Internship Report [Husnain Afzal] mc060401747

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Management Information Systems

Internship Report On Vivo Hydro Technologies
Pure water for pure life

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Submitted by Name: Husnain Afzal ID: mc060401747 Session: Fall 2008. Submission Date: 30/01/09

Virtual University of Pakistan, Defense Road off Raiwind Road, Lahore.
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Dedication
I dedicate my project to my Parents, to my Teachers and to my Friends.

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Acknowledgement
All praises to ALLAH Almighty, who guides us when we find no direction and light in the trackless desert of life. I am grateful to Almighty ALLAH, the beneficent and the merciful for His kindness to me in every sphere of life and who blessed me with the opportunity, courage and determination to accomplish this humble contribution towards knowledge. I faced a lot of difficulties during the development of internship report. But ALLAH gave me a lot of patience and due to the continuous encouragement of my friends and other people concerned; I was able to complete this task. Only the Almighty ALLAH knows how much difficulties and hardships I have faced during my degree program. But I am confident and I had a very firm belief in ALLAH that the Almighty can never waste my hard work. I wish to express my gratitude to my instructors who generously helped me to complete this Internship report. I am highly thankful to the valuable suggestions, comments and skilful thoughts given by the concerned authorities of VHT for the achievement of our goal. It is not possible to express my appreciation of the help and guideline afforded me by the management of VHT. This is only due to their guidance and encouragement that I have been able to complete my internship. Their advice and suggestions helped me to improve the quality of my report.

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Executive Summary
Internship was my first step in practical life, through which I learnt a lot and it has aided me in being well equipped with valuable experience that would help me once I enter the professional life almost after the completion of my studies. (In the last semester of MBA) from 15th of the November 2008 to 10th of the January 2009.I worked in Vivo Hydro Technologies as an internee. My association with this company was being a part of the Information Technology Department. It was a great experience for me and it helped me in realizing where my potential lies. What I learnt at VHT over the weeks was how to get along with the people that I have to work with everyday, building relationships with people, building confidence and improving my communication skills. This internship has also prepared me for my future career in Information Technology so this internship has helped me a great deal. The experience has taught me responsibility, teamwork and how to handle people in tough social situations. Even though the nature of work was quite basic as an internee but I learnt a lot for my upcoming professional life and find the internship in the best benefit of myself. I got training in the IT department and develop an IS first time in my life so that was the maiden attempt towards my future in IT.

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Internship Certificate
The Internship Certificate has been sent to Instructor MISI619 via postal mail on 13th of the January.

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Evaluation Form
The Evaluation Form has been sent to Instructor MISI619 via postal mail on 13th of the January.

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Table of Contents

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Sr. # 1. 2.

Topic. Introduction ofReport [Husnain Afzal] mc060401747 Internship the sector. Overview of the organization. 11 18 18 21 26 28 54 55 56 57 57 58 61 63 63 64 68 70 72 72 73 73

Page. #

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2.1 Brief history of the organization. 2.2 Nature of the organization. 2.3 Business volume. 2.4 Product lines. 2.5 Competitors. 3. Organizational structure. 3.1 Organizational hierarchy chart. 3.2 Number of employees. 3.3 Main offices. 3.4 Introduction of all departments. 3.5 Comments on the organizational structure. 4. Plan of internship program. 4.1 Brief introduction of the branch. 4.2 Starting and ending dates of internship. 4.3 Description of the department in which I worked. 5. 6. Training program. Structure of the MIS/IT department. 6.1 Department hierarchy. 6.2 MIS/IT department. 6.3 MIS/IT operations.

_______________________________________________________________________ 7. Functions of the MIS/IT department. 74 _ Page 9 of 115 7.1 Major functions. 74 7.2 Support to other departments. 86

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1. Introduction of the sector

The sector introduction phase of my report constitutes the fact sheet of water in Pakistan. It includes how we the people spoil it. How our factories contaminates it. How our leather tanneries adds toxins to it. The organization in which I do my internship is related to the water sector of Pakistan. The second phase of introduction is about the organization.

Fresh water is fundamental to the survival of humans and most other land-based life forms. Ninety seven per cent of the earth's water is the salt water of oceans and seas. Most of the remaining 3 per cent is in polar ice caps, glaciers, the atmosphere or underground and hard to reach. Only 0.4 per cent is available for use. This water supply is maintained by water evaporating from oceans and lakes and then falling to the earth as rain in a process called the ‘water cycle’ created by the Almighty ALLAH. However, growing population, increased economic activity and industrialization has resulted in an increased demand for fresh water. In addition, rapid urbanization is changing patterns of consumption. This has caused a severe misuse of water resources. Discharging untreated sewage and chemical wastes directly into rivers, lakes and drains has become a traditional habit. Water bodies can no longer cope with the increasing pollution load. In _______________________________________________________________________ _ Page 11 of 115

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Pakistan, water is mainly used for industrial, agricultural and domestic purposes.

The following table shows percentage of water consumption for every use.

Purpose
Agriculture Industry Domestic

Percentage
69% 23% 8%

Since most water is being used by the agricultural sector, irrigation can cause water logging and salinity. This happens when the water table rises close to the surface of the soil. If plants do not use this water, it evaporates, leaving salts behind. Even in uncultivated, barren lands, a water table within 2 meters of the surface can cause salinity in the soil. If irrigation water containing high levels of contaminants evaporates, it can result in damage to the soil. The Punjab province draws its major share of drinking water from the natural ground water aquifer. Ground water becomes contaminated when chemicals from surface water seep into soil and come in contact with the flowing groundwater. The movement of groundwater is through open spaces in soil and rock layers, which is usually very slow, indicating a very low dilution of contaminants. According to WHO, groundwater of Lahore up to 700-ft deep has been seriously _______________________________________________________________________ _ Page 12 of 115

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contaminated and should not be used for human consumption. In 1989, pollution was found to a depth of 300-ft, and to 500-ft in 1992.

The ground water pollution:
Municipal Sewage:

Municipal sewage is a major source of pollution. About 2 million wet tones of human excreta are annually produced in the urban sector of which around 50% go into water bodies to pollute them. National Conservation Strategy (NCS) states that almost 40% of deaths are related to water borne diseases. Domestic wastewater collects on the streets and in low-lying areas. The situation is further aggravated by the addition of untreated wastes from small-scale industries. In Pakistan, drinking water supply lines and open sewage drains in the streets are laid side by side. As a result, water is frequently contaminated when pipes erode. Most main sewers are between 30-50ft below ground level and are made of 10ft cement sections linked without proper safety seals. Poor connections combined with deteriorating low quality sewer pipes cause a lot of leakage. This outflow from sewer mixes with the water table and the contamination is carried to deeper levels. Hence the ground water which is considered safe becomes adulterated _______________________________________________________________________ _ Page 13 of 115

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with everything from PCBs, lead, cyanides, mercury, solvents, hydrocarbon compounds, hospital and pharmaceutical industry waste. Ravi teems with toxic industrial effluent and untreated domestic sewage as soon as it enters Pakistan. This has made it literally a large open sewer.

Industries: Industrial wastewater contains toxic chemicals. It is alarming that most industries have been started without proper planning and waste treatment plants. They just dispose of untreated toxic waste into nearby drains, canals or rivers. Lahore, Faisalabad, Karachi, Sialkot contribute major pollution loads into their water bodies. According to an EPD source, 9000 million gallons of wastewater having 20,000 tons of BOD5 loading are daily discharged into water bodies from the industrial sector. [Proceedings of International Symposium by CEWR in 1993, Paper by M.A. Saleem]. Automobile service stations are another major contributor to surface water pollution. Untreated oil, grease and dirt find its way into nearby canals and rivers where it damages the ecosystem.

The uncontrolled discharge of untreated effluent from tanneries is a growing problem in Pakistan's leather industry. With exports of tanned leather increasing as a consequence of more stringent environmental controls curtailing the process in Western countries, severe environmental degradation is occurring as untreated effluent is released into nearby water reservoirs and the sea. With scarce land resources, pollution also affects large numbers of people who live close to the tanneries. The effluent contaminates the sea as well as the inland water supply, and pollution of the water supply in turn affects the food supply for the population. Moreover, much of the country is subjected to the air pollution caused by burning tannery residuals into the atmosphere. All these forms of pollution have detrimental effects on the health of the Pakistan population. Leather tanneries in Pakistan produce three categories of waste: wastewater, solid waste and air emissions, of _______________________________________________________________________ _ Page 14 of 115

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which wastewater is by far the most important environmental challenge.

Although the exact quantity varies widely between tanneries, a normal requirement of around 50-60 liters of water per kilogram of hide is suggested. Some tanneries in Pakistan consume as much as three times this amount of water. The current practice is to discharge the water into the local environment without any treatment.

Landfills & Leaching:

Leaching is the process where chemicals from a material dissolve into water while it is being filtered through that material. The resulting mixture is called leach ate consisting of residues from decomposed organic matter and metals. Major contributors to leach ate are municipal solid waste, hospital waste, chemical fertilizers, pesticides, stagnant ponds, toxic industrial waste, and sewage. Rusting cans, discarded batteries and appliances, paints, pesticides, cleaning fluids, newspaper inks, and other chemicals may also add to the toxic mixture of leach ate.

Agriculture:

Excessive and uncontrolled use of chemical fertilizers and pesticides promotes contaminated agricultural run off. This not only pollutes the surface drains but the water trickling down to lower layers of soil causes a severe contamination of the natural aquifer. Over abstraction of groundwater prompts recharge from the surface water drains, which themselves are severely contaminated.

Water pollution and the humans:

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The WHO reports that 25-30% of all hospital admissions are connected to water borne bacterial and parasitic conditions, with 60% of infant deaths caused by water infections. The long-term effects on human health of pesticides and other pollutants include colon and bladder cancer, miscarriage, birth defects, deformation of bones, and sterility. Contamination of fresh water with radionuclide, which can result from mining, testing, disposal and manufacturing of radioactive material, as well as transportation accidents, has led to increased incidences of cancer, developmental abnormalities and death. Cesspools of stagnant dirty water, both in rural and urban areas, account for a large number of deaths caused by potentially fatal diseases like cholera, malaria, dysentery and typhoid. Nitrate concentration in water above 45mg/l makes it unfit for drinking by infants. The nitrates are reduced in body to nitrites and cause a serious blood condition called the "Blue Baby Syndrome". Higher concentrations of nitrate cause gastric cancer. Untreated and highly toxic industrial sewage is also used for irrigation near major cities. This can contaminate crops and consequently affect consumers.

Water pollution and our environment:

Karachi’s untreated wastewater from domestic sewage and industrial estates is discharged into the Layari and Malir rivers, which fall into the Arabian Sea. This waste has begun to pose a serious threat to the marine environment, as the channel water is contaminated not only with bacteria but also with toxic chemicals. Water pollution also extends a savage threat to wildlife of Pakistan. Animals drink water out of polluted water bodies, ailing ponds, rivers and streams. This sickens the animals and some may even die. Oil spills kill thousands of fish in oceans. Extreme pollution of river Ravi has destroyed the once existing 42 species of fish and the bird life around the river has migrated to other areas. Survival of small invertebrates, micro fauna and flora is also threatened.

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WHO has focused its attention on the issues of urban and industrial pollution? It provides assistance to the industrial sector in reducing polluted discharges into air, water and soil. The world health organization enhances capacity of industrial sector so that they can implement environmental solutions. In this regard, training workshops have been organized on the subjects of industrial waste management and waste minimization technology. To promote environmental awareness of water pollution issues, a water pollution monitoring kit (mobile laboratory) was developed by WHO and launched in the four provinces of Pakistan. The kit is easy to use and is fabricated using cost effective material. It is capable of monitoring 14 pollutants.

