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LECTURE-07

THEORY OF METAL CUTTING


- Tool Geometry

NIKHIL R. DHAR, Ph. D.


DEPARTMENT OF INDUSTRIAL & PRODUCTION
ENGINEERING
BUET
Introduction

Production or manufacturing of any object is a value addition process by


which raw material of low utility and value due to its irregular size,
shape and finish is converted into a high utility and valued product with
definite size, shape and finish imparting some desired function ability.

Machining is an essential process of semi-finishing and often finishing


by which jobs of desired shape and dimensions are produced by
removing extra material from the preformed blanks in the form of chips
with the help of cutting tools moved past the work surfaces in machine
tools. The chips are separated from the workpiece by means of a cutting
tool that possesses a very high hardness compared with that of the
workpiece, as well as certain geometrical characteristics that depend
upon the conditions of the cutting operation. Among all of the
manufacturing methods, metal cutting, commonly called machining; is
perhaps the most important. Forgings and castings are subjected to
subsequent machining operations to acquire the precise dimensions and
surface finish required. Also, products can sometimes be manufactured
by machining stock materials like bars, plates, or structural sections.
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Methods of Machining

In the metal cutting operation, the tool is wedge-shaped and has a


straight cutting edge. Basically, there are two methods of metal
cutting, depending upon the arrangement of the cutting edge with
respect to the direction of relative work-tool motion:
 Orthogonal cutting or two dimensional cutting
 Oblique cutting or three dimensioning cutting.

Orthogonal Machining Oblique Machining

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Orthogonal Cutting

The cutting edge of the tool remains at 900


to the direction of feed (of the tool or the
work)
The chip flows in a direction normal to the
cutting edge of the tool
The cutting edge of the tool has zero
inclination with the normal to the feed
The chip flows in the plane of the tool face.
Therefore, it makes no angle with the
normal (in the plane of the tool face) to the
cutting.
The shear force acts on a smaller area, so
shear force per unit area is more.

The tool life is smaller than obtained in oblique cutting (for same conditions of
cutting)
There are only two mutually perpendicular components of cutting forces on the
tool
The cutting edge is bigger than the width of cut.

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Oblique Cutting

The cutting edge of the tool remains inclined


at an acute angle to the direction of feed (of
the work or tool)
The direction of the chip flow is not normal
to the cutting edge. Rather it is at an angle β
to the normal to the cutting edge.
The cutting edge is inclined at an angle λ to
the normal to the feed. This angle is called
inclination angle.
The chip flows at an angle β to the normal to
the cutting edge. This angle is called chip
flow angle.
The chip flows at an angle β to the normal to the cutting edge. This angle is
called chip flow angle.
The shear force acts on a larger area, hence the shear force per area is smaller
The tool life is higher than obtained in orthogonal cutting
There are only three mutually perpendicular components of cutting forces on the
tool
The cutting edge is smaller than the width of cut.
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Cutting Tool Geometry

Cutting tool is device with which a material could be cut to the desired size,
shape or finish. So a cutting tool must have at least a sharp edge. There are two
types of cutting tool. The tool having only one cutting edge is called single point
cutting tools. For example shaper tools, lathe tools, planer tools, etc. The
tool having more than one cutting edge is called multipoint cutting tools. For
example drills, milling cutters, broaches, grinding wheel honing tool etc.

A single point cutting tool may be either right or left hand cut tool depending
on the direction of feed.
Primary Cutting Edge

Left hand cutting Right hand cutting


tool tool

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Tool-in-hand Nomenclature

The geometry of a cutting tool consists of the following elements: face or rake
surface, flank, cutting edges and the corner. Face or rake is the surface of
the cutting tool along which the chips flow out. Flank surfaces are those facing
the work piece. There are two flank surfaces, principal and auxiliary flank
surfaces. Principal cutting edge performs the major portion of cutting and is
formed by the intersecting line of the face with the principal flank surface.
Auxiliary cutting edge (often called end cutting edge) is formed by the
intersection of the rake surface with the auxiliary flank surface. Corner or cutting
point is the meeting point of the principal cutting edge with the auxiliary cutting
edge.

Tool axis

Shank of tool
Auxiliary Rake or Face
cutting edge
Principal cutting edge
Principal flank surface
Corner
Auxiliary flank surface

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Single Point Cutting Tool

Side rake angle (γx)


End cutting edge
angle (φe)

Side clearance
angle (αx)

Side cutting edge


angle (φs)
Nose radius (r)

Back rake
angle (γy)

End
clearance Note: All the rake and
angle (αy) clearance angles are measured
in normal direction

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Side Cutting Edge Angle (φs): The side cutting-edge angle (SCEA) is usually referred to
as the lead angle. It is the angle enclosed between the side cutting edge and the
longitudinal direction of the tool. The value of this angle varies between 0° and 90°,
depending upon the machinability, rigidity, and, sometimes, the shape of the workpiece. As
this angle increases from 0° to 15°, the power consumption during cutting decreases.
However, there is a limit for increasing the SCEA, beyond which excessive vibrations take
place because of the large tool-workpiece interface. On the other hand, if the angle were
taken as 0°, the full cutting edge would start to cut the workpiece at once, causing an initial
shock. Usually, the recommended value for the lead angle should range between 15° and
30°.

