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Theory of Metal Cutting- Theory of Chip Formation

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- Theory of Chip Formation

DEPARTMENT OF INDUSTRIAL & PRODUCTION

ENGINEERING

BUET

Chip Reduction Coefficient (ξ)

the ratio of chip thickness (a2) to the

uncut chip thickness (a1). This factor, ξ, is a2

an index of the degree of deformation

involved in chip formation process during A Chip

B

which the thickness of layer increases and

the length shrinks. In the USA, the inverse β

of ξ is denoted by rc and is known as O

C γo

cutting ratio. The following Figure shows

the formation of flat chips under

orthogonal cutting conditions. From the

geometry of the following Figure. Workpiec Tool

e

a 2 AC OA cos(β − γ 0 ) cosβ cosγ 0 + sinβ sinγ 0

ξ= = = = − − − −[1]

a 1 AB OA sinβ sinβ

Department of Industrial & Production Engineering 22/2

Shear Angle (β)

ξ= 0 0 = 0 + sinγ

sinβ tanβ 0

cosγ

tanβ = 0

ξ − sinγ

o

cosγ

β = tan − 1 o Shear angle

ξ − sinγ

o

Condition for maximum chip reduction coefficient (ξ) from Equation [1]

dξ d cos(β − γ 0 )

= 0 or =0

dβ dβ sinβ

[ 0

]

sinβ − sin(β − γ ) − cos(β − γ )cosβ

0 =0

2

sin β

π

cos(β − γ ) cosβ + sin(β − γ ) sinβ = 0 = cos

0 0 2

π

cos(β − γ + β) = cos

0 2

1π

∴ β = + γ Shear angle

22 0

Department of Industrial & Production Engineering 22/4

Velocity Relationships

The following Figure shows the velocity relation in metal cutting. As the tool

advances, the metal gets cut and chip is formed. The chip glides over the rake

surface of the tool. With the advancement of the tool, the shear plane also moves.

There are three velocities of interest in the cutting process which include:

relative to the workpiece.

It is called cutting

velocity 90o -γo γo -β

Vf = velocity of the chip β

Vf

(over the tool rake)

relative to the tool. It is

Vc

Vs

called chip flow velocity Chip γo

V s= velocity of Vf Vs

Vc β 90o -β+γo

displacement of γo

formation of the newly

cut chip elements,

relative to the workpiece

along the shear plane. It Workpiece Tool

is called velocity of

shear

According to principles of kinematics, these three velocities, i.e. their

vectors must form a closed velocity diagram. The vector sum of the cutting

velocity, Vc, and the shear velocity, Vs, is equal to chip velocity, Vf. Thus,

V =V +V

f c s

V V V 90o -γo γo -β

s = c = f

Vf

sin(90o − γ ) sin 90o − (β − γ sinβ Vc

o o

γo

sinβ V sinβ V Vs

V =V = c = c

f c β 90o -β+γo

sin 900 − (β − γ ) cos(β − γ o ) ξ

o

V

or, c = ξ

Vf

Kronenberg derived an interesting relation for chip reduction coefficient

(ξ) which is of considerable physical significance. Considering the motion of

any chip particle as shown in the following Figure to which principles of

momentum change are applied:

dv

F = −m

dt π

( − γ0 )

2

2 dθ Vc

N = mω r = mv

dt

F dv Vf γo

μ= =− N

F

N v dθ

dv

− = μ dθ

v

As the velocity changes from Vc to Vf, hence

π

V ( -γo )

f dv 2

∫ − = ∫ πdθ π

V v 0

( −γ )

2

0

c Vc

V π

− ln f = μ − γ

V o Vf γo

2 F

c N

π

V μ − γ

c =e 2 0

V

f

This equation demonstrates that the chip reduction coefficient and chip

π flow velocity is dependant on the frictional aspects at the interface as

μ − γ well as the orthogonal rake angle (γ0). If γ0 is increased, chip reduction

2 0

ξ=e coefficient decreases.

Shear Strain (ε)

The value of the shear strain (ε) is an indication of the amount of deformation that

the metal undergoes during the process of chip formation. The shear strain that

occurs along the shear plane can be estimated by examining the following Figure.

The shear strain can be expressed as follows:

AC AD + CD AD CD

ε= = = + = cot β + tan(β − γ ) - -[1]

BD BD BD BD o

A

Chip=parallel

Shear shear plates

plane

Magnitude of A β

β strained

material D β-γo

Plate

C

C thickness γo

γo B

B

b c

Workpiece Tool a

Shear strain during chip formation (a) chip formation depicted as a series of parallel sliding relative to each

other (b) one of the plates isolated to illustrate the definition of shear strain based on this parallel plate model

(c) shear strain triangle

From equation [1]

cos γ

ε = cot β + tan(β − γ ) = o − −[2]

o sin β. cos (β - γ )

o

From velocity relationship

V cos γ

s = o − − − [3]

V cos (β - γ )

c o

From equation [2] and equation [3]

V

ε= s Shear strain

V sin β

c

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