Kasur Tanneries Pollution Control Project:

The Kasur Tanneries Pollution Control Project is helping to reduce the environmental damage caused by tannery waste. It also aims to improve tanners' technical and managerial skills and promote environmental awareness among the population to ensure the long-term sustainability of the industry. In Kasur waste discharge from tanneries pollutes the air, soil, surface water and underground water, causing serious health problems because they lie within and around residential areas. Respiratory disorders, diarrhea, dysentery and typhoid. Are the most serious illnesses among the community? The presence of toxic compounds especially compounds of chromium, represents real danger to the health of the population nearby. The World Health Organization (WHO) sets the standard permitted toxic level in drinking water at 0.05 parts per million or ppm. In Kasur, the level was found to be over 2 ppm, representing a serious health risk to the local community. Water in the local river consists of domestic sewage and wastewater from the tanning industry, which farmers use for irrigation, watering the buffaloes and washing clothes. In order to save the environment, prevent the spread of diseases and remove the stench, industrial waste from 230 tanneries in the city is now being treated.

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2. Overview of the organization

2.1 History of the Water Treatment Industry and VHT:
History of Water treatment industry in Pakistan:
The history of water treatment industry in Pakistan is not so old. It was introduced in almost 1998. The European Union and W.H.O’s (World Health Organization) Restrictions on Pakistani leather industry, Sports industry and surgical industry gave birth to this industry in northern Punjab. The northern Punjab includes Sialkot, Lahore, Kasur, Narowal etc. In this particular scenario the European Union only allowed those industries to export their finished goods to Europe who have waste water treatment units. Before this nobody knew about the water treatment industry. So at the end of 1997 the water treatment industry was introduced in Pakistan. But it started its operations in 1998.The name of the company was So Safe. Since 1998 many water treatment industries were born. At present there are almost 125 registered companies in Pakistan operating at different levels. Now _______________________________________________________________________ _ Page 18 of 115

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at present time there is also a great awareness of drinking pure and clean water in general public.

From 1998-2008. The water treatment industry has gained its importance across the country. But the problem is still there that currently Pakistan is not able to produce Water Filtration systems such as reverse osmosis, ultraviolet rays etc. These advance instruments are imported from different countries of the world such as Japan, Malaysia, Germany, U.S.A, England, and France. Thus it is too expensive. So the cottage industry in Punjab (Sialkot, Gujranwala, Kasur, Faisalabad etc.) is not able to purchase it. The Government of Pakistan has taken many steps to reduce the cost of filtration system such as by removing import duties on Filtration and Treatment equipment.

Pakistan's leather industry is one of the major foreign exchange earners for the country. About 90% of its products are exported in finished form. During 1996-97, the production of leather was about 14.3 million m 2 and export earning amounted to US$ 642 million. There are some 600 tanneries in the formal sector and an equally large number of tanneries in the informal sector. The chrome tanning method is the most widely used process in Pakistan's leather sector. However, the vegetable tanning method and a combination of chrome and vegetable tanning is also applied. The process includes a number of different steps during which large quantities of water and chemicals are applied to the skins. About 130 different chemicals are used in leather processing, depending on the type of raw material used and finished product. These may be divided into four major classes: pretanning chemicals, tanning chemicals, wet finishing chemicals and finishing chemicals. Groundwater is used as the major source of water in Pakistan's leather industry. _______________________________________________________________________ _ Page 19 of 115

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Leather tanneries in Pakistan produce all three categories of waste: wastewater, solid waste and air emissions. However, wastewater is by far the most important environmental challenge being faced by Pakistan's tanneries. Wastewater: Although the exact quantity varies widely between tanneries, a normal requirement of around 50-60 liters of water per kilogram of hide is suggested. ETPI's sample audits of tanneries in Pakistan show that in some cases the consumption of water is as high as three times the suggested requirement. The overall water discharge also demonstrates a high degree of seasonal and daily fluctuation. For most part, the current practice is to discharge this water into the local environment without any treatment. Tannery wastewater is highly polluted and the contamination observed is many times beyond the limits.

Another which also produces contaminated water is surgical sector of Silakot which also produces a great amount of untreated waste water. In surgical sector the most dangerous chemicals which are used during processing are Triclone, H 2 SO 4 (Sulphuric Acid) etc. But the surgical sector remains unaffected from the European Union restrictions. It is the need of the hour that Government of Pakistan pays attention towards this sector also. As there is a lot of coverage in media about tanneries but the surgical factories are still unveiled.

So to treat this is very expensive. At present there is good news for the leather sector that China has also introduced its water filtration system which works equally to all other filtration equipments but its cost is very cheep. The difference is about 1.8 million rupees. Price of water treatment system imported from Germany is about Rs.4500, 000. And the price of water filtration system imported from China is about Rs.1800, 000. This is amazing. _______________________________________________________________________ _ Page 20 of 115

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The Major companies which are operating in Pakistan that provide services for water treatment at various levels are So Safe, Vivo Hydro Technologies, Aqua Safe, Pearl Water Treatments, Pure it, Water World, PureInc. (Origin U.S.A) Igloo Water Treatment. Arctica Pure water (Origin Newzee Land), Fluid Technologies international.

At present the water treatment industry in Pakistan is about 2.9 billion dollars.

Karachi the biggest industrial city of Pakistan has also the same problems as in Punjab. The drinking water problems are more severe in Sindh rather than Punjab. But the good news is that now our government in Pakistan considered this problem a major problem of Pakistan and different organizations of Pakistan are now working with the Government to make the situation better. The Government of Peoples Republic of China also helped a lot Pakistan to mitigate this problem. Now the public, industries and many other organizations related to water are more aware about this problem.

We can also make an assessment that from 1997 to 2008 we have more than a hundred companies working in this field. And we can say that if we the people, the private sector and the Government will continue to work in this Area one day we will be in a position to tell the world that our leather industries produces treated water and we are a responsible nation.

2.2 VHT and the Nature of VHT:

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Vivo Hydro Technologies was founded in 2005 with the motto of “Pure Water for Pure Life”. By nature it is a private services providing company founded by Mr. Moazzam Elahi (CEO) of the company. The company is based on water engineering.

Vivo Hydro Technologies carries a wide variety of point of entry filter units ranging from Water softeners, carbon filtration, and iron removal filters as well as point of use drinking water systems for residential, commercial and industrial applications. This includes the best selling residential Reverse Osmosis units. The company caters to the water aware consumers who have the need for pure clean water. Our professional staff will help you match your needs to our high quality and competitively priced products. The company uses different brands for installation such as Phillips, L.G. Etc. A complete list is given below.

The Company has three divisions.

 Domestic.

 Commercial.

 Industrial.

The Domestic division is responsible for home filtration systems such as drinking water filtration system, and RO (Reverse Osmosis) systems for swimming pools. The systems installed in this category provide 30 GPD to 1000 GPD. Of water. _______________________________________________________________________ _ Page 22 of 115

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The Commercial division is responsible for larger filtration systems and these are installed in Hotels, Schools, Colleges and Factories etc. The filters at commercial level have capacity of 1500 GPD to 3000 GPD.

And finally the industrial division is responsible for the installation of waste water treatments. This includes waste water treatment in industries. Industries produces thousands of gallons during production process so for this area industrial water treatments are installed which have a capacity of 5000 GPD to 100,000 GPD.

Industrial water treatment is the major area of business for the company.

Vivo Hydro Technologies has three branches and a head office.

A list of branches is given below.

Vivo Hydro Technologies Kasur Branch.

Vivo Hydro Technologies Sialkot Branch.

Vivo Hydro Technologies Lahore Branch.

Vivo Hydro technologies Narowal Branch.

The Head office of the company is located in Sialkot where I completed my internship. Kasur branch installs water treat plants in industries and the other three branches are responsible for Domestic and Commercial as well as industrial treatment systems. _______________________________________________________________________ _ Page 23 of 115

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Corporate Strategy of the company:
We at Vivo Hydro Technologies provide different types of water treatment services consistently with high quality, according to the demanding requirements of the water treatment industry. Our strategy is to be competitive in the market through quality and efficient operations. As a responsible member of the community, we are committed to serve the interest of all our stakeholders and contribute towards the prosperity of the country.

Mission Statement of the company:
Our mission is to offer advanced, convenient, and money saving equipment for water filtration operations with the implementation of distinctive ideas and expertise. Our foundation of survival is based on providing valued clients a convenient and affordable source for water filtration equipment. Products provided by us consumers a way to eliminate impurities from water with convenience and to improve the taste of drinking water.

Vision Statement of the company:

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To enhance the value for our customers, and strengthen our name while providing the finest and most advanced water treatment technology available is principal in our vision. In addition, we aim to support a corporate environment that is innovative, respectful, and fun. For our employees to believe in the quality of our products and services and enjoy their work environment are fundamental in order to promote a healthy company that seeks to be a highly profitable and foster our longevity.

Commitment to Total Quality Management (TQM)
We are committed to provide excellence services to our customers and never compromise on quality.

Messages
Moazzam Elahi (Chief Executive):
We value shared decision-making, teamwork and partnerships and seek opportunities to build relationships that will create greater value across functions, businesses and locations.

Rizwan Akram (Research Executive):
Continuous Learning and Improvement we believe that improvement is a continuous process. We are always open to change in order to discover new and creative ways to _______________________________________________________________________ _ Page 25 of 115

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meet the changing needs of our customers.

Samir Hussain (Sales Executive):
Respect for Individuals we value each individual in the company, suppliers and service providers for their contribution and respect our relationship with them.

Usman Qadir (General Manager):
The Vivo Hydro Technologies offers me the ability to expand my horizons in the business world. Each day we have different tasks with the opportunity to learn from it. I enjoy the fact that we never need to pretend who we are not. We can still be ourselves, be helpful, and still assist clients in a proper and appropriate manner. I believe that in order for people to do a job well one must like what they do and VHT gives me that chance.

2.3 Business Volume:

VHT was founded in 2005. So it is a newly entered company in the corporate world. But its sale figures are out standing. The company has sales of over 37.5 million Pakistani rupees in the financial year 2007-2008.

The

overall

sales

volume

is

generated

from three

areas

domestic,

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commercial, and Industrial. The prices of the products of the company ranges from Rs. 30,000(Domestic Systems) to Rs. 3.5 million (Industrial Reverse Osmoses Plants.)

The Major portion of the revenue of VHT is Industrial Water Treatment Plants. This costs rupees 1200,000 to 3500,000.

The partition of sales to total sales graph is given below.

7% 18%
Domestic Commercial

75%

Industrial

According to the figures companies 75% sales are from Industrial Sector. 7% and 18% are from Domestic and Commercial Sector respectively.

Although VHT was founded in 2005 but it remained successful in getting its share in the market in a very short time (2005-2008) and through its loyal, _______________________________________________________________________ _ Page 27 of 115

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devoted, professional and hardworking management it is expected that the company will expand its sales to about 40 million during 2008-2009.

Beside that company has also earn an impressive goodwill in the market through its quality services.

2.4 Products and services offered by VHT:

Basically VHT is a services providing company but it has its own assembly line where different equipments are assembled. As most of the parts used by VHT are not available in Pakistan so these are imported from different multinational companies. These materials include Membranes, Ultraviolet Rays generator, High quality Carbon, Laser Pins, and many other accessories.

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VHT is a services providing company. It uses different international brand’s equipment to provide its services. Some of the most preferred brands, their brief description is given below.

