You are on page 1of 76

Quarterly of the NatioNal archiVeS aNd

Summer 2009 I Vol. 41 No. 2

recordS admiNiStratioN

Editor’s NotE
Welcome to our special issue commemorating the 75th anniversary of the National Archives. It was on June 19, 1934, that President Franklin D. Roosevelt signed the long-awaited legislation creating the Archives, even as our headquarters building was already rising along the National Mall. We’ve come a long way since FDR’s time—we’ve now grown to 34 locations around the country and are on the Internet to serve our customers; we have billions and billions of pages of records; and we are well into the age of electronic records. You can read about how the Archives grew as an institution and expanded its reach over the years in a special article,“Our Story,” along with a timeline, beginning on page 10.Also, our grant-making arm, the National Historical Publications and Records Commission, was created along with the Archives, and you can read about it in Spotlight. But even as we observe our 75th, we still wanted to give you an issue of Prologue with the kinds of readable and interesting historical articles, all drawn in whole or part from the National Archives nationwide holdings, that you’ve come to expect from us for the past 40 years. For example, in “When the ‘Enemy’ Landed at Angel Island,” Maria Sakovich, a California-based scholar, recalls how the immigration station on Angel Island in San Francisco Bay sought to bar entry to hostile aliens and deport resident radicals during
Editorial Policy. Prologue is published quarterly by the National Archives and Records Administration (NARA). Its primary purpose is to bring to public attention the resources and programs of NARA, the regional archives, and the presidential libraries. Accordingly, Prologue in the main publishes material based, in whole or in part, on the holdings and programs of these institutions. In keeping with the nonpartisan character of NARA, Prologue will not accept articles that are politically partisan or that deal with contemporary political issues. Articles are selected for publication by the editor in consultation with experts. The editor reserves the right to make changes in articles accepted for publication and will consult the author should substantive questions arise. Published articles do not necessarily represent the views of NARA or of any other agency of the U.S. Government. Prospective authors are encouraged to discuss their work with the editor prior to submission. Articles may be submitted as either an e-mail attachment or as hard copy. The Prologue office uses MS Word but can accept any common word-processing format. Correspondence regarding contributions and all other editorial matters should be sent to the Editor, Prologue, National Archives and Records Administration, 8601 Adelphi Road, College Park, MD 20740-6001. Subscriptions and Reprints. U.S. subscription rates are $24 for one year; rates for subscribers outside the United States are $30. Single issues of the current volume are available for $6 each (add $3 shipping for orders up to $50). Send a check or money order to National Archives and Records Administration, Prologue Subscriptions, National Archives Trust Fund, Cashier (NAT), 8601 Adelphi Road, College Park, MD 20740-6001. Notice of nonreceipt of an issue must be sent within six months of its publication date. Microfilm copies of Prologue are available from ProQuest Information and Learning, P.O. Box 1346, Ann Arbor, MI 48106-1346. Prologue’s web site is at Prologue: Quarterly of the National Archives and Records Administration (ISSN 0033-1031) is published quarterly by the National Archives Trust Fund Board, 8601 Adelphi Road, College Park, MD 20740-6001. Periodicals postage paid at College Park, MD, and at additional mailing offices. Postmaster: send address changes to Prologue, National Archives and Records Administration, NPAC/Room 400, 700 Pennsylvania Avenue, Washington, DC 20408-0001. INDEXED in Acad.Abstr., Amer. Hist. & Life. Bibl. Cart., Hist.Abst. (Pts. A & B), Hum. Ind., Mag. Art. Sum., U.S. Govt. Per. Ind.,Writ. Am. Hist., & Winter Prologue.
Front cover: this year marks the 75th anniversary of the establishment of the National archives in 1934. a brief illustrated history of the agency, exploring its evolving mission, starts on page 10. Inside front cover: the arrival of the constitution and declaration of independence at the National archives Building in december 1952, to join the Bill of rights, enabled the agency to both properly protect and exhibit the nation’s founding documents.

ARCHIVIST OF THE UNITED STATES Allen Weinstein EDITOR OF PUBLICATIONS James Worsham EDITORIAL STAFF Benjamin Guterman Maureen MacDonald Rob Crotty



CONTRIBUTING EDITOR Constance Potter ART DIRECTORS Brian Barth Rania Hassan


World War I. Fred Borch is a frequent Prologue

contributor and historian and archivist for the Army’s Judge Advocate General’s Corps. In “Sitting in Judgment,” he recalls the case of Myron C. Cramer, who thought he was finished with the trial of German saboteurs who made it into the United States during World War II, only to find himself sent to Tokyo for the trials of Japanese war leaders. Trevor Plante, a regular contributor from the Archives staff, guides researchers through the sometimes confusing records relating to Indian Scouts in the post–Civil War western United States in this issue’s Genealogy Notes feature “Lead the Way.” Alison Gavin recalls Hugh Finlay, who became the nation’s postmaster when King George fired Benjamin Franklin in the Revolutionary period; Franklin later made a triumphant return. And Paul Musgrave, a staff member at the Nixon Library, has dug out a story from the Nixon Library in California, which became part of the National Archives in 2007, about the first Nixon Library in Hong Kong in the 1950s. Even if you can’t come to Washington to join us in our celebration, be with us on the World Wide Web at,where you can view the agency’s history in photographs and shop for special merchandise in the eStore. JAMES WORSHAM
2 Prologue

4 6 10
10 PROLOGUE IN PERSPECTIVE . . . BECOMING WORLD CLASS Adrienne C. Thomas reflects on the growth of the National Archives. IN THE KING’S SERVICE Alison M. Gavin recounts the story of Hugh Finlay, who became the nation’s postmaster after King George III fired the first one, Benjamin Franklin. OUR STORY An overview of the first 75 years of the National Archives as the nation’s record keeper, along with a timeline of the major events in NARA history. WHEN THE “ENEMY” LANDED AT ANGEL ISLAND Maria Sakovich recalls how the immigration station in San Francisco Bay kept out hostile aliens and deported resident radicals during World War I. SITTING IN JUDGMENT Fred L. Borch tells the story of Myron Cramer, who not only prosecuted German saboteurs but presided at the trials of Japanese war leaders. THE FIRST NIXON LIBRARY Paul Musgrave tells the story of the first library named for Richard Nixon—in Hong Kong. SPOTLIGHT ON NARA . . . THE NHPRC: EXTENDING THE ARCHIVES’ REACH Kathleen Williams traces the 75-year history of the National Archives’ grant-making arm. GENEALOGY NOTES. . . LEAD THE WAY Trevor K. Plante provides a guide to research on Indian Scouts during the opening of the American West. AUTHORS ON THE RECORD . . . MARBURY. MADISON. MARSHALL. MAYHEM. HOW TO MAKE A SUPREME COURT David McKean and Cliff Sloan chronicle the early years of the nation’s highest court. FOUNDATION FOR THE NATIONAL ARCHIVES Celebrating the Archives’ 75th anniversary and thanks for some generous gifts. PIECES OF HISTORY . . . A TEMPLE TO HISTORY The architect’s design for the bronze doors of the National Archives Building evoke the permanence and safety of the records within.

26 34 42 48


52 62 70 72





NEws & NoticEs



Prologue iN PErsPEctivE

Becoming World Class
by adrienne thomas
’ve been working at the National Archives for 39 years—long enough to see our mission evolve, the way we do our work change, and a great many colleagues come and go. It strikes me, however, that as much as things may have changed, the purpose of our work, and the passion and commitment with which this work is carried out, remains unchanged over the years. Rick Blondo, a colleague of mine for almost 20 years, describes his job this way:“One feels part of the flow of history, safeguarding the past for the present and future use.That is the privilege of being an archivist.” And it is a privilege for me to work with the talented and dedicated staff of the National Archives and Records Administration. When I first came to the National Archives in May of 1970, we were still part of the General Services Administration (GSA)—and thought of mainly as a housekeeping agency charged with storing and managing the government’s records, displaying the Charters of Freedom, and little else. Exhibition space and space for storing records was very limited. Inside the National Archives Building in Washington, D.C., most archivists spent their days working in the stacks. Lone lightbulbs cast a spooky glare, while old rotary dial phones sat atop metal desks. In the early 1980s, Archivist of the United States Bob Warner, along with a small band of dedicated supporters, worked for four years to gain NARA’s status as an independent agency in 1985. This was not the first attempt to restore the National Archives’ independence. Other dedicated Archives leaders with help from outside supporters had tried. But this time the political stars aligned, and the effort was successful. Being an independent agency freed us from the structures and priorities of the GSA and allowed us to chart our own future, opening the door for many of the changes that shaped the National Archives of today. In the last two decades we’ve built the National Archives at College Park, today one of the world’s most modern archival facilities. We gave the National Archives Building its first-ever top-to-bottom renovation, and now this stately building boasts a world-class museum, a research facility


without equal, and a unique education component. We’ve gone from an agency primarily concerned with storing paper records to spearheading solutions to the challenges of preserving and providing access to electronic records. But perhaps most important, our staff around the country has worked to bring our holdings— and the stories they tell—to the American people. Our education programs in Washington, D.C., and at our regional facilities and presidential libraries, help teachers and students appreciate the documents we hold and their relevance to our democracy. Historians, archivists, and genealogists look to us for leadership and provide invaluable support for the causes of openness and access that we champion. Our web site provides access to our exhibits and to the records we hold nationwide. Our staff around the country sets the bar higher and higher for itself with its superb customer service and encyclopedic knowledge of our records. As Archivist Claire PrechtelKluskens said, “To create a legacy of products useful for generations of researchers to come, I have striven to practice the art of the possible, and to be persistent, resilient, and not accept ‘no’ for an answer.” We are celebrating more this year than simply the fact that the National Archives has existed for 75 years. We are celebrating our role in our nation’s democracy— a role built on ensuring that the citizens of our country are free to inspect, use, and learn from the records of the government. Since 1934, thousands of staff members in Washington, D.C., and in presidential libraries, regional archives, and records centers across the country have worked to keep the holdings that document our history, our rights, and our entitlements safe and accessible for future generations. The dedication of the staff to the mission of the National Archives is the rock on which the success of the agency has been built.Their loyalty, creativity, and hard work have shaped a strong institution capable of dynamic change, growth, and continuing public service. When it comes to the staff of the National Archives, I can truly say,“The Past is Prologue.”

Acting Archivist of the United States
Summer 2009

4 Prologue

July 20, 1923 June 19, 1934:
FDR signs into law “an Act to establish a National Archives” as the Archives building rose along Pennsylvania Avenue. A history of the agency starts on page 10.





Pancho Villa meets his fate when his Dodge roadster is riddled with 150 bullets by unknown assassins. In 1916 a young first lieutenant, Myron Cramer, was activated into Federal service to pursue the Mexican rebel alongside General “Black Jack Pershing” and another lieutenant: George S. Patton. Read more about Cramer’s life on page 52.

July 26, 1775
Congress establishes the United States Post Office. Find out how Hugh Finlay helped lay the groundwork for America’s postal routes on page 6.





Eighteen years after the bombing of Pearl Harbor, and six years after then Vice President Richard Nixon spoke in favor of its statehood during a brief layover there, Hawaii becomes the 50th state. Read more about Nixon’s historic trip to Asia p. on page 42.

August 21, 1959:


July 6, 1835
The architect of the historic Supreme Court decision Marbury v. Madison, John Marshall, dies at age 79. Learn how David McKean and Cliff Sloan researched their recent book on Marbury, Madison, and Marshall on page 62.

marking time

In the King’s Service
Hugh Finlay and the Postal System in Colonial America
By Alison M. Gavin

ext-day delivery, the Internet, texting . . . never has communication on a personal level been so easy. Telecommunications, which has made enormous progress over the last 10 years, stands alone as a testament to American ingenuity in the world market. Not even today’s octogenarians can imagine, however, the extent to which communications have improved since colonial times. Getting a letter to a neighboring town was difficult and involved, while trying to get one’s mail across the Atlantic to Great Britain might prove futile.
Top: hugh finlay’s diary includes this map showing his survey for a postal road “from canada to the massachusets Province.” he states at the start of his diary that “i received orders from mr. foxcroft to hold myself in readiness to enter on service in September [1773] by beginning the Survey in exploring the uninhabited country between the most Southerly settlements on the river chaudiere in canada, and the most Northerly habitations on the river of Kennebek in the Government of massachusetts Bay.” he ended the survey in Virginia in June 1774. Above inset: the postal rider was an essential part of mail delivery in much of colonial america, but due to harsh terrain and conditions, delivery was often uncertain.

The emergence of Benjamin Franklin, first as Philadelphia’s postmaster in 1737, and then as deputy postmaster for British North America in 1753, brought much-needed reform to the postal system in the American colonies. He developed a “Dead Mail Office” for undeliverable letters and began a system of fast-sailing “packet ships” for the delivery of mail from abroad. Franklin was dismissed from his position in 1774 for his association with writings injurious to the Crown and replaced by loyalist Hugh Finlay. But Finlay’s appointment was short-lived and nearly meaningless.American revolutionaries were destroying British postal routes throughout the colonies and viewed postage paid to the Crown as taxation without representation. The colonists began their own postal system, the Constitutional Post, in May 1775 with Franklin as the new postmaster general.The Crown’s postal system in the colonies ceased by Christmas of that year. Franklin often gets credit for beginning the first system of mail service along the eastern seaboard. But Hugh Finlay made improvements that are documented in a journal kept between September 13, 1773, and June 26, 1774. The original handwritten “Journal Kept by Hugh Finlay, Surveyor of the Post Roads on the Continent of North America” is in the National Archives. Finlay’s journal is significant among the National Archives’ pre-Federal records for two reasons. First, it provides a transition between the British postal system of the colonies and the U.S. postal system. Second, it serves as documentation of the antagonism that Finlay, a Crown appointee, encountered from American patriots in the period leading up to the Revolutionary War.

Richard Fairbanks, received and sent off letters from his Boston home. He charged a penny for each letter but had to “answer all miscarriages through his own neglect in this kind.” In other American colonies,“every family sen[t] a member on board [incoming ships] for the purpose of receiving letters.” Letters that went unclaimed were taken to a coffee house or a tavern near the wharf that was heavily frequented by the community. There the items were spread out on a table. People would come in and “carried away not only their own letters, but all the letters belonging to people in the neighborhood.” Letters or packages for persons far from a city would be given to a local magistrate or minister to distribute in his town. For there to be any guarantees that a letter would arrive at longer distances, senders had to hire a rider or entrust it to travelers going in the general direction. The idea of post offices and regularly scheduled arrivals and departures of a postal rider, as established in England, evolved slowly in the colonies. Much of the territory, especially in the south, was wilderness. Travel required fresh horses, overnight stays, and hardship on the part of the rider in the event of flood, heat, or snow. Even if there was a system of postal riders in place, the
Benjamin franklin (right) brought much-needed reform to the postal system in the american colonies when he became deputy postmaster in 1753, as evidenced in part by his table of postal rates (below).

sender still could not be certain that the letter would arrive safely.Most postmasters in major American villages and towns kept sloppy accounts or no accounts at all. The position was usually a part-time job financed by the Crown, given to the local customs official, printer, bookseller, tavern-keeper—or simply anyone who was willing to do it. The colonists did not consider post officer or post rider a desirable position. A larger issue was the reluctance of colonists to adhere to the Crownsponsored mail system. Resentment over the cost of postage going to the Crown’s purse, and the inefficiency of the Crown’s post offices, led to widespread clandestine franking and delivery. This was something Finlay was determined to change.

Hugh Finlay’s Expeditions in the Name of Better Mail Service
Finlay did not begin his civic career as a postmaster.Arriving in Canada from Scotland, shortly after the territory was ceded to Great Britain in 1763, he worked first as a merchant in Quebec and rose quickly among the English and French communities. No doubt his ability to read and speak French fluently added to his value as a busi-

A Neighborhood Event—Mail Handling in the Colonies
The Massachusetts Bay Colony led the way in establishing a postal system in America. The introduction to the 1867 printing of Finlay’s journal describes early methods of distributing the mail. As early as 1639, one colonist,
in the King’s Service

Prologue 7

nessman. Quebec’s city council soon appointed him a justice of the peace. Later that year, Benjamin Franklin, then joint deputy postmaster general of British North America, put Finlay in charge of the colonial post office in the Canadian territory. Finlay established post offices at Quebec,Trois-Rivières, and Montréal and between these cities and New York. Two years later, Finlay was appointed to the Governor’s Council, where

finlay recorded the “Post days at New york,” with days and times of postal deliveries from and dispatches to Philadelphia, Boston, and Quebec. he states, for example, that “the Boston mail by way of hartford called the upper road, is irregular,” for reasons he explains elsewhere in the journal. Below: finlay included a drawing and description of “an avenue cut through an island” in the cape fear river leading to Wilmington, North carolina. “the island is a swamp,” he wrote, and “ ’tis with difficulty that one can pass it on foot, with a horse ’tis just possible.”

he oversaw transportation and roads for the Crown. In December 1772 the British postmaster general appointed him postal surveyor. In this position, he mapped out the most expedient routes in British North America to facilitate the safe delivery of mail. In September of the following year, Finlay began mapping out a new post route between Quebec and Falmouth, Maine. On October 2, 1773, he headed south from Falmouth through New England on a tour of post offices and roads. Upon arrival in Philadelphia, he boarded a boat to Charleston, South Carolina, to begin a journey northward to Virginia, where he ended his trek in June 1774. Finlay displays the zeal of Jesuit explorer and the tenacity of a master politician in his journal. The journal documents the quality of roads and mail service, Finlay’s assessments of the postmasters and their records, and observations on the American colonists’ increasing antagonism toward Great Britain. What emerges from the journal is a portrait of an intense and dedicated public servant who refused to back down from his allegiance to the British Crown. To support his postal survey from Quebec across Maine, the “Gentlemen of the Council” and city of Quebec raised “more than a sufficiency” of funding. The expedition party included several Indians who knew both English and the Abenaki language native to that region, a scout for marking the path for a potential postal road to the Kennebec River, two military officers, two servants to help carry the provisions and three canoes, and Finlay. Like many of the European immigrants to the North American continent, Finlay’s feel-

ings toward the Native Americans vacillated. Of the Indians’ cartographic abilities he writes, “It is impossible to guess distances from an Indian draft; that people have no idea of proportion.” Yet within a day he wrote, “Every night after supper, Mentowermet, our chief guide, drew a sketch of the next day’s route on a sheet of smooth birch bark with charcoal.”As the expedition neared the border of Maine (then governed by Massachusetts), Finlay released the Indians from their duties: “I discharged my Indians here, and instructed the Interpreter to return to . . . where we left provisions. . . . I recommended it to him, to keep it ever in his mind that the intention of this examination was to learn the most proper pass for a road.”Finlay’s ultimate appreciation of their services is obvious, however: “We parted from our Indian friends.” The second part of Finlay’s postal survey journey, taking him from Falmouth to Savannah, Georgia, and then to York, Virginia, serves as proof of his determination. As with his trek through Canada, Finlay encountered physical challenges such as hail, lame horses, quicksand, and broken ferries. On a personal level, he encountered rude, inhospitable behavior from city-dwellers and farmers alike. In many cases, Finlay’s proposal of a new colonial postal route was rebuked by the colonists. Instead of seeing it as an advantage, colonists felt it would “reduce the value of lands, for this reason they will not encourage the settlement of the East by opening roads.”

American Patriots and the End of Crown-Regulated Mail
Using their own, unpredictable method of mail delivery,American patriots found a relatively easy way around the Crown’s system in

8 Prologue

Summer 2009

place. In Rhode Island, Finlay comments, “[There are] two Post offices in New Port, the King’s and Mumfords [a resident]. . . . It is common for people who expect letters by Post finding none at the Post office to say‘well there must be letters, we’ll find them at Mumfords.’ It is next to impossible to put a stop to this practice in the present universal opposition to every thing connected with Great Britain.”Like the tax collector in early colonial America, Finlay was an unwelcome sight to many post officers and riders. Anyone who cooperated with him, he wrote, “would draw on himself the odium of his neighbours and be mark’d as the friend of Slavery and oppression and a declar’d enemy to America.” When Finlay visited Massachusetts, a “good authority” told him,“the assembly will not grant one shilling towards opening a road this way, into Canada. . . . Governor Hutcheson [Massachusetts Governor Thomas Hutchinson] promised to write to the Minister on this matter.” In Falmouth, the deputy postmaster “once attempted to put the Law in force and took the letter bag of one of those vessels [that carried letters illegally outside the post] to the office, but it made such a bustle and noise in town that he dared never attempt it again.” Likewise, in Salem, if a complaint were made about letters not going through the post office,“(. . . an informer wou’d get tar’d and feather’d) no Jury wou’d find the fact; it is deem’d necessary to hinder all acts of Parliament from taking effect in America” Finlay’s public service did not end with the establishment of the United States of America. As a loyalist, he found refuge in Canada when the war began.Always sensitive to the ways in which mail delivery might be improved, he participated in a correspondence with the British Home Office in the 1780s. Urging colonization in Canada, and the creation of postal offices every 10 miles, he advocated the use of snowshoes for postal officers in a 1783 letter: “Till then the Mails must be drag’d on handsleighs by men on snowshoes, a painful and slow mode of Journeying in the winter, but there’s no other way of getting forward in a country four, five, or six feet deep with snow, without inhabitants to beat and keep the way open.”
in the King’s Service

In 1787 he was given responsibility over the whole postal service of British North America, not including the newly formed United States. His participation in the firstever international postal convention in New York in 1792 led to a significant decision by the Americans to permit mail from Canada to pass through New York. But through a series of unfortunate circumstances, Finlay was dismissed from his position in 1799 on the grounds of irregularities in accounting, even though the charge referred to a postmaster under him, not to him directly. Finlay died on December 26, 1801, deeply in debt. His life had been one of courage, tenacity, and allegiance to the Crown. From his early days as a postal surveyor to later years as an

administrator, Finlay set an example for public service in the wilderness and city alike. Hugh Finlay knew the American character well, even before the first shots at Lexington. At the beginning of his tour of the Eastern seaboard, he observed the colonists’ character:“They are[,] they say[,] to be governed by Laws of their own framing, and no other.” In the face of opposition, unpopularity, and the growing resentment of a nation, however, Finlay remained a steady loyalist civil servant. As he confidently declared to a group of North Carolinians he visited regarding the postal system in British North America in 1774, “The Publick good is the sole inducement for taking so much trouble as we do.” P

“The Journal Kept by Hugh Finlay, Surveyor of the Post Roads on the Continent of North America” lay dormant for 80 years and was rediscovered in the belongings of a dead Swedenborgian minister in New York in the 1850s. It is not impossible that Finlay had some connection with the Church of the New Jerusalem, as the followers of Emanuel Swedenborg (1688–1772) called themselves. In a happy coincidence, the journal fell into the hands of publisher Frank H. Norton. He owned the Mercantile Library Press in Brooklyn, NY. Norton transcribed the journal, carefully retaining the original wording and punctuation; he published 150 copies of the text, with his own introduction, in 1867. Norton sent the journal to an official of the U.S. Post Office Department, and when the department’s records were retired to the National Archives, the journal came with them. The journal is described in A Guide to Pre-Federal Records in the National Archives (compiled by Howard H. Wehmann and revised by Benjamin L. DeWhitt, [Washington, DC: National Archives Trust Board, 1989], p. 321). It has been microfilmed as Journal of Hugh Finlay, Surveyor of Post Roads and Post Offices, 1773–1774; and Accounts of the General Post Office in Philadelphia and of Various Deputy Postmasters—“The Ledger of Benjamin Franklin”—January 1775–January 1780 (National Archives Microfilm Publication T268, one roll), Records of the Post Office Department, Record Group 28. The easiest way to access the 1867 Norton transcribed version of the journal is through the Library of Congress’s online collection of American travel narratives (through Pagination varies among the original journal as it was microfilmed at the National Archives, the Norton version of 1867, and the 2006 reprint published by Applewood Books (vol. 169, Finlay’s Journal and Drinkwater’s Letters [Bedford, MA]). Little biographical information exists on Finlay.The Dictionary of Canadian Biography, vol. 5, 1801–1820, edited by Francess G. Halpenny (Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 1983; www., offers a sketch of his life. Readers may also seek out his place in Canadian history at the Canadian Museum of Civilization ( The web site of the Smithsonian’s National Postal Museum,, has some information on Finlay. A pertinent study of early postal history is Kay Horowicz and Robson Lowe’s The Colonial Posts author in the United States of America, 1606– 1783 Alison M. Gavin is a participant (London: Robson Lowe, 1967). in both the Federal Career Intern If Finlay’s journal is any example, the pre-Federal Program for Archivists and the records in the National Archives are worthy of more Archivist Development Program scholarly investigation.From them we can learn more at the National Archives at Colabout British North America and those who particilege Park,Maryland.She has written for New England pated in its governance.The National Archives also has Ancestors, Historic Nantucket, and Prologue (Sumrecords documenting appointments of postmasters mer 2007). in towns throughout the country.

Prologue 9

une 19, 1934.

ur Story
How the National Archives Evolved Over 75 Years of Change and Challenges
By James Worsham

This was an especially busy day for Franklin Delano Roosevelt, the President of the United States. The chief executive gave his 131st press conference, but made little news. Then he held a cabinet meeting, met with a number of individual lawmakers, and left just before midnight for an overnight trip to New Haven, Connecticut, where the next day he would receive an honorary degree at Yale University. Congress had adjourned the day before

and left him with many bills to sign. One of them created the Federal Communications Commission. Another was an emergency appropriations bill. Yet another one dealt with how the Post Office should deal with letters with no or insufficient postage. Sometime during the day, he also signed legislation creating the National Archives, whose massive headquarters in downtown Washington, D.C., was already rising along Pennsylvania Avenue. The idea of a national archives, a repository for the most important records of the

nation, had been debated in and out of Congress for decades. Now, finally, legislation creating that entity had arrived at the President’s desk after the nation, already more than a century and a half old, had lost many of its early records to fires, mishandling, improper storage, and other natural and man-made events. Roosevelt would soon come to play an important role in nurturing the Archives in its early years by setting it on its course as the nation’s record keeper. He likely would not recognize the

10 Prologue

Summer 2009

National Archives of the 21st century, with its leadership role in federal records management, in the classification and declassification of government documents, and in finding ways to ensure that the government can preserve the electronic records of today as well as of the future. Today, the role of the National Archives continues to evolve. It remains a “must” stop for visitors to Washington who want to see America’s founding documents, but it has also expanded into a museum destination that brings the history of America alive through other documents and artifacts in its hold-

ings. It is the first place many people come to learn their family history and an essential resource for genealogists everywhere. Its holdings of records of government agencies, federal court cases, and presidential administrations make it a mother lode of information for lawyers, journalists, and historians. Its commitment to helping the public understand the importance of its holdings has made it the nation’s civic educator through its widespread education programs. Its network of presidential libraries, regional archives, and federal records centers

has given the National Archives a deep reach into America, with 44 facilities in 18 states and the District of Columbia, from Atlanta to Anchorage and Boston to Los Angeles. Roosevelt probably didn’t envision such an agency, but of all the Presidents of the modern era, he was the one who was most influential in establishing the broad outlines of the agency. But decades and decades of debate, delay, and doubt preceded his signature on June 19, 1934. A Young Nation Creates History, But Is in Danger of Losing It The Declaration of Independence is today secure in an argon-filled aluminum and titanium encasement, with sophisticated electronic equipment monitoring the climate inside. But in its early days, the Declaration, like many other government documents, was rolled up and unrolled frequently and transported from city to city as the capital moved or as threats warranted. No government-wide authority existed to ensure that these important records were safely preserved for posterity, and occasional fires in government
Oppostie page: the archives building in the midst of construction on march 1, 1934. Left: the center market, site of the future national archives. Right: President herbert hoover celebrated the laying of the building’s cornerstone on february 20, 1933. Left bottom: Prof. J. franklin Jameson of Brown university was a strong advocate for the preservation and use of federal records.



a fire in the top floor of the u.S. Patent Building led Quartermaster General montgomery meigs to propose a fireproof hall of records.

