Table 3. Two-bit Full Adder Page 6 of 7 . A1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 A0 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 1 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 1 B1 0 0 1 1 0 0 1 1 0 0 1 1 0 0 1 1 B0 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 S0 Cout0 Cin1 S1 Cout1 Table 3.

com Page 7 of 7 . Microprocessors/Microcomputers An Concept by: JERRY C.blogspot. R. Introduction. (2001). D. McRaw-Hill International. M. (1980). C. and Kime. Prentice-Hall International Givone.REFERENCES Mano. and Roesser. ESPERANZA Copyright 2009 http://ThrivingAndLiving. Logic and Computer Design Fundamentals (2nd Edition Updated).

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The experiment introduces the use of Karnaugh map in simplifying circuit equation. Full adder circuit was used to implement the circuit design

The experiment introduces the use of Karnaugh map in simplifying circuit equation. Full adder circuit was used to implement the circuit design

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