A brief Introduction of Brands used by Vivo Hydro Technologies:

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Philips:

Philips is a global leader in healthcare, lighting and consumer lifestyle, delivering people-centric, innovative products, services and solutions through our brand promise of “sense and simplicity.” We employ approximately 128,100 employees in more than 60 countries worldwide. With sales of 34 billion USD in 2006, we are a market leader in medical diagnostic imaging and patient monitoring systems, energy efficient lighting solutions, as well as lifestyle solutions for personal wellbeing.

Philips has four product divisions: Consumer Electronics; Domestic Appliances & Personal Care; Lighting and Medical Systems. Each operates independently, yet coordinates closely in sharing technologies and in developing products for the consumer and business-to-business marketplaces. Under the leadership of the Corporate Center in Amsterdam, this collaboration is required to unlock the full potential of the Philips brand.

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Philips Consumer Electronics is the third largest consumer electronics company in the world and a leader in the development of digital television systems and compact disc applications.

Philips Domestic Appliances & Personal Care

Philips Domestic Appliances & Personal Care (DAP) includes the Male Shaving and Grooming, Body & Beauty, Food & Beverage, Home Environment Care and Oral Healthcare lines of business. The division manufactures and markets shavers, electric toothbrushes, women's beauty and health care products, as well as domestic appliances around the world.

Philips Lighting Company

Philips Lighting Company is the world’s largest lighting producer, manufacturer and marketer of products for industrial, commercial and consumer markets.

Philips Medical Systems

Philips Medical Systems, a global leader in the growing medical device and diagnostic industry, is committed to providing innovative technology and services that enable health care providers to achieve clinical excellence.

Other Businesses

Philips has several specialty businesses including Assemble on Americas, Advanced Metrology Systems, and Philips' Center for Industrial Technology. All work synergistically, sharing innovations and developing products and solutions for the _______________________________________________________________________ _ Page 31 of 115

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consumer and business-to-business marketplaces

Weston & Sampson

Weston & Sampson has been providing quality engineering services for water supply development, treatment, and distribution projects. Our founders achieved a number of _______________________________________________________________________ _ Page 32 of 115

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"firsts" for a water treatment company, including one of the first rapid sand filtration plants in the United States. They also pioneered chemical treatment to prevent the corrosion of water distribution systems. Working with different water sources and qualities, Weston & Sampson has gained valuable experience in the design and operation of various types of water treatment plants. Our commitment to quality is demonstrated by our award-winning designs. Weston & Sampson also provides a wide range of services in the areas of water supply development, pumping, storage, and distribution. Our engineers have extensive expertise with:

Water resource studies

Pilot plant studies

Water system planning, design, construction, and operation

Water system improvements

Hydraulic analysis and master plans

Water storage tank design and construction

Additionally, our staff provides cost estimating, assists with regulatory permitting issues and in obtaining state and federal funding, performs construction oversight, and provides reliable and competent advice to our clients.

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LG Electronics:

LG Electronics, Inc.(LG) is a global leader and technology innovator in consumer electronics, home appliances and mobile communications, employing more than 82,000 people working in 114 operations including 82 subsidiaries around the world. With annual worldwide revenues exceeding $40 billion, LG Electronics comprises five business units: Home Entertainment, Home Appliance, Air Conditioning, Business Solutions and Mobile Communications. LG is one of the world's leading producers of mobile handsets, flat panel TVs, air conditioners, front-loading washing machines, optical storage products, DVD players and home theater systems.

LG's efforts continue to enhance the global presence of the LG brand and to maximize profitable growth. In particular, LG Electronics will focus on achieving profitable and sustainable growth in the mobile communications and digital display sectors to strengthen its leadership in the IT industry, while at the same time increasing its market share in the home appliance and digital media sectors.

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LG Electronics is pursuing its 21st century vision of becoming a true global digital leader that can make its customers happy throughout the world by means of its innovative digital products and services.

LG Electronics has set a new mid-term and long-term vision, aiming to achieve a position as one of the top three electronics, information, and telecommunication firms in the world by 2010.

As such, they are embracing the philosophy of "Great Company, Great People," whereby only great people can create a great company, and pursuing two growth strategies involving "fast innovation" and "fast growth." Likewise, they seek to secure three core capabilities: product leadership, market leadership, and people-centered leadership.

Appliance

LG is a global leader in the home appliance industry, dedicated to creating total home solutions through advanced products.

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GE:

GE's divisions include GE Capital (including GE Commercial Finance and GE Money and GE Consumer Finance), GE Technology Infrastructure (including GE Aviation, the former Smiths Aerospace and GE Healthcare), GE Energy Infrastructure, and NBC Universal, an entertainment company. Through these businesses, GE participates in a wide variety of markets including the generation, transmission and distribution of electricity (eg. Nuclear gas and solar), lighting, industrial automation, medical imaging equipment, motors, railway locomotives, aircraft jet engines, and aviation services. It was co-founded and is 80% owner (with Vivendi) of NBC Universal, the National Broadcasting Company. Through GE Commercial Finance, GE Consumer Finance, GE Equipment Services, and GE Insurance it offers a range of financial services as well. It _______________________________________________________________________ _ Page 36 of 115

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has a presence in over 100 countries. General Electric gauges to control a railway locomotive since over half of GE's revenue is derived from financial services, it is arguably a financial company with a manufacturing arm. It is also one of the largest lenders in countries other than the United States, such as Japan. Even though the first wave of conglomerates (such as ITT, Ling-Temco-Vought, Tenneco, etc) fell by the wayside by the mid-1980s, in the late 1990s, another wave (consisting of Westinghouse, Tyco, and others) tried and failed to emulate GE's success. It was announced in May 2008 that General Electric would auction off its appliances business for an expected sale of $5-8 billion.

Pure:

Pure Water was formed to provide state of the art filtration equipment to Pakistan. With _______________________________________________________________________ _ Page 37 of 115

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our Joint Venture partner, the Global Water Group of Dallas, Texas, USA, we are in the process of setting up a most modern plant for the manufacturing and assembly of Global's proprietary water filtration equipment. We can supply a wide range of top quality equipment that can cover the entire spectrum of water filtration requirements Raw sewage enters the unit through the influent line and passes through a bar screen, which keeps out any large solids. A diffuser system introduces air into the aeration chamber. The air bubbles that are generated provide the oxygen necessary to sustain the bacteria and also provide the agitation necessary to reduce solids to small particles. After a suitable retention time, the solution is displaced from the aeration chamber to the clarifier chamber. There the remaining solids settle to the bottom in the form of activated sludge. The sludge is returned to the aeration chamber to maintain a high active bacteria count. The clear liquid at the top of the clarifier chamber flows into the LS3 wastewater purification system to kill any disease-carrying bacteria that remain. The effluent is then purified into polished quality drinking water. Aqua Wastewater' s proprietary extended aeration systems are applicable for flows of a few hundred gallons to tens of millions of gallons per day (or from one house to a city).They are applicable for municipalities, villages, condominiums, schools, restaurants, motels, hotels, mobile home parks, processing plants, industrial plants, animal farms, oilfield platform rigs, oilfield jack-up rigs, oilfield posted and inland drilling barges, fixed structures offshore or anywhere sewage collection is required. These models can be constructed of standard configurations or engineered for custom designed special configurations.

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Atlantic Ultraviolet

Atlantic Ultraviolet Corporation was established as a New York Corporation on November 22, 1963 to assume operation of a predecessor company following the death of its owner/operator. The business started in Long Island City as a manufacturer of germicidal ultraviolet fixtures and equipment utilizing germicidal ultraviolet lamps to destroy bacteria, mold and virus in air and on surfaces. In 1970 the company began production of its own line of germicidal lamps in competition with Westinghouse and General Electric, who were the primary producers at the time. The Ster-L-Ray™ germicidal lamp brand produced by Atlantic Ultraviolet Corporation are short wave low pressure mercury vapor tubes that produce ultraviolet wavelengths that are lethal to micro-organisms. Approximately 95% of the ultraviolet energy emitted is at the mercury resonance line of 254 nanometers. This wavelength is in the region of maximum germicidal effectiveness and is highly lethal to virus, bacteria and mold spores. Ster-LRay™ germicidal lamps are produced in Slim line, Cold Cathode or Preheat type, with _______________________________________________________________________ _ Page 39 of 115

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either Ozone-Producing or Non Ozone-Producing capabilities. In 1973 the company released the Sanitron® Ultraviolet Water Purifier product line, a unique and rapid method of water disinfection without the use of heat or chemicals. Since this time, Atlantic Ultraviolet Corporation has introduced other brands of water disinfection equipment, under the trademark names Mighty-Pure®, Minipure®, Megatron®, and Magnum™. In addition the air and surface sanitizer lines expanded to include the Sanitaire®, Hygeaire®, Nutripure™, SaniLight®, SaniRay®, Aerologic®, and Sanidyne®, and have enjoyed increased sales since introduction. In 1975 Atlantic Ultra violet’s corporate offices and manufacturing facilities moved to a new location in Bay Shore, New York. The new 5,000 square foot facility was constructed and soon expanded to 8,000 square feet in 1980. Continuing research and development maintains Atlantic Ultraviolet Corporation's leadership in applied ultraviolet technology. Exacting procedures and stringent quality control measures insure products of consistently high quality. Engineering studies of product design and materials are conducted with an eye to enhancing product usefulness and value. Existing and potential new products are subjected to rigorous test protocols in order to insure the highest standards of performance and reliability. Atlantic Ultra violet’s staff continues to grow to include ultraviolet application specialists and an engineering department with vast knowledge of ultraviolet technologies. The staff assists customers in the selection of germicidal lamps and ultraviolet equipment to suit specific applications. Atlantic Ultraviolet continues to formulate effective and cost-conscious ultraviolet solutions. By 1994 another move was necessary to house the ever growing corporate offices, manufacturing facilities and expanding inventory. The move takes Atlantic Ultraviolet Corporation to its current location in Hauppauge, New York to a 25,000 square foot building which was quickly expanded to 37,500 square feet in 1997. Atlantic Ultraviolet Corporation continues to strive for growth with extensive work in Research and Development. The company's conservative management philosophy has resulted in steadily increasing financial strength, profitability and growth of market share. With the internet transforming the way business is done, Atlantic Ultraviolet knows the importance of presenting a clear, easy to use, content rich website. As 2008 proceeds our _______________________________________________________________________ _ Page 40 of 115

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focus is on providing more product information, customer support and services for both domestic and international customers alike. Atlantic's goals are to continue developing strong business to business and business to consumer relationships and continuing its leadership in applied ultraviolet technology, with the development of new product lines to be released shortly.

Mr. Water

Mr. Water Professional Water Treatment is a local water conditioning company specializing in the maintenance and repair of Residential, Commercial, and Industrial Ultraviolet (germicidal) Lights in Maryland and the surrounding Tri-State area. We service Sterilight, ATS, Ideal Horizons/Wedeco, Aquafine, Trojan, Atlantic, and PURA ultraviolet lights - just to name a few. For our residential customers, we are an authorized Sterilight Distributor and carry parts and supplies in stock or can get the bulbs, quartz sleeves, ballasts and other U.V. components for your light in a reasonable time. We adhere to the strict installation requirements for germicidal lights – unlike most of our _______________________________________________________________________ _ Page 41 of 115

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competitors. Not installing your new U.V. light in the proper manner will only void the manufacturers warranty; it will eventually render it ineffective against the bacteria and viruses for which it was originally installed. All manufacturers of ultraviolet lights have similar influent water quality requirements that must be met at the time of installation and maintained throughout the service life of the unit.

Products:
Here is a brief list of Products.