Prof. J. franklin Jameson of Brown university urged the american historical association to promote use of source materials.

the publication of the Guide to the Archives of the Government of the United States in Washington by the Public archives commission in 1904 was important to the development of the federal archives movement.

our Story

Prologue 11

Over the years, the State Department became the “unofficial” national archives for important federal documents, including the Declaration and the Constitution, which the department turned over to the Library of Congress in 1921. As the professionalization of archivists and historians occurred late in the 19th century, the calls for a national archives increased. The American Historical Association was founded in 1884, creating a forum for discussion about the need for a national archives and an entity around

which those supporting one could coalesce. The leading figure in the fight to establish the archives was Professor J. Franklin Jameson of Brown University, the editor of the American Historical Review. In 1895, he submitted to the association a program for the systematic collection and selective publication of U.S. historical source materials. Three years later, a plan for a “hall of records” was sent to Congress, but the lawmakers had little interest.

the u.S. commerce Building, ca. 1920. a fire in 1921 destroyed many census records.

Publication of a Guide to the Archives of the Government of the United States in Washington in 1904 helped nudge the movement for a federal archives, but there was little movement until 1921, when a fire in the Commerce Department destroyed the census records of 1890—raising the need for a suitable place to safely preserve the most important records of the nation. Finally, in 1926, Congress appropriated initial funding to build such a building.The funds were later increased, and by 1941 it was reported that the building, with adjustments and fully equipped, cost $12,250,794 (more than $177 million in today’s dollars). A prominent site halfway between the Capitol and the White House, along Washington’s two parade routes, between Constitution and Pennsylvania Avenues and Seventh and Ninth Streets was designated for the building. In 1930 President Herbert Hoover named a panel to draw up specifications for the
r.d.W. connor, first archivist, october 10, 1934– September 15, 1941.



Timeline by Benjamin Guterman

President William howard taft signed a bill authorizing planning a national archives of 3 million cubic feet.

a commerce department fire on January 10, 1921, destroyed the 1890 federal census records.

President calvin coolidge signed a bill for public buildings, including $1 million toward an archives to be located in the federal triangle.

on September 9, 1931, ground was broken for the archives building in Washington, d.c.

r.d.W. connor became the first archivist of the united States.

12 Prologue

building to guide the architect, John Russell Pope. Ground was broken on the twosquare-block area in September 1931, and Hoover laid the cornerstone just a few weeks before his term ended in 1933.There began to rise an elegant, stately building, complete with elaborate sculptural adornment, in the neoclassical revival style. Finally, a Building, But No Agency Although there was a building under construction for a national archives, Congress had yet to create the agency itself. Roosevelt recognized the need for a national archives when he entered office, but it was not high on his list of things to do in the first 100 days or in his first year, as the Great Depression worsened and people were left jobless and homeless and with little hope. In time, the President put his closest political adviser, Louis Howe, on to the job of get-

ting authorization for an archives through Congress. Although the historical community and members of Congress might have had differing views, they were quickly resolved, and Roosevelt signed legislation creating the National Archives as soon as it cleared Congress, on June 19, 1934. “It had been a long and tortuous struggle, and there would be more struggles to come in developing the new agency,” wrote Donald R. McCoy, author of The National Archives: America’s Ministry of Documents, 1934–1968. “No one involved in the movement for a national archives, however, questioned in 1934 or later that it had all been worthwhile,” McCoy wrote. “Why should they? After all, they all well knew that the past was prologue, in this case, to a significant ending.” The “significant ending” was also a beginning, and now the institution that Jameson and others had so long fought

for had the interest and attention of the President of the United States. Roosevelt would have very much to say about what the Archives would be in its early years. The Archives’ First Patron: FDR, Archivist and Architect Franklin Delano Roosevelt was assistant secretary of the Navy, governor of New York, and President of the United States, but he also fancied himself an architect and an archivist, among many other things. “Even before he could appoint an Archivist, he began direct oversight of the new agency’s activities,” wrote Robert Clark, supervisory archivist at the Roosevelt Presidential Library, in Winter 2006 Prologue. Roosevelt believed, Clark wrote, that the archives should not only be the repository of “materials of lasting historical value” but also of the operational records of the federal

Workers at the archives push a cart of Veterans administration records into a vacuum chamber for fumigation in June 1936.

WPa workers flatten and mount indian Bureau maps in the National archives in august 1938.



on June 19, President franklin roosevelt signed “an act to establish a National archives of the united States Government, and for other purposes,” which also established the National historical Publications commission (NhPc).

By November 1935, the National archives Building was occupied by 265 employees.

the federal register act of July 26 established the publication of government documents within the National archives.

in June 1936 the archives accessioned the first 58,800 cubic feet of records, mostly from the Veterans administration and u.S. food administration.
Prologue 13

our Story

government.This meant that the estimates for stack space in the new building were much too low, so FDR approved the proposal to fill the planned inner courtyard of the building with additional stack space, which doubled its storage capacity. Later, after he had appointed the first Archivist of the United States, R.D.W. Connor, a North Carolina educator and historian, Roosevelt got involved in staff appointments, including suggesting that an African American be hired to deal with records pertaining to African Americans. Acquisition and disposal policies also captured his attention from time to time. “I am delighted that you are going into the matter of the disposal of so-called useless Government papers,” he wrote Connor at one point.“I hope you will keep me in touch, as you know my real interest in this subject.” The first years of the National Archives were mainly ones of hiring personnel, organizing the agency, and waiting for the

headquarters building to be completed. Organizational lines were drawn, position descriptions were created, and lines of authority established. Staff started moving into the building in 1935, even though it was not officially completed until 1938. Along with the creation of the National Archives in 1934, Congress created the National Historical Publications Commission (NHPC), whose mission was to see that historical records not in the holdings of the National Archives were properly preserved. A year later, Congress passed the Federal Register Act, which gave the Archives the job of publishing the government’s rules, regulations, and orders. Even though the National Archives was now up and running in its new building, Roosevelt had not lost interest in archives and architecture. He was thinking of his post-presidency and, in the late 1930s, during his second and what he thought was his last term, decided to build his own presidential library to house and open to

the public the records of his years in the White House. It would be built, he decided, with private funds on the grounds of his estate in Hyde Park, New York. When it was complete, it would be turned over to the federal government to run—a move that established how presidential libraries are financed and administered to this day. Roosevelt’s library opened in 1941, but he did not enjoy a post-presidency there. Seeing war on the horizon, he ran for a third and fourth term, thus becoming the only President to have a presidential library while still in office. After Connor’s resignation in 1941, Roosevelt appointed the second Archivist of the United States, Solon J. Buck, who had been an assistant to Connor. At the time of Connor’s resignation, the Archives staff had grown to 438, of whom 14 were in uniform. One of Buck’s strong suits was records administration, and he became involved in all the agency’s activities. It was a skill that

the franklin d. roosevelt library in hyde Park, New york.

Solon J. Buck, second archivist, September 18, 1941–may 31, 1948.

army trucks transport records along constitution avenue to the National archives from Schuylkill arsenal in Philadelphia during World War ii.



1942– 1945

the National archives Building was completed on august 10.

the franklin d. roosevelt library was dedicated on June 30.

Solon J. Buck became the second archivist of the united States.

a special committee on finding aids proposed the record Group ( “rG”) organizational method, and a publications and finding aid program was begun.

14 Prologue

Summer 2009

would serve the Archives well during the war that loomed in 1941. “Indeed,” as archivist Rodney Ross wrote in Guardian of Heritage, a book published for the Archives’ 50th anniversary in 1984, “the leadership of the Society of American Archivists stressed that one of the most important war-related tasks for the profession would be to control the tremendous output of records which was sure to be generated.” The Archives, however, was to play a more important, more intriguing role in World War II. “Fort Archives” Draws Its Weapons As Part of the Wartime Efforts When America went to war after the Japanese attack on December 7, 1941, the National Archives was not high on anyone’s list of vital federal agencies. As one high-ranking Archives official wrote to Archivist Buck: “The National Archives is looked upon generally by the public and by officials and
Wayne c. Grover, third archivist, June 2, 1948– November 6, 1965.

employees of other government agencies as an organization of parasites of no value in the present war effort.” The Archives, however, had been preparing for war many months before Pearl Harbor, making plans for the safekeeping of the most important government documents, in case Washington, D.C., became the target of enemy bombers. The National Archives Building, now an imposing presence along the National Mall, seemed to be the safest building for storing records, and they poured into the Archives from all agencies for safekeeping in this “bombproof” building. The press dubbed it “Fort Archives.”
President harry truman meets the freedom train, Spirit of 1776.

Archives officials estimated how many records the Archives building could accommodate, then considered more inland locations where they might send records for safekeeping. In the end, nitrate motion picture films, highly flammable and dangerously toxic when burning, were the only records taken out of the building during the war. With the need for people in uniform, the size of the staff decreased from a high of 502 in 1942 to 337 by war’s end. About 60 were detailed to other agencies. Per sonnel from other agencies, such as the Navy Department, however, were coming into the Archives to work on the records that were part of the Archives’ holdings.



during World War ii, the u.S. military, the National resources Planning Board, and the office of Strategic Services stationed employees in the National archives Building for research in records and intelligence gathering.

the agency’s first comprehensive guide, Guide to Records of the National Archives, was published.

Wayne c. Grover became the third archivist of the united States.

in January 1949, the freedom train ended an 18-month traveling exhibit across the united States that included documents from the National archives.

our Story

Prologue 15

the constitution and the declaration of independence were brought to the archives with military ceremony on december 13, 1952.

the Vickery Street records center in fort Worth, texas, was one of several maintained by the National archives and records Service in the early 1950s.

detailed map sent home after World War I by a former consular attaché,” Eales wrote. “Meteorological records, in constant demand for the study of weather history in strategic areas, were particularly valuable in planning for the landings in Normandy.” In early 1942, the Office of Strategic Services (OSS), the forerunner of today’s Central Intelligence Agency, moved into the building, sealing off some areas of the building as “restricted” because of the secrecy the OSS needed as it studied maps of Europe. “This ‘highly classified material’ being perfected at the National Archives was a set of maps of beaches that would soon be known as ‘Utah’ and “Omaha,’” Eales wrote. A few months before D-day, high-ranking officers from U.S. Allies gathered at the Archives to see the OSS’s exhibit of equipment that would be used on those beaches in Operation Overlord. Moviemakers, too, came to the National Archives to get material for wartime pro-

Archives officials were determined to show that the agency had a valuable role to play in the war effort, even though the Archives barely made it on a list of agencies to be awarded the designation “National Defense Agency.” “This would identify it as a significant contributor to the war effort and award it a commensurate priority for funding and personnel,” wrote Anne Bruner Eales in a Summer 2003 Prologue article on the Archives’ role in World War II. The Archives, moreover, had something of great value to war planners:War Department records from 1789 to 1918—80 percent of which had been generated during World War I. It also had detailed maps of Europe as well as the Pacific, and war planners were able to use these to plan their strategic offensive against the Axis powers. “When the military was looking for information about a certain mountain pass in enemy territory, the Archives provided a

ductions. Newsreels used Archives footage of U.S. military leaders.The Navy established a direct telephone line to the Archives. “The National Archives may be a depository for supposedly ‘dead records,’ but because of the war they have come to life and are doing their share to win the conflict,” reported the Washington Star on July 18, 1943. One of the Archives’ biggest challenges was to prepare for the massive amount of records being created by the services during the war, and records management got increased attention. Today, the Archives holdings of World War II records include such documents as the German and Japanese surrender documents, the original Yalta agreement, and the agreements of the Allied chiefs of staff to launch the D-day invasion. But there are also records of individual soldiers and sailors as well as brigades and battleships. These documents still yield new stories

on June 30, 1949, the federal Property and administrative Services act transferred the National archives to the General Services administration (GSa).the agency’s name changed to National archives and records Service (NarS).

on may 1, the first NarS federal records center opened in Brooklyn, New york; by 1955, there were 10 centers with a total staff of 500.

on december 13, the charters of freedom were transported from the library of congress to the exhibit hall of the National archives with full military escort.

16 Prologue

Summer 2009

about personal bravery and sacrifices, how government can mobilize itself in an emergency, and the debates within the highest levels of government. Just last year, the Archives published a two-volume set: World War II: Guide to Records Relating to U.S. Military Participation. During World War II, the National Archives demonstrated its value to the war effort, but it did not spare the agency from the realities of postwar America. A Postwar National Archives Faces a New World—Bravely Its patron in the White House, Franklin D. Roosevelt, was dead, and the National Archives was on its own now.There were no more memos from the Oval Office to the Archivist’s office.The government was much bigger, and the Archives a smaller fish in a bigger pond. Major change came in 1949, when a commission on government reorganization, headed by former President Hoover, recommended to President Harry S.Truman that a new agency, the General Services Administration (GSA), be established to manage government property, records, and supplies and that the National Archives be folded into it. The new Archivist of the United States, Wayne Grover, a former Archives employee who had been the Army’s leading records management officer and was appointed by Truman in 1948, fought the proposal but lost. In any event, the new GSA leadership decided to let Grover run his own shop. One of Grover’s first big projects was to work out a deal with the Library of Congress to transfer the original Declaration of Independence and the original U. S. Constitution to the Archives, where the Bill of Rights already resided.

Archives officials and others had long felt that the three documents belonged together—at the National Archives. But such a historic transfer had to wait for a willing Librarian of Congress and a willing Archivist. By 1951, there were both, and Librarian Luther Evans and Grover worked out a deal. What gave Grover and Evans the impetus for arrangement was a remark Truman made at the unveiling at the Library of the Declaration and the Constitution in new encasements.The President said he hoped the two documents could someday be displayed alongside the Bill of Rights, which he called “the most important part of the Constitution,” Archives historian Milton Gustafson recalled in his Prologue article “Travels of the Charters of Freedom.” The transfer was made on December 13, 1952, as the two encased documents were placed on mattresses inside a heavily guarded armored Marine Corps personnel carrier and taken, with much ceremony, to the Archives, where they were carried up the Constitution Avenue steps into the Rotunda. Shortly thereafter, the Archives began referring to the three documents collectively as the Charters of Freedom, and the Rotunda is today one of Washington’s most popular visitor destinations. No Longer a Free Agent, But Growing Anyway Within the GSA,the National Archives and Records Service (NARS) was about

to expand—quite a bit over the next several decades. Immediately, the GSA delegated the records management mission it had been assigned to the National Archives.That put the Archives into a position of a records servicing and management agency as well as a historical archives for wartime and postwar records. But, as predicted, the war had created many records, and more space was needed to store them. In 1950, the first federal records center was opened in Brooklyn, New York, and by 1955 there were nine more around the country as other agencies agreed to deposit their records there. Today, there are 17. The Office of the Federal Register was expanding, too. It was now responsible for receiving and preserving copies of laws, regulations, and other acts of Congress and the executive branch agencies. The Federal Records Act of 1950 consolidated and expanded the GSA’s, and by delegation, NARS’s authority to manage federal records. The Presidential Libraries Act of 1955 allowed it to accept buildings and land and other equipment as needed for presidential libraries, setting up the system of presidential libraries that began with Roosevelt’s in 1941. Truman opened his library in 1957 in Independence, Missouri. Dwight D. Eisenhower followed suit with his library in 1962 on the campus of the Eisenhower Center in Abilene, Kansas, and
a staff member at the alexandria, Virginia, records center prepares captured maps for microfilming in 1961.


the Presidential libraries act provided for establishment of a system of presidential libraries.

the harry S. truman library was dedicated on July 6.

approximately 100,000 cubic feet of captured records held at the alexandria, Virginia, records center, were transferred to NarS in January.

the dwight d. eisenhower library was dedicated on may 1.

our Story

Prologue 17

later that year Hoover opened his library at his birthplace in West Branch, Iowa. Lyndon B. Johnson opened his library on the campus of the University of Texas in Austin in 1971.Today, the system numbers 13, including the George W. Bush library, located temporarily in Lewisville,Texas. As the years passed, the Archives became more deeply involved in records management and responding to requests from other agencies and the public for access to the growing number of federal records that it was accessioning. In the interest of efficiency and space, it began appraising materials and disposing of temporary records that no longer had any value. “Ensuring that temporary records were appraised and properly destroyed, which allowed for greater efficiency and economy, was perhaps one of NARS’s greatest contributions to the government during Grover’s administration,” wrote Gregory Bradsher, a long-time staff archivist, in Guardian of Heritage in 1984. The Archives also began publishing more guides to the records it already had in its possession, including the Guide to Records of the National Archives in 1948, which at the time was considered the definitive roadmap to locating records in the Archives. The Guide to Genealogical Research in the National Archives is now in its third edition and is one of the agency’s top-selling publications. In 1964, the NHPC received grantrobert Bahmer, fourth archivist, November 7, 1965–march 9, 1968.

making authority and in 1978 was renamed the National Historical Publications and Records Commission (NHPRC). Its grants went to preserve and make accessible nonfederal records, and as of 2008, the commission has funded 4,500 projects with $185 million in grants across the country. (See article, page 48) Grover served as third Archivist until 1965, and today he remains the longestserving Archivist. Robert H. Bahmer, a longtime NARS employee who was deputy archivist, became fourth Archivist in 1966, and James B. Rhoads, who had joined the Archives in 1952, succeeded him as fifth Archivist in 1968. Having grown and expanded quietly over 35 years, the Archives now was about to take the spotlight, though not necessarily by choice. The Archives Finds Itself In the Watergate Saga The decade of the 1970s brought public attention, both positive and negative, to the Archives, as well as some real and public changes in its role.
James B. rhoads, fifth archivist, march 10, 1968–august 31, 1979.

The agency learned that it was not immune to the kind of fires that had destroyed many early documents of the new nation. The most significant and destructive of these fires occurred July 12, 1973, at the National Personnel Records Center (NPRC) in St. Louis on the top floor of the military personnel records facility. The NPRC had come to be part of the National Archives in an unusual way. In 1950 the Pentagon decided to consolidate all the personnel and health records of millions of former soldiers, sailors, and airmen in St. Louis, and in 1960, the Pentagon turned over management of these records to the Archives. The floor where the fire occurred contained some 22 million Army and Air Force personnel folders. Overall, fewer than 4 million records were saved, either in their entirety or with as little as one identifiable document.
the steady arrival of diverse machine-readable records prompted Nara’s creation of the data archives Staff in 1969. future formats would include cd-roms and e-mail.




the herbert hoover library was dedicated on august 10.

the National historical Publications commission (NhPc) was authorized by congress to receive funds and award grants for documentary editions.

robert Bahmer became the fourth archivist of the united States.

James B. rhoads became the fifth archivist of the united States.

18 Prologue

Summer 2009

Since then, NPRC has had an ongoing project to reconstruct these veterans’ files using information provided by the veterans themselves and through medical records on file with the Veterans Administration. In this way NPRC personnel can verify dates of service for veterans and the status of their separation from the military—information that allows veterans to prove eligibility for government benefits. The following year, after the Watergate scandal forced the resignation of President Richard M. Nixon, the National Archives found itself in the middle of this historic chapter in American history. Nixon wanted to take all his presidential records with him and had made an agreement with the head of the GSA to do so. However, Congress balked and nullified the deal; the Presidential Recordings and Materials Preservation Act of 1974 authorized the government to seize Nixon’s White House records and placed them in the hands of the National Archives. Over the years, Nixon sought to have the records returned to him but had little success. The records remained in the Archives’ hands, even after a private foundation opened a Richard Nixon Library and Birthplace in Yorba Linda, California, in 1990; it held many personal items and papers of Nixon but not his official papers as President. In 2007, the private foundation turned over the Nixon Library and Museum to the government, and NARA staff took over administration. The papers now held by the Archives in College Park will be transferred to California when an addition to the library is ready.


the National Personnel records center in St. louis handles thousands of requests per year for military service records. a new facility is scheduled to be ready in 2010.

To take care of matters like this in the future, in 1978 Congress passed the Presidential Records Act. This legislation designated all of the records of U.S. Presidents, beginning with the President who took office January 20, 1981, as the property of the U.S. Government and directed that they be deposited with the National Archives at the end of the President’s term. The end of the 1970s also saw, finally, the opening of the John F. Kennedy Library in Boston, 16 years after the 35th President’s death. Gerald R. Ford was also building his library, and one of the people on the site committee was Robert M. Warner, a professor of library and information science at the University of Michigan in Ann Arbor, where the library would be located. President Jimmy Carter named him Archivist in 1980, and Warner was on his way to Washington.

An Archivist Determined To Set the Archives Free Bob Warner arrived in Washington as the sixth Archivist of the United States with a simple plan. “Tackle Independence,” was one of the first-year goals he set for himself, he would recall later. Since 1949, when the Archives was folded into the GSA, the agency “remained in captivity,” as Warner saw it. “A cultural institution dedicated to preserving the greatest documents of American history became a cog in the housekeeping wheels of government.” Warner recounted this historic time in the Archives history in his book Diary of a Dream: A History of the National Archives Independence Movement, 1980–1985, and in a 2005 Prologue article. The three decades within GSA had changed the Archives. Its holdings contained many more records; it now had

By 1968, regional archives branches were established in all the federal records centers; by 1978, 15 records centers existed.

Prologue:The Journal of the National Archives began publication with the spring issue.

the data archives Staff was created in the office of records management for integrating machine-readable records.

the lyndon B. Johnson library was dedicated on may 22.

our Story

Prologue 19

regional archives and federal records centers and presidential libraries all around the country; and it was facing a future in which it would have to figure out how to preserve records created by computers, which were slowly and haphazardly coming into use in the federal government. Many Archives supporters in and out of government, especially those in the archival and history communities, who had opposed its inclusion in GSA in the first place now felt it was time to move to regain the independence it had enjoyed under Roosevelt. Warner gathered his top aides and plotted strategy—in meetings conducted in secret because GSA was adamantly opposed to removing the National Archives from its fold. While they met in secret, professional groups of historians and archivists pushed for independence and found members of the House and Senate to take up their cause. Editorials appeared in major newspapers supporting independence legislation. The secret and public campaigns worked, and Congress passed legislation freeing the National Archives from GSA, which President Ronald Reagan signed on October 19, 1984. “The good guys finally won,”Warner wrote. Effective April 1, 1985, the Archives was free at last, again. Now, the Archivist reported only to the President. Now, the National Archives and Records Administration, as it was newly named, could chart its own future.
robert m. Warner, sixth archivist, July 15, 1980–april 15, 1985.

A New NARA, Leading the Way And Setting the Gold Standard The quarter-century that has passed since Reagan signed the National Archives independence legislation has been one in which the Archives, to a great extent, has reinvented itself. Although independence meant that NARA could expand and grow as the leaders and professionals within the agency saw fit, the agency had little time to waste in attacking new problems. Traditional paper records continued to flow into the Archives in large amounts, so

much so that just finding a site to store them was a challenge. Records were being sent to the Washington National Records Center in Suitland, Maryland, and to a leased building in Alexandria, Virginia. These temporary facilities did not meet the criteria for the storage of archival records set by the National Bureau of Standards. Repeated attempts to find support for a new building in the Washington area failed—until after 1985. Planning for a new facility for the newly independent Archives began in the late 1980s, and the University of Maryland donated a 33-

edwin meese (right), counselor to President reagan, presents archivist robert Warner with a reproduction of the act creating Nara during a November 8, 1984, ceremony in the rotunda.

1984 1980

a fire at the National Personnel records center in St. louis on July 12 destroyed valuable military service records.

the Presidential recordings and materials Preservation act established rules for access, giving the government custody over the Nixon tape recordings, documents, and records.

congress redesignated the NhPc as the NhPrc on december 22 with the mission to promote collection and preservation of state, local, and private records collections.

the Presidential records act made all presidential records created after January 20, 1981, the property of the united States.

20 Prologue

Summer 2009

acre piece of land for the building. It became known as the National Archives at College Park. Ground was broken in 1989, and staff began the move in late 1993. The 1.8-million-square-foot building was state-of-the-art in every way. It housed a great deal of records processing and storage areas, a five-level research center, conservation and special media laboratories, offices, and conference and training rooms. The building adhered to the new environmental and storage standards important for the long-term preservation of the records. Today the College Park facility is a model among archives around the world, and foreign delegations often visit it not to examine its holdings but to learn about

the building itself, which is an example of a modern archives that meets all the structural and environmental standards required of today’s archives facilities. Preparing for Digital Records With an Electronic Archives The College Park facility also became the location for the preparation of work on the next big challenge the Archives faced. The era of electronic records was on the horizon, and technology was moving quickly. NARA officials had to determine how to preserve computer-created records that very soon would be as difficult to access as 78 rpm recordings, if not impossible.

the National archives at college Park, maryland, was dedicated in may 1994.

1994 1987

During the 1990s, and especially during the Clinton administration from 1993 to 2001, the use of computers to produce official government records skyrocketed. Text documents, e-mails, web pages, and other kinds of electronic records all posed major challenges for an agency that during its first 50 years had dealt mainly with paper, print photographs, and videotape and film. But technology was moving quickly, and the challenge was clear: figure out how to preserve records created with today’s computer hardware and software so that they will be accessible with the hardware and software in use not just in a few years but many years from now. After years of study, NARA senior staff and the handful of electronic records staff on board at the time decided to build what they called the Electronic Records Archives, or ERA. An ERA office was officially established in 2000. ERA would take years to build and cost hundreds of millions of dollars. But the benefits could be far-reaching.The technology developed for the ERA can be scaled down for use by archives smaller than NARA, such as those in state and local governments, private companies, major libraries, and universities. The President and Congress supported it with generous appropriations, and in 2008, ERA took in its first records, from four pilot agencies. In January 2009 it began to take in the electronic records of George W. Bush’s White House. The Archives also entered into partnerships with several private companies to digitize
don W. Wilson, seventh archivist, december 4, 1987–march 24, 1993.

the John f. Kennedy library was dedicated on october 20.

robert m. Warner became the sixth archivist of the united States.

the Gerald r. ford library was dedicated on april 27, and the ford museum followed on September 18, 1981.

