TESTING, MAINTENANCE & PROTECTION OF DISTRIBUTION TRANSFORMERS

Presented by PRASHANT P. NANKAR TRANS-DELTA ELECTRICALS

WHAT IS A TRANSFORMER?

TRANSFORMER IS A STATIC DEVICE WHICH TRANSFORMS A.C. ELECTRICAL POWER FROM ONE VOLTAGE TO ANOTHER VOLTAGE KEEPING THE FREQUENCY SAME BY ELECTROMAGNETIC INDUCTION.

TYPES OF TRANSFORMER BY APPLICATION
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1. DISTRIBUTION TRANSFORMER 2.POWER TRANSFORMER 3.CURRENT TRANSFORMER 4.POTENTIAL TRANSFORMER 5.FURNACE TRANSFORMER 6.BOOSTER TRANSFORMER 7.RECTIFIER TRANSFORMER 8.LOCOMOTIVE TRANSFORMER 9.MINING TRANSFORMER 10.PHASE SHIFTING TRANSFORMER 11.WELDING TRANSFORMER 12.HIGH VOLTAGE TESTING/SC TESTING TRF. 13.GROUNDING TRANSFORMERS 14.CONVERTER TRANSFORMER

DISTRIBUTION TRANSFORMER
TRANSFORMER WHICH IS USED FOR THE PURPOSE OF DISTRIBUTION OF POWER.  11KV/433V is the standard voltage rating.  STANDARD KVA ratings are 25,63,100,160,200,250,315,400,500,630,750 , 1000 , 1250,1500,2000,2500 KVA. IS-2026 is the NATIONAL I S STANDARD.

. 3 PHASE.MAIN FEATURES     OUTDOOR.OIL COOLED.50HZ PRIMARY IS DELTA CONNECTED AND SECONDARY IS STAR CONNECTED. NATURALY COOLED (ONAN TYPE). AMONGST ALL THE TYPES OF TRANSFORMERS THIS IS THE MOST REQUIRED AND MOST USED TYPE.

PARTS OF TRANSFORMER               MAIN TANK RADIATORS CONSERVATOR EXPLOSION VENT LIFTING LUGS AIR RELEASE PLUG OIL LEVEL INDICATOR TAP CHANGER WHEELS HV/LV BUSHINGS FILTER VALVES OIL FILLING PLUG DRAIN PLUG CABLE BOX .

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Vector Group Verification 9.Measurement of winding resistance 2.Measurement of LOAD LOSS & IMPEDENCE. 10. ROUTINE . 7.Tests on OLTC (if Attached)   .(EFFICIENCY & REGULATION) 8. TYPE TESTS & SPECIAL TESTS ROUTINE TESTS ( TO BE CARRIED OUT ON EACH JOB) 1.Measurement of NO LOAD LOSS & current.TESTING OF TRANSFORMER            TESTING IS CARRIED OUT AS PER IS-2026.Measurement of voltage ratio 6.Seperate source voltage withstand test (High Voltage tests on HV & LV) 4.Oil BDV test.Induced Over voltage Withstand test (DVDF test) 5.Measurement of insulation resistance 3.

TYPE TESTS THESE TESTS ARE CARRIED OUT ONLY ON ONE TRANSFORMER OF THE LOT. 2. All routine tests Additionally following tests are included in type tests Lightening Impulse test. Temperature rise test   1. .

SPECIAL TESTS       Additional Impulse test Short circuit test Measurement of zero Phase sequence Impedance test. Magnetic balance test. . Measurement of harmonics of the no load current. Measurement of acoustic noise level.

 .ROUTINE TESTS 1.Measurement of winding resistance This test measures the resistance of the HV & LV winding. Equipment used : Digital resistance meter. The values of resistance should be balance for all three phases and should match the designed values.

INSULATION TESTER OR MEGGER IS USED. .Measurement of insulation resistance Measures the insulation resistance of HV & LV windings with respect to earth (body) and between LV & HV winding. Recommended Values are 2000Mohms for HV & 500 Mohms for LV.ROUTINE TESTS  2.

LV winding connected together and given 3 KV for 1 minute. HV high voltage test : LV winding connected together and earthed.ROUTINE TESTS  3.This test checks the insulation property between Primary to earth.Seperate source voltage withstand test (High Voltage tests on HV & LV). Secondary to earth and between Primary & Secondary. LV high Voltage test : HV winding connected together and earthed. HV winding connected together and given 28 KV ( for 11KV transformer) for 1 minute. Equipment used : High Voltage tester ( 100KV & 3KV) .

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866 Volts are applied at the 433V winding with the help of a Generator for 1 minute. The frequency of the 866V supply is also increased to 100HZ.ROUTINE TESTS  4.Induced Over voltage Withstand test (DVDF test)This test checks the inter turn insulation. For a 11KV/433V transformer. Equipment used : MOTOR GENERATOR SET . This induces 22KV on 11KV side.

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then the voltage ratio is assumed to be correct. Using this principle. Equipment used : Turns Ratiometer  . If it is correct . the turns ratio is measured with the help of a turns ratio meter.Measurement of voltage ratio This test measures the voltage ratio as per the customer’s requirement.ROUTINE TESTS 5. V1/V2 = N1/N2 The voltage ratio is equal to the turns ratio in a transformer.