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Auxiliary or End Cutting Edge Angle (φe): The end cutting-edge angle (ECEA)
serves to eliminate rubbing between the end cutting edge and the machined
surface of the workpiece. Although this angle takes values in the range of 5° to
30°, commonly recommended values are 8° to 15°.
Side Clearance Angle (αx) and End Clearance Angle (αy): Side and end
clearance (relief) angles serve to eliminate rubbing between the workpiece and
the side and end flank, respectively. Usually, the value of each of these angles
ranges between 5° and 15°.

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Back Rake Angle (γy) and Side Rake Angle (γX): Back and side rake angles determine
the direction of flow of the chips onto the face of the tool. Rake angles can be positive,
negative, or zero. It is the side rake angle that has the dominant influence on cutting. Its
value usually varies between 0° and 15°, whereas the back rake angle is usually taken as
0°.
Nose radius (r): Nose radius is favorable to long tool life and good surface finish. A sharp
point on the end of a tool is highly stressed, short lived and leaves a groove in the path of
cut. There is an improvement in surface finish and permissible cutting speed as nose radius
is increased from zero value. Too large a nose radius will induce chatter.

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Designation of Cutting Tools

By designation or nomenclature of a cutting tool is meant the


designation of the shape of the cutting part of the tool. The following
systems to designate the cutting tool shape which are widely used are:
 Tool in Hand System
 Machine Reference System or American Standard Association (ASA)
System
 Tool Reference System
Orthogonal Rake System (ORS)
Normal Rake System (NRS)
 Maximum Rake System (MRS)
 Work Reference System (WRS)

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Tool Reference System

The references from which the tool angles are specified are the
 Reference plane (πR)
 Machine longitudinal plane (πx)
 Machine transverse plane (πy)
 Principal cutting plane (πc)
 Orthogonal plane (πo) and
 Normal plane (πn)
The reference plane (πR) is the plane perpendicular to the cutting
velocity (Vc). The machine longitudinal plane (πx) is the plane
perpendicular to πR and taken in the direction of feed (longitudinal
feed). The machine transverse plane (πy) is the plane perpendicular to
both πR and πX or plane perpendicular to πR and taken in the direction of
cross feed. The principal cutting plane (πc) is the plane perpendicular to
πR and containing the principal cutting edge. The orthogonal plane (πo)
is the plane perpendicular to πR and πc. The normal plane (πn) is
perpendicular to the principal cutting edge.
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American Standard Association System

Zm
Xm
γX Tool Character

ΠX γy γx αy αx φe φs r
αx
Ym Section B-B
50 100 70 80 200 300 1/32
A γy Back rake angle
B B Ym γx Side rake angle
αy Back or end clearance angle
Xm αy Zm αx Side clearance angle
φe φe Auxiliary or End cutting edge angle
φ γy
φs Side cutting edge angle (90o-φ)
A ΠY r Nose radius (inch)
Section A-A

φs
ΠR

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Orthogonal Rake System (ORS)

Zo Yo

Xo Zo
αo / γo / Tool Character
ΠC
Πc/ αo λ γ0 α0 α0/ φe φ r
λ
Section M-M ΠO
Yo γo
50 100 70 80 200 300
0.8
N Xo M Section N-N mm
λ Inclination angle
γ0 Orthogonal rake angle
φe α0 Orthogonal clearance angle
φ Auxiliary orthogonal
α0/
clearance angle
N Auxiliary or End cutting
M φe
edge angle
Principal cutting edge
φ
angle (90-φs)
r Nose radius (mm)
φs ΠR

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Interconversion Between ASA and ORS

Interrelations can be established between ASA and ORS and vice versa.
Various methods are used for developing such interrelationships such as

 Method of projection
 Method of slopes
 Method of master line
 Circle diagram
 Vector methods, etc.

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Methods of Master Line for Rake Angles

Zm

Xm OA=T cot λ
γx
OB=T cot γy
T
ΠX OC=T cot γo
αx D/
Xo
OD=T cot γx
Zo
Zm
Yo OM=T cot γm
γm
γo
Xo
Yo αo ΠO T=Depth of the cutting tool
Ym φs Xo M

λ G Xm O
C /
For T=1
F D
ΠC αy
Zm OA= cot λ
φ OB= cot γy
E
M
C γy OC= cot γo
ΠY
A/ B B/ OD= cot γx
φγ OM= cot γm
H
A ΠR φγ Setting angle for grinding rake surface
γm Maximum rake angle
Master line

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Prove the followings by master line methods for a single point cutting
tool.