Nara became an independent agency through the National archives and records administration act on april 1.

the Jimmy carter library was dedicated on october 1.

our Story

Prologue 21

thousands of traditional paper records,so they too, in time, will be available through the ERA. Even as Archives officials were confronting the problems of storage capacity and the new kinds of records that were soon to come to NARA, events on other fronts were moving quickly.

A Rebirth for the Archives, And More Access to Records Now an independent agency, NARA in its last quarter century has seen a number of Archivists and Presidents come and go, as the need for more space for records in creased at a rapid pace and

older facilities required extensive renovation. Warner, who had led the battle for independence, resigned shortly after independence went into effect on April 1, 1985, and returned to the University of Michigan. Frank Burke, who had been executive drector of the NPHRC, served as Acting Archivist for more than two years. Don Wilson, director of the Ford Library, was sworn in as the seventh Archivist in December 1987 and served until March 1993.Trudy Huskamp Peterson, who had been Assistant Archivist for the National Archives, became Acting Archivist, serving until May 1995, when John W. Carlin, a former governor of Kansas, was sworn in as the eighth Archivist. Several new presidential libraries opened during this period. The Ford Library opened on the campus of the University of Michigan in early 1981, and the Ford Museum opened in Grand Rapids later that year; it is the only presidential library and museum to be located in two cities. Jimmy Carter opened his presidential library in Atlanta in 1986, and Reagan opened his in Simi Valley, California, in 1991. The George Bush Library in College Station, Texas, opened in 1997, and the Clinton Library in Little Rock,Arkansas, was opened in late 2004, with the transfer of the Nixon facility to NARA following in 2007. The National Archives Building in downtown Washington, considered state-of-theart when it was built in the 1930s under FDR’s watchful eyes, also got a top-to-bottom renovation. As part of the renovation, the Charters of
the National archives web site as it appeared in december 1997.


don W. Wilson became the seventh archivist of the united States.

the ronald reagan library was dedicated on November 4.

the foundation for the National archives was established.

Nara established its first internet presence in may with clio, the agency’s gopher, and subsequently its first web page at

the National archives at college Park, maryland, was dedicated on may 12.

22 Prologue

Summer 2009

Freedom were taken from the Rotunda to College Park and removed from their encasements for the first time since 1952. They received careful and painstaking treatment in the conservation laboratory and were placed in new titanium and aluminum encasements with various monitoring devices and filled with argon. In the renovated Rotunda, all four pages of the Constitution, along with the Declaration of Independence and the Bill of Rights, are displayed at floor level, providing easier access for everyone to see and read the nation’s founding documents. The Rotunda, with new encasements for the Charters and the newly restored Barry Faulkner murals, was reopened in September 2003, with President Bush, Chief Justice William Rehnquist, and top congressional leaders present.
the lee’s Summit facility, in missouri, was opened in 1998 as the first underground repository within the Nara records center system.

Meanwhile, the Foundation for the National Archives, a nonprofit organization founded in 1992 to support agency activities that could not be funded with congressional appropriations, was at work on projects that would be lasting contributions to the National Archives. A $23-million Foundation fundraising campaign provided support for creating new public exhibition space inside the building during the renovation in the 2003 to 2007 period. It was christened the National Archives Experience. It included the Public Vaults, a permanent multimedia exhibition that conveys the feeling of going beyond the walls of the Rotunda and into the stacks and vaults of the Archives; the William G. McGowan Theater; the Lawrence F. O’Brien Gallery, for temporary exhibits; and the Archives Shop.The Boeing Learning

Center opened in 2007, and the online Digital Vaults went live in 2008. Expanding Access to Records— And the Appreciation of Them While the Foundation’s work helped turn the Archives into a museum destination for visitors as well as a building where one would go for a look at the Charters of Freedom, the Archives’ central mission remained that of steward of the important records of American history. Records storage for both archival holdings and the records centers was an increasing problem, and NARA officials also looked to the regional facilities as part of the solution. Underground limestone caves in Lee’s Summit, Missouri, and Lenexa, Kansas, were opened, and another cave in Valmeyer, Illinois, is now receiving records

the charters of freedom were removed from their old encasements and treated in 2001 as part of the extensive renovation of the National archives Building.


John W. carlin, eighth archivist, may 30, 1995– february 15, 2005.



John W. carlin became the eighth archivist of the united States.

the George Bush library was dedicated on November 6.

the lee’s Summit facility opened in missouri on June 1.

the electronic records archives (era) was established on January 19 to manage the extensive and diverse new accessions in electronic formats.

a multiyear project began to renovate the National archives Building and reencase the charters of freedom.

our Story

Prologue 23

from the NPRC in St. Louis, which is also moving into new quarters in 2010. In recent years, and especially in response to fires and flooding in several GSA facilities, NARA has moved into more modern GSA facilities, built to NARA’s own environmental and structural specifications. In 2005, NARA opened its own facility in Morrow, Georgia, for the Southeast Regional Archives, next to the Georgia State Archives and the campus of Clayton College and State University. Today, it is one of 14 regional archives, many of which are in the process of moving to new locations that meet NARA’s environmental and structural standards. In addition to storage issues, there were access problems.

At the insistence of Archivist Allen Weinstein, a historian who succeeded Carlin from 2005 to 2008, the Archives began to emphasize “civic literacy” as a theme and made it one of its goals in its 2007 Strategic Plan. “If the American people do not maintain a solid and respectable measure of civic literacy,” Weinstein argued, “they will not be able to understand or use the records effectively.” To complement his civic literacy campaign,Weinstein pushed for greater access to records and worked to establish new government-wide standards for the classification and declassification of records, with the Information Security Oversight Office as the lead agency on it. In 2007, projects were launched to eliminate the backlog of 1 million cubic feet of unprocessed records received between 1995 and 2005.After two years, 37 percent of those records now have been processed

and described. In 2009, NARA is hiring additional staff to increase the processing of records at the three presidential libraries subject to the Presidential Records Act of 1978—Reagan, Bush, and Clinton. Increasingly, NARA’s outreach is on its web site,, which has grown tremendously since it first appeared on the Internet in May 1994. Today, the agency’s web site contains images of tens of thousands of documents, and access, through the Archival Research Catalog, Access to Archival Databases, and the agency’s digital partnership with outside groups, to millions more.About 63 percent of all of NARA’s archival holdings are described at the series level on ARC. The web site also provides online exhibits, links to all NARA facilities, Prologue articles, and information for teachers and students, records managers, preservation and archives professionals,

a young visitor explores the interactive Public Vaults exhibit in Washington, d.c.

the richard Nixon library in yorba linda, california, was transferred to Nara in 2007, enabling greater access to the extensive Nixon materials.

allen Weinstein, ninth archivist of the united States, february 16, 2005–december 19, 2008.



the “american originals” exhibit began a three-year nationwide tour on october 5 to nine cities.

arc (archival research catalog) opened to the public on September 16.

the rotunda of the National archives Building reopened on September 18 after major building renovation.

the first electronic versions of textual records were received (1973 & 1974 State department cables).

the Public Vaults opened in the National archives Building in November.

24 Prologue

Summer 2009

The purpose of this article is not to provide an account of every event, in every year, at every location of the National Archives. Rather, it is to give the general reader an overview of this agency’s first 75 years. More thorough accounts of the National Archives’ history exist, and many are listed below. Timothy Walch, editor emeritus of Prologue and now director of the Herbert Hoover Library in West Branch, Iowa, and Bob Clark, supervisory archivist at the Franklin D. Roosevelt Library in Hyde Park, New York, were especially helpful in the preparation of this article. Prologue is indebted to them and to all the other staff archivists and historians who, over the years, have worked to dig out from the records the story of this remarkable agency, often in the kind of great detail for which there is not room in this presentation. Information for this article was gleaned mostly from books and articles about various periods on the history of the National Archives and from various Archives files and sources, including this magazine. The National Archives: America’s Ministry of Documents, 1934–1968, by Donald R. McCoy (Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1978) contains a valuable bibliography as well as an account of the agency’s first 34 years. Also consulted were H. G. Jones, The Records of a Nation: Their Management, Preservation, and Use (New York: Atheneum, 1969), Victor Gondos, J. Franklin Jameson and the Birth of the National Archives (Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 1981), and Robert M. Warner, Diary of a Dream: A History of the National Archives Independence Movement, 1980–1985 (Mutuchen, NJ: Scarecrow Press, 1995). Primary source material is in Records of the National Archives and Records Administration (Record Group 64). Other relevant record groups include Records of the Office of Management and Budget (RG 51), the Commission on Fine Arts (RG 66), the Commission on the Organization of the Executive Branch (RG 264), and the General Services Administration (RG 269). Quite helpful were the well-researched articles in Guardian of Heritage, a 94-page book edited by Walch for the 50th anniversary of the National Archives in 1985 but now out of print:

Donald R. McCoy, “The Struggle to Establish a National Archives in the United States.” Virginia C. Purdy.“A Temple to Clio:The National Archives Building.” Rodney A. Ross,“The National Archives:The Formative Years, 1934–1949.” James Gregory Bradsher, “The National Archives: Serving Government, the Public and Scholarship, 1950–1965.” Trudy Huskamp Peterson,“The National Archives: Substance and Shadows, 1965–1980.” Robert M. Warner,“The National Archives: A Memoir, 1980–1985.” Also helpful were a number of articles that have appeared in Prologue. They are all posted on the Prologue web site at Bob Clark,“FDR,Archivist:The Shaping of the National Archives”(Winter 2006). Lori Cox-Paul,“There’s a NARA Near You! Exploring the Regional Archives” (Fall 2005). Anne Bruner Eales, “Fort Archives: The National Archives Goes to War” (Summer 2003). Norman Eisenberg, “20th Century Veterans Service Records: Safe, Secure—and Available” (Spring 2005). Raymond Geselbracht and Timothy Walch, “The Presidential Libraries Act After 50 Years” (Summer 2005). Milton Gustafson,“Travels of the Charters of Freedom” (Winter 2002). Cynthia M. Koch and Lynn A. Bassanese, “Roosevelt and His Library” (Summer 2001). Frances McDonald, “At the Federal Register, Tending to the Details of Democracy” Fall 2004). Tara E. C. McLoughlin,“Ready Access: NARA’s Federal Records Centers Offer Agencies Storage, Easy Use for 80 Billion Pages of Documents” (Spring 2008). Rodney A. Ross,“Creating the National Archives” (Summer 2004). Mary C. Ryan,“Preserving the Past, Keeping Pace with the Future”(Fall 2007). Robert M.Warner,“Secrecy and Salesmanship in the Struggle for NARA’s Independence” (Spring 2005).

genealogists, veterans, and researchers of all kinds. An eStore offers NARA products, reproductions, and publications. Where the Past Is Prologue Franklin Roosevelt could not have seen what the institution he nurtured in its early years would become. But he was sure of its importance as the steward of the records of the nation’s past, as he indicated in remarks at the dedication of his own library in 1941:

The dedication of a library is in itself an act of faith. To bring together the records of the past and to house them in buildings where they will be preserved for the use of men and women in the future, a Nation must believe in three things. It must believe in the past. It must believe in the future. It must, above all, believe in the capacity of its own people so to learn from the past that they can gain in judgment in creating their own future.

For 75 years, the National Archives has preserved the records that guarantee the rights of Americans, document the actions of its government, and preserve the story of the national experience.With more than 3,000 employees nationwide, the agency stands ready to continue that role—on paper or computer screens, in summary form or great detail, in person or on the Internet. The past that is prologue is in good hands. P

the William J. clinton library was dedicated on November 18.

allen Weinstein became the ninth archivist of the united States.

Nara took over the richard Nixon library in yorba linda, california, with a continued office in the National archives at college Park, maryland.

the National declassification initiative (Ndi) was started by Nara to more efficiently coordinate interagency efforts in records classification and declassification.

the center for legislative archives opened part of the 9/11 commission records.

our Story

Prologue 25

When the “Enemy” Landed at

San Francisco Immigration Station Sought to Bar Hostile Aliens and Deport Resident Radicals During World War I
By Maria Sakovich


or three decades, from 1910 to 1940, the Angel Island Immigration Station in San Francisco Bay

stood guard as the Pacific Coast’s major entry point for immigrants to the United States—the

door through which over a half-million Asians and others from the Pacific rim entered the United States to make new lives for themselves. During the station’s peak years, from 1915 to 1924, nonAsians accounted for one-third of arriving passengers. With the outbreak of war in Europe in August 1914, immigration across the Atlantic through Ellis Island and other entry points on the East Coast plummeted. Angel Island, however, saw an increase in the numbers of arriving alien travelers and immigrants, especially non-Asians, and many were detained for long periods or barred all together.

Opposite: the angel island immigration Station, the major Pacific coast entry point for immigrants from 1910 to 1940, was a detention and interrogation center. the men’s barracks is on the hill behind the administration Building. Above: health inspectors examine detainees on angel island, ca. 1917.

Ships from Mexico brought “people of every nationality who [were] fleeing from the terrors of the civil war raging in that country,” the San Francisco Commissioner of Immigration reported in 1914–1915. Citizens of the Russian Empire caught in the turmoil of advancing and retreating armies on the eastern front of the war made their way to the West Coast by way of Siberia, Manchuria, Japan, and the Pacific. Between 1915 and 1919, Russian Jewish men, escaping conscription or deserting the army, and later mothers, children, and other relatives of American residents, constituted a large share of the non-Asians arriving at Angel Island. The U.S. declaration of war in 1917 added two new groups to the already crowded station. Immigration officials were required to detain and interrogate “alien enemies,” citizens of Germany and the Austro-Hungarian Empire and resident immigrants under arrest for alleged radical political activity. Especially after the United States entered the war in 1917, anything less than 100-percent loyalty to the AmeriWhen the “enemy” landed at angel island

can government and American values was suspect. Not only German nationals but also political radicals, including the Industrial Workers of the World (IWW) and other dissenters were perceived as threats to American interests. The detention of alien enemies and suspected radicals swelled Angel Island’s facilities. Official counts of detained aliens there seem not to have survived, but a few early narratives suggest that the station could accommodate 500 to 600 arrivals at a time without too much difficulty. Detainees were housed in segregated quarters—women and men, Asian and non-Asians. Ethnic groups of any size (such as Chinese, Japanese, Indian, or Russian), were kept together. During the congestion of the war years, immigrants and travelers might find themselves more crowded than usual as extra beds were added and makeshift rooms were created in the immigration hospital and elsewhere. Some of the second- and third-class passengers never made it to the island at all

as their inspections were carried out aboard ship. With U.S. entry into the war, San Francisco Immigration Commissioner Edward White and his staff, cooperating with the Department of Justice, War Department, and Naval Intelligence, acquired responsibility for the interrogation and custody of more than 800 German (and later Austrian and Hungarian) alien enemies, including a small number of resident alien enemies. San Francisco Bureau of Immigration staff also participated in the federal campaign to eliminate or disable radical organizations by arresting noncitizen radicals and developing cases for deportation. From September 1917 and into 1921, Angel Island inspectors investigated, interrogated, and detained at least 63 resident aliens of several nationalities for their alleged radical political activity. These new responsibilities fell well within the purview of Angel Island officials. Before as well as after the war, they understood and carried out their primary mandate in a two-pronged fashion—
Prologue 27

“guarding the gate” against the entry of “unfit” or “dangerous” immigrants and “cleaning house,” ridding the country of resident immigrants, Asian and non-Asian alike, who had proven to be less than desirable. America’s entry into the war did not change the mission but demanded extra vigilance. Alien Enemies “Alien enemies,” as defined by a presidential proclamation of April 6, 1917, were noncitizen males over the age of 14 born in Germany and, as of December 1917, born in the Austro-Hungarian Empire. Only in mid-April 1918 were women declared to be alien enemies, a category some fell into through marriage or through their fathers. The alien enemies detained at Angel Island fell into several groups: seamen working on German ships, seamen working on American ships, German nationals residing in the Philippines (then American territory), ships’ passengers born in enemy countries, and resident aliens. German Seamen From April through mid- or late October 1917 the immigration station held approximately 148 crew members who had been removed from German merchant vessels interned in San Francisco, Seattle, Samoa, and Hawaii since the start of the war in 1914. Though not designated prisoners of war, these men seem to have been treated with more consideration than other alien enemies. (The Swiss consul monitored conditions, relaying complaints to both the American and German governments.) Commissioner White offered privileges no other detainees enjoyed, such as use of the wharf before and after hours, swimming in front of the Administration Building, and a special menu. Because of their alien enemy status, however, mail was censored, and visitors were limited. Despite special treatment, complaints about the cramped quarters (separate for officers and seamen), insufficient exercise, delayed mail, and uncertainty about their future led the commissioner to remark in August that the internees “had become a perfect pest.”While a few of the
28 Prologue

German crew members were allowed to apply for parole, most were eventually transferred to the Department of Labor internment camp at Hot Springs, North Carolina. (The status of parole allowed the noncitizen the opportunity to work or to go about one’s life in relative freedom, with weekly checkins and restrictions on locations where the parolee could work.) Joining these seamen in 1917 and well into 1918 were German-born seamen working on American ships who had been declared alien enemies a month after the United States entered the war. Perhaps 90 to 100 lost their seafaring jobs when they arrived at San Francisco. Most could apply for admission into the United States or for parole to work while the war continued. A smaller group, however—apparently those who had earlier deserted German ships interned outside of U.S. waters and had taken jobs on American ships—were ordered deported, generally back to ports in Latin America from where they had most recently come. When deportation for some proved impossible, they were transferred to Ellis Island in New York. Time spent in detention at Angel Island varied. Decisions regarding entry or parole took between one and two months. Those ordered to be deported waited at Angel Island for about four months. Those sent to Ellis Island waited between five and seven months (with four men, for unknown reasons, also spending two weeks in the San Francisco jail). Some found the incarceration difficult, especially when they saw others in seemingly identical circumstances allowed to enter or find work under parole. Adolf

Left: German sailor Willie Sienang found work on three coastwise american vessels until he was arrested as an enemy alien in october 1917 and interned on angel island. Above: in his November 9, 1917, letter to the San francisco commissioner he asked again why he had been confined for four weeks without learning the reason or being granted a hearing.

Babatz, for example, complained in a letter to the San Francisco commissioner that “this internment has had a most awful effect on my nerves, and these are in such a condition as they have never been before, the result of worrying over an internment which I think is not justified. I am really afraid that if I have to stay here much longer the result will be a complete nervous break-down.” After less than month, he was deported to Chile. Detention for at least three was too much: Otto Todt, Hans Schnellenger, and Jacob Breuer escaped, only to be apprehended later. German Nationals from the Philippine Islands Also interrogated and detained at Angel Island were approximately 170 German nationals sent from the Philippine Islands by the War Department in several groups throughout 1918 for internment in the United States. (These were separate from

Summer 2009

the group of 450, probably crewmen from vessels interned in Manila, which arrived in mid-December 1917 and were housed at the Quarantine Station until their transfer to Hot Springs a month later and another 60 or so housed at Fort Mason and the Presidio in late 1918.) Some had already been investigated by military intelligence and were described in accompanying reports as “dangerous.” Many of the alien enemies, however, were not sure why they had been sent to the United States except for being German. Their various occupations included missionary, priest, planter, chemist, pharmacist, office clerk, civil servant, hotel owner, merchant, marine engineer, housewife. Much to the dismay of the chief of the military intelligence branch of the War Department, the Department of Justice permitted entry and parole for work as well as transfer to internment camps. A number remained at Angel Island beyond the usual two or so months, awaiting decisions on their cases. For a few, a further delay occurred in October, when the local office of the attorney general

requested that candidates for parole postpone their interviews until “the present [influenza] epidemic outbreak has passed.” Discharged U.S. Army Soldiers On June 16, 1918, the U.S. transport Sherman brought 41 young men from Hawaii who had been recently discharged from the U.S. Army because their lack of U.S. citizenship made them alien enemies. Extant files do not reveal why some were eventually admitted under parole to work and others were interned at Fort Douglas, Utah. Most cases appear to have been decided upon by early September 1918, but at least two of these former soldiers were detained much longer, for six and seven months. Passengers from Enemy Countries Passengers born in enemy countries were excluded upon arrival, though many fewer case files of this type have survived. The alien-enemy umbrella also covered passengers without proper documents, those whose nationality was in question, stowaways, and those held for special

investigation at the request of other government agencies. Women seem to have been detained for shorter periods than men, ranging from a day or two to two weeks. One woman, however, Germanborn Marie Anna Berg, waited five and a half weeks at the station before being admitted, even though she had the correct documents and was considered a “meritorious case.” The detention of male passengers range from two and a half weeks to eight and a half months. Resident Alien Enemies Although no case files have survived, the names of at least 18 resident alien enemies can be culled from lists and correspondence found in general chronological files for the immigration station in 1917–1918. Immigration officials ar rested these men, born in enemy countries, because they were in violation of the immigration laws (sometimes for simply entering the country without inspection) or had committed a crime and were subject to deportation. Like other

a June 16, 1918, telegram from the immigration Service in Washington requested full information on the detained sailors from the u.S. transport Sherman. their lack of citizenship made them alien enemies; some were admitted under parole to work, and others were detained.

When the “enemy” landed at angel island

Prologue 29

alien enemies, they were interrogated and detained at Angel Island (four also spending time in the local jail) while their cases made their way through the Departments of Labor and Justice. The disposition of 11 of the cases (as of August 20, 1918) resulted in the admission of two, release on own recognizance of seven, and the transfer of two to the internment camp at Hot Springs. No further information can be gleaned. w w w

Despite the commissioner’s claim that “the handling of alien enemies’ cases by this Service did not extend beyond their detention and the transmission of their records to Washington for a decision,” case files reveal that inspectors and the commissioner himself tried to influence the outcome of the cases, which was in the hands of the Department of Justice. In addition to interrogating alien enemies about their fitness to enter the country under immigration laws, board of special inquiry inspectors probed for information about allegiances and activities during wartime. They asked about the purchase of liberty bonds and contributions to the American Red Cross or to German relief. They asked 18-year-old seaman Walter

Loschau, for example, how he would respond to a request by “a representative of the German government to destroy or blow up a public building.” The thoughtful answers 49-year-old Lutheran missionary Rudolph Arps provided to questions about where his sympathies lay only provoked further intensive interrogation. Commissioner White recommended denial of entry for Reverend Arps and his wife and daughter (a decision leaving open the possibility of parole), but for salesman Franz Bayer he recommended outright internment. Though Bayer openly acknowledged that he wanted Germany to win the war, he realized it would be financially advantageous to be on the side of the winner, i.e., the United States (in October 1918). Such opportunism suggested not only a lack of loyalty but lack of integrity as well, an attitude that did not sit well with the immigration inspectors.
a transcript of the august 28, 1918, hearing for rudolph arps, a 49-yearold lutheran missionary, reveals his education and travels. commissionerWhite questioned his loyalties and recommended denial of entry for arps and his wife and daughter.

Though the war ended on November 11, 1918, it was not until June 1919 that the last of the alien enemies left the immigration station at Angel Island. Correspondence and case files provide only a partial picture of what became of the former alien enemies. Though some of the men granted parole to work were still reporting to the San Francisco commissioner in January 1919, by mid-May the reporting requirement and parole restrictions were lifted. If they had been eligible to enter the country under the immigration laws at the time of their arrival, they were free to enter the country, as long as they paid the eight-dollar head tax. (Those brought from the Philippine Islands did not have to pay the tax.). w w w

While alien enemy case files demonstrate vigilance on the part of the Angel Island officials toward activity or sentiments they considered unpatriotic, they

Bertha marie Nordegg was born in Paris, france, but married a German national. She and her daughter, marcelle, were detained as enemy aliens in mid-1918 after arriving from honolulu, but after a hearing were allowed to travel to New york city to meet mr. Nordegg.