Domestic Products
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Domestic Jumbo RO System

Domestic Light RO System

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Ultraviolet Membrane used embedded in RO’s to provide 100% pure water

Water Softeners

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Commercial Filtration System:

Commercial RO System

Ultra Pure RO system _______________________________________________________________________ _ Page 45 of 115

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Light RO System

Mineral Water RO

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Industrial Water treatment Plant

Nano Filtration:
The newest and most leading edge technology in water treatment is NANO filtration which has been added in the catalogue of VHT currently for its customers.

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Terminologies and Explanations of Some Technical terms about Water treatment Systems:
Ultraviolet rays and their Functions:
This kind of UV (Ultraviolet) Technology is used in most of the purification system. We can inactivate the bacteria viruses by passing the ultra violet (UV) rays towards the water flow. The bacteria viruses in the water goes into comma stage, but those inactivated bacteria viruses will be in the water we get from the output. The inactivation is only for the period of 8 hours and again the bacteria viruses get activated. The membrane is made of thin film composite material and the size of the membrane is 0.0001 micron. This membrane is used to separate the unwanted impurities such as bacteria, viruses, excess of salt, excess of iron content, excess of calcium from the input water. It works like a sugarcane juice machine. There are two rollers in the machine, if sugarcane is inserted into that roller the juice comes through one way and the rest in other way. The same procedure is applied in this stage. When the water is forced towards the membrane through the pressure of the pump, the pure water foes to the next stage as steam and the rejected water comes outside the machine. The rejected water can be used for other purpose like washing clothes, cleaning purposes, etc.

The RO System:
In RO system water pressure is used to force water molecules through a very fine membrane leaving the contaminants behind. Purified water is collected from the "clean" or “permeate” side of the membrane, and water containing the concentrated contaminants is flushed down the drain from the "contaminated" or “concentrate” side. The average RO system is a unit consisting of a sediment/chlorine pre filter, the reverse-osmosis membrane, a storage tank, and an activated-carbon post filter. Reverse osmosis removes _______________________________________________________________________ _ Page 48 of 115

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salt and most other inorganic material present in the water, and for that reason, RO lends itself to use in places where the drinking water is brackish (salty), contains nitrates or other dissolved minerals which are difficult to remove by other methods. Using a quality carbon filter to remove any organic materials and chemicals that get through the sediment pre-filter, the purity of the treated water approaches that produced by distillation. Microscopic parasites (including viruses) are usually removed by RO units, but any defect or micro-tear in the membrane will allow these organisms to pass into the ‘clean” water. This is why RO systems are not rated to remove microorganisms except when an Ultraviolet Light filter is incorporated into the system, such as in the case of the Tap Master UV and the Tap Master ULTRA. Though slower than a water filter, RO systems can typically purify more water per day than distillers. Also, they do not use electricity, but RO systems do waste water. Four or more gallons of concentrate wastewater are flushed down the drain for each gallon of filtered water produced. Zero waste RO units are available, however problematic, as they can re-inject the concentrate wastewater back into the water feeding the RO thus forcing the RO to work harder and shortening its service life. Other types of Zero Water RO units will inject the wastewater into the hot water line where it is dispensed out of the kitchen faucet on your hands or dishes. A better option for reducing reverse osmosis system water waste is to fit it with a permeate pump, which will reduce water waste by up to 80%. Two common types of household RO membranes are the Thin Film Composite (TFC or TFM) membrane and the Cellulose Triacetate (CTA) membrane. The main differences between the two types are filtration ability and chlorine tolerance. The CTA membrane is chlorine tolerant, but is more susceptible to fouling from bacteria, and it only rejects 93% of standard contaminants. The TFC/TFM membranes reject 98% of standard contaminants on average, are less susceptible to organic fouling, but it can only treat chlorine free water. Carbon pretreatment must be used with a TFC/TFM membrane when purifying chlorinated municipal water supplies. These contains High quality activated carbon filter cartridges are available in many size and socket type will fit most standard filter housings. Cartridges are individually shrunk wrapped and labeled. Purimate sediment filters have the micron rating embossed on the side of every cartridge for easy identification. _______________________________________________________________________ _ Page 49 of 115

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Domestic RO filters:
This RO system is designed under the guidance of experts and provides a completely bacteria free safe water. This system can be installed in offices, homes, food corners, educational institutes and hospitals with great ease. This is ideal for installation under kitchen counter with the focus mounted on sink. Perfect for water coolers too. The RO system is not only superior in quality and durable but can easily be customized accordingly

Technical Details
1. 2. 3. 4. Capable of 15 Liters / hr. purified water production Duty cycle of 75 Liters /day. Liters RO water storage capacity in hydro-pneumatic tank Dimension: 480 * 210 * 540 mm

Domestic RO Cartridges
1. Removes 99% of chlorine and 96% of lead. 2. Used with residential RO systems 3. High quality activated coconut shell carbon significantly improves the taste and smell of water by adsorbing chlorine and other chemical contaminants. 4. Made of FDA approved materials 5. Coconut shell carbon has larger number of active adsorption centers thus reducing its nominal weight. 6. Cartridge has sediment cartridge insert protecting carbon granulate.

Commercial RO systems:
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located in Vista, California. Each have as standard features a stainless steel frame, multistage centrifugal pump, large area pre-filter, two pre-treatment pressure gauges, an operating pressure gauge, panel mounted drain and re-circulation valves, panel mounted drain and permeate flow meters, adjustable low pressure safety switch, four unit status lights, low voltage control system for safety and a permeate check valve for element protection. Popular Reverse Osmosis options include water quality measurement instruments, high pressure safety switch, silent running water cooled pump, multiple tank switches for repressure pump low water control, pre or post treatment ultraviolet light, pre-treatment interlock, PLC Controller, alarms, stainless steel element vessels and electronic pump motor controls for economical running. Not all commercial reverse osmosis systems or water chemistry are the same. Our reverse osmosis water filters are computer designed utilizing the latest up-dated element data from all major membrane manufacturers. This insures maximum recovery and optimum water quality while minimizing capital and operating costs. We provide expected water quality information along with pump operating cost and projections on future production and water quality. In addition we provide custom built pretreatment as required to provide the most economical and environmentally friendly operation of the entire reverse osmosis system.

Light Commercial RO Systems:
Light commercial DRO Series reverse osmosis systems start at 150gpd up to 1000gpd.The DRO-150, 350, 500, & 1,000 are built on open stainless steel frames with horizontally mounted elements. These reverse osmosis systems utilize a rotary vane pump with ball bearing pump motor, two pre-filter stages, two pre-treatment pressure gauges, an operating pressure gauge, adjustable drain and re-circulation valves with color coded and lockable settings, low pressure safety switch and durable brass high pressure fittings. The DRO-500SS reverse osmosis system is enclosed in a Polished Stainless Steel Cabinet which is designed for use in harsh environments, food service applications, or in areas where _______________________________________________________________________ _ Page 51 of 115

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tampering is a possibility. Commercial and industrial reverse osmosis and water treatment systems are computer designed utilizing the latest up-dated element data from all major membrane manufacturers. This insures maximum recovery and optimum water quality while minimizing capital and operating costs. We provide expected water quality information along with pump operating cost and projections on future production and water quality. In addition we provide custom built pre-treatment as required to provide the most economical and environmentally friendly operation of the entire reverse osmosis system.

Nano Filtration:
The newest and most leading edge technology in water treatment is now available for practical use in your home, business or manufacturing facility. Nano filtration is a pressure driven separation process. The filtration process takes place on a selective separation layer formed by an organic semi permeable membrane. The driving force of the separation process is the pressure difference between the feed (retentive) and the filtrate (permeate) side at the separation layer of the membrane. However, because of its selectivity, one or several components of a dissolved mixture are retained by the membrane despite the driving force, while water and substances with a molecular weight < 200 D are able to permeate the semi permeable separation layer. Because Nan filtration membranes also have selectivity for the charge of the dissolved components, monovalent ions will pass the membrane and divalent and multivalent ions will be rejected.

Water Softening Process:
The Water Softening process is primarily designed to remove calcium ions from the water. The calcium hardness of the water causes scale in heaters and pipes develop soap scum and create unwanted precipitates in many water - based products. However, because the action resin that is used for this process is not selective to calcium, the resin will also remove magnesium, ferrous (clear as drawn) iron, and traces of metals such as copper, aluminum, _______________________________________________________________________ _ Page 52 of 115

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zinc and radium. During the removal process the above listed ions are replaced or exchanged for sodium if sodium chloride is used as a regenerating chemical or potassium if potassium chloride is used. By their nature, neither sodium nor potassium will cause scale, interfere with soap or normallycreate precipitates. When a water softener is regenerated we normally emply the steps of backwash, brine draw, slow rinse and rapid rinse. The backwash discharge is chemically the same as the raw water, the brine draw and slow rinse waters contain the ions removed during the softening process plus some sodium or potassium and are high in chlorides. The rapid rinse water is softened water. Full knowledge of the chemistry of the water to be softened as well as the application of the softened water (laundry, boiler feed, process water, condensate polishing, etc..) enables us to fine tune the design for maximum salt use efficiency, minimum pressure drop, minimum regeneration waste water discharge.

Waste water treatment Plant:
The first unit operation encountered in wastewater-treatment plants is screening. A screen is a device with openings, generally of uniform size that is used to retain the coarse solids found in wastewater. The screening element may consist of parallel bars, rods or wires, grating, wire mesh, or perforated plate, and the openings may be of any shape but generally are circular or rectangular slots. A screen composed of parallel bars or rods is called a rack. Although a rack is a screening device, the term “screen” should be limited to the type with wire cloth or perforated plate. However, the function performed by a rack is called screening and the materials removed by it are known as screening or raking. Bar racks normally have clear openings between bars of 15mm.

Oil Separation:

In this unit the oil particles are separated from the water. _______________________________________________________________________ _ Page 53 of 115

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Sedimentation:
Sedimentation is the separation from water, by gravitational settling, of suspended particles that are heavier than water. It is one of the most widely used unit operations in wastewater treatment. The terms sedimentation and settling are used interchangeably. A sedimentation basin may also be referred to as a sedimentation tank, settling basin, or settling tank.

Filtration:
And finally the filtration takes place where water is purified and recycled for again use .

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2.5 Competitors:
The Major Competitors which are Competing in Pakistan that provide services for water treatment at various levels are So Safe, Aqua Safe, Pearl Water Treatments, Pure it, Water World, Igloo Water Treatment. Fluid Technologies International.

These are the main competitors of Vivo Hydro Technologies in Sialkot, Kasur and Lahore.

The competition in Pakistani water treatment industry is at its peak despite that the hardworking management of the VHT had decided to open its offices also in Karachi to provide its services to people and the industry of Karachi.

The VHT also had a competitive advantage over all these companies i.e. the support of the Chamber of Commerce and Industry Sialkot.

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3. Organizational structure

3.1 Organizational Hierarchy chart:
The management Hierarchy at VHT is an excellent one because here in VHT the policy making and decision making is decentralized. The selected members from each department participate in the meetings conducted in VHT. The management Hierarchy Chart of VHT Sialkot (Head Office) is given below.

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C.E.O

Accounts

General Manager

Marketing

IT dept.

Purchase dept.

Chemical Engineer

Sales dept.

Receiving

Technicians and other members

Assembly Line Team Payroll Checking Team

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3.2 Number of employees:
VHT currently employees are 279 in all branches besides 2 biologists who are employed on contract.

3.3 Main offices:

Head Office is located in Sialkot. Office: 458/3/2, Nasir Road, Sialkot - 51310 Pakistan. Ph: + 92 52 4567800 Fax: + 92 52 4567700 E-mail: info@vivo.com.pk

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mentioned above in the introduction portion of my report. I did my internship at Head Office Sialkot.

