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THEORY OF METAL CUTTING
 Theory of Chip Formation
NIKHIL R. DHAR, Ph. D.
DEPARTMENT OF INDUSTRIAL & PRODUCTION
ENGINEERING
BUET
22/2 Department of Industrial & Production Engineering
Chip Reduction Coefficient (ξ)
Chip reduction coefficient (ξ) is defined as
the ratio of chip thickness (a
2
) to the
uncut chip thickness (a
1
). This factor, ξ, is
an index of the degree of deformation
involved in chip formation process during
which the thickness of layer increases and
the length shrinks. In the USA, the inverse
of ξ is denoted by r
c
and is known as
cutting ratio. The following Figure shows
the formation of flat chips under
orthogonal cutting conditions. From the
geometry of the following Figure.
γ
o
β
Tool Workpiec
e
O
A
B
C
a
1
a
2
Chip
] 1 [
sinβ
sinγ sinβ cosγ cosβ
sinβ OA
) γ cos(β OA
AB
AC
a
a
ξ
0 0 0
1
2
− − − −
+
·
−
· · ·
22/3 Department of Industrial & Production Engineering
Shear Angle (β)
From Equation [1]
angle Shear
o
sinγ ξ
o
cosγ
1
tan β
o
sinγ ξ
0
cosγ
tanβ
0
sinγ
tanβ
0
cosγ
sinβ
0
sinγ sinβ
0
cosγ cosβ
ξ
,
`
.

−
−
·
−
·
+ ·
+
·
22/4 Department of Industrial & Production Engineering
Condition for maximum chip reduction coefficient (ξ) from Equation [1]
[ ]
angle Shear
0
γ
2
π
2
1
β
2
π
cos β)
0
γ cos(β
2
π
cos 0 sinβ )
0
γ sin(β cosβ )
0
γ cos(β
0
β
2
sin
)cosβ
0
γ cos(β )
0
γ sin(β sinβ
0
sinβ
)
0
γ cos(β
dβ
d
or 0
dβ
dξ
,
`
.

+ · ∴
· + −
· · − + −
·
− − − −
·
]
]
]
]
−
·
22/5 Department of Industrial & Production Engineering
Velocity Relationships
The following Figure shows the velocity relation in metal cutting. As the tool
advances, the metal gets cut and chip is formed. The chip glides over the rake
surface of the tool. With the advancement of the tool, the shear plane also moves.
There are three velocities of interest in the cutting process which include:
γ
o
β
Tool Workpiece
Chip
V
s
V
f
V
c
γ
o
β
V
c
V
f
V
s
90
o
γ
o
90
o
β+γ
o
γ
o
β
V
C
= velocity of the tool
relative to the workpiece.
It is called cutting
velocity
V
f
= velocity of the chip
(over the tool rake)
relative to the tool. It is
called chip flow velocity
V
s
= velocity of
displacement of
formation of the newly
cut chip elements,
relative to the workpiece
along the shear plane. It
is called velocity of
shear
22/6 Department of Industrial & Production Engineering
According to principles of kinematics, these three velocities, i.e. their
vectors must form a closed velocity diagram. The vector sum of the cutting
velocity, V
c
, and the shear velocity, V
s
,
is equal to chip velocity, V
f
. Thus,
s
V
c
V
f
V + ·
sinβ
f
V
o
γ (β
o
90 sin
c
V
)
o
γ
o
sin(90
s
V
·
]
]
]
− −
·
−
ξ
V
V
or,
ξ
c
V
)
o
γ cos(β
sinβ
c
V
)
o
γ (β
0
90 sin
sinβ
c
V
f
V
f
c
·
·
−
·
]
]
]
− −
·
γ
o
β
V
c
V
f
V
s
90
o
γ
o
90
o
β+γ
o
γ
o
β
22/7 Department of Industrial & Production Engineering
Kronenberg derived an interesting relation for chip reduction coefficient
(ξ) which is of considerable physical significance. Considering the motion of
any chip particle as shown in the following Figure to which principles of
momentum change are applied:
dθ μ
v
dv
dθ v
dv
N
F
μ
dt
dθ
mv r
2
mω N
dt
dv
m F
· −
− · ·
· ·
− ·
V
f
V
c
F
N
γ
o
) γ
2
π
(
0
−
22/8 Department of Industrial & Production Engineering
As the velocity changes from V
c
to V
f
, hence
,
`
.

,
`
.

−
·
−
·
,
`
.

− ·
,
`
.

−
∫
· −
∫
0
γ
2
π
μ
e ξ
0
γ
2
π
μ
e
f
V
c
V
o
γ
2
π
μ
c
V
f
V
ln
f
V
c
V
πdθ
v
dv
) γ 
2
π
(
0
o
This equation demonstrates that the chip reduction coefficient and chip
flow velocity is dependant on the frictional aspects at the interface as
well as the orthogonal rake angle (γ
0
). If γ
0
is increased, chip reduction
coefficient decreases.
V
f
V
c
F
N
γ
o
) γ
2
π
(
0
−
22/9 Department of Industrial & Production Engineering
Shear Strain (ε)
The value of the shear strain (ε) is an indication of the amount of deformation that
the metal undergoes during the process of chip formation. The shear strain that
occurs along the shear plane can be estimated by examining the following Figure.
The shear strain can be expressed as follows:
A
Magnitude of
strained
material
C
B
Plate
thickness γ
o
A
B
C
D
β
βγ
o
Shear strain during chip formation (a) chip formation depicted as a series of parallel sliding relative to each
other (b) one of the plates isolated to illustrate the definition of shear strain based on this parallel plate model
(c) shear strain triangle
[1]  )
o
γ tan(β β cot
BD
CD
BD
AD
BD
CD AD
BD
AC
ε − + · + ·
+
· ·
γ
o
β
Tool Workpiece
Shear
plane
Chip=parallel
shear plates
a
c b
22/10 Department of Industrial & Production Engineering
From equation [1]
strain Shear
β sin
c
V
s
V
ε
[3] equation and [2] equation From
[3]
)
o
γ  (β cos
o
γ cos
c
V
s
V
ip relationsh velocity From
[2]
)
o
γ  (β cos β. sin
o
γ cos
)
o
γ tan(β β cot ε
·
− − − ·
− − · − + ·
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