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Chapter Eight: Support & Movement 1. Vertebrates depend on endoskeleton which consists of the bones for body support. 2. Exoskeleton is a hard covering outside the body and hydrostatic skeleton consists of fluid filling body cavities. Exoskeleton Invertebrates Shell / Chitin Hard shell cover tissue Moulting Hydrostatic skeleton Invertebrates Body fluid Muscle cover body fluid Grows as the body grows 5.

Aquatic vertebrates larger in size because they support by water buoyancy

Hollow bones are lighter and stronger than solid bones. Similarity and difference between land invertebrates and aquatic invertebrates: Land invertebrate Aquatic invertebrate Exoskeleton Body fluid Soft bodies with Buoyancy in water external shell Chitin Calcium carbonate

6. Endoskeleton Vertebrates Bones & cartilage Muscle cover bone Grows as the body grows •

Moulting when body of insect grows, harden exoskeleton must be changed & replaced by a bigger one


Parts of animal skeleton: Protect brain & sensory organs Support upper body, protect spinal cord Protect heart & lungs Support head & arms Protect internal organ Support lower parts of body Allow movement of hands & legs

Skull Backbone Ribs Pectoral girdle Pelvic girdle Limb bones


Difference between land vertebrates and aquatic vertebrates: Land vertebrates Aquatic vertebrates Endoskeleton, with limb girdles, flexible vertebrate bones Skeletal Water buoyancy Big & strong bones Small & weak bones Large girdles Small girdles Smaller size Bigger size

Let’s Test Yourself 8.1 1. Name the support system(s) found in a) humans b) aquatic invertebrates c) land vertebrates 2. What structures support the body weight in large vertebrates? How does an invertebrate such as a starfish maintain its body shape?


Prepared By: K.C. Ngu

Form 2: Chapter 8 – Week 29

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