30 Prologue

Summer 2009

Left: commissioner edward White reported in July 1918 on the arrest of nine iWW members, including louis Vagadori, by San francisco police. Right: a photograph showing Vagadori (upper left) holding a copy of Industrial Worker was part of the collection of literature and images apprehended in the arrest.

also reveal a surprising lack of anti-German feeling. Inspectors seem not to have been caught up in anti-German hysteria that pervaded many communities. Instead, they appear to have carried out their interrogations seemingly free from ethnic prejudice, looking for evidence of harmful activity or misplaced allegiances. Inspectors seemed able to discern between proGerman sympathies and a desire not to fight against one’s kin (in the cases of U.S. alien enemy soldiers reluctant to fight against Germany). Alien “Radicals” Such discernment and relative fairness was lacking in their treatment of alien radicals delivered to their care, however. A blatant antiradical bias permeates the files of resident immigrants alleged to have engaged in illegal political activity. So biased were the inspectors at the immigration station that immigrants’ guilt was assumed by association with known radicals, knowledge of IWW songs, and possession of radical literature. Evidence of specific actions was not necessary to secure warrants of arrest. Concern about foreign radicals was
When the “enemy” landed at angel island

nothing new in the nation, though the 20th century produced the first legislation that excluded immigrants because of their beliefs or associations. In 1903, in reaction to the assassination of President McKinley in 1901, Congress excluded anarchists and provided for their deportation within three years after entry. Congress took further action when a newly galvanized Industrial Workers of the World stepped up its organizing and strike activity in 1916. Responding to pressure from communities frightened by the sensationalized portrayal of these labor disturbances, legislators added another antiradical clause to its 1917 Immigration Act. In the minds of nativists, radical activity was a foreign import, and the IWW, though attracting both American and immigrant workers, was perceived to be a foreign creation. America’s entry into the war in Europe in April 1917 further fueled the country’s fears of labor agitation and political radicalism. Many Americans believed that not only was the IWW fomenting industrial sabotage, but it was also aiding the enemy. In the atmosphere of heightened suspicion, the federal government initiated a cam-

paign to eliminate or disable the IWW and other radical groups. The Departments of Justice and Labor, the Army (troops and intelligence), and Naval Intelligence participated, along with local law enforcement agencies, in a three-pronged attack on the IWW. Rounding up and deporting noncitizen radicals was the role of the Bureau of Immigration (under the Department of Labor). In 1918 Congress passed yet another immigration act that made it easier to deport noncitizen agitators. How many individuals were arrested and detained for alleged illegal political activity at the Angel Island Immigration Station during the antiradical campaign (1917–1921) is unknown. Twenty-four case files (along with references to other cases) have surfaced, but files for the 39 warrants of arrest for aliens “of the radical class” mentioned in the Annual Report for 1919–1920 have not been found. Between mid-1917 and mid-1919, the so-called anarchist cases handled by Angel Island inspectors were initiated by the San Francisco Police Department and the U.S. Department of Justice. Police raids of the “Latin Branch of the IWW” (June 1918)
Prologue 31

michele centrone was arrested as an “alien anarchist” in may 1918, posted $2,000 in bail, and pleaded in letters to officials, but still heard nothing of his case by January 1920. on february 13, he wrote to congressman albert Johnson asking for a decision. he was finally deported five weeks later.

and the Jack London Memorial Hall (January and March 1919), “a place frequented by members of the IWW,” resulted in the arrest of French, Italian, British, Austrian, and Russian aliens who were “turned over to the immigration authorities for deportation.”The Department of Justice not only kept files on resident aliens, but its agents also used “decoy letters” to ferret out potential radicals. Angel Island inspectors often interviewed the alleged radicals in a “preliminary hearing,” either in the jail to which they had first been taken or at the immigration station. They would then re-arrest them under warrants from the Department of Labor alleging violation of the 1917 or 1918 immigration laws concerning radical activity. Sometimes individuals were under
32 Prologue

arrest in more than one jurisdiction, and frequently they were detained at Angel Island or in the local jails, or both. Just being arrested for alleged radical and anarchist activity by the Department of Justice or the San Francisco Police Department prejudiced the immigration inspectors.They did not attempt to conceal their antiradical bias and freely described their charges as, for example, “evidently a radical of the worst type” or “of the type commonly known as ‘Bums.’” The San Francisco commissioner and his staff also exhibited very lax standards of guilt. Inspectors often interpreted possession of IWW or other radical literature or profession of belief in the organization’s principles, and later, mere membership in the organization, as sufficient grounds for deportation. Asso-

ciation with known radicals also implied guilt. About one of the “Latins,” the commissioner noted that “when questioned regarding his belief in sabotage and the policy in general of the IWW, he became evasive but his replies had a tendency to support the policy of this organization. . . . He is familiar with the IWW songs, which from our knowledge of the same, are along the lines of sabotage and the destruction of property in general.” These alleged alien radicals were frequently detained for lengthy periods of time, as were most radicals arrested throughout the country. An individual arrested under one jurisdiction might be kept in jail for several months before being turned over to the Bureau of Immigration. Several weeks or months might lapse before a preliminary hearing took place. Months at Angel Island would follow. A long detention might also be the result of not being able to afford a bond. (Unlike alien enemies, resident immigrants awaiting decisions on their cases could be freed on bond if they could make the monthly payments.) Many of the IWWs arrested could not afford the $100 payment required for the minimum $1,000 bond. Some of the alien anarchists remained incarcerated in local jails even when under custody of the Bureau of Immigration, which paid for their keep. One detainee, Russian-born Frederick Harold Berger, was put on the long road to deportation when police discovered his IWW membership card when they arrested him for drunkenness in Fresno in September 1917. Four months elapsed before an immigration inspector gave him a hearing at the Fresno jail and the Department of Labor issued a warrant of arrest. A month later, Army Intelligence transferred him to San Francisco City Prison for four weeks, where he was rearrested under warrant by the Department of Labor. Finally, Berger was taken to Angel Island, where he was given a second hearing, resulting in a warrant for deportation. For the next 12 months he remained at the immigration station until he was transferred to San Francisco County Jail as a “dangerous charSummer 2009

acter,” where he remained for four more months until taken to Ellis Island. There he was incarcerated for another six months, denied legal assistance, and finally deported on the USS Buford, December 21, 1919, along with 248 other immigrant radicals, including Emma Goldman. The length of detention was sometimes as much a problem as the deportation itself. Italians Michele Centrone and Giuseppe Scale (described by the Department of Justice as “active workers for the anarchistic propaganda”), “weary of such negligence and waiting,” wrote to the highest authorities for resolution of their cases. In their letters they described the hardship of limbo and expressed their poignant hope for action on their cases. Sometimes the long wait and uncertainty, even at liberty, caused difficulty. After two weeks at Angel Island and a year out on a $2,000 bond, Centrone wrote to the secretary of labor and to the commissioner general of immigration, “requesting them to kindly conclude my case as the burden of the expense incurred me were too grave for my income.” In hopes of action, he finally surrendered himself to the officials at Angel Island. After 80 days at the station, during which time he even telegraphed Attorney General A. Mitchell Palmer (chief organizer of the raids conducted in November 1919 and January 1920, later known as the “Red Scare”), he wrote the arch anti-immigrant and anti-IWW congressman Albert Johnson, pleading for a decision on his case. Five weeks later, he boarded a deportation train for Ellis Island, from where he was finally deported. Even when the bureau decided not to deport the individual, the process of arrest, interrogation, and detention could severely disrupt one’s life. Hubert John Levy, an English-born Australian, employed boat builder and shipwright, and four-year resident of San Francisco, was arrested as a result of his answers to a decoy letter sent by a Department of Justice agent posing as an IWW organizer. After about two months at Angel Island, Levy asked to return to Australia at his own expense (thereby avoiding being legally deported). Commissioner White granted his request (without notifying
When the “enemy” landed at angel island

Washington). On the day Levy left, however, a telegram arrived postponing a final decision on Levy’s case and releasing him on his own recognizance—“there is nothing to indicate that [Levy] has taken any active part in propaganda work or has become a member of the IWW or any other organization.” Unfortunately the telegram arrived after Levy’s ship sailed. Officials at Angel Island and in Washington wanted to deport as many immigrants as possible whose political activities they regarded as illegal. Case files and reports, however, reveal mixed results from their efforts. Of 22 cases found for 1917–1919, possibly only four resulted in deportation; warrants of arrest were canceled in at least nine instances. Of the 39 cases reported for 1919–1920, five resulted in deportations, and warrants of arrest were canceled in 31 cases. As Levy’s case demonstrates, despite cancellation of warrants and deportation, the cost to immigrants could be high. Arrest, interrogation, and detention could significantly alter life courses.




Although extant case and correspondence files do not tell the whole story of these two detained populations at the Angel Island Immigration Station, what has survived provides an overview as well as insight into these little-known episodes at the major port of entry on the West Coast during World War I. The records portray major disruptions in people’s lives, always an inconvenience, but more likely deprivation of freedom, loss of livelihood, and lives put on hold. They also document the activities of government officials during a time of greatly heightened tensions and passions.At Angel Island, immigration officials accustomed to “guarding the gate” and “cleaning house” during times of peace found themselves with added duties and new populations. They operated both conscientiously and zealously, sometimes to the advantage of their charges, sometimes to their detriment. P
© 2009 by Maria Sakovich

The National Archives and Records Administration–Pacific Region in San Bruno, California, contains case and correspondence files of the Angel Island World War I alien enemies in Record Group 85, General Records of the Immigration and Naturalization Service. Case files include interrogation transcripts and correspondence between local department officials (Immigration and Justice) and their superiors in Washington and petitions for entry, usually with photographs. Sometimes an individual’s file is augmented by letters from shipping companies, the San Francisco Police Department, and other agencies involved in cases. Occasionally adding to the narrative are letters from the detained alien enemy himself. Correspondence files include some individual cases as well as lists that provided additional names and sometimes wartime destinations after the immigration station and less frequently postwar outcomes. Case files of alleged radicals are part of Record Group 85 (Accession 60A600) at the National Archives,Washington, D.C.Also included in these files is IWW literature confiscated during police raids. Quotations in this article come from the case and correspondence files. Most helpful for understanding these episodes in American history are John Higham’s Strangers in the Land: Patterns of American Nativism, 1860–1925 (1984 edition with new preface); William Preston, Jr.’s Aliens and Dissenters; Federal Suppression of Radicals, 1903–1933 (2nd ed., 1994); Maria Sakovich,“Angel Island Immigration Station Reconsidered: Non-Asian Encounters with the Immigration Laws, 1910–1940,” author (MA thesis, Sonoma State University, 2002); and Jörg Maria Sakovich is a public hisNagler’s “Victims of the Home Front: Enemy Aliens torian and independent scholar in the United States during the First World War (in who researches, writes, and Panikos Panayi, ed., Minorities in Wartime, 1993). develops exhibits in the areas of Many thanks to archivists Bill Greene in San immigration, family, and commuBruno, who alerted me to the World War I correnity history. She has written articles on Methodist spondence files and who always responded expewomen including Deaconess Katharine Maurer, a ditiously and graciously to my requests for case beloved social worker at the Angel Island Imfiles, and to Suzanne Harris in Washington, D.C., migration Station. The story of the Russian rewho patiently located or tried to locate hundreds fugees who arrived in San Francisco in the early files I requested for my MA thesis research, includ1920s following the Bolshevik revolution and civil ing the “anarchist” files. She also screened the files war is the subject of her next book. in good time.

Prologue 33




Myron C. Cramer’s Experiences in the Trials of German Saboteurs and Japanese War Leaders

By Fred L. Borch

Thirty years after 29-year-old Myron C. Cramer enlisted in the Army as a cavalry private in the Washington National Guard, he reached the pinnacle of his career on December 1, 1941, as he exchanged his colonel’s eagles for the two-star rank of major general as Judge Advocate General of the Army.
ne week later, America was plunged into World War II. For the rest of that war, Cramer served as the top lawyer in the Army. In 1942 he made history when, in concert with U.S. Attorney General Francis Biddle, he prosecuted German U-boat saboteurs at a military commission, becoming the first Judge Advocate General since the Civil War to prosecute at this type of tribunal. At the end of the war, 63-year-old Cramer retired to private practice in Washington, D.C.; he no doubt believed that his years in uniform were over and he could expect his life to be more tranquil, if not uneventful. But this was not to be, for in 1946 Cramer made history again when he was called out of retirement and donned his uniform to serve as the sole American judge on the 11-nation war crimes tribunal in Tokyo, Japan. For the next two and a half years, Cramer decided the guilt of Japanese wartime political leaders, becoming the only Army lawyer in history to sit as a judge on an international military tribunal.


34 Prologue

Summer 2009

Cramer returned to the United States after the end of the Tokyo War Crimes Trial, retired a second time, and ultimately did enjoy a civilian law practice until his death in 1966. While Cramer did speak in public about his experiences prosecuting the German U-boat saboteurs, he did not document his time as a judge in Tokyo. Fortunately, the records of both tribunals have been preserved in the National Archives and Records Administration (NARA), and this means that a thorough understanding of the facts and procedures in both trials is possible. But Cramer’s unique role in these two historical events also can be examined because his complete military record has been preserved in NARA’s Military Per sonnel Records Center in St. Louis, Mis souri. Con se quently, although Cramer died more than 40 years ago, the detailed reports on his performance and other documents in his file permit a complete picture of his stellar military career to be assembled, including his role as prosecutor and judge.

Myron C. Cramer— Lawyer and Soldier
Born in Portland, Connecticut, on November 6, 1881, Myron Cady Cramer graduated from Wesleyan University in 1904 and Harvard Law School in 1907. After being admitted to the New York state bar in September, Cramer practiced law in New York City on the legal staff of Travelers’ Insurance Company. In May 1910 he made a major change in his life when he
Opposite page:the international tribunal of the far east, in tokyo, may 1946–November 1948, with the international panel of judges at far right and defendants at far left. Above right:the trial judges, with myron c. cramer seated second from left and Sir William f. Webb, President of the tribunal, at his left. cramer became the first army lawyer in u.S. history to sit as a judge on an international military tribunal. Right: lt. col. myron cramer’s oath of office of december 18, 1919, containing a summary of his military career, was part of his application for service in the Judge advocate General’s department. he was soon offered a position as a regular army major.

moved from a bustling metropolis to the small town of Tacoma,Washington. Cramer had a general law practice for a few years before being appointed deputy prosecuting attorney for Pierce County. Within months of his move, Cramer began his career as a soldier. According to his military records, he enlisted as a cavalry private in the Washington National Guard in January 1911. Later that year, he obtained a commission as a Guard second lieutenant in the First Washington Cavalry. Cramer’s paperwork from this period shows that he was of medium height (5’7’’) and weight (125 pounds), with brown hair and gray eyes. Promoted to first lieutenant in June 1915, Cramer was called into federal service a year later and served on the Mexican border with Brig. Gen. “Black Jack” Pershing until February 1917. At the end of this military duty, Cramer briefly returned to the prosecuting attorney’s office before he and his fellow Guardsmen were again federalized for World War I. Then Captain Cramer went overseas in January 1918 and was sent to the Army General Staff College in Langres, France.

Later, as chief of staff for the First Replacement Depot in St. Aignan, he was “in charge of the office and machinery through which an average of 40,000 replacements a month” were forwarded to all parts of the American Expeditionary Force. Cramer did extraordinarily well in overseeing the movement of the more than 500,000 men who ultimately were shipped through the depot. Comments in his efficiency report noted that he was a “man of excellent character” who “worked without regard to hours” and had “an indefatiguable [sic] attention to duty.” When Cramer returned home to the United States in late July 1919, he was a 37year-old Officers’ Reserve Corps infantry lieutenant colonel. He was married and had a son and a daughter. But, while he resumed his civilian law practice, Cramer had already

Sitting in Judgment

Prologue 35

decided that he liked soldiering—and life in the Army—better than lawyering in Tacoma. Even while he was on active duty in France, he had applied for a Regular Army appointment in the Judge Advocate General’s Department. Bureaucracies move slowly, however, and Cramer had to wait until July 1920 before his application was processed and he was invited to appear personally before a board of officers in San Francisco. The board was impressed with Cramer and, in recommending him for an appointment as a judge advocate major, made the following “general estimate” of him: “tact, appearance, intelligence, manner, personality well above average; a high class man; impressed the board very favorably; well educated and will be of great value to the service; quiet, unassuming and a polished gentlemen; law brief submitted by candidate show him well qualified professionally.” The Judge Advocate General’s Department concurred and offered Cramer a commission as a Regular Army major. After accepting this appointment, Cramer served in a variety of assignments and locations over the next 20 years. He did a two-year assignment with the Third and Fourth Divisions, taught as a law professor at West Point, and graduated from the two-year Command and General Staff College at Fort Leavenworth, Kansas. Although Cramer had volunteered for duty in China, he was instead sent to Manila in 1934, where he served as the top Army lawyer in the Philippine Department for three years. Cramer’s records show that his strength as an attor-

ney was contract law, particularly in the area of negotiating Army procurement contracts. This explains why he had a total of eight years (from 1930 to 1934 and 1937 to 1941) in Washington, D.C., as chief of the Contract Division. Having amassed an outstanding record as an Army lawyer, Colonel Cramer was selected to be the Army’s top lawyer in 1941.

Trial of the German U-boat Saboteurs
Little more than six months into his job, Cramer found himself working alongside U.S. Attorney General Francis Biddle in an extraordinarily high-profile criminal matter: the trial by military commission of German U-boat saboteurs. In June 1942, eight German-born agents, all of whom had previously resided in the United States and spoke English, traveled across the Atlantic by U-boat. Four landed on Long Island, N.Y., and four came ashore in Florida.All had been trained as saboteurs and had brought with them dynamite, fuses, and $180,000 cash (about $2.3 million in today’s money). The Germans had secret instructions showing the locations of U.S. aluminum and magnesium production facilities, electric power plants, bridges, tunnels, and other infrastructure important to America’s war effort, and they intended to wreak havoc through sabotage.
myron cramer (right) stands with his predecessor, maj. Gen. allen W. Gullion, after cramer’s promotion to Judge advocate General of the army on december 1, 1941.

Above: George John dasch, leader of the captured saboteurs. Above left:attorney General Nicholas Biddle questions fBi agent lenman at the trial of Nazi saboteurs on July 9, 1942, with myron cramer seated at center of panel.

After the Germans arrived in the United States, however, one of their leaders, George Dasch, turned himself in to the Federal Bureau of Investigation and, as a result, the FBI was able to quickly apprehend the other men. At first the government intended to try the men in U.S. District Court.The Roosevelt administration soon decided, however, that this forum was ill-advised because a civilian trial would be open to the public, and this would undermine the desired impression that brilliant detective work by federal law enforcement agents had exposed the saboteurs’ plans. After all, newspapers and radios were loudly trumpeting the FBI’s remarkable success, and there was good reason to believe this would cease were the truth to be revealed: that the plot had been discovered only because one of the saboteurs had turned himself into the authorities and then exposed his compatriots.

36 Prologue

Summer 2009

Because the government did not want Hitler to know how easy it had been for Germans to land on U.S. shores—and to deter any such future sabotage operations—Secretary of War Henry L. Stimson and Attorney General Biddle decided that a military commission—which could be closed to the public—was the best course of action. The fact that the German Reich had secretly landed its agents in civilian guise on U.S. soil was an act of war, and the planned sabotage constituted a violation of the laws of war. While there was some disagreement among lawyers in the Roosevelt administration, the majority view was that these facts meant that a trial by military commission was both lawful and proper. But there was another reason, and perhaps the most important reason, to try the German saboteurs by military commission—and it was Myron Cramer who first raised it. On June 28, 1942, Cramer wrote to Secretary Stimson that a civilian court was the wrong forum for the German saboteurs because “the maximum permissible punishment . . . would be less than is desirable to impose.” As Cramer explained, this was because the Federal rules of evidence would make it difficult to obtain a conviction for sabotage (a 30-year offense) in U.S. District Court, making it likely that the men might only be convicted of conspiracy (a threeyear offense). A trial by military commission, however, was not bound by federal procedural or evidentiary rules, and there was no limitation on any sentence that could be imposed, including the death penalty. When Stimson met with Biddle the next day, the two officials agreed that trial in a civilian court was ill-advised and that a military commission would best meet the needs of the government. Based on their recommendations, President Roosevelt established the military commission by procJudge advocate General myron c. cramer (right) expressed his support for war crimes trials for european war criminals in a November 22, 1944, memo to assistant Secretary of War John mccloy. he urged an international tribunal with “a verbatim record of oral evidence and of documents,” a record that would constitute “a convincing proof of guilt . . . preserved in such form that the record of trial can be widely distributed.”

lamation on July 2, 1942, and also issued an executive order appointing Biddle and Cramer as co-prosecutors. That same order selected four major generals and three brigadier generals to serve as the sevenmember panel to decide guilt and determine an appropriate sentence. Finally, the order appointed military defense counsel to represent the accused Germans. Matters moved quickly for Cramer since he and Biddle began presenting evidence to the tribunal on July 8. Preliminary arguments and the taking of testimony took 16 days— an average of two days for each accused. The military commission completed its work on August 1, when it found all eight defendants guilty of “attempting to commit sabotage, espionage, and other hostile acts” and “conspiracy” to commit these same offenses. Cramer and Biddle argued that the Germans must be sentenced to death, and the commission agreed. Roosevelt approved the death sentence for six of the eight men, and those six were electrocuted on August 8, 1942.The other two were imprisoned and later deported to Germany after the war. The U.S. Supreme Court later upheld the jurisdiction of the military commission, and the lawfulness of its proceedings, in the case of Ex parte Quirin, which continues to be cited with approval by today’s Supreme Court. Cramer’s work as coprosecutor was praised by his superior as “historic evidence of his legal

ability and sound judgment.” He and Biddle had successfully completed the first military commission convened by a President and had achieved the best possible results for the government. Cramer continued to serve as the top Army lawyer for the rest of World War II. It was a challenging job to have in an Army that had transitioned from peace to war and grown to 8 million men and women. When Cramer retired on December 1, 1945, after four years as the Judge Advocate General, he was lauded at the highest levels for his “consummate legal skills” and his organizational abilities in running a legal operation that had grown from 190 uniformed lawyers in 1941 to more than 2,160 judge advocates in 1945 and had offices located throughout the world.

Tokyo War Crimes Trial
After retiring on December 1, 1945, Cramer and his wife settled in Washington, D.C., and he began to build a civilian law practice. No doubt he believed that tranquility would be the norm in his life. But

Sitting in Judgment

Left: the prosecution at the tokyo trial presented maps as evidence during the opening session on June 13, 1946. Center: the 28 Japanese military and civilian defendants, may 14, 1946. Right: Prosecution attorney mei addresses the tribunal on January 14, 1948. the defendants, all wartime leaders in Japan, were charged with not only “crimes against peace” but also “crimes against humanity.”

in June 1946, Cramer learned that John P. Higgins, chief justice of the Massachusetts supreme court, who had been appointed as the American judge for the upcoming Tokyo War Crimes Trial, had abruptly resigned. This was embarrassing, as the trial was under way (having started in May), and Higgins had been hearing evidence in Tokyo for two months. In this emergency situation, and with little time to fill this vacancy, the War Department asked Cramer if he would consent to being recalled to active duty to take this important judgeship. Cramer agreed, and his appointment as the lone American judge on the “International Military Tribunal, Far East” was personally approved by U.S. Attorney General Tom C. Clark and Supreme Commander for the Allied Powers General of the Army Douglas MacArthur. Cramer’s military records show that he was recalled to active duty on July 10, 1946, left Washington, D.C., by air five days later, and arrived in Tokyo on July 20. He took his seat on the tribunal two days later, on July 22, 1946. In a January 1947 memorandum, Cramer wrote that the War Department initially believed “the trial would only last six months” and that the proceedings “would be over by Christmas” 1946. Since Christmas had passed, however, and it was January, Cramer now predicted that “it will likely be the 4th of July [1947] before the case is finished.” Even that estimate proved wrong, as the Tokyo War Crimes Trial would consume a total of two and a half years before reaching a verdict in November 1948. The International Military Tribunal of the

Far East, or Tokyo War Crimes Trial, as it is more commonly known, was the Pacific counterpart to the war crimes trials held in Nuremberg from November 1945 to October 1946. Cramer and his 10 fellow judges (from Australia, Canada, China, France, Great Britain, India, the Netherlands, New Zealand, the Philippines, and the Soviet Union) sat in judgment on 28 Japanese military and civilian leaders. Most of the defendants were military, the best known being Tojo Hideki, an Army general and Japan’s political and military leader (he served as prime minister from 1941 to 1944). But civilian leaders also were on trial, such as Hirota Koki, a career diplomat, who was charged with failing to prevent Japanese atrocities in Nanking, China, during a six-week period starting in mid-December 1937. Notably missing from the list of defendants, however, was the Japanese emperor, Hirohito, whom many observers expected would be tried for war crimes as well. Just as at Nuremberg, the chief purpose of the Tokyo trial was to hold high-level political and military leaders accountable for the waging of a brutal, aggressive war that had taken the lives of millions of innocent men, women, and children. Consequently, the defendants—all of whom had been wartime leaders in Japan—were charged with“crimes against peace,” which was defined as conspiring to wage, and waging, an “aggressive war” in contravention of “international law, treaties, agreements or assurances.” But the Japanese also were accused of having committed “crimes against humanity” and “war crimes,” and as a result, the judges heard hor-

rific evidence of murder, extermination, enslavement, deportation, and other inhuman acts committed by Japanese troops. It soon was obvious that the voluminous evidence—which ultimately consisted of thousands of pages of documents and testimony from 419 witnesses—had to be organized for the Tokyo tribunal’s use. In the division of labor that followed, Cramer took on the task of preparing a dossier on Japanese “war crimes committed by the Japanese Armed Forces in territories occupied by them.” Cramer and his assistant,Army lawyer Lt. Col. Howard H. Hasting, gathered and organized evidence of war crimes presented to the tribunal by the prosecution.Their work, contained in a two-volume “Brief of Evidence of Conventional War Crimes and Atrocities” records how Japanese soldiers murdered Chinese civilians as early as August 1932, when villagers in Pingtingshan were ordered “to assemble along a ditch and kneel; machine guns were then mounted behind the victims and used to mow them down; those not killed by the machine guns were bayoneted.” Considerable evidence was collected relating to the Rape of Nanking in 1937, with Cramer showing that some 30,000 Chinese soldiers “who had laid down their arms and surrendered . . . were machine gunned and bayoneted to death and their corpses burned with kerosene” and that Japanese soldiers had “raged like savages” in brutally raping thousands of Chinese women. Cramer ultimately concluded that between 260,000 and 300,000 Chinese

38 Prologue

Summer 2009

tojo hideki, an army general and Japan’s political and military leader, testified on January 7, 1948.

civilians had been massacred by the Japanese army in Nanking and that this “organized wholesale murder of civilian men was conducted apparently with the sanction of [Japanese] Army authorities.” Evidence of Japanese war crimes against Allied prisoners of war was particularly disturbing to Cramer, given that he had spent his life in uniform. He compiled evidence of Americans and Filipinos “tortured, shot and bayoneted” while on the Bataan Death March and proof of the “starvation, torture and neglect” of Americans taken prisoner at Corregidor. Lesser-known war crimes also were included in the compilation. For example, pages from the diary of a Japanese soldier captured in New Guinea recorded the March 1943 murder of an American flight officer. He “was made to kneel on the bank of a bomb crater filled with water” and then beheaded by a Japanese officer wielding his “favorite sword.” Cramer’s work showed that war crimes committed against prisoners of war were routine; one exhibit referenced in Cramer’s compilation recorded that “a party of 123 Australian soldiers . . . were divided into small groups of ten or twelve . . . marched into the jungle and murdered by decapitation and shooting.” Cramer’s “Brief of Evidence” contains hundreds of similar war crimes perpetrated by Japanese personnel and was made part of the official Tokyo War Crimes Trial record when the 11-member tribunal rendered its verdict. That came in November 1948, when 25 of the defendants were found guilty of at least one crime, including conspiracy, waging an

Above: an april 1948 interrogation of tojo in Sugamo Prison, tokyo, queried him on Japanese research in and use of chemical warfare, which he claimed the high command wanted to use. Below: The tribunal transcript includes a portion of an interrogation of Tojo on February 1946 in which he detailed the planning of the Pearl Harbor attack, stating that the foreign minister knew of the day set for the attack.

Sitting in Judgment

hirota Koki, prime minister (1936–1937) and foreign minister (1941–1944), was charged with failing to prevent Japanese atrocities in Nanking, china.the charge against him of “criminal negligence” established a precedent that a civilian may be accountable for war crimes even though he was not in the military chain of command.

judges to find him “derelict in the performance of his duties in not insisting . . . that immediate action be taken to put an end to the atrocities.”As Cramer and his fellow judges saw it, Hirota’s “inaction amounted to criminal negligence” under international law and consequently he not only was guilty as charged but merited the ultimate penalty: death by hanging. This was an important legal result because it established that a civilian may be accountable for war crimes even though he was not in the military chain of command. The importance of Hirota has been lasting: the International Criminal Tribunal for Rwanda (ICTR) cited the Hirota decision in issuing its September 1998 judgment against a former Rwandan mayor, Jean-Paul Akayesu, finding

him guilty of genocide, incitement to commit genocide, and crimes against humanity.

