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Theory of Metal Cutting-Tool Geometry

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- Tool Geometry

DEPARTMENT OF INDUSTRIAL & PRODUCTION

ENGINEERING

BUET

Introduction

which raw material of low utility and value due to its irregular size,

shape and finish is converted into a high utility and valued product with

definite size, shape and finish imparting some desired function ability.

by which jobs of desired shape and dimensions are produced by

removing extra material from the preformed blanks in the form of chips

with the help of cutting tools moved past the work surfaces in machine

tools. The chips are separated from the workpiece by means of a cutting

tool that possesses a very high hardness compared with that of the

workpiece, as well as certain geometrical characteristics that depend

upon the conditions of the cutting operation. Among all of the

manufacturing methods, metal cutting, commonly called machining; is

perhaps the most important. Forgings and castings are subjected to

subsequent machining operations to acquire the precise dimensions and

surface finish required. Also, products can sometimes be manufactured

by machining stock materials like bars, plates, or structural sections.

Department of Industrial & Production Engineering 25/2

Methods of Machining

straight cutting edge. Basically, there are two methods of metal

cutting, depending upon the arrangement of the cutting edge with

respect to the direction of relative work-tool motion:

Orthogonal cutting or two dimensional cutting

Oblique cutting or three dimensioning cutting.

Orthogonal Cutting

to the direction of feed (of the tool or the

work)

The chip flows in a direction normal to the

cutting edge of the tool

The cutting edge of the tool has zero

inclination with the normal to the feed

The chip flows in the plane of the tool face.

Therefore, it makes no angle with the

normal (in the plane of the tool face) to the

cutting.

The shear force acts on a smaller area, so

shear force per unit area is more.

The tool life is smaller than obtained in oblique cutting (for same conditions of

cutting)

There are only two mutually perpendicular components of cutting forces on the

tool

The cutting edge is bigger than the width of cut.

Oblique Cutting

at an acute angle to the direction of feed (of

the work or tool)

The direction of the chip flow is not normal

to the cutting edge. Rather it is at an angle β

to the normal to the cutting edge.

The cutting edge is inclined at an angle λ to

the normal to the feed. This angle is called

inclination angle.

The chip flows at an angle β to the normal to

the cutting edge. This angle is called chip

flow angle.

The chip flows at an angle β to the normal to the cutting edge. This angle is

called chip flow angle.

The shear force acts on a larger area, hence the shear force per area is smaller

The tool life is higher than obtained in orthogonal cutting

There are only three mutually perpendicular components of cutting forces on the

tool

The cutting edge is smaller than the width of cut.

Department of Industrial & Production Engineering 25/5

Cutting Tool Geometry

Cutting tool is device with which a material could be cut to the desired size,

shape or finish. So a cutting tool must have at least a sharp edge. There are two

types of cutting tool. The tool having only one cutting edge is called single point

cutting tools. For example shaper tools, lathe tools, planer tools, etc. The

tool having more than one cutting edge is called multipoint cutting tools. For

example drills, milling cutters, broaches, grinding wheel honing tool etc.

A single point cutting tool may be either right or left hand cut tool depending

on the direction of feed.

Primary Cutting Edge

tool tool

Tool-in-hand Nomenclature

The geometry of a cutting tool consists of the following elements: face or rake

surface, flank, cutting edges and the corner. Face or rake is the surface of

the cutting tool along which the chips flow out. Flank surfaces are those facing

the work piece. There are two flank surfaces, principal and auxiliary flank

surfaces. Principal cutting edge performs the major portion of cutting and is

formed by the intersecting line of the face with the principal flank surface.

Auxiliary cutting edge (often called end cutting edge) is formed by the

intersection of the rake surface with the auxiliary flank surface. Corner or cutting

point is the meeting point of the principal cutting edge with the auxiliary cutting

edge.

Tool axis

Shank of tool

Auxiliary Rake or Face

cutting edge

Principal cutting edge

Principal flank surface

Corner

Auxiliary flank surface

Single Point Cutting Tool

End cutting edge

angle (φe)

Side clearance

angle (αx)

angle (φs)

Nose radius (r)

Back rake

angle (γy)

End

clearance Note: All the rake and

angle (αy) clearance angles are measured

in normal direction

Side Cutting Edge Angle (φs): The side cutting-edge angle (SCEA) is usually referred to

as the lead angle. It is the angle enclosed between the side cutting edge and the

longitudinal direction of the tool. The value of this angle varies between 0° and 90°,

depending upon the machinability, rigidity, and, sometimes, the shape of the workpiece. As

this angle increases from 0° to 15°, the power consumption during cutting decreases.