3.4 Introduction of all departments:
There are various departments working in VHT. A brief introduction of all departments is given below:

Administration Department:
An administration department basically has the control of all departments. General Manager GM controls all the departments and transfers this information to C.E.O. This department has the authority to hire or fire any employee. GM controls all the issues related to Purchase dept., IT dept., Finance dept. etc. GM takes every necessary action which is for the betterment of the company and assure able to C.E.O.

Marketing executive:
Marketing executive communicate with the customer and send satisfactory answers after getting the confirmations from the relevant departments. Main purposes of the marketing department are:

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1. Correspondence using communicational ways. 2. To keep in-touch with different departments. 3. Deals with the company’s customers. 4. Market the company’s products 5. Keep an up-to-date record of all products. 6. Making strategies to promote company’s products. 7. Make strategies to turn its customers as regular buyers. 8. Maintains team work spirit and collaboration with other departments. 9. Keep a complete record of all exhibitions.

The Engineer:
The chemical engineer at VHT is the head of a very advance water test laboratory at VHT. The engineer issues necessary instructions to assembly unit for the preparation of the plants or RO systems. Mainly he is responsible for all water related functions.

Sales Department:
Sales department keeps a complete record of invoices and pack lists. After receiving the order, it enters the order in the layout and checks the codes, description, prices and then confirms the order. After that it issues planning to the Assembly department for further issuance of the product to the supplier. After completing all the required steps the product is issued to the customer within the time limit.

Purchase Department:
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Depending upon the planning issued by the Sales department, the purchasing manager issues the orders to the vendors to fulfill the customer’s need and to maintain the stock. Purchase department keeps a complete check and balance of incoming and outgoing items. It keeps the record of purchasing new items or raw material for making items.

The Assembly Unit:
VHT uses equipment of different types from various international brands so whenever any item is received, Assembly unit in charge transfer this stock to the material field store keeper for counting and milling. The equipment thus assembled as per requirements.

Checking Department:

The checking department checks the different instruments that whether the instruments are according to the certified standards or not, whether those items are according to the drawing and the specifications or not. Checking Staff checks the quality of the material used. In final inspection if any item is not up to the nark then it is rejected by the Checking department. If any complaints are raised by the customer after the installation of equipment then checking staff investigates the complaint and takes necessary action against the complaint.

Installation Team:
After the approval of checking department the installation team fit out the plants or RO’s at customer place. The installation team consists of skilled workers and technicians whose are responsible for quality fitting. The installation team works under the engineer at VHT because of complications involved in the systems. The IT department has also got role in the Installation team. The main purpose of IT department here is to guide the _______________________________________________________________________ _ Page 61 of 115

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technicians to operate the modern computerized systems.

The IT Department:
The IT department at VHT started its services in March 2007 for the purpose of giving assistance to all the departments at VHT such as finance department, marketing department etc. 1. The main functions of IT department at VHT are: 2. To maintain the HRIS of VHT 3. To maintain the website of the company. 4. To provide training to the technicians to operate computerized plants. 5. To provide its assistance to the finance department. 6. The IT department also holds the payroll system at VHT in collaboration of finance department. 7. The IT department at VHT head office also maintains the records of attendance of employees working at different branches of VHT working in different cities. 8. The IT department also provides 24/7 help desk for technical support about the devices to the customers. The IT department was established 2 years later after the establishment of the company.

Future Projects of IT Department:
In near future the IT department at VHT is going to launch its online shopping web portal for the customers of VHT. So that people can buy portable home filtration appliances through internet. The IT department will also start data base sharing for other branches of the company in different cities. _______________________________________________________________________ _ Page 62 of 115

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3.5 Comments on the organizational structure:

VHT is basically a team based structure. Its head office is situated in Silakot and the main assembling unit is situated in Kasur, Pakistan. VHT’s main segment market is in Kasur that is why the major concentration of C.E.O is in Kasur. G.M has the full control over the Assembling unit. Company works on matrix structure. GM assigns specialists from different functional departments like Assembling, Sales, Installation, etc. the quality checking staff and biologists to work on projects by the project managers. GM ensures that organization has the right number and right kind of people in the right places. It is thus possible that the capable employees perform their duties within the prescribed time with full efficiency and accuracy. Organization fully supports their workers and labor by all means. There is a labor union which represents the workers and protects their labor interests. Management decisions are regulated by the terms of collective agreements depending upon the influence of rules and regulations to ensure equal employment opportunities. Such actions taken by the GM and C.E.O ensure that decisions and practices enhance the employment, upgrading the system and protecting one’s interests.

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4. The Internship Program

4.1 Introduction of the branch:
VHT is a Services providing and consultancy company of all kinds of water treatments, filtration systems, Reverse Osmosis systems and other ultraviolet systems. I do my internship at the head office. It is situated at Nasir Road Sialkot. The head office is mainly controlled by the General Manager Mr. Usman Qadir. Who is a very passionate and a dedicated and devoted person. Mr. Usman as most senior officer after the CEO in the head office not only provide me a chance for the internship but he also directed the IT department to provide me comprehensive training in the department. The IT department _______________________________________________________________________ _ Page 64 of 115

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at Sialkot operates under the IT manager Mr. Qaiser Imtiaz. Mr.Qaiser Imtiaz helped me a lot on my project of database development of inventory of VHT at head office.

VHT is a private service providing company has now expanded in a modern 15000 square ft. The assembly line at Sialkot had employed 30 technicians beside other staff members. The company developed its business by the commitment to customer satisfaction by strenuous efforts and striving hard to achieve a best, with a view to establish out mutual business relationship with the customer on a permanent basis. They provide the instruments by precise supervision of manufacturing processes into finish shape in easily working condition in the hands of end users. Success of VHT is also due to the satisfaction of the customers. The major part of the success comes from being able to quickly complete most orders from their huge stock holding of finished instruments. The skilled administration team is trained to quickly handle any customer order and to ensure that every order is completed and delivered with minimum delay. Modern communication systems ensure that VHT is in constant touch with its precious customers and is able to respond immediately to any market change. VHT is also very proud of its highly skilled workforce.

The company uses guaranteed instruments provided by internationally renowned companies such as Philips and LG. VHT is an accredited and approved by different institutions of Pakistan such as Chamber of Commerce and Industry Sialkot, The Leather Association of Sialkot, and the Surgical Association of Sialkot.

The head office located at Sialkot is continuously involved in creating awareness of water treatment in the society. As the nature of industry in Sialkot is export type. The city of Sialkot has proven its quality in surgical instruments and leather wears all over the world. The CEO Mr. Moazzam Elahi often visits international exhibitions on surgical instruments and _______________________________________________________________________ _ Page 65 of 115

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leather wears to convey to the westerns that Pakistanis are well aware of their environment and they are now treat their water wastes in the well being of environment. The head office of VHT in Sialkot also plays a vital role in marketing of the company. I must say here that the main branch of VHT consists of very well mannered staff and all of them helped me a lot during my project. It is because of hardwork of the employees that a services providing company has a sale figure of 37.5 million during 2007-08.

4.2 Starting and ending dates of internship:
The internship program (15/11/08-10/01/09):
I started my internship in the head office of Vivo Hydro Technologies on 15 t h November 2008. The head office is basically responsible for Record Keeping, Marketing of the company and Strategy Formulation. The Performance of all branches is also evaluated here.

I worked in IT department of Vivo hydro technologies where I worked under the supervision of Mr. Qaiser Imtiaz. Under his supervision I worked on the data base of a company first time in my life. It was amazing experience of mine. I completed my internship on 10/01/09.

Environment at Vivo Hydro Technologies:
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I was assigned to work in the IT department of Vivo where my immediate supervisor was Mr. Qaiser Imtiaz (IT Manager). I had a very good learning experience in Vivo which would be of enormous help to me in the future. The staff was very helpful and friendly, which made the working environment adaptive and pleasant. The people there make Vivo a great company and an exciting place to work with a shared desire to learn leading edge skills and stretch beyond their limits.

I took a deep interest in observing how employees in the company work together to overcome challenging situations. The environment in the company is so welcoming that it forces people to join hands together to work as a team.

About integrity, mutual respect, teamwork, creativity and empowerment. Sometimes my supervisors enabled me to make my own decisions with responsibility which motivated and encouraged me.

The Information Technology department of Vivo is a source of good inspiration. It is very dedicated, committed and hard working. Just by observing the team gave me a sense of responsibility and it gave me confidence that I am a part of this strong team. Working in Vivo Hydro Technologies is an experience that I will always cherish.

Objective of the Study:
Internship is a part of our M.B.A program and it is mandatory. Internship is a _______________________________________________________________________ _ Page 67 of 115

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source of good learning and it is a basic element of a student’s career which applies the theoretical knowledge into practical work. Internships are a great way to learn about an occupation and get work experience at the same time. Internship enables a person to develop his skills and abilities that are directly applicable to his career. Internships give an insight from a student’s career to a professional career. I wanted to see for myself whether my academic progress relates to official work or not, and so it lead me to Vivo hydro Technologies.

Because it is a dynamic organization with a powerful culture that allows people to make the most of their skills, personality and Bareer. I developed such knowledge and skills which directed to my career. The internship program at Vivo is designed in such a way that it ensures maximum learning in ones chosen career area and provides the person with an insight into the company, work and people.

Significance:
During my academic years in the MBA program I got exposed to many terms which are applicable in a professional career. From the beginning of my degree I was taught about the organizational structures, organizational hierarchy (chain of command) etc. At VHT I got a chance to experience my studious learning in relation to practical work. I became a part of the organizational hierarchy as I had to report to my supervisors and they had to report to their supervisors. A chain of command followed from the Manager through the Executives to the Internees.

I studied Management Information System that is all about providing information and connects the departments in order to work properly, Automation and retrieving of data. At Vivo I observed the data in companies manipulate and what is its _______________________________________________________________________ _ Page 68 of 115

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importance. I also learnt different automated processes. There at VHT I apply different techniques which I studied during my semesters. When I look at the database of VHT I was surprised because in our course CS-403(Data Base Management System) I studied only examples carrying maximum record of 4 or 5 entities but when I worked at VHT’s database under the supervision of IT manager I feel great while adding records to existing database and then manipulating them.

My field is IT related and I studied different courses in which I studied about record keeping through an Information System. There is a profile of each and every employee in a database which can be easily accessed when needed. This database is known as Human Resource Information System (HRIS). In VHT I was trained to use Microsoft SQL server which was of great advantage as this software is essential in everyday office use.

4.3 Detailed Description of the department in which I worked:

I worked in the IT department of the Vivo Hydro Technologies. The IT department of Vivo Hydro Technologies was established in 2007 according to the needs of the company. This department now maintains the payroll system of Vivo Hydro Technologies along with the record maintenance of _______________________________________________________________________ _ Page 69 of 115

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employees. The IT department at Vivo Hydro Technologies is also responsible for the development and maintenance of the website of the company. In collaboration with the quality checking department it also convey the feedback of the customers of the company to the other departments.

The IT department also helps the other departments of the company. It helps the Accounts department in maintenance of payroll system of Vivo Hydro Technology. The second function of IT department is to provide training to the assembling unit of the company as in assembling of HI-Tech automated devices. The IT department of the company also issues user manuals for different filtration systems to the help the end users in operating the systems installed at their places.

The department also have a 24/7 help desk for technical support about the products for the customers of the company.

In IT department a special team of two software designers is dedicated to develop softwares for different offices of the company.

I worked for two months in the IT department of the VHT. What I find is that it is a newly established department which started its services only one year back so I think it takes two or three years to develop it as an professional IT department. At present the functions of IT department are not so much but still it is very useful for the company. The IT department runs the SQL server to main the records of the company.

Future Projects of the IT department:
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The IT department of the company will going to launch a web portal for the company from which the customers will got the facility to do shopping online through credit cards or by using other sources such as online payment transfer. On website different home and commercial appliances will be placed for online customers.