Life after the Army
When Cramer retired a second time on March 31, 1949, he was 67 years old and had been soldiering for more than 38 years. He almost certainly looked forward to a more tranquil future at his home on Fordham Road NW in Washington, D.C. Cramer had once told his wife that he believed he had been “allotted . . . three score and ten years,” so he may have thought he had but a few years to live. But he was wrong and continued to live a vigorous life until passing away on March 25, 1966, at age 84. P

aggressive war, and ordering, authorizing, and permitting atrocities. Seven of the Japanese defendants were sentenced to be hanged, and the remainder received sentences to imprisonment ranging from seven years to life. Eight of eleven judges concurred fully in the majority opinion, including Cramer. He had, in fact, played a key role in authoring this important opinion, because he was the chairman of the drafting committee. But it had been hard going: Cramer and his committee had spent seven months hammering out a final opinion acceptable to the majority.Two of the three dissenting judges did not quarrel with the overall result (the French judge, for example, dissented because Emperor Hirohito had not been indicted). Only one judge, from India, dissented completely from verdict, chiefly because he believed that aggressive war and the other crimes charged were not a part of international law. Cramer’s participation at Tokyo made him an integral part of legal history, for this war crimes trial provided part of the foundation for the international humanitarian law that exists today. The decision in Hirota’s case is illustrative. A civilian, professional bureaucrat, and a member of the cabinet, Hirota’s inaction when informed about Japanese war crimes perpetrated against Chinese civilians in the rape of Nanking caused Cramer and his fellow

Myron Cramer’s Official Military Personnel File is preserved in the National Personnel Records Center in St. Louis, Missouri. Details on Cramer’s career as a soldier and his role in the U-boat saboteur military commission comes from this file and a speech he gave to the Washington State Bar Association in September 1942 (reprinted in Washington Law Review & State Bar Journal 17: 247–255 [1942]). Cramer’s memorandum advising that a military commission was the best forum at which to prosecute the German captives is located in the German Saboteurs file, Records of the Office of the Secretary of War, Record Group (RG) 107, National Archives at College Park, Maryland (NACP). The record of trial is located in Court Martial Case File 334178, Records of the Office of the Judge Advocate General, RG 153, NACP The Supreme Court decision in the case . Ex parte Quirin was published in United States Supreme Court Reports 317: 1 (1942). Photographs relating to the investigation, capture, and trial of the U-boat saboteurs are located in Administrative History, Records of the Federal Bureau of Investigation, RG 65, NACP. The historical archives maintained at the Judge Advocate General’s Legal Center and School, Charlottesville, Virginia, has a copy of the “Brief” prepared by Cramer and Hasting. Much of the background material on the German U-boat saboteurs is to be found in Louis Fisher, Nazi Saboteurs on Trial: A Military Tribunal and American Law (Lawrence: University Press of Kansas, 2003). This is the best secondary source on the trial. Primary materials on the Tokyo War Crimes Trial are in various locations. Records of the War Crimes Branch, in Records of the Judge Advocate General (Army), RG 153, NACP contain general administrative information relat, ing to Pacific war crimes. Special War Problems Division Subject Files, in General Records of the Department of State, RG 59, NACP contain many reports on the mistreatment of American prisoners of war in Japanese camps. , Records of the Legal Section, in General Records of General Headquarters, Supreme Commander for the Allied Powers Operational, RG 331, NACP contain specific information about the abuses suffered by U.S. military per, sonnel, including a large number of questionnaires completed by former prisoners detailing their mistreatment. The best published primary source on the trial is R. John Pritchard and Sonia M. Zaide, eds., The Tokyo War Crimes Trial, 22 vols. (New York: Garland Press, 1981–1987). Details on Cramer’s role in the Tokyo tribunal comes from his St. Louis military personnel file. The best general source on Japanese war crimes in World War II is Philip R. Piccigallo, The Japanese on Trial (Austin: University of Texas Press, 1979). For more author details on Hirota and Nanking, see Iris Chang, The Rape of Nanking: The Forgotten Holocaust of World War II Fred L. Borch is the regimental (New York: Basic Books, 1997). Researchers interested historian and archivist for the in Japanese war crimes also should consult Edward Army’s Judge Advocate General’s Drea et al, Researching Japanese War Crimes Records: Corps. A lawyer (J.D., Univ. of Introductory Essays (Washington, D.C.: NARA, 2006). North Carolina) and historian This last resource was produced by the Interagency (M.A., Univ. of Virginia), he served 25 years active duty Working Group, Nazi War Crimes and Japanese Impeas an Army judge advocate before retiring from active rial Government Records. duty in 2005.This is his third article for Prologue.

40 Prologue

Summer 2009



World War II
Guide to Records Relating to U.S. Military Participation
Compiled by Timothy P. Mulligan

Published in two volumes, this essential new guide represents the most comprehensive and detailed finding aid to World War II source materials in the custody of the National Archives of the United States. These include records of • Combined Allied staffs and organizations • U.S. Army and Navy administrative and operational headquarters, logistical and technical services, and field commands (including Army Air Forces headquarters and commands) • Some civilian agencies involved in war production, scientific research and development, and intelligence collection and evaluation Descriptions of records extend to the series level, with examples given of specific documents. Materials emphasize the period December 1941 through September 1945, although extensive documentation of the interwar and pre-Pearl Harbor period is also included. The guide also identifies, where such information

is available, pertinent Federal records still in agency custody, and locations of other closely related materials—for example, personal papers of key figures. Information is organized by subject in chapters reflecting aspects of the U.S. wartime effort. Topics include planning and strategy; administering the defense establishment; mobilization and training; armaments production and procurement; guarding the home base; support and services; contributions of science and technology; intelligence; the wars at sea and in the air; military operations in the European, Mediterranean, and Pacific/Asiatic Theaters; and prosecution of war crimes. 8 1/2 x 11, 1,088 pages 200124—Two-volume hardcover set—$75 ISBN 1-880875-09-8 To order call 1-866-272-6272 x 72066 weekdays 9 A.M. to 4 P.M. Eastern time or visit

$75 cloth/1,088 pages in 2 volumes/ISBN 1-880875-09-8 National Archives /1-866-272-6272 x 72066 weekdays 9 a.m. to 4 p.m. Eastern time.

By Paul Musgrave


Except for its name, there was little remarkable about the modest library that stood in the neighborhood of Yuen Long on the outskirts of Hong Kong from 1954 until 1977. It held only a few thousand books and employed just one librarian, and its patrons were mostly schoolchildren, farmers, and shopkeepers. Nevertheless, the humble building was a monument to Richard Nixon. The library was also a relic of the creation of Nixon’s reputation as an expert in foreign affairs, the cornerstone of his campaigns for the White House and his defenders’ view of his administration. It began in large measure with his world travels as Vice President, including infamous trips to Latin America in 1958 (where he faced violent pro-Communist mobs) and the Soviet Union in 1959 (where he dueled with Nikita Khrushchev). Those trips, however, might not have happened without his first, successful tour of Asia and the Middle East in 1953—a story told in the records at the Richard Nixon Presidential Library and Museum. Just 40 years old, Nixon had been Dwight Eisenhower’s Vice President for only a few months when, at a National Security Council meeting in March 1953, Eisenhower asked him to take a major trip through Asia later that year. Decades later, Nixon implausibly asserted that Eisenhower sent Nixon instead of going himself because the President knew little about the region. At the time, he declared instead that the President intended to show Asian leaders that the new administration took their concerns more seriously than had Dean Acheson, President Truman’s secretary of state. More persuasively, Stephen Ambrose, a biographer of both Nixon and Eisenhower, argues that
Opposite: chinese students and others pose before the Nixon library in yuen long, hong Kong, in 1957. local Jaycees named the neighborhood library after the u.S.Vice President upon his visit there in November 1953. Right: Beatrice h. holt, a uSia librarian in hong Kong, visited the Nixon library in yuen long in 1955 to celebrate the agency’s donation of 160 books. uSia publications are on the table.

the President wanted his Vice President to be “publicly associated with something other than Red-baiting.” Changing Nixon’s image would be a challenge. He owed his extraordinary political climb from freshman congressman to Vice President in six years almost entirely to his aggressive anticommunism. He had won his seats in the House in 1946 and the Senate in 1950 by charging that his opponents were soft, at the very least, on Communists, and he had become nationally prominent in 1948 through his public investigation of former FDR aide and alleged Soviet spy Alger Hiss. But, as Nixon must have recognized, presidential candidates needed to be associated with more substantive matters. The trip offered Nixon a chance to reinvent himself as a statesman. Just as impor-

tant, it would allow him to transform the position of Vice President—long regarded as a political dead end—into a high-profile post. His plans for the trip were accordingly ambitious. Starting on October 5, he and his party, which included his wife, Pat, would spend more than two months abroad and visit 19 countries, as well as Hong Kong (then a British colony) and the U.S.-administered Japanese prefecture of Okinawa, none of which had ever received a visit from an American President or Vice President before. The announcement of the tour triggered a flood of invitations, including one from Arnaldo de Oliveira Sales, an ethnic Portuguese businessman who was president of the Hong Kong Junior Chamber of Commerce. Nixon accepted, partly because he was a former Jaycee himself (indeed, he

The First Nixon Library

Prologue 43

made a point of including Jaycee representatives in many of the countries he visited) but more importantly because the club, composed of civic-minded businessmen, would be a safely pro-American audience. Nixon used invitations like Sales’s strategically. He would later boast that he had forced the State Department to schedule events where he could meet “as many different kinds of people as possible”—students, workers, and intellectuals as well as politicians and government officials. In practice, the events ran more like campaign rallies than state visits. At one point, halfway through the trip, a frustrated Nixon instructed his administrative assistant Rose Mary Woods and other aides in his party that “I want crowds at the airports—want the schedules to be printed in the newspapers—insist on this!” He took an intense interest in the media as well, requesting special arrangements for a Life magazine photographer so that he could take pictures “which will properly characterize the trip” and telling his aides to let the press know that the locals had been impressed that Nixon shook hands with them. (The

latter effort succeeded: Time soon printed a glowing quote from an “accompanying official” explaining that Nixon “create[d] a sensation” when he shook hands with “dumbfounded spectators” along his parade routes.) There were few causes for such complaints in Hong Kong. Nixon’s arrival on November 5 was dramatic—indeed, spectacular. His Air Force Lockheed Constellation was escorted by 12 Royal Air Force Vampire fighter jets as it approached the runway of Kai Tak Airport, which jutted into Victoria Harbor. At the airport, the Americans received a 19-gun salute and an official greeting. Nixon broke away briefly from the official itinerary to shake hands with some members of the public who had come to greet him. Hong Kong was not the most prominent stop on Nixon’s trip; he had far more important diplomatic errands to attend to on other legs of his journey (including delivering messages from Eisenhower to South Korea and Taiwan to refrain from unilaterally starting wars), and his

words in other cities would attract much greater media attention (including those from his brief layover in Hawaii, where he made a strong statement in favor of statehood for the territory). But Hong Kong’s status as a British colony and its sheer proximity to mainland China made it inherently significant. The combination of those issues made for a knotty diplomatic problem.As Nixon moved through his schedule on November 5 and 6, he heard criticisms of the Chinese Communists, but he also faced complaints about the American ban on
richard Nixon visited the library named after him in 1966, as reported in a local newspaper. he applauded the local Jaycees’ educational efforts and promised that more books would be provided by the united States information Service.

a delegation of visitors at the Nixon library in hong Kong in 1965.

44 Prologue

Summer 2009

trade with the People’s Republic of China, which had crippled Hong Kong’s economy. Strong statements by Nixon against the “Peking regime” could thus backfire, as the capitalists in the colony strongly hoped to hear that they could resume their historical role as the front door to the Chinese markets. Such concerns weighed on Nixon’s mind on the morning of November 7 as he prepared his remarks for that day’s Jaycee luncheon at the Peninsula Hotel, which had become the venue for what was billed as the major policy address of his visit. He surely discussed the dilemma with the
Left: Snowpine liu, the Nixon library representative, maintained contact with Nixon through the years. in his march 16, 1968, letter he congratulated candidate Nixon on his victory in the New hampshire primary. Right: liu was photographed with the President and administrative assistant rose mary Woods during his visit to the oval office on february 7, 1969.

colony’s governor, Alexander Grantham, in a private meeting that morning. Sometime that morning, either as a result of his talks with Grantham and others or as a product of his own substantial political instincts, Nixon hit on a formula to paper over the difficulties. He delivered it at the luncheon before an audience of 500. After an introduction by Sales, Nixon took his audience on a tour d’horizon of American foreign policy, arguing that its foundation was “peace” and that Washington must maintain a leading role in the United Nations. Essential to the success of that policy and the victory of the free nations was the strong alliance between the United States and the United Kingdom, which was helping to defend Hong Kong and its freedoms. The other half of the Nixon formula was simply to ignore the trade issue. It was not the subtlest solution, but the American consul general wrote in his official report that the largely British audience almost universally

accepted it anyway—and that Nixon’s conversation with Grantham had a calming effect on the governor’s later public statements about the embargo. As a good host, Sales had arranged for gifts for the Vice President (an ivory elephant) and Mrs. Nixon (an embroidered dress length). As he presented them to the Nixons, Sales announced that the Vice President had just given him permission to have the Jaycees’ next children’s library named after him. The library, under construction in Yuen Long, was the 11th to be built by Jaycees, which had made a project of providing for underprivileged children around the colony. Nixon could hardly have refused the offer, since during the speech he had praised the Jaycees and the Rotarians (who were cosponsoring the luncheon) for their local projects helping young people, which he said contributed to international peace.

The First Nixon Library

Prologue 45

Back in Hong Kong, work proceeded on library’s fundraising and operations. Liu, who The Nixons left the luncheon and spent some time traveling around the colony the addition to the building in Yuen Long had attended American universities and had before an evening reception. They left the that was to hold the future Nixon Library. taught in Chinese schools, asked Nixon for next morning and rejoined the rest of their It was dedicated on February 28, 1954, and help in obtaining a visa to the United States. tour, which had more than a month left to Nixon sent Sales a telegram to be read at There is no response to that request in the run and which included meetings with, the ceremony:“There is nothing that gives files, but Nixon’s office corresponded with among others, the emperor of Japan, the me more pleasure than to have my name Liu over the next decade. From time to time, prime minister of India, and the shah of Iran. associated with your new children’s Nixon made small but significant financial They returned to Washington on December library. . . . I can think of no factor more contributions to the library, which (with the Richard Nixon Elementary 14 to an elaborate welcoming School in his hometown of ceremony at National Airport, Yorba Linda, California) was followed by a formal call on one of the few institutions to President Eisenhower at the bear his name. He also sent the White House. library a copy of a biography, The press reaction was all This Is Nixon, by reporter that Nixon could have hoped James Keogh, who later for. The favorable editorials became President Nixon’s around the country filled two head speechwriter. folders in his files and After losing the 1960 presiincluded positive comments dential campaign to John from the Washington Post, Kennedy and the 1962 CaliPhiladelphia Inquirer, Washfornia gubernatorial election ington Star, and New York to Pat Brown, Nixon moved to Herald Tribune, which wrote New York City to become the that Nixon’s trip proved that lead partner in a major law he “could speak with knowlfirm. Part of Nixon’s work edge and precise familiarity with the firm involved travelwith the President’s ideas and ing around the world to meet projects” because “no previwith clients, a convenient reaous Vice-President has been son for the former Vice Presbrought so intimately into the ident to keep himself in the highest counsels of the public eye by making proadministration in power.” nouncements on foreign polNixon topped off the icy at home and abroad. He rounds of congratulations a made several such passes week later with a television through Hong Kong, meeting and radio address. He talked with Liu on three occasions about American interests in and visiting the library himthe region, not least the Korean peninsula, and the Plans for expansion and relocation of the Nixon library in 1969 raised security concerns self in 1966. In February 1969, just importance of American diplo- that it would become a high visibility target five miles from the chinese mainland. henry macy, instead of American mili- Kissinger advised in his april 19, 1969, memo (page 1 here) that the library be moved to three weeks into Nixon’s presidency, Liu called on tary power, to making the yuen long town hall, to which President Nixon agreed. the President in the Oval progress with the peoples and governments of the countries he had important to a free, independent, and pros- Office, where they met and talked about visited. The core of his argument was that perous Asia than the opportunity for the the library’s future. Liu proposed raising the United States had to continue to resist youth of Asia to learn the truth, untar- funds to expand the library and give it a permanent, independent home. Nixon the expansion of Communism, especially nished by Communist propaganda.” A local notable named Tang Kin Sun and a was noncommittal, but Liu enthusiastithat of the Chinese Communists, whom he called “the basic cause of all of our trou- volunteer named Snowpine Liu, a National- cally began soliciting donors by telling ist refugee from the mainland, took over the them the President supported the plan, bles in Asia.”

46 Prologue

Summer 2009

which alarmed lower-level officials. The U.S. Information Agency, which had informally supported the library for some time, argued instead for moving the library into the Yuen Long town hall, then under construction. Such a move, USIA director and longtime Nixon associate Frank Shakespeare argued, would bolster American standing in Hong Kong while also denying “a high visibility target five miles from the Chinese mainland for Leftist [protesters].” The State Department later chimed in with its own concerns that Liu had been seeking donations from individuals tied to the Nationalist government on the island of Taiwan, which the department worried could cause “very considerable embarrassment” to the United States by politicizing what had formerly been a politically neutral cultural organization. In classic Nixon administration style, the issue was staffed out, and the unlikely bureaucratic vehicle for resolving the controversy over the future of the reading room was the National Security Council under the direction of Henry Kissinger. In an April 1969 memorandum, Kissinger summarized the options: leaving the library in place, providing funds to transfer it to the Yuen Long town hall, or committing the U.S. government to raising $100,000 to build the new, independent library building. Kissinger, echoing the State Department and USIA, recommended moving the library to the town hall; President Nixon agreed, and directed that USIA inform Liu of his decision. (Ironically, Kissinger later complained that bureaucratic politics tended to produce options papers that narrowed the scope for presidential decisionmaking by presenting “two absurd alternatives as straw men bracketing [the bureaucracy’s] preferred option—which usually appears in the middle position.”) Liu backed off from his independent proposal, and the library was moved into the Yuen Long town hall. In June 1971, Shakespeare met with Nixon in the Oval Office and discussed an inspection tour of USIA facilities in East

Asia. During the meeting, which was captured on the Nixon taping system, Shakespeare told Nixon that he had visited the Nixon Library. “I went in there and there must have been 150 young children quietly reading,” Shakespeare told the President. “You know, if you went to a library where there are American kids, there’s always that little hubbub of noise and students shooting spitballs.Those Chinese kids are amazing.They sat there and you couldn’t hear a sound. . . . It’s attractive, it’s well decorated, it’s light, it’s airy, and it’s very well used.” Nixon murmured his approval. Soon thereafter, the administration— engrossed successively by the opening to mainland China, the reelection campaign of

1972, and then the mounting pressures of Watergate—could no longer afford the luxury of taking an interest in the Hong Kong institution. The library’s end came, unnoticed, in 1978 when its collection was transferred to the Yuen Long municipal government and became the core of the Yuen Long Public Library.At the same time, Nixon was drafting his memoirs and preparing to embark on a broader project of rehabilitating his reputation based on his mastery of foreign affairs, a topic he discussed in the memoirs. It was as a result of the 1953 trip through Hong Kong and the rest of Asia, Nixon wrote,“that I knew that foreign policy was a field in which I had great interest and at least some ability.” P

The principal sources for the linked stories of the Nixon Library in Hong Kong and the Vice Presidential career of Richard Nixon are the pre-presidential files in the Richard Nixon Presidential Library in Yorba Linda, California.The vice presidential trip files and correspondence files, including many otherwise difficult-to-find media clippings (such as the JCI World, a newsletter of the international Jaycees), document Nixon’s relationship with Arnaldo de Oliveira Sales and Snowpine Liu in the 1950s as well as visits to the library by Nixon associates, such as Henry Kearns, assistant secretary of commerce for Eisenhower and later Nixon’s head of the Export-Import Bank. Newspaper and magazine coverage of the 1953 trip includes Time, “Names Make News,” November 16, 1953, and “By the old Pegu Pagoda,” December 7, 1953;“Good Will in Asia,” Philadelphia Inquirer, December 15, 1953; “Here Comes the Traveler,” Washington Star, December 15, 1953;“Mr. Nixon Reports,” Washington Post, December 25, 1953; and “Mr. Nixon Returns,” New York Herald Tribune, December 15, 1953. Other sources include Tzu Jan Jih Pao, a Hong Kong newspaper whose coverage of Nixon’s trip, along with other papers’, was translated by the State Department and included in the trip files. The newly processed “Wilderness Years” collection, also in Yorba Linda, are indispensable for tracing the reconstruction of Nixon’s political career and reputation as a statesman during the years between his defeat by Pat Brown in the 1962 California gubernatorial race and his triumphal victory in the 1968 presidential campaign. The file includes other clippings on Nixon’s trips, including “Get to Know the U.S. Better, Nixon urges” from the Hong Kong Standard. The construction of Nixon’s image as an expert in world affairs is treated by his biographers, including Stephen Ambrose in Nixon: The Education of a Politician, 1913–1962 (New York: Simon and Schuster, 1987) and David Greenberg in Nixon’s Shadow: The History of an Image (New York: W.W. Norton, 2003). Nixon’s memoirs (RN: The Memoirs of Richard Nixon [New York: Grosset & Dunlap, 1978]) cover his relationship with foreign policy and with Eisenhower while Henry Kissinger’s reflections on his time with Nixon (White House Years [Boston: Little, Brown, 1979]) offer an insider’s selected views on the foreign policy machinery of the administration. The administration’s files on national security and foreign policy are virtually all, for the moment, in the Nixon Library at College Park, Maryland; much of the material on the Hong Kong Nixon Library and Snowpine Liu, including copies of State Department, National Security Council, and U.S. Information Agency memoranda, is available in the formerly confidential special files. The taped conversation Author between Nixon and Frank Shakespeare is number 527-8 from June 22, 1971.The proceedings of the Paul Musgrave is special Hong Kong Legislative Council are available online assistant to the director of the at www.legco.; the reference to the conRichard Nixon Presidential solidation of the Nixon Library with the Yuen Long Library and Museum in Yorba town hall comes from the question time of Linda, California, and a Ph.D. Wednesday, January 25, 1978. student in government at Georgetown University in Washington, D.C.

The First Nixon Library

Prologue 47


The the Archives’ Reach NHPRC Extending
By Kathleen Williams

the 1940 national conference of the National council of Negro Women in Washington, d.c. NhPrc support went to preserve, arrange, and describe the records of the council from 1938 to 1959 and to plan a future archival program for the NcNW and affiliated organizations.

ust as the origins of the National Archives and Records Administration can be traced to the 19th century, and men like John Franklin Jameson, so too can the roots of the agency’s grant-making arm, the National Historical Publications and Records Commission (NHPRC). As professional groups of historians and others waged what would be a decades-long campaign for a national archives, Jameson in 1891 made the first call for something more than just an archives, more than a repository of federal records. He called for a commission with the “power to edit and publish not only materials in possession of the government but also those which are in private existence.” Historians knew that the full story of America could not be told with only records held by the federal government; important records in private hands—especially the personal papers of historically significant Americans—also had to be preserved. For example, early attempts to collect complete editions of the papers of our founders were flawed because they


ignored documents hidden in private collections or those outside of federal stewardship. Jameson made his proposal for this commission in a paper published in the annual report of the American Historical Association (AHA), which had been spearheading the movement to establish a national archives as well as a federal commission to focus on records and publications. By 1909, the AHA’s “Keep Commission,” named for its head, Charles Keep, issued a report on interdepartmental concerns about records preservation that warned of a risk of “an unscientific course, substituting criteria dependent on the accidents of deposit or ownership.” World War I slowed progress on the campaign for a national archives, but in the 1920s, planning for an archives building got under way, and ground was broken in early 1931. By the time President Franklin D. Roosevelt signed legislation in 1934 creating the National Archives itself, it also included an entity called the “National Historical Publications Commission,” which was to “make plans, estiSummer 2009

48 Prologue

mates, and recommendations for such historical works and collections of sources as seems appropriate for publication and/or otherwise recording at public expense.” For years the Commission made recommendations for the publication of the records of the nation’s founders, including such men as Benjamin Franklin, Thomas Jefferson, John Adams, George Washington,Alexander Hamilton, and others, but had no means to carry out its recommendations. Finally, in 1964, the Commission received funding to make grants, at the recommendation of President John F. Kennedy, who had written in response to a 1963 report,“If the commission is to plan a balanced national program of editing and publication, it must have resources on which it can depend.” With its first grant money, the Commission funded 23 projects, including one for The Documentary History of the Ratification of the Constitution, which had been proposed in 1936. Over the passing decades, the Commission, now called the National Historical Publications and Records Commission, has funded 4,500 projects, investing $185 million across the country—projects that have produced literally hundreds of thousands of linear feet of archival material that has led to untold discoveries by genealogists, archivists, and historians. Today, the NHPRC’s mission has much expanded. It now incorporates a grants program that emphasizes both preservation of, and access to, historical records of national significance, wherever located.The NHPRC complements the National Archives’ mission by providing assistance to state and local governments, colleges and universities, and nonprofit institutions that maintain and make accessible a vast network of historical
George Washington at the outposts of Valley forge. the university of Virginia is publishing a comprehensive edition of the papers written by or to the revolutionary War general and first President of the united States.

San Juan mountains, 1848, from John frémont’s Memoirs.the NhPrc supported a four-volume edition of The Expeditions of John Charles Frémont, renowned 19th-century explorer of the american West.

records. In fact, the NHPRC is the sole grant-making organization in the nation whose exclusive focus is preservation of, and increased access to, the nation’s archives. Through its grants program, the NHPRC currently supports four basic types of projects: publishing, records preservation and access, professional development, and state and national archival partnership grants.

The NHPRC’s program to publish historical records of national significance is largely given over to historical documentary editions—multivolume collections of select annotated documents. The projects cover the full length of American history, and among the many noteworthy figures are Martin Luther King, Jr., Abraham Lincoln, Thomas Edison, and Eleanor Roosevelt. These primary source materials are invaluable to historians, students, and others in creating contemporary histories, and the projects tend to have an impact far beyond their final products.Take, for example, the longstanding support for the Papers of John Adams. These formed the backbone of historian David McCullough’s Pulitzer Prize–winning biography, which in turn, led to the creation of an HBO miniseries, through which tens of millions of people got to see and hear the words of John and Abigail Adams come to life. A special subset of the publishing program is the Founding Era of the United States—the papers of John Adams, Benjamin Franklin, Thomas Jefferson, James Madison, George Washington, and Alexander Hamilton (completed) and
Prologue 49

Left:The Documentary History of the First Federal Congress of the United States of America, March 4, 1789–March 3, 1791, collects a massive number of documents, including accounts of congressional debates in the Gazette of the United States of America. the first federal congress project is edited at the George Washington university. Right: the downie Brothers circus comes to town in 1931, part of the North carolina division of archives and history Photographic collection of albert Barden. Preservation of this extensive collection is made possible by an NhPrc grant.

records that document the first Supreme Court (completed), the ratification of the Constitution, and the First Federal Congress. Historical editing fellowships allow publications projects to train scholars in the field’s best practices.