The iron losses and no load current are measured in this test. Effect of actual frequency must be taken into account.  . Equipment used : Wattmeters or power analyser.The power consumed by the transformer at no load is the no load loss in the transformer.Measurement of NO LOAD LOSS & current. The 433V winding is charged at 433V supply & the 11KV winding is left open .ROUTINE TESTS 6.

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Measurement of LOAD LOSS & IMPEDENCE.  . Equipment used : Wattmeters or power analyser.(EFFICIENCY & REGULATION) This test measures the power consumed by the transformer when the 433V winding is short circuited and The rated current is passed through the 11KV winding.ROUTINE TESTS 7.

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 Equipment used : voltmeter. .ROUTINE TESTS 8.Vector Group Verification test This test verifies the Dyn-11 vector group of a distribution transformer.

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glass pot. Spherical electrodes with gap of 2. 100 mm L X 70 mm B X 80 mm Ht.  .ROUTINE TESTS Oil BDV TEST. 500ml Oil sample. Oil breakdown voltage is checked as per IS-335.5 mm Recommended value : 60KV Equipment used : OIL BDV TEST SET.

The voltage is applied on each of the line terminal in succession. For a three phase transformer. Impulse generator is used to produce the specified voltage impulse wave of 1.2/50 micro seconds wave One impulse of a reduced voltage between 50 to 75% of the full test voltage and subsequent three impulses at full voltage.  . impulse is carried out on all three phases in succession. The current and voltage wave shapes are recorded on the oscilloscope and any distortion in the wave shape is the criteria for failure. keeping the other terminals earthed.TYPE TESTS LIGHTENING IMPULSE TEST All the dielectric tests check the insulation level of the job.

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The LV is short circuited. Similarly no wave form distortion. This tests measures the ability of the transformer to withstand the mechanical and thermal stresses caused by the external short circuit. HV terminals are connected to the supply bus of the testing plant. test should not vary beyond the limits stated in the IS2026. There should not be any mechanical distortion. The testing plant parameters are such adjusted to give the rated short circuit current. The record of current wave form is noted. The reactance of the winding measured before and after the S.SPECIAL TEST Short circuit withstand ability test. Supply is made on and closed after specified duration of short circuit. fire to the transformer during this test.  . The transformer should also withstand the routine tests after the short circuit test.C.

MAINTENANCE OF TRANSFORMER  Transformer is the heart of any power system. Any failure to the transformer can extremely affect the whole functioning of the organization. . Hence preventive maintenance is always cost effective and time saving.

OIL : Oil level checking. 2.MAINTENANCE PROCEDURE  1. BDV. Leakages to be attended. 3. . If acidity is between 0. oil should be kept under observation. Oil BDV & acidity checking at regular intervals. Color and smell of oil are indicative.5 to 1mg KOH.

. It may lead to sludge formation and acidic contents. Megger values along with oil values indicate the condition of transformer. Oil when topped up shall be of the same make.moisture can be removed by filtration. 2. dust.    Sludge.MAINTENANCE PROCEDURE 1. Periodic Dissolved Gas Analysis can be carried out. Insulation resistance of the transformer should be checked once in 6 months. dirt .

Dust & dirt deposition.  . Salt or chemical deposition. cement or acid fumes depositions should be carefully noted and rectified.MAINTENANCE BUSHINGS Bushings should be cleaned and inspected for any cracks.

Regular inspection of OIL & WINDING TEMPERATURE METER readings. shrubs removed. Breather examination. Conservator to be cleaned from inside after every three years. Explosion vent diaphragm examination. . Dehydration of Silica gel if necessary. Cleanliness in the Substation yard with all nets. vines.MAINTENANCE       Periodic checking of any loose connections of the terminations of HV & LV side.

Buchholz Relay.PROTECTION OF TRANSFORMERS       The best way of protecting a transformer is to have good preventive maintenance schedule. Magnetic Oil level Gauge. Explosion Vent. . Winding Temperature indicators. Oil Temperature Indicators.

HORN GAPS & Lightening Arrestor. Breather. Earth Fault relay tripping. Oil Surge Relay for OLTC. LT circuit breaker. HT Circuit breaker with Over load. fuse. PRV for OLTC.PROTECTION OF TRANSFORMERS        HT fuse & D.O. .

Faulty Termination (Improper sized lugs etc) Power Theft. Single Phase loading. Prolonged Over loading. Lack of installation checks. Unbalanced loading. .FAILURES & CAUSES           Insufficient Oil level. Faulty operation of tap changer switch. Seepage of water in oil. Prolonged Short Circuit.

.FAILURES & CAUSES   Faulty design Poor Workmanship Improper formation of core. Insufficient cooling ducts in the winding. Burr /sharp edges to the winding conductor. Incomplete drying. Bad insulation covering. Improper core bolt insulation. Burr to the lamination blades Improper brazing of joints.

After failure .FAILURES & CAUSES    Bad Quality of raw material. transformer is removed and replaced with new/repaired one without removing the cause of failure which results in immediate or short time failure. Transit damaged transformers. .