5. Training program

During the two months of internship at VHT I also performed many duties apart from the IT department. Which added to my experience and learning. All the tasks that I executed gave me a sense of responsibility. Sometimes _______________________________________________________________________ _ Page 71 of 115

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there was

too much responsibility on me,

too much burden was there. At

times things were slow, yet

I wanted to work more because I had blurred

the lines between work and fun. Along with the task I have been given to develop I also perform some extra duties which I want to put here.

My premier task was to develop a smart database for the inventory room of the company. So besides developing the project I also do the following jobs. The detailed description of my project is given in the “Critical analysis” portion of the report.

As I mentioned earlier that in VHT a database exists at Head office which contains the record of all Department daily theVHT employees in different cities. The IT applications, VHT medical the reimbursement database by receives at

forms, expense claims and other documents of all the VHT employees. Throughout my putting all internship I maintained those documents in their desired files.

VHT is a services providing organization and I worked in head office in which every decision has to go through. So a lot of letters, applications and recommendations were dispatched daily throughout many cities such as Lahore branch, Kasur branch, etc. These are the branches of VHT. My supervisor only mentioned the city and it was my job to write the postal address of VHT office on an envelope containing the document and deliver it at the reception to be dispatched.

One another extra duty was to manage the visitors. Many people came to visit the Head office of the organization for business purpose. The mangers could only attend one person at a time and the rest of the people had to wait. It was my responsibility to set the priority of meetings. If a person had to _______________________________________________________________________ _ Page 72 of 115

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wait for a long period of time, I used to make him sit

in the cafeteria.

Many other people also visited the head office for different purposes.

Office work documents. documents.

was also the extra duty on me. Its all My supervisor

about

papers

and

always required arranging and rearranging Sometimes faxed

documents. I helped them in their work by stapling and unclipping I also make many photocopies of documents. secret documents were to be shredded after they have been used. I

shredded the documents using a Paper Shredder Machine. I also

papers and documents all other branches and sometimes outside the country. Scanning was also an everyday job for me, I used to scan documents and papers and sometimes those documents were to be faxed to other offices of VHT.

During my internship at VHT I faced a lot of problem as a massive work load was put on me during two months. So I want to say here that

“I

like the Job but the work spoils it.”

6. Structure of the MIS/IT Department

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6.1 Department hierarchy:

Mr. Qaiser Imtiaz Manager IT

Aabid Ali Software Designer

Asfand Ali Contractor Software Designer

Omer Baig Assistant

Abdul Qadoos Assistant

Ms. Ayesha Data entry

Faheem Nawaz Help desk

6.2

Number

of

employees

working

in

the

MIS

department:
There are total 6 employees are working in IT department plus one contractor software designer.

6.3 MIS/IT operations:
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The IT department at VHT maintains the payroll system of Vivo Hydro Technologies along with the record maintenance of employees in collaboration with the accounts department. The IT department at Vivo Hydro Technologies is also responsible for the development and maintenance of the website of the company. In collaboration with the quality checking department it also convey the feedback of the customers of the company to the other departments. The IT department also helps the other departments of the company. It helps the Accounts department in maintenance of payroll system of Vivo Hydro Technology. The second function of IT department is to provide training to the assembling unit of the company as in assembling of HI-Tech automated devices. The IT department of the company also issues user manuals for different filtration systems to the help the end users in operating the systems installed at their places. The department also have a 24/7 help desk for technical support about the products for the customers of the company. In IT department a special team of two software designers is dedicated to develop soft wares for different offices of the company.

7. Functions of the MIS Department

7.1 Major functions:
Today information systems are a foundation for conducting business. In many industries the survival and even existence is difficult without extensive use of information systems. _______________________________________________________________________ _ Page 75 of 115

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Now organizations are trying to become more competitive and efficient by transforming themselves in to the digital firms.Dr. Greenspan in his article “The revolution in information technology” has discussed the responsibilities and roles of modern day’s MIS/IT department as. The purpose to add this article in the report is to analyze the modern day functions of MIS/IT departments in different organizations. A comparative study has also been made below to compare the modern day MIS/IT department functions with the department in which I got training.
(The source has also been added in the references portion of the Report)

Application Development Management Team: This Team is made up of the IT Manager, Assistant Managers and the Technical staff. Their responsibilities include: Provide the strategic direction for the MIS/IT /IT department Manage IS resources and assignments Establish and evaluate MIS/IT procedures  Review Project Workbooks. development policies, methodologies, and

  

Customer: The Customer is the person or department requesting work from MIS/IT . The Customer’s responsibilities will vary throughout the project phases. Their primary responsibilities will include: Partner with the MIS/IT Practice Manager to create the Project Workbook Partner with the MIS/IT Practice Manager to manage the project including the timeline, work plan, testing, resources, training and documentation of procedures  Work with the Practice and Program Manager to identify the technical approach to be used and the deliverables to be furnished at the completion of the project _______________________________________________________________________ _ Page 76 of 115

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Provide a clear definition of the business need Sign-off on project deliverables Take ownership of the developed process and software.

Customer Feedback Evaluation Team: The Customer Feedback Evaluation Team consists of various members of the MIS/IT department. Their responsibilities include: Review the completed Project Performance Evaluation Forms Highlight ratings below “satisfied” so the MIS/IT Practice Manager can contact the customer for additional details  Forward copies of all forms to the MIS/IT Director and the MIS/IT Practice Manager for review and/or follow-up  Follow-up with MIS/IT Practice Manager on resolution of those being reviewed with the customers  Track the results of the forms for general trends and areas to improve.

 

Design Review Team: The Design Review Team will consist of the Technical Architect, the Program Manager for Infrastructure and the Program Manager for Development. Their responsibilities include: Review and approve all Design Overview Documents Review, prior to the meeting, design packages to be presented and be prepared with questions and comments   Perform audit reviews on tested packages. Be available to provide consultative support to any developer or development team on questions of standards, procedures, techniques, etc. Executive Sponsor: The Executive Sponsor is typically a high-level executive who acts as the project advocate from University Administration. Their primary responsibilities _______________________________________________________________________ _ Page 77 of 115

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include: Champion the project, project manager and project team Manage the project scope and change requests Approve the Project schedule Communicate project goals to all management levels Provide appropriate and timely resources for efficient and effective project completion       Ensure sustained adherence to schedule commitments Provide on-going guidance and direction to the project team Provide regular feedback to the project team on performance vs. expectations Follow up to ensure project benefits defined in the Project Workbook are realized Escalate issues and project scope changes Act as the final decision maker on unresolved project issues.

    

Functional Resources: The Functional Resources represent the business areas for which work is being performed and are usually members of that business area. The primary project activities of the Functional Resources include: Share their in-depth understanding of the business and system processes and their knowledge of federal regulations  Provide business expertise on the system functionality related to their job functions  Participate actively in all phases of the project including planning and analysis, design, development, testing and implementation, related to their area of expertise  Be available for the indicated percentage of their time allotted for the project.

Functional Lead: The Functional Lead represents the customer’s business area for which _______________________________________________________________________ _ Page 78 of 115

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work is being preformed. The Functional Leads responsibilities include: Provide expertise on the overall business processes around which the project is focused and provide needed business expertise in those areas  Provide direction to the functional resources on managing day-to-day activities and adhering to project deliverable due dates  Participate actively in the development of the Project Workbook (in conjunction with the Program Manager and Practice Manager) including why the project was requested, as well as the project requirements and scope including the risk, time, and cost  Participate actively in all phases of the project including planning and analysis, design, development, testing and implementation, related to their area of expertise   Help identify change barriers within the business areas Provide two way communication between the affected business area and the Project Team  Be available for the indicated percentage of their time allotted for the project.

Help Desk & End User Computing Group: The Help Desk and End User Computing Group provide training and support during the implementation and production support phases of the project. This team is led and managed by the Systems Manager responsible for End User Computing Activities. The Help Desk and End User Computing Group responsibilities include: Provide team and end user training during implementation Provide help desk support after implementation Assist in the distribution and configuration of workstations for the Vanderbilt community  Provide support for network problems, firewall problems, security problems, and access issues. _______________________________________________________________________ _ Page 79 of 115

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Maintenance and Enhancement Group: The Maintenance and Enhancement Group provides on-going support for systems after implementation occurs. There are two M & E Groups currently defined: Business Operations and Student Systems. The M & E Groups are led and managed by the Systems Manager responsible for either Business Operation activities or Student System activities. responsibilities include: Provide day-to-day technical support in maintaining the information system, including responsibility for ensuring processes and outputs are complete and error-free  Develop an in-depth understanding of the business processes supported by the system  Consult with customers (independently or in partnership with other members of MIS/IT ) to evaluate, design, test and install requested enhancements to the new system   Run production-level programs to obtain output when necessary Identify, resources  Develop and maintain technical documentation and operational procedures on the new information system   Provide support for the legacy systems Manage the System Enhancement Request Form process. analyze, and resolve problems with production applications independently or in partnership with other MIS/IT teams and/or functional Primarily, the M & E Groups

MIS/IT Functional Consultant: The MIS/IT Functional Consultant is a support role to the MIS/IT Practice Managers and Project Implementation Team during a project implementation. Their responsibilities include:

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Make written and oral presentations to project teams and groups outside the department Evaluate, establish and maintain MIS/IT development policies, methodologies, and procedures Plan, schedule, and coordinate activities related to system development projects Contact department heads and various levels of staff in user departments to provide functional support in documenting, designing, and implementing project(s) Assist with customer service and communication Perform some planning/scheduling/prioritizing/coordination of project-related activities for project team members.

 

 

Operations group: The Operations Group monitors the operations of all administrative information systems. The Operations Group is led and managed by the Systems Manager responsible for Operations. Their responsibilities include: Monitor and oversee the daily, weekly and monthly operations of all administrative information systems   Ensure deadlines are met Endure the processing and printing of forms, reports and checks and the processing of other interfaces, during and after business hours.  Perform daily scheduled tasks, such as EDI and other batch processing

Assistant Manager: The Practice Manager is a liaison between MIS/IT customer. The Practice Manager performs a variety of functions that include:

and the

Provide leadership and management to MIS/IT development teams and projects

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Consult with customers (independently or in partnership with MIS/IT Consultant, MIS/IT Senior Consultant and/or Program Manager) to understand and analyze operational procedures and information generation or utilization needs, including why the project was requested, as well as the project requirements and scope including the risk, time, and cost Oversee and actively participate in the development of the Project Workbook (in conjunction with the Program Manager and Customer) Develop the project plan including the resource, skill and skill level requirements Develop procedures for changing scope and project acceptance procedures Develop review schedules and acceptance criteria at each phase of the project Work with the Program Manager and Customer to identify the technical approach to be used and the deliverables to be furnished at the completion of the project, including the development of a strategic plan, systems analysis, technical design, coding, testing, and turnover to production of the application Oversee and direct, in conjunction with a Program Manager, the strategic IS plan, development of business requirements, development of functional and program specifications, relational database design, programming, testing, implementation and documentation for applications Develop the project management approach including training needed for the project team, reporting structure of the project, frequency of interaction between managers and resources, the number and frequency of team meetings, and the need for and the extent of involvement of external project stakeholders Outline the responsibilities of different parties including customers, management, project team, vendors, and other stakeholders Work with customers and project teams to integrate new systems into the end-user environment.