Records Preservation and Access
Since 1974, when the Commission expanded to include grants for records and archives, the NHPRC has funded projects in every state and territory designed to preserve and increase use of historical records. This funding stream supports basic archival projects to reveal “hidden collections” by processing backlogs and to help institutions plan for, and begin, their own archives or records management programs. Detailed processing projects allow archives to provide the public with in-depth information about historical collections of national significance using state-of-the-art guides and finding aids to such materials. Other funded projects have supported the preservation of illuminating photographs, film, blueprints, and audio and videotape. Natural disasters have spurred support for projects that help archives plan to mitigate damage and to recover when hurricanes or floods hit. Moreover, the NHPRC is regarded as the federal funder of choice by small archives and historical societies, first-time applicants for federal assistance, and those who would address the imminent risk to the documentary heritage of African Americans, Native Americans, Asian Americans, women, and other ethnic and religious groups long in need of support. In the past two years, the Commission has expanded its focus to include a Digitizing
50 Prologue

Historical Records grant program to support free online access to historical documents via the Internet. For more than 15 years, the NHPRC has led the way in supporting basic and applied research to ensure the long-term preservation and easy access to authentic electronic records at the state and local levels. Just as the National Archives has recognized the building of an Electronic Records Archives (ERA) as the most critical effort to ensure the preservation of and access to government records, the NHPRC has supported research and development in this field. It funded the participation of American scientists and archivists in a major international collaboration, the International Research on Permanent Authentic Records in Electronic Systems (Inter PARES) project, to define the scope of the problem of digital preservation and access. Every year, state governments, universities, and other nonprofit institutions turn to the NHPRC for help in finding the best ways to handle the deluge of electronic records with which they are grappling.

Professional Development
Professional development grants are given to improve the training and education of professionals in the archival and historical publishing communities. The Institute for Editing Historical Documents, an annual oneweek professional development session for junior and mid-level editors, is now in its 38th year. The Archives Leadership Institute, designed to provide archivists with leadership skills and training, was inaugurated last year at the University of Wisconsin-Madison, cosponsored by the Wisconsin Historical Society.
Summer 2009

Left: thomas edison’s entry in his notebook on august 31, 1871, for an automatic translating Printing machine for telegraphy, reproduced in The Papers of Thomas E. Edison ,Vol. 1, Johns hopkins university Press. Top right: members of the mochida family in hayward, california, await evacuation to an internment camp during Word War ii. an NhPrc grant allowed work on guides for the Bancroft library’s pictorial collections. Bottom right: the eNiac (electronic Numerical integrator and computer) occupied a 30- by 50-foot room. NhPrc funds to the university of Pennsylvania enabled preservation of records on the development of the first digital computer.

State and National Archival Partnership
The NHPRC collaborates with state archives through the State Historical Records Advisory Boards (SHRABs) to plan and carry out jointly funded programs to strengthen the nation’s archival infrastructure and expand the range of records that are protected and accessible.The Council of State Archivists and the state boards have worked with the NHPRC to create a new funding program—the State and National Archival Partnership—that provides modest federal support to enhance public access to local historical materials that document citizenship, trace family histories, and capture the national experience in communities across the land. Through its broad array of programming, the NHPRC fulfills J. Franklin Jameson’s vision for a multifaceted agency that preserves the most vital documents of the federal government, publishes or otherwise makes available to the general citizenry a selection of historical documents, and helps state, local, and nongovernmental organizations preserve and make accessible the rich documentary heritage that is our common birthright. As Thomas Jefferson wrote in 1791 upon receiving the first two volumes of an early record of our legislative history, “let us save what remains; not by vaults and locks which fence them from the public eye and use . . . but by such a multiplication of copies, as shall place them beyond the reach of accident.” Jefferson and Jameson both understood that original primary sources serve as firsthand testimony to history and, as such, they must be preserved and
the NhPrc

made broadly available. As we celebrate our 75th anniversary, the NHPRC eagerly looks forward to continuing this tradition of public access to American history. P

the National historical Publications and records commission makes a profound impact on the nation’s archives, providing researchers, scholars, and ordinary citizens with direct access to the primary sources of history. Since 1964, the NhPrc has funded 4,500 projects, investing $185 million across the country. these projects have produced literally hundreds of thousands of linear feet of archival material that has led to untold discoveries by genealogists, archivists, and historians. Publishing historical records projects documentary editions—volumes published alumni of documentary editing institute archival preservation and access projects archival repositories established direct funding to the states—local programs 301 946 666 2,700 165 $14.8 million

Kathleen Williams is executive director of the NHPRC, having previously been deputy executive director. She holds a bachelor’s degree in history from College of the Holy Cross and a master’s degree in arts and cultural administration from Goucher College.

Prologue 51


Researching U.S. Army Indian Scouts, 1866–1914

Lead the Way
By Trevor K. Plante

year after the fighting ended in the Civil War, Native Americans began serving as enlisted Indian Scouts in the U.S. Army. There were several types of scouts: those who enlisted as Indian Scouts for brief terms and those hired as scouts by the U.S. Army. Sometimes an individual may have served at different times as a hired scout and an enlisted scout, but never at the same time. In addition to enlisted and hired scouts, some Native Americans served in Regular Army infantry and cavalry regiments in shortlived Indian companies in the 1890s. Native Americans had a long history of military service, having served in various local and militia units for the United States from the Revolution-


ary War through the Civil War. For more information on Indian service prior to the Civil War, consult James P. Collins’s “Native Americans in the Antebellum U.S. Military”(Prologue,Winter 2007). The Army Reorganization Act of 1866 authorized the President “to enlist and employ in the Territories and Indian country a force of Indians not to exceed one thousand to act as scouts, who shall receive the pay and allowances of cavalry soldiers, and be discharged whenever the necessity for further employment is abated, at the discretion of the department commander.” One of the most significant measures in the act was that Indians would receive the same pay as white cavalry soldiers.

a group of apache Scouts drill with rifles at fort Wingate, New mexico.

52 Prologue

Winter 2008

Enlistment Papers
Among the Army enlistment papers, there is a separate series of Indian Scout enlistment papers (Enlistment Papers, Indian Scouts, 1866–1914, entry 92, Records of the Adjutant General’s Office, 1780’s–1920, Record Group [RG] 94). The Index to Enlistment Papers, Indian Scouts, 1866–1914 (entry 93, RG 94), contains four geographically based indexes: Arizona Indian Scouts; New Mexico Indian Scouts; Northern Indian Scouts; and Texas, Indian Territory and Oklahoma. These indexes are arranged alphabetically by the name of the scout and show the individual’s enlistment number. The enlistment papers are arranged by initial letter of the person’s name and then by the enlistment paper number. The Indian Scout enlistment paper index can be challenging to use in some cases. The scout can be listed under the Native American phonetic spelling of his name (with no translation) or under the English translation of his name. For example, the name “Ceth ton e ki” appears in the index of Arizona Scouts with no translation, and the name “Eagle Claw” appears in the Northern Indian Scouts index with no corresponding Indian name. In other cases, both the English translation and Native American name are listed together, such as the name “Tatanka Cigala,” which appears in parentheses next to the name Little Bull in the Northern Indian Scouts index. In some cases the indexes provide the English translation first and then the Indian name; in other cases the names are reversed. For instance, if you are looking for Lone Buffalo, you will not find his name listed under “L” but under “T,” under the name “Ta-tun-ka-ma.” Appearing next to the name “Ta-tun-ka-ma” is the name Lone Buffalo in parentheses. Once you’ve identified the initial letter of the scout’s name and the enlistment number, it is then possible to pull and view the original document. The enlistment papers provide the name of the scout, birthplace, age, physical description, and term of service (number of years or months for which the person is enlisting). Most Native Americans were enlisted as Indian Scouts for very short terms, usually three or six months at a time. Because of this practice, it is not uncommon for a scout to have multiple enlistments. A good example of a scout with multiple enlistments is Sharp Nose, an Arapahoe chief, who has 20 numbered enlistment papers listed in the Northern Indian Scout Index. His first enlistment paper, in which he enlisted for three months, is dated October 27, 1876. His last enlistment paper, for a six-month enlistment, is dated May 20, 1890.
u.S. army indian Scouts

it was not uncommon for Native americans to be enlisted as indian Scouts for very short terms, usually three or six months at a time. Sharp Nose, shown here with his last enlistment paper, enlisted more than 20 times, serving between 1876 and 1890.

Prologue 53

In some cases, Indian Scout enlistment papers are located in the series of enlistment papers for Regular Army enlisted men in RG 94, entry 91. This series is arranged alphabetically within two time frames: 1798– 1894 and 1894–1912. If you do not find the scout you are researching in the Indian Scout index, consult the Regular Army Enlistment Paper series. The enlistment papers only present the beginning of the story. To learn more, you will need to consult the Registers of Enlistments.

Registers of Enlistments
The Registers of Enlistments usually provide information on the beginning and the end of the scout’s service. The information is taken from the scout’s enlistment paper. Each scout will have a single line entry within the register. Entries for each man may show when, where, and by whom he was enlisted; period of enlistment; place of birth; age at time of enlistment; physical description; and possibly additional remarks such as discharge information, including date and place of discharge, rank at the time, and if the scout died in service. The registers have been reproduced on National

Archives Microfilm Publication M233, Registers of Enlistments in the U.S. Army, 1798–1914.Two rolls of microfilm cover Indian Scouts: roll 70, 1866–1877, and roll 71, 1878–1914. By consulting the registers, we find that Sharp Nose was mustered out of the Army on January 31, 1877, at Camp Robinson, Nebraska, with the rank of first sergeant at the end of his first enlistment as an Indian Scout. One shortcut in using the registers is to focus on the scout’s enlistment paper number. For example, the first enlistment paper for Sharp Nose is #394. In the “S” section of the registers you will find information about his first enlistment on line #394. In this way, you can use the 20 numbered enlistment papers to track Sharp Nose’s 14 years of service as an Indian Scout. While tracking Sharp Nose’s numbered enlistments, an interesting thing happens. Between enlistment numbers 1404 and 1464 the register has an additional listing for him under number 1435. Under number 1404 he enlisted for six months at Fort Washakie, Wyoming Territory, on November 20, 1888. He was discharged on May 19, 1889, at the same fort. The enlistment that was not indexed (number 1435) shows that he enlisted on May 20, 1889, for six months at Fort Washakie filling in the

Geronimo at fort Sill, oklahoma, where he enlisted as an indian Scout for three years on June 11, 1897. as his enlistment paper shows, he was 63 years old at the time.

54 Prologue

Summer 2009

this carded medical record relating to indian Scouts shows that Private ash-teahu-ee suffered a gunshot wound and was sent to the post hospital at fort Bowie, arizona territory.

missing piece until his next enlistment (number 1464) on November 20, 1889, for six months. His next enlistment, at the age of 50, is his last. Sharp Nose was discharged on November 19, 1890, at Fort Washakie, after serving his last six months as an Indian Scout.

Muster Rolls
The muster rolls provide additional information on the scout’s service by showing where the detachment of scouts was during the reporting period as well as providing remarks on individual scouts during the same period, such as indicating if they were discharged, deserted, or died while in service. The muster rolls for organizations of Indian Scouts for the period 1866 to 1912 are filed together in RG 94, entry 53, Regular Army Muster Rolls, and are primarily filed by state:Arizona, California, Dakota, Montana, Nebraska, New Mexico, North Dakota, Oklahoma, Oregon, South Dakota, Texas, Utah, Washington, and Wyoming. Within this arrangement, some are broken down by company or by military post.

Carded Medical Records
Some medical records relating to Indian Scouts may be found in RG 94. In entry 529 you will find carded medical records covering the years 1821 to 1885, and in entry 530 are carded medical records for 1894 to 1912. These cards include information relating to Indian Scouts admitted to hospitals for treatment and may include information such as name, rank, organization, age, race, birthplace, date entered service, cause of admission, date of admission, hospital to which admitted, and disposition of the case. If you are researching several Indian Scouts at a particular post, you might wish to consult the hospital registers found in RG 94, entry 544. Regular Army Indian Scouts appear as patients in post hospital registers. The registers generally show the name of the patient, the date of admission, the nature of the ailment, and the date and nature of the disposition of the case. of the Sixth U.S. Cavalry stationed at Fort Apache, marched into Nakaidoklini’s village with two troops of cavalry, 85 men, and a detachment of 23 White Mountain Apache scouts. After making the arrest, the cavalry force headed back to Fort Apache.While bivouacked for the night, the troopers were attacked by Nakaidoklini’s followers. In the ensuing Battle of Cibicue Creek, the Apache scouts mutinied and fired upon the Regulars, killing an officer and several enlisted men. Nakaidoklini was killed by two troopers, and Colonel Carr was able to remove his force and return to Fort Apache without any further bloodshed. In November 1881 the Apache scouts who mutinied at Cibecue Creek were tried for mutiny and murder at Fort Grant, Arizona Territory. The transcripts of their trials, in which several scouts were sentenced to death, are found in file QQ-2821.

Court-Martial Case Files
Several transcripts of trials involving Indian Scouts can be found in court-martial case files in Records of the Judge Advocate General (Army), RG 153, entry 15. The most famous case involved the trial of several Apache scouts. In the autumn of 1881, the Army ordered the arrest of an Apache medicine man, Nak aidoklini, for inciting the San Carlos Reservation Indians in Arizona. On August 30, 1881, Eugene Carr, the colonel
u.S. army indian Scouts

Records of U.S. Army Continental Commands, 1821–1920 (RG 393)
Departmental records found in Part I of RG 393 provide additional information about Indian Scouts such as letters and reports on various expeditions during this period. U.S. Army post records found in Part V of RG 393 also provide additional sources on scouts. In some cases you will find series containing Indian Scout morning reports, descriptive books, enlistment
Prologue 55

papers, returns, and clothing accounts. These records appear more frequently at posts where Indian Scouts served for several years, such as Fort Abraham Lincoln, North Dakota; Fort Apache,Arizona; Fort Huachuca,Arizona; Fort Niobrara, Nebraska; Fort Ringgold, Texas; Fort Sully, South Dakota; Fort Supply, Oklahoma; and Fort Wingate, New Mexico.

Pension Files
Pension files are an excellent source of information on Indian Scouts, not only about the scout, but also about his family and others with whom he may have served or who knew him or his wife. Indian Scouts and their widows became eligible for pensions with the passage of an act on March 4, 1917, relating to Indian wars from 1859 to 1891. To identify if a scout or his widow applied for a pension, you will need to consult Microfilm Publication T289, Organization Index to Pension Files of Veterans Who Served Between 1861 and 1900. Indexes relating to Indian Scouts are found on rolls 754 and 755. You can also check T288, General Index to Pension Files, 1861–1934. This publication is arranged alphabetically. In T289 the pension numbers for Indian Scouts are usually located at the bottom of the index card and not in the middle as is usual. Although most of these pensions have a number, they are not found in the Civil War and later pension files but rather are located in the Indians War series of pensions, which are arranged alphabetically.
56 Prologue

A good example of a pension supplying abundant genealogical information on several people is the file for Holy Bear, the widow of Indian Scout Little Bull. The pension file contains several depositions from people supporting her claim. In the deposition dated May 21, 1923, Holy Bear, a member of the Oglala Sioux tribe, states that,“My age is 72 or 73 years.” She claims that she is the widow of Little Bull, and that they “were married according to our Indian custom” prior to his service as an Indian Scout. She was also with him when he died during the spring or summer of 1879. Holy Bear also provides information about her family. Her father’s name was Visitor, and her mother was Hornet. She had a son with Little Bull named Harry (Henry) Little Bull and was raising his daughter Bessie since the death of her mother. She also points out that she is called Holy Bear No. 2 on the agency records because there is another woman with that name who also has a land allotment. In addition to Holy Bear’s testimony, other depositions in the file also provide great genealogical information. One of the individuals providing a deposition for Holy Bear’s claim was Moses Red Feather. He stated,“I am now pensioned as an Indian Scout. I had three enlistments.” He went on to provide information about his service and that he served with Little Bull during his last two enlistments.“The only wife Little Bull ever had, that I ever knew or heard of, was Holy Bear, and the only husband Holy Bear ever had that I ever knew or heard of, was Little Bull.” Later he mentions,“I know she has not married since he died and she has not lived as the wife of any man since he died.”This is an important point for the pension office. If Holy Bear had married another man after the death of her husband, she would have been ineligible to claim a pension based on Little Bull’s service. To further support Holy Bear’s claim, Moses Red Feather states, “She has been considered a moral woman all the time since Little Bull died. I never knew or heard of her letting other men ‘run after her’.” He also points out that Holy Bear sometimes goes by the name Wing. Interesting testimony was also provided by William Garnett, the man who interpreted for Holy Bear during her deposition with the special examiner from the Bureau of Pensions. He was 68 years old and claimed he was an interpreter at the Pine Ridge Indian Agency. He had been an interpreter since 1873 and stated,“I was an interpreter for the U.S. Army officers during the Cheyenne and Sioux Indian Campaigns of 1876, 1877, and 1878.” He also testified that he knew Little Bull was an Indian Scout who was married to Holy Bear and that he was “sure he enlisted two or three times.”

Pension application files can provide excellent genealogical information. in this deposition, holy Bear, the widow of indian Scout little Bull, provides the names of her parents and those of her son and granddaughter.

Summer 2009

one particularly informative file in record Group 15 provides lists of indian Scouts who died in service including their names and dates, places, and causes of death.

A chief of Holy Bear’s tribe also came forward to testify on her behalf. Joseph Red Shirt stated that he was 77 years old and a member of the Oglala Sioux tribe. He also pointed out, “I have been Chief of my tribe since 1878.” He went on to state, “I am pensioned as an Indian Scout, under certificate no. 8,783. I served as an Indian Scout under the name of Yellow Shirt during my first service. My name was interpreted wrong by the interpreter when I enlisted. I served as Sergt. In Co. B, from October 27, 1876 to January 31, 1877. Then under my own name, Red Shirt, as Corpl. from March 26 to June 25, 1877. Again under my name, Red Shirt, as Corpl. from January 6, to April 26, 1878.” He furnished discharge certificates proving service for those dates and also provided three discharge certificates showing service during the Wounded Knee campaigns of 1890, 1891, and 1892. Indian Scouts can also be found on Microfilm Publication T318, Index to Indian War Pension Files, 1887–1926. Sometimes index cards for Indian Scouts bearing the same name are cross referenced, but many times they are not. In the T289 index, claimants with the same name are often cross-referenced. In Records of the Department of Veterans Affairs, RG 15, entry 61, you will find Records Supporting Claims for Service During the Indian Wars, 1892–1931. This series relates to both Indian service and non–Native

American service, and several files relate to Indian Scouts. Some are copies of muster rolls for different detachments of Indian Scouts, and one useful file provides a list of “Scouts Who Died While in the Service.” The information is taken from the Registers of Enlistments of Indian Scouts who served from 1866 to 1914. Several alphabetical lists record the scout’s name, date, place, and cause of death.

Headstone Application Files
Headstones were provided by the government to Indians who served as enlisted Indian Scouts and to those who served in the Regular Army Indian Companies in the 1890’s. Consult Microfilm Publication M1916, Applications for Headstones for U.S. Military Veterans, 1925– 1941. M1916 is arranged alphabetically, but the Native Americans are grouped under the“I”section under“Indian Scouts,” which is found on roll 58.The headstone applications are arranged alphabetically within the Indian Scout section.You will find several units listed as: Indian Scouts, Negro Indian Scouts, or Seminole-Negro Indian Scouts. In addition, you will also find Native Americans who served in Company I or Troop L of the infantry and cavalry regiments during the 1890s. Their units are not listed as Indian Scouts but rather the company/troop and regiment in which they served. Note that there are a few headstone applications in the Indian Scouts section for Native Americans who served during World War I. The headstone applications sometimes provide additional information such as enlistment and discharge information. For example, the headstone application for Red Fox submitted in 1935 shows that he was a private in Company D, Indian Scouts, U.S. Army, and died on May 20, 1911. He is buried in Episcopal-Cherry Creek Cemetery in Cherry Creek, South Dakota. At the top of the card you will find that he enlisted on April 15, 1877, and was discharged June 30, 1877. Also at the top of the card is a typed note showing that his widow, All White, was drawing a pension. You might also note that although Red Fox died in 1911, a headstone was not applied for until 1935. In some rare cases, a reference to a pension can be found, as in the headstone application for Kayitah or Kaytah.The headstone application, submitted in 1934, shows that he was a private in Company E, Indian Scouts, U.S. Army; died on February 15, 1934; and is buried at Mescalero Agency in Mescalero, New Mexico. The card also shows that he enlisted on July 7, 1886, and was discharged on October 25, 1886. Of importance to genealogists is a typed notation “SC 12620,” which is his pension file number.
Prologue 57

u.S. army indian Scouts

More information on burial and headstones before 1925 may be found in the quartermaster document file found in entry 89, General Correspondence, 1890–1914, in Records of the Office of the Quartermaster General, RG 92.To locate the appropriate document file number, first consult the name and subject index found in entry 84. In some cases you can find a headstone application such as the one submitted by Indian Agent, G. W. Hoffman, dated May 20, 1911, for 13 Indian Scouts buried at Fort Berthold, North Dakota.The application provides the scouts’ English and Native American names, gives their dates of death, and shows that all are buried at the cemetery at Fort Berthold. An accompanying letter, in the file with the application, is from the at-large member of Congress from North Dakota, who stresses that most of the men are Arikara Indians who served in the Indian Wars.

birth; the date and location of enlistment and the officer by whom he was enlisted; payroll information; and remarks, which usually indicate the date of discharge. Other series include letters sent and register of letter received by Company A and letters and telegrams sent by Company C.

Medals of Honor
Several Indian Scouts were awarded the Medal of Honor.The files relating to the recommendations for the Medal of Honor award or the action or campaign for which Indian Scouts were honored are found in the letters received by the Adjutant General’s Office, which have been reproduced on Microfilm Publications M666, Letters Received by the Office of the Adjutant General (Main Series), 1871–1880, and M689, Letters Received by the Office of the Adjutant General (Main Series), 1881–1889. For a list of Indian Scouts who were awarded the Medal of Honor, including the related file citations, see the sidebar accompanying this article. The files relating to Seminole Negro Indian Scouts who received the Medal of Honor can be found on roll 2 of Microfilm Publication M929, Documents Relating to the Military and Naval Service of Blacks Awarded the Congressional Medal of Honor From the Civil War to the Spanish-American War.

Records of U.S. Regular Army Mobile Units
In Records of U.S. Regular Army Mobile Units, 1821–1942, RG 391, entries 2053 through 2060 contain several series relating to Indian Scouts: descriptive books for Companies A, B, C, and F, 1872–1886; descriptive lists for a battalion consisting of Companies A, B, C, and D, 1882–1884; muster rolls, 1877– 1888; descriptive rolls of Warm Spring and Chiricahua Apache Indian Bands, 1884–1885; and a descriptive book for a detachment of Seminole Indian scouts, 1889–1893. The descriptive books contain rolls and lists of noncommissioned officers, men discharged, and deaths. These and the muster rolls show each scout’s name, age, physical description, and place of

SCOUTS (Hired)
Quartermaster Records
In addition to enlisting Native Americans as Indian Scouts, the U.S. Army also hired scouts. When researching scouts hired by the U.S.Army, consult RG 92, entry 238, Reports of Persons and Articles Hired. This series contains records relating to Army quartermasters who hired individuals for specific jobs such as scouts, guides, and interpreters and includes records relating to both Native Americans and nonIndians. Most Native Americans who were hired by the Army were used as scouts. Records relating to leaders of various scouts are also found in this series such as Al Sieber, chief of the Apache scouts, and Frank North, who led the Pawnee scouts. Some famous guides of Western lore are also present in the records, such as J. B.“Wild Bill” Hickok and William F. “Buffalo Bill” Cody. The first step to accessing the records in entry 238 is to consult RG 92, entry 232, Card Index of Names of Scouts Mentioned in Entry 238 (Reports of Persons and Articles Hired).This series is arranged by name of scout.
Bloody Knife, one of lt. col. George a. custer’s scouts with the Seventh cavalry, was killed at the battle of the little Big horn.

58 Prologue

Summer 2009

A finding aid that lists the names of scouts in this index, along with the corresponding file citations, is located in the Finding Aids Room at the National Archives Building in Washington, D.C.

War Department General Order No. 28, issued March 9, 1891, authorized Native Americans to be enlisted in the Regular Army and serve in Indian Companies within Regular Army infantry and cavalry regiments.The order stipulated that Company I of Infantry Regiments (excluding the 24th and 25th) and Company L of Cavalry Regiments (excluding the 9th and 10th) would contain Indian soldiers. Each existing regiment of cavalry and infantry, except the Buffalo Soldiers (black regiments), would contain one Indian Regiment. A maximum of 55 Indians were authorized for each company or troop. This change was not well received by the Army, and although the general order authorized a maximum of 1,485 Indians for Regular Army service, the actual number of recruits only reached a little over half that number at 780. The Indian Company “experiment” proved to be a complete failure in the eyes of the Army, and the men of Company L of the Seventh Cavalry were the only Indian soldiers who served out their entire enlistments, serving until 1895. The enlistment papers of Native Americans who served in the Regular Army Indian Companies are filed with those of the rest of the Regular Army enlisted men in RG 94, Entry 91, Regular Army Enlistment Papers, 1798–1912, and not in the Indian Scout Enlistment Papers series. Entry 91 is arranged alphabetically by the name of the soldier within two time frames: 1798–1894 and 1894–1912. The enlistment paper generally shows the soldier’s name, place of enlistment, date of enlistment, by whom enlisted, age, place of birth, personal description, and regimental assignment. Regular Army Indian soldiers are listed in the main section of the Registers of Enlistments arranged by year, then initial letter of the name, and then roughly by the enlistment date. The registers are also keyed to the number found on the enlistment paper. For example, enlistment paper number 267 for Little Cloud (Mariyaciqula) shows that he enlisted on August 21, 1891, and was assigned to Company I, Second Infantry. Using the enlistment paper number we can more easily find him in the Registers of Enlistments. The register shows that he was disu.S. army indian Scouts

charged on May 7, 1894, at Fort Omaha, Nebraska, with the rank of corporal. A typed notation shows “Headstone Case Mar. 28, 1935.” Using the headstone information found in his enlistment paper file provides us with a rough idea of when the headstone was applied for. By consulting M1916, we find that Little Cloud died April 28, 1934, and is buried in Holy Cross Cemetery in Pine Ridge, South Dakota. The application is dated April 28, 1935.The case was sent to the Adjutant General’s Office on March 25, 1935, and the enlistment paper was consulted on March 28, 1935. To identify pension applications for service in the Indian Companies, consult T318, Index to Indian War Pension Files, 1887–1926. There we discover that Little Cloud’s pension application number is S.O. 1627162. Again, the number is important only as a cross-reference since the Indian War pensions are filed alphabetically and not by the pension application number.Also, you will not find pension index cards for Indians who served in the Indian Companies in the Indian Scouts section of T289. You will find a few record books relating to Indian company units in RG 391, particularly for Troop L, Third Cavalry, and Company I, 12th Infantry. Additional information can be found in the Guide to Records in the National Archives of the United State Relating to American Indians.This publication relates to records in the custody of the National Archives and is a good starting point for anyone researching Native American genealogy. Also consult Thomas W. Dunlay’s Wolves for the Blue Soldiers: Indian Scouts and Auxiliaries with the United States Army, 1860–90, and Frontier Regulars: The United States Army and the Indian, 1866–1890, by Robert M. Utley, two secondary sources that provide valuable information on Indian Scouts and the campaigns in which they participated. Native Americans went on to serve in the U.S. Army in other roles other than scouts and eventually joined other branches of the military. The most famous example is the Navajo Code talkers who served in the U.S. Marine Corps in the Pacific during World War II. P
Trevor K. Plante is a reference archivist (subject area expert) in the Textual Archives Services Division at the National Archives and Records Administration who specializes in 19th- and early 20th-century military records. He is an active lecturer at the National Archives and a frequent contributor to Prologue.