However, there is a limit for increasing the SCEA, beyond which excessive vibrations take

place because of the large tool-workpiece interface. On the other hand, if the angle were

taken as 0°, the full cutting edge would start to cut the workpiece at once, causing an initial

shock. Usually, the recommended value for the lead angle should range between 15° and

30°.

Auxiliary or End Cutting Edge Angle (φe): The end cutting-edge angle (ECEA)

serves to eliminate rubbing between the end cutting edge and the machined

surface of the workpiece. Although this angle takes values in the range of 5° to

30°, commonly recommended values are 8° to 15°.

Side Clearance Angle (αx) and End Clearance Angle (αy): Side and end

clearance (relief) angles serve to eliminate rubbing between the workpiece and

the side and end flank, respectively. Usually, the value of each of these angles

ranges between 5° and 15°.

Back Rake Angle (γy) and Side Rake Angle (γX): Back and side rake angles determine

the direction of flow of the chips onto the face of the tool. Rake angles can be positive,

negative, or zero. It is the side rake angle that has the dominant influence on cutting. Its

value usually varies between 0° and 15°, whereas the back rake angle is usually taken as

0°.

Nose radius (r): Nose radius is favorable to long tool life and good surface finish. A sharp

point on the end of a tool is highly stressed, short lived and leaves a groove in the path of

cut. There is an improvement in surface finish and permissible cutting speed as nose radius

is increased from zero value. Too large a nose radius will induce chatter.

Designation of Cutting Tools

designation of the shape of the cutting part of the tool. The following

systems to designate the cutting tool shape which are widely used are:

Tool in Hand System

Machine Reference System or American Standard Association (ASA)

System

Tool Reference System

Orthogonal Rake System (ORS)

Normal Rake System (NRS)

Maximum Rake System (MRS)

Work Reference System (WRS)

Tool Reference System

The references from which the tool angles are specified are the

Reference plane (πR)

Machine longitudinal plane (πx)

Machine transverse plane (πy)

Principal cutting plane (πc)

Orthogonal plane (πo) and

Normal plane (πn)

The reference plane (πR) is the plane perpendicular to the cutting

velocity (Vc). The machine longitudinal plane (πx) is the plane

perpendicular to πR and taken in the direction of feed (longitudinal

feed). The machine transverse plane (πy) is the plane perpendicular to

both πR and πX or plane perpendicular to πR and taken in the direction of

cross feed. The principal cutting plane (πc) is the plane perpendicular to

πR and containing the principal cutting edge. The orthogonal plane (πo)

is the plane perpendicular to πR and πc. The normal plane (πn) is

perpendicular to the principal cutting edge.

Department of Industrial & Production Engineering 25/13

Department of Industrial & Production Engineering 25/14

American Standard Association System

Zm

Xm

γX Tool Character

ΠX γy γx αy αx φe φs r

αx

Ym Section B-B

50 100 70 80 200 300 1/32

A γy Back rake angle

B B Ym γx Side rake angle

αy Back or end clearance angle

Xm αy Zm αx Side clearance angle

φe φe Auxiliary or End cutting edge angle

φ γy

φs Side cutting edge angle (90o-φ)

A ΠY r Nose radius (inch)

Section A-A

φs

ΠR

Orthogonal Rake System (ORS)

Zo Yo

Xo Zo

αo / γo / Tool Character

ΠC

Πc/ αo λ γ0 α0 α0/ φe φ r

λ

Section M-M ΠO

Yo γo

50 100 70 80 200 300

0.8

N Xo M Section N-N mm

λ Inclination angle

γ0 Orthogonal rake angle

φe α0 Orthogonal clearance angle

φ Auxiliary orthogonal

α0/

clearance angle

N Auxiliary or End cutting

M φe

edge angle

Principal cutting edge

φ

angle (90-φs)

r Nose radius (mm)

φs ΠR

Interconversion Between ASA and ORS

Interrelations can be established between ASA and ORS and vice versa.

Various methods are used for developing such interrelationships such as

Method of projection

Method of slopes

Method of master line

Circle diagram

Vector methods, etc.

Methods of Master Line for Rake Angles

Zm

Xm OA=T cot λ

γx

OB=T cot γy

T

ΠX OC=T cot γo

αx D/

Xo

OD=T cot γx

Zo

Zm

Yo OM=T cot γm

γm

γo

Xo

Yo αo ΠO T=Depth of the cutting tool

Ym φs Xo M

λ G Xm O

C /

For T=1

F D

ΠC αy

Zm OA= cot λ

φ OB= cot γy

E

M

C γy OC= cot γo

ΠY

A/ B B/ OD= cot γx

φγ OM= cot γm

H

A ΠR φγ Setting angle for grinding rake surface

γm Maximum rake angle

Master line

Prove the followings by master line methods for a single point cutting

tool.