   

Program Manager: The Program Manager provides leadership and management of MIS/IT development teams and projects. Program Managers perform a variety of

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functions that include: Oversee and direct, in conjunction with a Practice Manager, the strategic IS plan, development of business requirements, development of functional and program specifications, relational database design, programming, testing, implementation and documentation for applications  Oversee and actively develop the Project Workbook (in conjunction with the Practice Manager and Customer) including why the project was requested, as well as the project requirements and scope including the risk, time, and cost  Work with Practice Manager and Customer to identify the technical approach to be used and the deliverables to be furnished at the completion of the project  Schedule and assign resources to ensure that applications satisfy users’ needs and are completed within agreed upon time parameters  Monitor the status of the technical resources and tasks using tools such as the MIS/IT Work Database  Work with the Practice Manager to manage and oversee the system development process including systems analysis, technical design, coding, testing, and turnover to production of the application  Develop and maintain technical documentation on computer-based information systems; compile documentation for design changes or creation criteria. Technical Architect: The Technical Architect is a member of the MIS/IT department who manages the overall technical architecture of the department. Their responsibilities include: Continually research the information technology marketplace for new and innovative technologies and application development practices. propose these new technologies as solutions to business problems. Proactively

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Review proposed projects to ensure that they adhere to MIS/IT technology vision

strategic

Review on-going and proposed projects to identify opportunities for reuse, process improvement Serve as a resource to all teams in evaluating and proposing technical alternatives for resolving project issue

Technical Lead: The Technical Lead provides leadership to the technical resources and works in conjunction with the Program Manager and Practice Manager to ensure that project milestones are met. The Technical Lead performs a variety of functions that include: Provide technical leadership to technical resources and customers to meet project deadlines and ensure project objective are met   Plan, schedule, and coordinate activities related to system development projects Consult and mentor technical resources concerning methods, procedures, and standards to be used during design, development, and unit testing phases of system development projects   Provide system or technical development expertise to the technical resource team Communicate issues and status information to the Program Manager and Practice Manager concerning system development activities.

Technical Resources: Technical Resources may be either Vanderbilt employees or external consultants specifically hired to do development work. The Technical Resources responsibilities include:

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Consult with members of the project team to analyze operational procedures and information generation or utilization needs, which may include analyze, design, test, and implement enhancements to complex production information systems Provide consultation on business process design, database administration functions for project implementation teams, maintenance and enhancement teams, and training teams Design computer programs, forms, reports, and interfaces Create innovative software applications from scratch using state-of-the-art languages, protocols, and software methodologies Perform unit testing on computer programs, forms, reports, and interfaces Create and maintain technical documentation on computer-based information systems; compiling documentation for design changes or creation criteria Update systems data and prepare conversion requirements Provide assistance to users with software-related issues or problems.

 

 

 

Technical Infrastructure Team: The Technical Infrastructure Team is the group responsible for supporting the hardware and software components required by a system implementation. This includes the servers, network printers, operating system, databases, user security, and network connectivity. include: Ensure the application software/hardware is consistent with the technical environment and standards      Provide technical system and database support for: Capacity and planning Space management Backup and recovery Performance tuning and monitoring The primary responsibilities of this team

 Provide application software change control across the different environments _______________________________________________________________________ _ Page 85 of 115

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Install and upgrade server and application software Assist technical resources with database design Provide database administration support for systems development and upgrades.

While working at VHT it was my first experience to work in the IT department of an organization and here for the first time I analyze the importance of MIS/IT department in the organization. And I feel that today you cannot operate your organization with just a computer department and some data entry personals. Now the world has changed where technology is transforming the ways of doing business. During my internship program I find that this internship helps me to better understand the working environment of the organization by finding the relationship between what is written in the books and what is actually going on in fields. The theory written in the books in cases is not implemented as it is. In some cases theory is implemented with a little modification but in other cases theory has nothing to do with practice. To me, Theory gives you the direction to understand the processes and the terminologies going across the World using best business practices in a broader view covering each and every aspect of possible business scenarios. On the contrary practical life is specific, enclosed in a jar. In practical professionalism and firm’s environment is each and every thing. Professional life only builds on the knowledge based on books even though it may only use 1% of the theoretical knowledge. During my internship I also analyze that the concepts in books are written on ideology basis where every thing works fit and fine but in practical life it is not necessary that every thing works like as you think. Now here is comprehensive list of almost all the functions that the IT department of VHT performs.

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2. Explore and recommend alternatives to current implementations and technologies 3. Documentation of the records. 4. Develop usage instructions for end-users of products. 5. Testing and acquiring new technology for getting an edge over competitors. 6. Installation of software in computers of other departments. 7. Provide trouble-shooting / consultation in any case of problem. 8. Maintaining the data network 9. Implementation of new technology standards in the instruments. 10. Perform server maintenance / backups 11. Ensuring compliance of equipment usage with company’s guidelines. 12. Setting up IT resources for new and current employees 13. Contribute to the company’s technical-support knowledge database 14. Placing orders for new software or updates if necessary. 15. Inventory tracking and record-maintenance 16. 24/7 technical support help desk for customers.

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7.2 Support to other departments:
The IT department at VHT currently provides support to the marketing department such as the development of broacher ’s maintenance of the website etc. secondly it provides its services to the assembly department in dealing with hi tech instruments such as ultraviolet rays generator systems etc. Thirdly it provides user manual guides of filtration systems for the customers of the VHT. The IT department also helps the account department in maintaining the records of the company.

The IT department is like a main hub for the company as this department connects different departments of the VHT with each other.

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8. Critical Analysis

8.1 Requirement Analysis
Introduction and Scope:
The growing popularity of Database and Information system introduced new terms of record keeping such as IIS (Inventory Information System). It might be possible that in near future there would be no need of many clerks in an office for the purpose of record keeping. Only a single data entry person can do the work of many people at a time. The data thus recorded in the database would serve equally all the departments of the organization. The concept of information system defines a system where all records of the organization are collected and they can be assessed by any related department of the organization. This project is intended to give both stock room and other departments the ability to do their jobs effectively and efficiently without even leaving their places. The project is simply described as modeling a real world object (i.e. Database system for the stock room of VHT) into computer world. As in the real life we can see that there are many clerks working in an office and maintaining records of inventory. When I investigate the current IIS project that I choose for my self I observe that it can _______________________________________________________________________ _ Page 89 of 115

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be grouped mainly in two Phases. In the first phase the project is designed to work on small LAN where the head office has a complete record of all the components in its stock room. The second phase of project is designed to work through Internet that allows it to be used more commonly.

For my internship I chose the first phase because the second phase needs many more technical skills and a good command on modern computer languages such as ASP.NET, VISUAL BASIC etc. As a student currently I can only design a simple SQL database for just LAN operating inside the head office.

Objective:
My objective here in VHT is to design a simple but a very helpful information system for the Inventory room of the VHT.

Actually the IT department at VHT had got the facility of HRIS but there is no record holding of the inventory system. They were just relaying on the old paper work where they much of their time in finding the required parts of the instruments.

As I have mentioned in my reports that VHT is a services providing company it has its own assembly line where the different parts of a treatment unit RO system or a simple filter are assembled as per order requirement. It is estimated that company uses almost 600 different parts in assembly units while a assembling different products for their customers.

The existing System:
The existing system at VHT is: _______________________________________________________________________ _ Page 90 of 115

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 The purchase made purchases throughout the year as per the orders of the engineer and various other technicians.

 Some of the material purchased (or parts purchased) are being consumed by the assembly line instantly but the remaining of them were goes to the storeroom.

 The problem with the store room is that there is no proper record system for the store room.

 Now on this basis the purchase department, the sales department, the General Manager, the assembly line does not have any information about their stock although they have had a comprehensive and a very big store room.

 Now problem is that in VHT to assemble each category filter or a treatment unit requires a dedicated list of parts during assembling.

 The company has a large range of products so ultimately the range for parts used in these products will also have a comprehensive list or number.

 So there is an emergency need of an information system which can help them to overcome the problem.

To overcome this problem I was assigned a task to prepare an information system which is capable of helping the assembly line, the purchase department, the finance department, and also the sales department. Because if these departments can got better knowledge then it would help them to solve many problems.

The New system and its contributions:
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 The new system which is going to develop for the company is the database of the storeroom. This can help the different departments at VHT in different ways. Such that.

 The purchase department and assembly now by using the system can now do better capacity planning.

 The finance department can use the system for better forecasting of the financial statements.

 Another advantage that this system will provide to the company is that company can maintain a large stock of spare parts in the storeroom so that he problem of immediate increase in the prices of different parts in the international market can be solved.

 In existing system when sales department get an order for a treatment plant it informs about the order to other departments of the company such as purchase department (to purchase raw materials) and to the assembly line to be prepared for the assembling of the plant.

 It takes two to three weeks to reach the raw equipment or unassembled parts to assembly line from different countries.

 Each treatment unit takes more than 45 parts to be assembled and the assembly line works on a patron where they assemble the plant step by step.

 Now think if they got every thing in their store room related to the plant but only one part is missing and they do not have any knowledge of that so at the middle of _______________________________________________________________________ _ Page 92 of 115

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the assembling process they have to stop their work for two to three weeks so that the related missing part can be purchased.

The above written problems encouraged me to develop a system for the inventory system of the VHT. The IT department of the company had already started the data collection process for that system. After I got internship at VHT the manager of IT department asked me to attend that task. So as an internee I started working on that project.

People who helped me at various levels:
As I was a new comer in that information System Field so ultimately I need some encouragements and some practical training of the database. During my studies I was also studying my database development course CS-403 and the information systems CS-507 and another very helpful course named as Software Project management.

But along with the book knowledge I also need some practical and professional knowledge about all these courses. So the IT department helped me in that regard.

The manager IT Mr. Qaiser Imtiaz taught me SQL at practical level and I got practical training of SQL server 2005 enterprise edition at HRIS of the VHT.

After getting training at SQL server now I was in a position to develop a system for the company. But still I need assistance so my supervisor asked me to work under the software designer and developer of the company.

I started work on the project at 10-12-2008 and I completed the task I have been given on 05-01-2009 under the supervision of IT department.

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Project Requirements:
Project requirements are:

 A Computer System

 Microsoft SQL server.

 Microsoft Project.

Users of the new system:
 Finance Department

 IT department

 Purchase Department

 And the Assembly line

Collaboration of the department with my project:

 The IT department.

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 The Purchase department.

 The assembly line.

8.2 Data Gathering
After doing a careful analysis of my project requirements I was in need of the data so I developed a questionnaire for the purpose of data collection which is included in the Annexes portion of my report.

The data I need to develop the system was that.

 The name of the part.

 ID of the part.

 The name of the plant.

 ID of the plant.

 Category of the plant.

 And finally the quantity of the parts.

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Explanation:
Request At VHT each part has got an id and each plant has also got an id so this will do a lot of 4.0 Finance Dept. help to me. TheAsking other data members such as category of the plant determines the category for money on numerical values such as dlro01 tells us thatapproved light reverse osmosis system Approved/Not “domestic 01” similarly the explanation of some plant names and plant id’s and also the parts name and parts id’s of some parts are given at the end of my report in the annexes portion. After Approval the development of the questionnaire it was given to the assembly department to fill it. 1.0 The questionnaire was also given to the purchase department and the store keeper for the Purchasin Purchase verification of the information provided by the assembly line. After g three days I got the Department Parts filled questionnaire back I started my work on SQL under the supervision of Mr. Qaiser Receiving Equipment. Imtiaz. Pur. Req. Parts Receiving request

3. System design (The DFD for the System)
2.0 purchase Request Sending Instruments

Int. Brands Parts Sending request and payment Receiving Parts Assembly Unit Inventory House for raw parts Sending Request for Parts Requesting

3.0 Sending & Check adding info. databas _______________________________________________________________________ _ Page 96 of 115 Parts Database Receiving yes or no.