Prologue 59

Indian Scout Recipients of the Medal of Honor
Achesay (Alchesay) Rank and Organization: Sergeant, Indian Scouts Action: Apache Campaigns, winter of 1872–1873 Date of Issue: April 12, 1875 Citation: Gallant conduct during campaigns and engagements with Apaches. File: 5176-1872 AGO Letters Received Blanquet Rank and Organization: Indian Scouts Action: Apache Campaigns, winter of 1872–1873 Date of Issue: April 12, 1875 Citation: Gallant conduct during campaigns and engagements with Apaches. File: 5176-1872 AGO Letters Received Chiquito Rank and Organization: Indian Scouts Action: Apache Campaigns, winter of 1872–1873 Date of Issue: April 12, 1875 Citation: Gallant conduct during campaigns and engagements with Apaches. File: 5176-1872 AGO Letters Received Co-Rux-Te-Chod-Ish (Mad Bear) Rank and Organization: Sergeant, Pawnee Scouts, U.S. Army Action: Republican River, Kansas, July 8, 1869 Date of Issue: August 24, 1869 Citation: Ran out from the command in pursuit of a dismounted Indian; was shot down and badly wounded by a bullet from his own command. File: 556-A-1869 Letters Received (missing from file and not filmed) Elsatsoosu Rank and Organization: Corporal, Indian Scouts Action: Apache Campaigns, winter of 1872–1873 Date of Issue: April 12, 1875 Citation:Gallant conduct during campaigns and engagements withApaches. File: 5172-1872 AGO Letters Received Factor, Pompey Rank and Organization: Private, Indian Scouts Action: Pecos River,Texas, April 25, 1875 Date of Issue: May 28, 1875 Citation: With three other men, he participated in a charge against 25 hostiles while on a scouting patrol. File: 2696-1875 AGO Letters Received Jim Rank and Organization: Sergeant, Indian Scouts Action: Apache Campaigns, winter of 1872–1873 Date of Issue: April 12, 1875 Citation:Gallant conduct during campaigns and engagements withApaches. File: 5176-1872 AGO Letters Received Kelsay Rank and Organization: Indian Scouts Action: Apache Campaigns, winter of 1872–1873 Date of Issue: April 12, 1875 Citation: Gallant conduct during campaigns and engagements with Apaches. File: 5176-1872 AGO Letters Received Kosoha Rank and Organization: Indian Scouts Action: Apache Campaigns, winter of 1872–1873 Date of Issue: April 12, 1875 Citation: Gallant conduct during campaigns and engagements with Apaches. File: 5176-1872 AGO Letters Received Machol Rank and Organization: Private, Indian Scouts Action: Apache Campaigns, winter of 1872–1873 Date of Issue: April 12, 1875 Citation: Gallant conduct during campaign and engagements with Apaches. File: 5176-1872 AGO Letters Received Nannasaddie Rank and Organization: Indian Scouts Action: Apache Campaigns, winter of 1872–1873 Date of Issue: April 12, 1875 Citation: Gallant conduct during campaigns and engagements with Apaches. File: 5176-1872 AGO Letters Received Nantaje (Nantahe) Rank and Organization: Indian Scouts Action: Apache Campaigns, winter of 1872–1873 Date of Issue: April 12, 1875 Citation: Gallant conduct during campaigns and engagements with Apaches. File: 5176-1872 AGO Letters Received Paine, Adam Rank and Organization: Private, Indian Scouts Action: Canyon Blanco tributary of the Red River,Texas, September 26–27, 1874 Date of Issue: October 13, 1875 Citation: Rendered invaluable service to Col. R. S. Mackenzie, Fourth U.S. Cavalry, during this engagement. File: 2815-1874 AGO Letters Received Payne, Isaac Rank and Organization:Trumpeter, Indian Scouts Action: Pecos River,Texas, April 25, 1875 Date of Issue: May 28, 1875 Citation: With three other men, he participated in a charge against 25 hostiles while on a scouting patrol. File: 2696-1875 AGO Letters Received Rowdy Rank and Organization: Sergeant, Company A, Indian Scouts Action: Arizona, March 7, 1890 Date of Issue: May 15, 1890 Citation: Bravery in action with Apache Indians. File: 5305-PRD-1890 Ward, John Rank and Organization: Sergeant, Indian Scouts Action: Pecos River,Texas, April 25, 1875 Date of Issue: May 28, 1875 Citation:With three other men, he participated in a charge against 25 hostiles while on a scouting patrol. File: 2696-1875 AGO Letters Received

60 Prologue

Summer 2009


FOR 40 YEARS, Prologue: Quarterly of the National Archives and Records Administration has been telling readers about the rich resources and programs of the National Archives, its regional facilities, and the Presidential libraries. In every issue you will find thought-provoking and entertaining articles—based on research in the Archives’ magnificent holdings of original documents—on American history and on the activities of the agency. SOME RECENT ARTICLES IN Prologue INCLUDE:
( How Harry Truman’s love of history influenced his political and personal decisions as well as the design for his presidential library. ( How the EPA’s DOCUMERICA project chronicled Amer ican life in the 1970s through photographs. ( How John Steinbeck used records in the National Archives to write The Grapes of Wrath.

How the National Archives plays a key role in the transition from one President to another.

COMING UP: Prologue will have articles that will relate the discovery of a rare photograph of an African American Union Army surgeon; recall the Life Saving Service’s experiment with motorcycle patrols during World War I; and describe a major exhibit on the Civil War to honor the war’s sesquicentennial. THE ANNUAL SUBSCRIPTION RATE IS $24 ($30 OUTSIDE THE UNITED STATES).
To start your subscription, mail this form to the National Archives and Records Administration, Prologue Subscriptions, National Archives Trust Fund (NAT), 8601 Adelphi Road, College Park, MD 20740-6001. Make checks payable to the National Archives Trust Fund. Credit card orders may also call toll free 1-800-234-8861 or 202-357-5482 weekdays, 9 A.M. to 4 P.M. eastern time.

Prologue Quarterly of the National Archives and Records Administration
1 year (4 issues) is $24. Subscriptions outside the United States are $30. Check








American Express

Card expires

Account number



Signature __________________________________________________________________________________________ Name ________________________________________________________________ Address ______________________________________________________________________________________________ City ________________________________________________________________ State ___________________________
Please allow up to 10 weeks for delivery of first issue.

ZIP ____________________

authors oN thE rEcord

Marbury. Madison. Marshall. Mayhem.
How to Make a Supreme Court
by rob crotty Beside the founding documents of the United States, just to the right of the Declaration of Independence and the Bill of Rights, sits a partially burned copy of the Marbury v. Madison Supreme Court decision. Why it deserves a place next to such historic charters is exactly what David McKean and Cliff Sloan set out to answer. The result was The Great Decision: Jefferson, Adams, Marshall, and the Battle for the Supreme Court, an account of the rise of the judiciary that involves revealing anecdotes about America’s Founding Fathers and one 1,235-pound block of cheese. David McKean is the staff director for the Senate Foreign Relations Committee and is the author of Friends in High Places and Tommy the Cork. Cliff Sloan is a partner at Skadden, Arps, Slate, Meagher & Flom and has previously written about the Supreme Court for Newsweek, the Washington Post, and many other publications.

What inspired you to write about the landmark Supreme Court case? We were struck by the fact that, although Marbury v. Madison is the cornerstone of the American rule of law, very few people have a good sense of the case. And we also were struck by the fact that it’s actually a terrific story, full of colorful personalities, political intrigue, and surprise twists and turns. What was the most amusing story you discovered in your research for the book, and how did you come across it? Perhaps the most striking story we came across was Senator Gouverneur Morris’s apparent romantic interest in Dolley Madison, the wife of the defendant in our case. Morris, a leading Federalist Senator from New York, was a notorious womanizer. In fact, Richard Brookhiser’s biography of him is subtitled “The Rake Who Wrote the Constitution.” Morris had a code in his diary. If he said that a woman had “a good disposition,” it meant that he thought he could seduce her. When he first met Dolley Madison, who was lively and vivacious, he wrote that she “has good dispositions which from the shrivelled condition of the secretary are the less to be wondered at.” The “secretary,” of course, was Secretary of State James Madison, who was five feet four inches tall and weighed 100 pounds. Morris later records spending time with Mrs. Madison.We discovered Morris’s provocative comments while scrutinizing his diary, which is in the Library of Congress.

cliff Sloan

david mcKean

“Old Bacon Face,” the tenuous relationship between Thomas Jefferson and John Marshall, a 1,235-pound block of “mammoth cheese”—The Great Decision is ripe with little-known details. What sources did you use in your research to bring to life centuries-old characters? We used a wide range of sources. Newspapers from the era were particularly helpful. Fiercely partisan, they featured everything from serious discussion of ideas to savage ridicule of political opponents. They also included wonderful details of everyday life in the early 1800s. We had a great time reviewing other original documents as well, including the Supreme Court case file on the Marbury case at the National Archives and the diary of New York Senator Gouverneur Morris, a prominent Federalist. We were fortunate because we had many great research institutions right here in the D.C. area—the Archives, the Library of Congress, the Virginia Historical Society, the Maryland Historical Society, and the District of Columbia Historical Society. What did looking at the original documents at the Archives show you that may otherwise have been missed? The Archives is a wonderful place to do research. For us, the most important original documents were the materials from the Supreme Court’s case file on Marbury. Tragically, some of the Marbury documents were destroyed by fire in the 19th century, but many survive, some of

62 Prologue

Summer 2009

them charred, including affidavits by many of the principal actors. In addition, we learned a great deal at the Archives about William Marbury the person. Among other activities, Marbury, an ambitious operator, served as an agent for the Navy until he was fired by the Jeffersonians in July 1801. We reviewed the records of Marbury’s Navy tenure at the Archives, and we gained important insights into his activities. We also were deeply affected by the National Archives’ display of national treasures—the Declaration of Independence, the Constitution, the Bill of Rights . . . and then Marbury v. Madison. The display case on the Marbury decision includes an explanation of its significance as well as an original document from the Marbury files. The particular document on display is changed every few months. While The Great Decision focuses on a Supreme Court ruling, its story is intertwined with executive and legislative histories as well. How did you approach and organize your research on such a large subject matter? We organized our research both chronologically and thematically. We felt strongly that looking at what was happening in the executive branch and Congress was essential to understanding the real story of the case. It’s impossible to appreciate the Marbury case fully without understanding its context in the complex politics of the era. Using this approach, we found fascinating interactions and connections between the branches that had not been noticed previously, or that had received relatively little emphasis. To give just a few examples: in Gouverneur Morris’s diary, he writes about socializing with Supreme Court Justice William Paterson and “the Bench” soon after a major preliminary decision in Marbury; Chief Justice Marshall met with a leading Federalist congressman in a tavern in Alexandria while the Marbury case was pending, and they discussed constitutional issues; and, just two days before Marshall issued the famous Marbury decision, he and two other Supreme Court justices joined leading Federalist politicians to celebrate Washington’s birthday, a gathering that included a suggestive toast by Marshall.

Complex politics indeed. There seemed to be a lot of co-mingling of the branches then that wouldn’t happen today. How did your discoveries about Marshall and the other justices’ social lives affect how you look at the outcome of Marbury v. Madison? The justices’ social lives and interactions are a reminder of how young and unformed the national government truly was at this time. In 1800, our first presidential election in which an incumbent was defeated, the country was not even 12 years old. And the Supreme Court was far from a co-equal branch. It had little power or respect, and many of the original appointees either had left for more desirable posts or had suffered unfortunate fates. The justices’ social circles also highlight the small-town nature of Washington and the federal government in the early 19th century. Everybody knew each other very well, and many were related to one another. Marshall and Jefferson, for example, the great chief justice and the great President, were cousins—and they detested each other. How did researching the separate branches of the government differ? It differed in two ways. First, we used different sources for the different branches. We used the Supreme Court files at the Archives, for example, for the history of the Court. Second, we understood that the context of action for the three different branches—the motives and methods—can differ significantly. Each needs to be understood in its own milieu, with an appropriate recognition, at the same time, of the overlap and common characteristics. Both of us have spent our adult lives in and around all three branches of our federal government. We hope that we were able to bring some of that perspective to the case and the story. What next? Can we be expecting either of you at the Archives for your next project? We haven’t even begun to think about our next project, and we probably won’t for a while. But it’s a good bet that, whatever it is, it will bring us back to the Archives, and happily so.

how to make a Supreme court

Prologue 63

WASHINGTON, D.C. For up-to-date event information, consult NARA’s Calendar of Events. The free Calendar is available from National Archives and Records Administration, Calendar of Events (NPAC, Room G-1), 700 Pennsylvania Avenue, NW, Washington, DC 20408, or on the web at Permanent exhibit: “The Public Vaults.” National Archives Building. 202-357-5000. Continuing exhibit: “BIG!” National Archives Building. 202-357-5000. June 1–31. Document exhibit:The National Archives Act of June 19, 1934. National Archives Building. 202-357-5000. BOSTON, MASSACHUSETTS Continuing exhibit. “Poetry and Power—The Inaugural Address of John F. Kennedy.” Kennedy Library. 866-JFK-1960. Continuing exhibit. “The Making of a President.” Kennedy Library. 866-JFK-1960. Continuing exhibit.“Moon Shot: JFK and Space Exploration.” Kennedy Library. 866-JFK-1960.

CHICAGO, ILLINOIS July 13–17. “Primarily Teaching” Workshop for Educators.–Great Lakes Region. 773-948-9001.

Stephen Douglas and the Kansas-Nebraska Act, part of a new exhibit at the Central Plains Region.

ABILENE, KANSAS Continuing exhibit: “The Gem on the Plains: Ike’s Abilene 1890–1910.” Eisenhower Library. 785-263-6700. June 27. Ike’s Abilene—“Life in the City, 1900: Political, Business, and Social History.” Eisenhower Library. 785-263-6700. July 16–24.“Primarily Teaching”Workshop for Educators. Eisenhower Library. 785-263-6700. July 18. Ike’s Abilene—“The ‘Sage of Emporia,’ William Allen White,Visits Abilene.” Eisenhower Library. 785-263-6700. August 22. Ike’s Abilene—“Nineteenth-Century Fun and Games.” Victorian games for children. Eisenhower Library. 785-263-6700.

COLLEGE STATION,TEXAS Continuing exhibit. “Beyond the Moon: NASA’s Continuing Mission.” Bush Library. 979-691-4000. June 18. Celebration of Juneteenth: Freedom’s Legacy. Bush Library. For more information, call 979-691-4000. July 4. Celebration: “I Love America,” partnership with the College Station Noon Lions Club. Bush Library. 979-691-4000.

August 8. Lecture: “Boss Tom and Harry Truman: The Pendergast Connection.” Truman Library. 800-833-1225.

KANSAS CITY, MISSOURI Continuing exhibit: “It’s Big.” NARA–Central Plains Region. 816-268-8000. Continuing exhibit: “The Kansas Nebraska Act.” NARA–Central Plains Region. 816-268-8000. July 13–17. “Primarily Teaching” Workshop for Educators. primarily-teaching. NARA–Central Plains Region. 816-268-8017.

DENVER, COLORADO July 20–24. “Primarily Teaching” Workshop for Educators. primarily-teaching. NARA–Rocky Mountain Region. 303-407-5740.

GRAND RAPIDS, MICHIGAN Through August 31. Exhibit: “A Child in the White House—Caroline Kennedy’s Dolls.” Ford Museum. 616-254-0400.

LITTLE ROCK, ARKANSAS Through August 30. Exhibit: “Space: From Moon to Mars.” Clinton Library. 510-374-4242.

ANN ARBOR, MICHIGAN Continuing exhibit: “Economy in Crisis.” Ford Library. 734-205-0555.

MORROW, GEORGIA Opening June 13. Exhibit:“Documented Rights.” NARA–Southeast Region. 770-968-2100.

AUSTIN,TEXAS Through July 20. Exhibit: “To the Moon: The American Space Program in the 1960s.” Johnson Library. 512-721-0200. Through September 7.“Moon Shots:The Art of Pat Rawlings.” Johnson Library. 512-721-0200. July 13–14.The 2009 Summer Institute Teachers Workshop. Johnson Library. 512-721-0200. July 27–31. “Primarily Teaching” Workshop for Educators. primarily- teaching. 512-721-0200.

HYDE PARK, NEW YORK Continuing exhibit: “Action, and Action Now! FDR’s First 100 Days.” Roosevelt Library. 845-486-7770. September 13–19. Exhibit:“Constitution Week.” Henry A. Wallace Center. Roosevelt Library. 845-486-7770.

NEW YORK, NEW YORK Continuing exhibit: “New York: An American Capital” at the Federal Hall National Memorial. NARA–Northeast Region. 866-840-1752. Opening June 15. Exhibit:“Big Heritage of the National Archives at New York.” NARA– Northeast Region. 866-840-1752. June 19. NARA Birthday Celebration open house. NARA–Northeast Region. 866-8401752. July 9. New York’s National Treasures at Federal Hall National Memorial. NARA–Northeast Region. 866-840-1752.

INDEPENDENCE, MISSOURI Through August 30. Exhibit: “School House to White House.” Truman Library. 800-833-1225. Opening May 8. Exhibit:“Truman 125: A Life in Photographs.” Truman Library. 800-833-1225. July 11. Lecture:“Our Favorite Photos of Harry S.Truman.” Truman Library. 800-833-1225.

64 Prologue

Summer 2009

PHILADELPHIA, PENNSYLVANIA Continuing exhibit: “Elusive Freedom: The Legacy of the 1808 Slave Trade Ban.” NARA– Mid Atlantic Region. 215-606-0112. SEATTLE, WASHINGTON Continuing exhibit: “Blue vs. Gray, Civil War in the Pacific Northwest.” NARA–Pacific Alaska Region. 206-336-5115. Continuing exhibit: “Picturing the Century in the Pacific Northwest.” NARA–Pacific Alaska Region. 206-336-5115. August 3–7. “Primarily Teaching” Workshop for Educators. primarily-teaching. NARA–Pacific Alaska Region. 206-336-5115. August 20. Teaching American History workshop. Springfield, Oregon, Museum. NARA– Pacific Alaska Region. 206-336-5115.

WASHINGTON, D.C. Genealogy workshops are conducted throughout the year. For up-to-date information, consult the monthly Calendar of Events.

June 26.“Finding Italian Ancestors–Parts 1 and 2.” Call for times and to register. NARA–Northeast Region. Call to register, 413-236-3600. July 9.“Researching Irish American Ancestors.” NARA–Northeast Region. Call to register, 413236-3600. July 15. “Using Pre-1850 Census to Find Family Information.” NARA–Northeast Region. Call to register, 413-236-3600. July 18. “Finding Your Immigrant Ancestors at the National Archives.” NARA–Northeast Region. Call to register, 413-236-3600. July 22. “Researching African American Ancestors.” NARA–Northeast Region. Call to register, 413-236-3600. July 23.“Finding the Correct Ancestor: Civil War Soldiers and Homesteads.” NARA– Northeast Region. Call to register, 413-236-3600. August 25. “Finding Migration Routes for Your Family in Federal Records.” NARA–Northeast Region. Call to register, 413-236-3600.

CHICAGO, ILLINOIS August 8. African American Genealogical Research. $10 fee. Call to register. NARA–Great Lakes Region. 773-948-9001.

DENVER, COLORADO Genealogical workshops are offered in the fall of each year. NARA–Rocky Mountain Region. For more information, call 303-407-5740.

KANSAS CITY, MISSOURI June 20, August 19. Introduction to Genealogy. NARA–Central Plains Region. 816-268-8000. June 26; July 11, 24; August 1, 28. Indian Study Group workshop conducted by Shirley Donaldson. Call for specific topic. NARA– Central Plains Region. 816-268-8000. June 26, July 24, August 28. Brown Bag Lunch Series: Recorded lecture series on genealogy topics. NARA–Central Plains Region. 816-268-8000. August 15. Workshop Series: “Researching the Leavenworth Federal Penitentiary Records.” NARA–Central Plains Region. 816-268-8000.

SIMI VALLEY, CALIFORNIA Through June 20. Exhibit: “Magna Carta: The Essence of Democracy.” Reagan Library. 800410-8354.

WALTHAM, MASSACHUSETTS July 27–31. “Primarily Teaching” Workshop for Educators. primarily-teaching. NARA–Northeast Region. 866-406-2379. July 6–10. Summer Institute with Salem State College: Boston, 1775. NARA–Northeast Region. 866-406-2379.

SAN BRUNO, CALIFORNIA June 26. “Part Two-Military Records in the National Archives, Spanish American War to Vietnam.” $15 fee. NARA–Pacific Region. Call to register, 650-238-3488. July 17. “Federal Land Records.” $15 fee. NARA– Pacific Region. Call to register, 650-238-3488. August 14. “Preserving Your History.” $15 fee. NARA–Pacific Region.Call to register,650-238-3488.

NEW YORK, NEW YORK June 18, July 16, August 20. Family History Game Show at the Ellis Island Museum. NARA–Northeast Region. 866-840-1752.

WEST BRANCH, IOWA Continuing exhibit:“Iowa A to Z,” highlighting Iowa’s history, land, weather, animals, people, and places. Hoover Library. 319-643-5301. July 4. An Old Fashioned Independence Day. Hoover Library. 319-643-5301. July 30–August 2. “The Moving Wall.” A halfsize replica of the Washington, DC,Vietnam Veterans Memorial. Hoover Library. 319-643-5301. August 1. Hooverfest. Ho over Library. 319-643-5301.

PHILADELPHIA, PENNSYLVANIA July 3, August 7. First Friday Genealogical Open House. NARA–Mid Atlantic Region. 215-606-0100. PITTSFIELD, MASSACHUSETTS July 1, July 18, August 4. “Beginning Your Genealogy Research at the National Archives.” NARA– Northeast Region. Call to register, 413-236-3600. July 18, August 11. “Using Federal Census Records.” NARA–Northeast Region. Call to register, 413-236-3600. June 19. “Using Military Records at the National Archives.” NARA–Northeast Region. Call to register, 413236-3600.

SEATTLE, WASHINGTON July 11.“Methods of Searching for and Finding NARA Records.” NARA–Pacific Alaska Region. 206-336-5115.

July 11.“The National Archives Online.” NARA– Pacific Alaska Region. 206-336-5115. July 9, August 13.“Lunch at the BRICK WALL.” NARA–Pacific Alaska Region. 206-336-5115.

WALTHAM, MASSACHUSETTS July 7. “Census, Passenger Lists, and Naturalization Records.” NARA–Northeast Region. Call to register, 866-406-2379. August 4.“Saving your Heritage: Scrapbooking with Marcia Melnyk.” NARA–Northeast Region. Call to register, 866-406-2379.

A new Hoover Library exhibit highlights Iowa’s history, land, weather, and animals.


Prologue 65

NARA Receives $459M for FY 2009; 7 Percent Hike Sought for FY 2010
The National Archives and Records Administration (NARA) is receiving $459,277,000 for the current fiscal year under the omnibus appropriation bill passed by Congress and signed by President Barack Obama in March.The funding is a 12-percent increase over the previous year’s appropriation. “We are extremely pleased with the additional resources for NARA that will enable us to fund our core programs, operate the new George W. Bush Library, increase our ability to process presidential records with the hiring of 15 new archivists, and add a criminal investigator to the Office of the Inspector General,” said Adrienne C.Thomas,Acting Archivist of the United States. For operating expenses—rent, energy, security, and salaries—NARA received $330,308,000, up from $315,000,000 last year.This includes continued funding for new archivists hired during FY 2008 and $875,000 to hire more archivists. The new Office of Government Information Services within NARA, created by a 2007 amendment to the Freedom of Information Act (FOIA) to monitor compliance with FOIA by federal agencies, is funded at $1,000,000. The National Historical Publications and Records Commission received $9,250,000 for grants for the current fiscal year. For continued development of the Electronic Records Archives (ERA), Congress appropriated $67,008,000, up from $58,028,000 last year. The ERA had its official launch last year and this year took in the electronic records of the Executive Office of the President from the George W. Bush administration. “With the administration’s continued support for ERA, we are just a few years away from having public access to ERA,”Thomas said. Congress also provided $6,325,000 to operate the George W. Bush Presidential Library in Dallas. It is now temporarily located in a facility in Lewisville,Texas, until the permanent library is built with private funds on the campus of Southern Methodist University. For repairs and restorations to NARA facilities, Congress appropriated $50,711,000. Of that, $22,000,000 is for completion of a renovation and an addition to the Kennedy Library in Boston, and $17,500,000 for the first phase of a renovation and addition to the Roosevelt Library in Hyde Park, New York. calls for $466.9 million, an increase of $7 million over this year’s appropriation. For NARA operating expenses, the President is seeking $339.8 million, an increase of $12.5 million over FY 2009 funding. Increases in these inflation-sensitive costs account for $10.2 million of the request. Building on funding received in 2008 and 2009, the President is requesting $1 million to continue to hire additional staff to build up the staff skills needed for the 21st century. These resources will help the agency prepare for the departure of nearly a quarter of the agency’s archivists who were eligible to retire at the beginning of the current fiscal year. The President is also requesting $1.9 million for the Controlled Unclassified Information Office for FY 2010, which will establish standards and guidance for this type of information and monitor department and agency compliance. Another $1.4 million is being requested for the new Office of Government Information Services, which Congress established in 2007 to improve the operation of the Freedom of Information Act (FOIA) throughout the government. For the ERA, the President is requesting $85.5 million, an increase of $18.5 million over the current year appropriation.The increase for FY 2010 is needed to establish a backup and restoration service and ensure that adequate capabilities are in place for managing restricted information that is in electronic format. For repairs and restoration to NARA facilities, the President is requesting $27.5 million, a decrease of $23.2 million from the current year appropriation. Of this amount, $17.5 million is for the final phase of the Roosevelt Library renovation construction project. For the NHPRC, the President is seeking $10 million.

