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# LECTURE-08

## THEORY OF METAL CUTTING

- Theory of Chip Formation

## NIKHIL R. DHAR, Ph. D.

DEPARTMENT OF INDUSTRIAL & PRODUCTION
ENGINEERING
BUET
Chip Reduction Coefficient (ξ)

## Chip reduction coefficient (ξ) is defined as a1

the ratio of chip thickness (a2) to the
uncut chip thickness (a1). This factor, ξ, is a2
an index of the degree of deformation
involved in chip formation process during A Chip
B
which the thickness of layer increases and
the length shrinks. In the USA, the inverse β
of ξ is denoted by rc and is known as O
C γo
cutting ratio. The following Figure shows
the formation of flat chips under
orthogonal cutting conditions. From the
geometry of the following Figure. Workpiec Tool
e
a 2 AC OA cos(β − γ 0 ) cosβ cosγ 0 + sinβ sinγ 0
ξ= = = = − − − −[1]
a 1 AB OA sinβ sinβ
Department of Industrial & Production Engineering 22/2
Shear Angle (β)

## cosβ cosγ + sinβ sinγ cosγ

ξ= 0 0 = 0 + sinγ
sinβ tanβ 0
cosγ
tanβ = 0
ξ − sinγ
o
 cosγ 
β = tan − 1 o  Shear angle
 ξ − sinγ 
 o

## Department of Industrial & Production Engineering 22/3

Condition for maximum chip reduction coefficient (ξ) from Equation [1]

dξ d  cos(β − γ 0 ) 
= 0 or  =0
dβ dβ  sinβ 
[ 0
]
sinβ − sin(β − γ ) − cos(β − γ )cosβ
0 =0
2
sin β
π
cos(β − γ ) cosβ + sin(β − γ ) sinβ = 0 = cos
0 0 2
π
cos(β − γ + β) = cos
0 2
1π 
∴ β =  + γ  Shear angle
22 0
Department of Industrial & Production Engineering 22/4
Velocity Relationships

The following Figure shows the velocity relation in metal cutting. As the tool
advances, the metal gets cut and chip is formed. The chip glides over the rake
surface of the tool. With the advancement of the tool, the shear plane also moves.
There are three velocities of interest in the cutting process which include:

## VC = velocity of the tool

relative to the workpiece.
It is called cutting
velocity 90o -γo γo -β
Vf = velocity of the chip β
Vf
(over the tool rake)
relative to the tool. It is
Vc
Vs
called chip flow velocity Chip γo
V s= velocity of Vf Vs
Vc β 90o -β+γo
displacement of γo
formation of the newly
cut chip elements,
relative to the workpiece
along the shear plane. It Workpiece Tool
is called velocity of
shear

## Department of Industrial & Production Engineering 22/5

According to principles of kinematics, these three velocities, i.e. their
vectors must form a closed velocity diagram. The vector sum of the cutting
velocity, Vc, and the shear velocity, Vs, is equal to chip velocity, Vf. Thus,

V =V +V
f c s
V V V 90o -γo γo -β
s = c = f
Vf
sin(90o − γ ) sin 90o − (β − γ  sinβ Vc
o  o 
γo
sinβ V sinβ V Vs
V =V = c = c
f c β 90o -β+γo
sin 900 − (β − γ ) cos(β − γ o ) ξ
 o 
V
or, c = ξ
Vf

## Department of Industrial & Production Engineering 22/6

Kronenberg derived an interesting relation for chip reduction coefficient
(ξ) which is of considerable physical significance. Considering the motion of
any chip particle as shown in the following Figure to which principles of
momentum change are applied:
dv
F = −m
dt π
( − γ0 )
2
2 dθ Vc
N = mω r = mv
dt
F dv Vf γo
μ= =− N
F
N v dθ
dv
− = μ dθ
v

## Department of Industrial & Production Engineering 22/7

As the velocity changes from Vc to Vf, hence
π
V ( -γo )
f dv 2
∫ − = ∫ πdθ π
V v 0
( −γ )
2
0

c Vc
V  π 
− ln  f  = μ − γ 
V  o Vf γo
 2  F
 c N
 
π 
V μ  − γ 
c =e  2 0 
V
f
This equation demonstrates that the chip reduction coefficient and chip
 
π  flow velocity is dependant on the frictional aspects at the interface as
μ − γ  well as the orthogonal rake angle (γ0). If γ0 is increased, chip reduction
2 0 
ξ=e   coefficient decreases.

## Department of Industrial & Production Engineering 22/8

Shear Strain (ε)

The value of the shear strain (ε) is an indication of the amount of deformation that
the metal undergoes during the process of chip formation. The shear strain that
occurs along the shear plane can be estimated by examining the following Figure.
The shear strain can be expressed as follows:
ε= = = + = cot β + tan(β − γ ) - -[1]
BD BD BD BD o
A
Chip=parallel
Shear shear plates
plane
Magnitude of A β
β strained
material D β-γo
Plate
C
C thickness γo
γo B
B
b c
Workpiece Tool a
Shear strain during chip formation (a) chip formation depicted as a series of parallel sliding relative to each
other (b) one of the plates isolated to illustrate the definition of shear strain based on this parallel plate model
(c) shear strain triangle

## Department of Industrial & Production Engineering 22/9

From equation [1]
cos γ
ε = cot β + tan(β − γ ) = o − −[2]
o sin β. cos (β - γ )
o
From velocity relationship
V cos γ
s = o − − − [3]
V cos (β - γ )
c o
From equation [2] and equation [3]
V
ε= s Shear strain
V sin β
c