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Name

The Entity Relationship Diagram for store room database system: ID.
Plant

Room No. Quantity Plan t_Pa rt_St Store

_______________________________________________________________________ Name _ Page 97 of 115 ID. Parts for plants

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The Tabular representation of the database

Part ID Part Name GAC001 Granular activated carbon . . . . . . . .

Table name Store Plant ID Plant Name AA47 Domestic RO . . . . . . . .

Quantity Room 4 R6 . . . . . . . .

Separation of the Table :
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The separation of the above table has been done in three parts to remove redundancies from the data base. Part ID GAC001 . Table name Store 2 Plant ID AA47 . Part Name Granular activated carbon .

Part ID GAC001 .

Table name Parts Part Name Granular activated carbon .

Plant ID AA47 .

Table name Plants Plant Name Domestic RO .

Part ID GAC001

Table name Quantity Quantity Room 4 R6

Part name Granular activated carbon

The tables just shows the formation and style of the data base system

8.4. Implementation
The data thus obtained was transformed to logical schema so that the implementation phase can be completed successfully. The data was collected in the form of questionnaire from different departments was entered in to our database. The different plant names plant ID’s part names and part ID’s were and also all the related information was enterewd into the data base. _______________________________________________________________________ _ Page 99 of 115

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The data entry phase was a difficult and time consuming work. So the assistant managers also provide some help in this regard. The data was entered in the forms in SQL server.

Form was created through form wizard. The IT manager also provide his valuable suggestions in this process. After the successful entery of records the data of store room was accessed successfully.

The relational representation of the Database:
Store2(PartID, Plant ID, PartName)

Plant(PlantID, PlantName)

Part(PartID, PartName) The keys were mentioned as underlined.

The SQL Server 2005 enterprise edition was used for the database design and I use different queries in the database which not only helps me in my studies but I have also got experience in SQL.

About SQL Server:
The code base for MS SQL Server (prior to version 7.0) originated in Sybase SQL Server, and was Microsoft's entry to the enterprise-level database market, competing against Oracle, IBM, and, later, Sybase itself. Microsoft, Sybase and Ashton-Tate originally teamed up to create and market the first version named SQL Server 1.0 for OS/2 (about 1989) which was essentially the same as Sybase SQL Server 3.0 on Unix, VMS, etc. Microsoft SQL Server 4.2 was shipped around 1992 (available bundled with Microsoft OS/2 version 1.3). Later Microsoft SQL Server 4.21 for Windows NT was released at the same time as Windows NT 3.1. Microsoft SQL Server v6.0 was the first version designed _______________________________________________________________________ _ Page 100 of 115

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for NT, and did not include any direction from Sybase’s Server 2005, released in October 2005, is the successor to SQL Server 2000. It included native support for managing XML data, in addition to relational data. For this purpose, it defined an xml data type that could be used either as a data type in database columns or as literals in queries. XML columns can be associated with XSD schemas; XML data being stored is verified against the schema. XML is converted to an internal binary data type before being stored in the database.

9. SWOT Analysis

Strengths:
 The Company’s Industrial unit or branch is situated in district Kasur. This location is
rich with the market for water treatment plants that is required by the leather tanneries for the purpose of treating the contaminated water.

 VHT is growing with a very high speed and the strategy they follow is that they set _______________________________________________________________________ _ Page 101 of 115

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goals for every year. They expand their sales volume to Rs. 35.7 million in just 3.5 years which is a great achievement in a sector where people have no awareness of drinking pure water.

 The information system of VHT is very extensive and helps them a lot in managing
their customer needs.

 The Company uses best and most trusted brand’s equipment in its plants which is
imported from different advanced countries of the world. The company uses guarantees of world’s most trusted brands.

 The Company has currently imported special instruments for its advanced water test
laboratory. This is a great achievement for the company as their competitors do not have this facility.

 In Pakistan there are just a few companies which have the technology of installation
and development of large scale industrial water treatment plants.

 It also has developed a place in the market by being the only company which
provides the fabrication facility for water tanks in Pakistan.

 VHT is one of the pioneers of water treatment industry in Pakistan which has got a
very honorable place in the water treatment market in just 4 years.

 VHT also got strength of diversified equipment used in water treatment units. The
company uses Hi-Tech water treatment instruments both cheap (imported from China) and expensive (imported from USA and Germany etc.) so that the company can negotiate to almost all kinds of customers.

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 The price of treatment units at VHT is high in the market as compared to its
competitors because VHT preferably uses expensive and trusted parts in its filtration units so people trusted them.

 The company uses water treatment systems of internationally recognized brands such
as Philips; LG. etc. So VHT also take advantage of names of international brands as their competitors use cheap quality and low priced Chinese equipment.

 Different institutions such as banks, Schools, and domestic people trust the name of
VHT.

 The company is going to get ISO 9001 certification from TUV which will also help
them to get advantage making it a reliable service provider company. This will help them to do marketing more reliably.

 VHT along with its one competitor has got the collaboration with SCCI which
provides them a lot of facilities in doing their business.

 Vivo Hydro Technologies compensates its employees, better than all the other
industries.

 The basic salary of the company employees is higher than even the salary package
offered in the industry.

Weaknesses:
 The location where the VHT head office is located is outside the industrial estate in _______________________________________________________________________ _ Page 103 of 115

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Silakot which in my views not good for the company because it will be the priority of services providing companies to open their offices in the industrial estates.

 The VHT also faces problems in hiring good quality of employees due to non
availability of HRM department despite that they offers best salaries.

 The company also has one chemical engineer for its all branches. In my views if the
engineer leaves the job for any reason than there is a possibility that company will face problems.

 The company did not use non branded materials for their filtration systems which
causes in purchase of expensive materials from different countries thus ultimately increasing its costs for devices in the market as compared to its rivals.

 The company also bears the freight charges as most of the cases they import material
directly from other countries hampering the profitability of the company. And also the price of its devices increases. Hence Vivo Hydro Technologies is extraordinarily sensitive to the changes in the price of materials.

 The location of the company limits the ability of the company to distribute its
services all over Pakistan.

 The main assembly lines and stores are situated in Sialkot so to deliver the equipment
to other branches is a difficult work.

 This problem has affected both the local and country wide sales of the company.  Vivo Hydro Technologies is short of in transportation facility to distribute their
product in markets.

 Karachi is a very big market for them but far a way from Sialkot also creats
problems.

 The company has borrowed heavy loans from the Banks, further increasing the debt
burden over the company.

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Opportunities:
 At present the WHO has imposed some allegations on the leather industry of Pakistan
so that will ultimately a chance for VHT to expand its business more.

 If the WHO and European Union restricts their imports from Pakistan on a condition
of environmental guarantee than that will prove gold fore the company.

 The company is going to get ISO 9001 certification from TUV which will also help
them to get advantage making it a reliable service provider company. This will help them to do marketing more reliably.

 VHT can take benefit from its ISO 9001 certification as there are only a few ISO
9001 certified companies in Pakistan.

 The demand of water treatment units has been increasing rapidly providing VHT a
good chance to expand in the new markets.

 VHT is going to launch online shopping for water treatment solutions so this will also
an opportunity to grow in the market using IT.

 VHT along with its one competitor has got the collaboration with SCCI which _______________________________________________________________________ _ Page 105 of 115

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provides them a lot of facilities in doing their business in near future.

Threats:
 The company is highly vulnerable to price competition since it faces higher cost of
production as a result of increased cost of imported parts.

 The rocketing increase in prices of electricity, Gas, and other equipments has been
affecting badly to company’s profitability.

 Pakistani overall Industry is facing a horrible situation as in sense of electricity load
shedding and increase in the prices of electricity causes the industries to close so ultimately affecting all services providing companies.

 The day after day terrorist attacks and the suicidal bombing have caused the unrest in
the whole Pakistan thus creating challenges for Pakistanis to get business.

 Intimation of the government of Pakistan to increase the duty on electronic devices
(including devices used in treatment units) in the budget 2008-2009 can also create problems for the VHT to maintain its production costs.

10. Conclusion & Recommendations
Suggestions and Recommendations:
VHT just had one chemical engineer for all branches which is strange so I recommend at _______________________________________________________________________ _ Page 106 of 115

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least 5 chemical engineers for the company.The salary package should be revised for the employees .It would not only raise the efficiency of the employees but also decrease the turnover rate of the valued employees. By minimizing the inconsistency in the policies, consistency must be improved in the policies to reap long-term benefits of the policies. Activities of the labor union must be banned with immediate effect Apart from the political pressure; the unionism is the main cause of the deterioration of industry. The staff must be trained and skilled properly. Secondly, the right person should be put to the right job so that the customer may be satisfied with the conduct and modus operandi of the staff. Performance base reward system must be introduced. It is the best way to decide about the efficiency of the employees. Favoritism and union pressures about the hiring, promotion and reward system should be minimized rather eliminated as injustice discourages every qualified, hardworking and conscientious employee. Every eligible employee should be rewarded according to his merit. The VHT already has better schemes for buyers. But there is a need to launch some more and attractive schemes for the people in order to facilitate them. There is a need for continuous advertisement to aware the people about the company in order to attract the customers towards it. The reception/counter of the company is considered as the alpha and omega of industrial business. Customer satisfied with the counter service proves an asset to the organization. Therefore, utmost care should be taken while dealing with the customers at the counter. The staff at the counter must be highly skilled and trained according to the changing trends of the world. Due to ponderous and long judiciary procedure, the defaulters always manage a happy escape. To overcome this problem, positive changes in the Recovery Act should be made so that the company may recover the amount from the sale proceeds of the pledge/mortgaged property without seeking permission from the court. This task should be accomplished within six months. _______________________________________________________________________ _ Page 107 of 115

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Conclusion:
During my internship training at VHT I have learned a lot and my vision and practical exposure has broadened very much from my two months internship. In the industrial sector, VHT is contributing a lot in the water treatment industry of Pakistan Moreover the use of IT has opened new horizons for the Treatment industry and has changed the business scenario to a large extant. Further, I also concluded that 100 percent concentration, full care, analytical, descriptive and communication skills are the key prerequisites for working in an industry. Any how, precisely speaking this internship of two months is memorable period for me during which I availed the opportunity to flourish my communication skills, polish my capabilities and abilities, upgrade my knowledge about industrial sector and broaden my vision and exposure towards practical life.

11. References
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Reference material used for compiling this report is gathered from these Sources
www.who.org www.vivo.com.pk Management Information Systems (Managing the digital firm) by Kenneth C. Laudon & Jane P. Laudon. Tenth edition. The database management systems by RamaKrishanan and Gehrke. International Edition. Software Project Management by E.M. Bennaton Second Edition. www.wwfpakistan.org About SQL Server www.microsoft.com Hell for leather –Pakistan (Article) http://www.handsontv.info/ www.eu.com National Environmental Quality Standards (NEQS) Pakistan. www.wikipedia.com The encyclopedia The information about brands used was taken from the companies’ official website

12. Annexes Questionnaire used for Data
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Collection.
Department Name: ___________________________________________________ Department ID: ___________________________________________________ Employee Name: ___________________________________________________ Employee ID: ___________________________________________________ Employee Designation: ___________________________________________________

Responsibilities: ___________________________________________________

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Expertise: ___________________________________________________ _____________________________________ ______________

Write down the List of Devices/Parts/Instruments used by the company (Fill in the box given below)

Please follow the following pattern while filling in the Box:  The name of the part.

 ID of the part.

 The name of the plant.

 ID of the plant.

 Category of the plant.

 Quantity of the parts available currently.

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--The End—

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Husnain Afzal M.B.A (VU) Sialkot, Pakistan. E-mail: Husnain_afzal86@hotmail.com Ph: 052-8116425 Cell: 0333-8691306

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