(ii) tan λ = − tan γ x cos φ + tan γ y sin φ

(iii) tan γ x = tan γ o sin φ - tan λ cos φ

(iv) tan γ y = tan γ o cos φ + tan λ sin φ

(v) tan γ m = tan 2 γ o + tan 2 λ

tanλ φγ Setting angle for grinding rake surface

(vi) φ γ = φ − tan −1

γm Maximum rake angle

tanγ o

tan γo = tan γx sin φ + tan γy cos φ

From Figure ΔOBD=ΔOBC+ΔOCD

½OB.OD=½OB.CE + ½OD.CF

½OB.OD=½OB.OC sin φ + ½OD.OC. cos φ Xo Ym Yo

Dividing on both sides by ½OB.OC.OD

1 sinφ cosϕ G Xm F D

= +

OC OD OB φ O

tan γo = tan γx sin φ + tan γy cos φ E C

M

B OA= cot λ

tan λ = -tan γx cos φ +tan γy sin φ φγ

From Figure ΔOAD = ΔOAB +ΔOBD A OB= cot γy

½ OD. AG = ½ OB. AH + ½ OB.OD H OC= cot γo

½ OD. OA. sin φ=½OB.OA COS φ + ½OB.OD Master OD= cot γx

Dividing on both sides by ½OA.OB.OD line OM= cot γm

sinφ cosφ 1

= +

OB OD OA

tan λ = -tan γx cos φ +tan γy sin φ

Methods of Master Line for Clearance Angles

Zm

Xm OA=T cot λ

γy

OB=T tan αy

T

ΠX

OC=T tan αo

αy

D/

Xo

OD=T tan αx

Zo

Zm

Yo αm OM=T an αm

αo

ΠO

Yo C/ T=Depth of the cutting tool

Xo γo

Ym φs Ym

For T=1

λ Xm O

D αx

Zm OA= cot λ

ΠC

φ B C OB= tan αy

B/

M γx

OC= tan αo

ΠY

A/ OD= tan αx

φα

OM= tan αm

A ΠR φα Setting angle for grinding principal rake surface

αm Maximum rake angle

Master line

Prove the followings by master line methods for a single point cutting

tool.

(ii) tan λ = −cot α x cos φ + cot α y sin φ

(iii) cot α x = cot α o sin φ - tan λ cos φ

(iv) cot α y = cot α o cos φ + tan λ sin φ

(v) cot α m = cot 2 α o + tan 2 λ

tan α o

−1 φα Setting angle for grinding principal rake surface

(vi) φ α = φ − tan αm Maximum rake angle

cotλ

cot αo = cot αx sin φ + cot αy cos φ

From Figure ΔOBD=ΔOBC+ΔOCD Ym

½OB.OD=½OB.CE + ½OD.CF Xo Yo

½OB.OD=½OB.OC sin φ + ½OD.OC. cos φ

Dividing on both sides by ½OB.OC.OD Xm G O F

φ D

1 sinφ cosϕ

= + E C

OC OD OB M

cot αo = cot αx sin φ + cot αy cos φ B Master

φα line

H

tan λ = -cot αx cos φ +cot αy sin φ A

From Figure ΔOAD = ΔOAB +ΔOBD For T=1

½ OD. AG = ½ OB. AH + ½ OB.OD OA= cot λ

½ OD. OA. sin φ=½OB.OA COS φ + ½OB.OD OB= tan αy

Dividing on both sides by ½OA.OB.OD OC= tan αo

sinφ cosφ 1

= + OD= tan αx

OB OD OA OM= tan αm

tan λ = -cot αx cos φ +cot αy sin φ

Assignment-1

(i) cot α o = cot α x sin φ + cot α y cos φ (i) tan γ o = tan γ x sin φ + tan γ y cos φ

(ii) tan λ = −cot α x cos φ + cot α y sin φ (ii) tan λ = − tan γ x cos φ + tan γ y sin φ

(iii) cot α x = cot α o sin φ - tan λ cos φ (iii) tan γ x = tan γ o sin φ - tan λ cos φ

(iv) cot α y = cot α o cos φ + tan λ sin φ (iv) tan γ y = tan γ o cos φ + tan λ sin φ

tan α o tanλ

(vi) φ α = φ − tan −1 (vi) φ γ = φ − tan

−1

cotλ tanγ o

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