(i) tan γ o = tan γ x sin φ + tan γ y cos φ


(ii) tan λ = − tan γ x cos φ + tan γ y sin φ
(iii) tan γ x = tan γ o sin φ - tan λ cos φ
(iv) tan γ y = tan γ o cos φ + tan λ sin φ
(v) tan γ m = tan 2 γ o + tan 2 λ
 tanλ  φγ Setting angle for grinding rake surface
(vi) φ γ = φ − tan  −1
 γm Maximum rake angle

 tanγ o 

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tan γo = tan γx sin φ + tan γy cos φ
From Figure ΔOBD=ΔOBC+ΔOCD
½OB.OD=½OB.CE + ½OD.CF
½OB.OD=½OB.OC sin φ + ½OD.OC. cos φ Xo Ym Yo
Dividing on both sides by ½OB.OC.OD
1 sinφ cosϕ G Xm F D
= +
OC OD OB φ O
tan γo = tan γx sin φ + tan γy cos φ E C
M
B OA= cot λ
tan λ = -tan γx cos φ +tan γy sin φ φγ
From Figure ΔOAD = ΔOAB +ΔOBD A OB= cot γy
½ OD. AG = ½ OB. AH + ½ OB.OD H OC= cot γo
½ OD. OA. sin φ=½OB.OA COS φ + ½OB.OD Master OD= cot γx
Dividing on both sides by ½OA.OB.OD line OM= cot γm
sinφ cosφ 1
= +
OB OD OA
tan λ = -tan γx cos φ +tan γy sin φ

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Methods of Master Line for Clearance Angles
Zm

Xm OA=T cot λ
γy
OB=T tan αy
T
ΠX
OC=T tan αo
αy
D/
Xo
OD=T tan αx
Zo
Zm
Yo αm OM=T an αm
αo
ΠO
Yo C/ T=Depth of the cutting tool
Xo γo
Ym φs Ym
For T=1
λ Xm O

D αx
Zm OA= cot λ
ΠC
φ B C OB= tan αy
B/
M γx
OC= tan αo
ΠY
A/ OD= tan αx
φα
OM= tan αm
A ΠR φα Setting angle for grinding principal rake surface
αm Maximum rake angle
Master line

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Prove the followings by master line methods for a single point cutting
tool.

(i) cot α o = cot α x sin φ + cot α y cos φ


(ii) tan λ = −cot α x cos φ + cot α y sin φ
(iii) cot α x = cot α o sin φ - tan λ cos φ
(iv) cot α y = cot α o cos φ + tan λ sin φ
(v) cot α m = cot 2 α o + tan 2 λ
 tan α o 
−1 φα Setting angle for grinding principal rake surface
(vi) φ α = φ − tan   αm Maximum rake angle
 cotλ 

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cot αo = cot αx sin φ + cot αy cos φ
From Figure ΔOBD=ΔOBC+ΔOCD Ym
½OB.OD=½OB.CE + ½OD.CF Xo Yo
½OB.OD=½OB.OC sin φ + ½OD.OC. cos φ
Dividing on both sides by ½OB.OC.OD Xm G O F
φ D
1 sinφ cosϕ
= + E C
OC OD OB M
cot αo = cot αx sin φ + cot αy cos φ B Master
φα line
H
tan λ = -cot αx cos φ +cot αy sin φ A
From Figure ΔOAD = ΔOAB +ΔOBD For T=1
½ OD. AG = ½ OB. AH + ½ OB.OD OA= cot λ
½ OD. OA. sin φ=½OB.OA COS φ + ½OB.OD OB= tan αy
Dividing on both sides by ½OA.OB.OD OC= tan αo
sinφ cosφ 1
= + OD= tan αx
OB OD OA OM= tan αm
tan λ = -cot αx cos φ +cot αy sin φ

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Assignment-1

Prove by Master Line Method

(i) cot α o = cot α x sin φ + cot α y cos φ (i) tan γ o = tan γ x sin φ + tan γ y cos φ
(ii) tan λ = −cot α x cos φ + cot α y sin φ (ii) tan λ = − tan γ x cos φ + tan γ y sin φ
(iii) cot α x = cot α o sin φ - tan λ cos φ (iii) tan γ x = tan γ o sin φ - tan λ cos φ
(iv) cot α y = cot α o cos φ + tan λ sin φ (iv) tan γ y = tan γ o cos φ + tan λ sin φ

(v) cot α m = cot 2 α o + tan 2 λ (v) tan γ m = tan 2 γ o + tan 2 λ


 tan α o   tanλ 
(vi) φ α = φ − tan −1   (vi) φ γ = φ − tan 
−1

 cotλ   tanγ o 

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THANK YOU FOR YOUR ATTENTION

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