Three Presidential Libraries To Speed Records Processing
NARA has launched a project to deal with a backlog of unprocessed records and unfulfilled Freedom of Information Act (FOIA) requests at the three presidential libraries governed by the Presidential Records Act of 1978 and whose records are currently subject to FOIA requests—the Ronald Reagan, George Bush, and William J. Clinton libraries. First, NARA will compile and review folder-level inventories for all presidential records to make those inventories publicly available on each of the libraries’ web pages.This will provide researchers with a better guide to the content and context of NARA holdings and allow them to identify more precisely the records they want processed. The Reagan Library has already posted the majority of these titles on its web site, www.reagan.

FY 2010 Request Sent to Congress
In May 2009, President Obama sent to Congress a proposed fiscal year 2010 budget request for NARA that

66 Prologue

Summer 2009

Second, NARA will limit the number of textual pages that will be provided an individual requester at any given time to 50,000; after that, the requester will have to go to the back of the FOIA queue. As a result, NARA will be able to service more customers since requesters will not get stalled behind very large FOIA requests. NARA will also limit the number of electronic records to be processed for any one requester to 500 hits or 15,000 pages. Third, each of the libraries has committed staff to systematically reviewing records, which is significantly faster than processing in response to individual FOIA requests. Systematic review of series and subseries of records puts more records into the public domain, decreasing the number of records that need to be processed in response to FOIA requests. NARA’s fiscal year 2009 appropriations provided the funding for 15 new archivists and 6 new archives technicians to work on this processing. The agency expects these procedures will result in a yearly increase of more than 1.3 million pages processed, a 100-percent increase over FY 2008.

material, and approximately 13,000 pages of declassified records on numerous foreign policy topics. The George Bush Library in College Station, Texas, opened 797 pages of records that deal with Saudi Arabia.

Hemingway Award for Fiction Awarded at Kennedy Library
Michael Dahlie won the 2009 Hemingway Foundation/PEN Award for a distinguished first book of fiction for A Gentleman’s Guide to Graceful Living (W.W. Norton). Patrick Hemingway, the son of Nobel Prize–winning writer Ernest Hemingway, presented the prestigious literary award to Dahlie on March 29 at the John F. Kennedy Presidential Library and Museum in Boston. The late Mary Hemingway, the wife of Ernest Hemingway, founded the Hemingway Foundation/PEN Award in 1976 to honor her late husband and draw attention to first books of fiction. Past recipients of the Hemingway Foundation/PEN Award include Edward P. Jones, Dagoberto Gilb, Susan Power, Chang-Rae Lee, Ha Jin, Charlotte Bacon, Rosina Lippi, Jhumpa Lahiri, Akhil Sharma, Justin Cronin, Gabriel Brownstein, Jennifer Haigh, Chris Abani, Yiyun Li, Ben Fountain, and Joshua Ferris.

More Reagan, Bush Records Released After New Obama Executive Order
The National Archives on April 13 opened for release 245,763 pages of presidential records of Ronald Reagan and George H.W. Bush after they were cleared for release under a new review process established by President Barack Obama. These records were still pending with the George W. Bush administration as of January 20, 2009, but have cleared the review process established by President Obama under Executive Order 13489, which revised the procedures for review by the former and incumbent Presidents of presidential records governed by the Presidential Records Act of 1978. The Obama order, signed on January 21, revokes President George W. Bush’s Executive Order 13233 of November 2001 and is similar to the one issued by President Reagan just before he left office in 1989, which was in effect during the George H.W. Bush and William J. Clinton administrations. The new order gives NARA the authority to release presidential records 30 days after notifying the current and former Presidents, without having to wait for both of them to make a final decision with respect to each notification. The order also limits the review process to living former Presidents and removes any mention of a possible vice presidential privilege. The Reagan Library in Simi Valley, California, released records include the Presidential Briefing Papers collection, Office of Speechwriting research

Archives Shop Celebrates National Archives’ 75th Anniversary
For NARA’s 75th anniversary, artist Carol Dyer was commissioned to paint a scene of the National Archives Building in Washington, D.C, based on historical photographs of the Army Day Parade as it passed by the building in 1937. Dyer signed 100 prints, and these have been framed and are offered for sale for $225 at both the Archives Shop in Washington, D.C. (telephone 202-357-5271), and online at the National Archives eStore (http://estore. archives. gov). The shop also is stocking posters, puzzles, and oversized postcards with the image. A 75th-anniversary commemorative ornament featuring the National Archives Building also is available in the Archives Shop, as well as other building-related products, including key chains, magnets, T-shirts, note cards and note pads. All proceeds from the Archives Shop go directly to support the National Archives’ educational programs.



News & Notices

Prologue 67

reproductions of carol dyer’s painting of the National archives Building are available as signed prints and posters.

Eisenhower’s Final Diaries Open to Researchers
The Dwight D. Eisenhower Library marked the 40th anniversary of President Eisenhower’s death with the opening of his final personal diaries from 1966, 1968, and 1969.The last diary entry was made in late January 1969. Eisenhower died just two months later on March 28, 1969. “The new diaries show that Ike was still very much engaged in the world of politics and affairs, even in the twilight of his life,” said Karl Weissenbach, director of the library.“These priceless diaries show that he was in firm control of his mental faculties despite failing health.” Eisenhower writes that he started the diary in 1966 “to

make notations of any physical discomfort or ailment so as to answer my doctor’s questions concerning my health.” Although medical problems dominate the volumes, Ike found space to comment on the issues and personalities of the day, including the economy, civil rights, Vietnam, and the 1968 presidential elections. In addition to the public release of President Eisenhower’s diaries, the Eisenhower Library announced a marked increase in the expansion of its archival and museum collections.The library’s archival holdings have more than doubled from 12 million pages in 1966 to over 27 million pages in 2009.

Cover, National Archives and Records Administration; inside front cover, p. 16 (right), 64-NA-1-434; p. 5 (top left), 121-BCP111B-40; p. 5 (bottom left), 111-B-1073; p. 5 (top right), 165-UM2; p. 5 (bottom right), General Records of the U.S. Government, RG 11; pp. 6 (background), 8, Records of the Post Office Department, RG 28 (National Archives Microfilm Publication T268); pp. 2 (center), 6 (inset), 7 (left), National Postal Museum; p. 7 (right), 148-CD-14-20; p. 10, 64-NAC-207; p. 11 (upper left), 83-G-6124; p. 11 (lower left), 64-NA-1472; p. 11 (right), 64-NA-136; p. 12 (left), Library of Congress; p. 12 (right), 64-NA-1-37; p. 13 (left), 64-NA77; p. 13 (right), 64-NA-214; p. 14 (left), Franklin D. Roosevelt Library; p. 14 (center), 64-NA-1761; p. 14 (right), 64-NA-399; p. 15 (left), 64-NA-1-272; pp. 15 (right), 37 (right), Harry S. Truman Library; p. 16 (left), Office of Regional Records Services; p. 17, 111-SC-582614; p. 18 (left), 64-AA-4; p. 18 (center), 64-NA-3561; p. 18 (right), photo by Steven Puglia; p. 19, National Personnel Records Center; p. 20 (left), School of Information, University of Michigan; p. 20 (right), 64-PF-11-8-84-A; pp. 21, 23 (center), 24 (center), NARA photos; p. 22, Policy and Planning Staff; p. 23 (left), NARA–Central Plains Region (Lee’s Summit); pp. 23 (right), 24 (left), 71 (left), photos by Earl McDonald; p. 24 (right), Richard Nixon Library; pp. 26, 28, 29, 30, NARA–Pacific Region (San Francisco); p. 27, 90-G-124-11; pp. 31, 32, Records of the Immigration and Naturalization Service, RG 85; p. 34, 238-FE-WPA-46-68028; p. 35 (top), 111-SC-251115; pp. 35 (bottom), 37 (left) National Personnel Records Center; p. 36 (top left), 111-SC-137984; p. 36 (top right), 65-HM-70; p. 36 (bottom), 111-SC-126333; p. 38 (left), 238-FE-WPA-46-66019; p. 38 (center), 238-FE-WPA-46-65691; p. 38 (right), 238-FEC-48-283; p. 39 (left), 238-FEC-48-138; p. 39 (right), Records of General Headquarters, Southwest Pacific Area and United States Army Forces, Pacific (World War II), RG 496; p. 39 (bottom), Records of the Office of the Judge Advocate General (Army), RG 153; p. 40, 238-FEC-47-70445; pp. 42–46, Richard Nixon Library; pp. 48–51, NHPRC; p. 52, 111-SC-87797; pp. 53 (top), 54 (left), Smithsonian National Anthropological Archives; pp. 53 (bottom), 54 (right), 55, Records of the Adjutant General’s Office, 1780’s–1917, RG 94; pp. 56, 57, Records of the Department of Veterans Affairs, RG 15; p. 58, 106-YX-84; p. 62, David McKean and Cliff Sloan; p. 63, courtesy of Public Affairs; p. 64, NARA–Central Plains Region (Kansas City); p. 65, Herbert Hoover Library; p. 68, National Archives Trust Fund; pp. 70, 71 (right), The Foundation for the National Archives; p. 72, Records of the Public Buildings Service, RG 121; Back cover, White House photo by Lawrence Jackson.

68 Prologue

Summer 2009

Using Civilian Records in the National Archives in Washington, DC,Area for Genealogical Research
Reference Information Paper (RIP) 110, Using Civilian Records in the National Archives in Washington, DC, Area for Genealogical Research, has just been revised and reissued. It describes some the most useful civilian records of interest to genealogists that are available at the National Archives in Washington, D.C., and College Park, Maryland. It covers federal census records, immigration and naturalization records, passport applications, visa applications, American Indian and African American records, seamen’s protection certificates, public land records, and civilian employee personnel records. RIP 110 is available free from the Research Support Staff (NWCC1), 700 Pennsylvania Avenue, NW, Washington, DC 20408-0001; telephone 866-325-7208 or 202-357-5332. unity and boost morale.The eight-page weekly reported the activities of the American Expeditionary Forces in France; news on the home front, health, and sports; and included poetry and cartoons. The series in this microfilm publication was reproduced from a set at the Franklin D. Roosevelt Library donated in 1942, by Augustus E. Giegengack, Public Printer of the United States, U.S. Government Printing Office, who had been a soldier member of the staff of The Stars and Stripes in France. Other Recent Microfilm Publications Alien Certificates Issued to Aliens Pre-examined at Winnipeg, Manitoba, 1922–1929, Prior to Admission at the U.S.-Canada Border (A3480, RG 85, 4 rolls) Passenger and Crew Lists of Vessels and Airplanes Arriving at Davisville, Melville, Newport, and Quonset Point, Rhode Island, March 1955–March 1957 (A3678, RG 85, 1 roll) Index to Chinese Exclusion Act Case Files, INS Office, Helena, Montana, ca. 1899–ca. 1933 (A3679, RG 85, 1 roll) Manifests of Alien Arrivals at Ranier and International Falls, Minnesota, January 1909–December 1952 (A3683, RG 85, 2 rolls) Reports of the General Board, United States Forces, European Theater (USFET), 1945–1946 (A3697, RG 319, 7 rolls) Situation Maps of the European Theater of Operations for U.S. Army Air Forces and Ground Forces, September 1943–June 1945 (A3698, RG 319, 3 rolls) Annual Historical Summaries of Department of the Army Agencies, 1950–1964 (A3700, RG 319, 50 rolls) Index and Register of Vessels Arriving at Portland, Oregon, August 1949–September 1955 (A4001, RG 85, 1 roll) Compiled Military Service Records of Volunteer Union Soldiers Who Served With the United States Colored Troops: Infantry Organizations, 47th Through 55th (M2000, RG 94, 183 rolls, DP) Settled Accounts and Claims of Quartermaster Officers, 1817–1850, Relating to Fort Mackinac, Michigan (M2127, RG 217, 9 rolls) For descriptions of the contents of National Archives microfilm publications, visit the Order Online! web page at Consult the roll list or table of contents for the series before ordering specific rolls. Publications can be purchased for $85 per microfilm roll or $125 per CD-ROM through Order Online! or by submitting an order form (available on research/order) to National Archives Trust Fund, Cashier (NAT), Form 72 Order, 8601 Adelphi Road, College Park, MD 20740-6001. Make checks payable to the National Archives Trust Fund. VISA, MasterCard, Discover, and American Express are also accepted. Provide the account number, expiration date, and cardholder signature. Telephone: 1-800-234-8861; fax: 301-837-0483.
Prologue 69

National Archives at Kansas City
National Archives at Kansas City, General Information Leaflet (GIL) 49, has recently been published. The leaflet gives a brief introduction to and provides information about the programs and educational offerings of the National Archives at Kansas City, one of the 13 regional archives operated by the National Archives and Records Administration. The region primarily holds the records created or maintained by federal agencies or courts created in the states of Iowa, Kansas, Minnesota, Missouri, Nebraska, North Dakota, and South Dakota. In May 2009, the regional archives moved to a new facility in Kansas City, Missouri, which features expanded research areas and, for the first time, exhibit space. A copy of GIL 49 can be found online at Request a copy to be mailed to you by sending an e-mail to or writing to National Archives at Kansas City, 400 West Pershing Road, Kansas City, MO 64108-4306.

Microfilm Publications
Microfilm publications are produced by the National Archives and Records Administration to make records holdings more widely available for research. Current projects include the filming of records related to Nazi-looted Holocaust-era assets and military service records of the United States Colored Troops (Civil War). A description of a recent publication is provided below. A descriptive pamphlet (DP) is available where indicated. Stars and Stripes: Newspaper of the American Expeditionary Forces, 1918–1919 (M2130, RG 120, 1 roll) The Stars and Stripes newspaper was distributed to American servicemen throughout the Western Front during World War I from February 8, 1918, to June 13, 1919. It was first published during the Civil War, but Gen. John J. Pershing ordered it reissued in order to encourage

Exhibit Support, New Publications, Products to Mark Archives’ 75th Anniversary

f or the National Archives
Graham Fund Gift to Support Foundation’s Retail Expansion
The Philip L. Graham Fund has awarded an unrestricted grant of $100,000 to the Foundation for the National Archives. The grant will be used to improve and expand the Foundation’s retail operations, including the Archives Shop—proceeds from which go directly to National Archives education programs. The grant, given in honor of Foundation Board member Patrick Butler, who retired from The Washington Post Company last year, will help increase the Foundation’s revenue potential in support of its mission to raise awareness of the National Archives and inspire a deeper appreciation of its holdings. “We are delighted to be able to support the Foundation for the National Archives with this grant,” said Eileen Daly, president of the Philip L. Graham Fund.“We believe that the civic education the Foundation offers visitors to the National Archives Experience helps build an informed citizenry, benefiting both the city of Washington and the nation.” Foundation President and Chairman Ken Lore said the gift is a “fitting tribute” to Butler for his “long service to The Washington Post Company and his decades of leadership in the Washington community.” “This grant will assist us in achieving our goal to expand retail operations so the Foundation can focus on what it does best—enabling millions of people to learn about and personally interact with the original records of our democracy,” he said. “We thank Pat and the Philip L. Graham Fund for their continued support.” The grant marked the second time the Graham Fund has supported the Foundation. It also gave a $100,000 grant in 2004 to help develop the National Archives Experience’s Learning Center and its ongoing educational activities offered to Washington residents and visitors from around the world.


Since the Foundation for the National Archives was created in 1992, we have worked in partnership with NARA to advance the cause of history and civic education, enabling more Americans to learn about the National Archives and to discover and share the incredible stories of our national experience. In past years, this successful public-private partnership has made possible the reopening of the Rotunda for the Charters of Freedom and the opening of the National Archives Experience with its Public Vaults permanent exhibition. The Foundation has been proud to support the National Archives in the development of the William G. McGowan Theater, the Lawrence F. O’Brien Gallery, and the Boeing Learning Center. We also have helped to raise awareness of the National Archives through our support of programs and special exhibits; the development of unique products, publications, and marketing initiatives; and the launch of the award-winning Digital Vaults web site. The results of this partnership have been impressive. But as NARA celebrates its 75th anniversary, the Foundation pledges to do even more. This year, in honor of the National Archives’ 75 years of service to the American people, the Foundation is supporting the exhibition “BIG!,” including the publication of an accompanying exhibit catalog. We also are publishing a commemorative coffee-table book featuring incredible images and an exploration of the vast holdings of the National Archives in Washington and around the nation, as well as a new book that will serve as an architectural and sculptural guide to John Russell Pope’s masterwork, the National Archives Building. The Foundation’s staff also has been busy developing a line of exclusive products for the Archives Shop to mark the agency’s anniversary, with all proceeds going directly to the support of NARA’s educational initiatives. Perhaps most important, the Foundation, working with NARA, is continuing its efforts to raise vital funds that will pave the way in coming years for the launch of the “Discovering the Civil War” exhibit, the improvement of the National Archives Experience web site, and the expansion of the Archives’ exhibitions, public programming, and retail operations. We congratulate the Archives on its many achievements of the past 75 years. We are thrilled to be NARA’s private partner and to celebrate this important milestone with you.

Ken Lore President, Foundation for the National Archives

70 Prologue

Society Provides Vital Support for NAE Programming, Educational Initiatives

Bingham Gift to Support Civics Education, Public Outreach
The international law firm Bingham McCutchen has pledged $100,000 to the Foundation for the National Archives’ National Archives Experience Capital Campaign. The $23.6 million campaign supports public outreach and civics education initiatives of the National Archives Experience, including the Public Vaults, the traveling and topical exhibitions premiering in the Lawrence F. O’Brien Gallery, national civics education activities of the Boeing Learning Center, the high-profile public programming of the William G. McGowan Theater, the Archives Shop, and the new Digital Vaults web site. In this phase in the development of the National Archives Experience, Bingham’s gift will help the Foundation and the National Archives expand history and civics education initiatives and programming to a new national audience. It also will support the ongoing public outreach made possible by the Digital Vaults web site. “Bingham is honored to partner with the Foundation for the National Archives,” said Ken Lore, president and chairman of the Foundation and a partner in Bingham’s Washington, D.C., and New York offices. “The work of the Foundation for the National Archives and the National Archives and Records Administration in promoting civic literacy and other educational objectives is very much aligned with Bingham’s efforts nationwide to promote educational opportunities. The importance and significance of access of American citizens to federal documents is critical to protecting and preserving our rights as citizens and our very own way of life.” Acting Archivist of the United States Adrienne Thomas said the gift will give the National Archives “a wonderful opportunity to reach out beyond our walls, for which we are deeply grateful.” “We thank the Foundation’s new Board President Ken Lore, and new Board member and Bingham Chairman Jay Zimmerman for their assistance with this effort,” she said. “We look forward to providing new educational programs and Internet offerings so that more people can understand our democracy and their place in it.”

Above: National Archives Conservator Jana Dambrogio, center, explains the work of the Conservation Lab during a behind-the-scenes tour. Also pictured, left to right, are Society for the National Archives members Karl Pribram and Katherine Neville, Foundation Board member Mary Lynn Kotz, and Society members Nick Kotz and Bill Hoover. Right: Foundation Board member Cokie Roberts views documents in the National Archives Conservation Lab, along with Society member John Hill and National Public Radio senior national correspondent Linda Wertheimer.


The Foundation for the National Archives supports the National Archives and Records Administration in developing programs, projects, and materials that tell the story of America through the holdings in NARA. For more information on how you can help others experience the National Archives, contact the Foundation at 202-357-5946, or write to us at To learn more about the Foundation, visit

ike many cultural institutions, the Foundation realized from the beginning that its important work in support of the National Archives would require a dedicated group of high-level private donors whose annual contributions could be relied upon as the National Archives Experience was taking shape. As a testament to the Foundation’s major donor group, the Society for the National Archives over the past year has provided close to $250,000 in contributions—100 percent of which went directly to programming and educational initiatives at the National Archives. Society members, who individually donate at least $5,000 annually, not only helped create the National Archives Experience with its award-winning Public Vaults exhibition, but also provide vital ongoing support. Their contributions, along with those of generous corporate donors and other Foundation partners, have made possible the excellent work of the Boeing Learning Center, improving civics education in classrooms around the country. Their donations helped provide ongoing support for the quality programming of the William G. McGowan Theater in the National Archives Building, such as the 2007 screening of Charles Guggenheim’s 1964 Academy Award-winning film Nine from Little Rock and a panel discussion that brought two members of the “Little Rock Nine” to the stage to discuss their role in desegregating American schools. Society donations support topical exhibits in the Lawrence F. O’Brien Gallery, such as last year’s “1783: Subject or Citizen?” showcasing the Treaty of Paris and this year’s 75th-anniversary exhibit “BIG!” Society dollars also help the Foundation produce quality publications to accompany such exhibits and support an ongoing marketing campaign that has placed ads promoting the exhibits in Metro stations, on city buses, and on bus shelters. Traveling exhibits, such as “Eyewitness,” “The Way We Worked,” and “School House to White House,” also are supported by Society donations, as is the award-winning Digital Vaults online exhibit. Society members get great satisfaction in knowing they are helping the Foundation and the National Archives reach millions of Americans as well as people around the world. To express our appreciation for their ongoing support, the Foundation welcomes Society members throughout the year to special tours and receptions and as honored guests at our annual Gala in the National Archives Building’s Rotunda Galleries. Those seeking more information on membership in the Society are encouraged to contact Corrie Gilchrist at the Foundation at 202-357-5056 or


a t e m p l e to
he National Archives Building’s architect, John Russell Pope, envisioned a neoclassical temple dedicated to American history. In addition to making sure that the new building would securely protect the records of the federal government, he paid close attention to its symbolic importance. Pope surrounded the building with sculpture and other decorations with allegorical and classical references. His plan for the Constitution Avenue entrance, through which most visitors would come into the building, created an impressive approach to the Rotunda.A large portico at the top of 39 steps shelters a set of massive bronze doors.These two doors are the largest bronze doors in the world, each weighing 6½ tons and measuring 38 feet 7 inches high, almost 10 feet wide, and 11 inches thick.The scale and solidity of the doors emphasize the vault-like strength of the building, which protects the nation’s permanent records, including our treasured founding documents exhibited in the Rotunda. The document featured to honor the 75th anniversary of the establishment of the National Archives is one of the many drawings created by John Russell Pope’s architectural firm for features of the National Archives Building. The drawing of the bronze doors at the building’s Constitution Avenue entrance is taken from a larger sheet that included drawings of a variety of bronze ornamentation and light fixtures. The plans for the interior and exterior of the National Archives Building are found in Record Group 121, Records of the Public Buildings Service, in the Cartographic and Architectural holdings at the National Archives at College Park, Maryland. P

72 Prologue

Summer 2009

NatioNal archivEs
National Archives and Records Administration 700 Pennsylvania Avenue, NW Washington, DC 20408-0001 202-357-5400 E-mail: National Archives and Records Administration 8601 Adelphi Road College Park, MD 20740-6001 301-837-2000 E-mail: NARA–Northeast Region (Boston) 380 Trapelo Road Waltham, MA 02452-6399 866-406-2379 NARA–Northeast Region (Pittsfield) 10 Conte Drive Pittsfield, MA 01201-8230 413-236-3600 NARA–Northeast Region (New York City) 201 Varick Street, 12th Floor New York, NY 10014-4811 212-401-1620 NARA–Mid Atlantic Region (Center City Philadelphia) 900 Market Street Philadelphia, PA 19107-4292 215-606-0100 NARA–Mid Atlantic Region (Northeast Philadelphia) 14700 Townsend Road Philadelphia, PA 19154-1096 215-305-2000 NARA–Southeast Region 5780 Jonesboro Road Morrow, GA 30260-3806 770-968-2100


rEcords admiNistratioN
NARA–Pacific Region (Laguna Niguel) 24000 Avila Road, 1st Floor Laguna Niguel, CA 92677-3497 949-360-2641 NARA–Pacific Region (Riverside) 23123 Cajalco Road Perris, CA 92572-7298 951-956-2000 NARA–Pacific Region (San Francisco) 1000 Commodore Drive San Bruno, CA 94066-2350 650-238-3500 NARA–Pacific Alaska Region (Seattle) 6125 Sand Point Way, NE Seattle, WA 98115-7999 206-336-5115 NARA–Pacific Alaska Region (Anchorage) 654 West Third Avenue Anchorage, AK 99501-2145 907-261-7800 NARA–National Personnel Records Center (Civilian Personnel Records) 111 Winnebago Street St. Louis, MO 63118-4199 314-801-9250 NARA–National Personnel Records Center (Military Personnel Records) 9700 Page Avenue St. Louis, MO 63132-5100 314-801-0800 Washington National Records Center 4205 Suitland Road Suitland, MD 20746-8001 301-778-1600

NARA–Southeast Region 4712 Southpark Boulevard Ellenwood, GA 30294-3595 404-736-2820 NARA–Great Lakes Region (Chicago) 7358 South Pulaski Road Chicago, IL 60629-5898 773-948-9001 NARA–Great Lakes Region (Dayton) 3150 Springboro Road Dayton, OH 45439-1883 937-425-0600 NARA–Central Plains Region (Kansas City) 400 West Pershing Road Kansas City, MO 64108-4306 816-268-8000 NARA–Central Plains Region (Lee’s Summit) 200 Space Center Drive Lee’s Summit, MO 64064-1182 816-288-8100 NARA–Central Plains Region (Lenexa) 17501 West 98th Street, Ste. 31-50 Lenexa, KS 66219-1735 913-825-7800 NARA–Southwest Region 501 West Felix Street P.O. Box 6216 Fort Worth,TX 76115-0216 817-831-5900 NARA–Rocky Mountain Region Denver Federal Center, Building 48 P.O. Box 25307 Denver, CO 80225-0307 303-407-5700

Presidential libraries
Herbert Hoover Library 210 Parkside Drive P.O. Box 488 West Branch, IA 52358-0488 319-643-5301 Franklin D. Roosevelt Library 4079 Albany Post Road Hyde Park, NY 12538-1999 800-337-8474 Harry S.Truman Library 500 West U.S. Highway 24 Independence, MO 64050-1798 800-833-1225 Dwight D. Eisenhower Library 200 Southeast Fourth Street Abilene, KS 67410-2900 877-746-4453 John F. Kennedy Library Columbia Point Boston, MA 02125-3398 866-535-1960 Lyndon Baines Johnson Library 2313 Red River Street Austin,TX 78705-5702 512-721-0200 Richard Nixon Library 18001 Yorba Linda Boulevard Yorba Linda, CA 92886-3903 714-983-9120 Richard Nixon Library–College Park 8601 Adelphi Road College Park, MD 20740-6001 301-837-3290 Gerald R. Ford Library 1000 Beal Avenue Ann Arbor, MI 48109-2114 734-205-0555 Gerald R. Ford Museum 303 Pearl Street, NW Grand Rapids, MI 49504-5353 616-254-0400 Jimmy Carter Library 441 Freedom Parkway Atlanta, GA 30307-1498 404-865-7100 Ronald Reagan Library 40 Presidential Drive Simi Valley, CA 93065-0600 805-577-4000 / 800-410-8354 George Bush Library 1000 George Bush Drive College Station,TX 77845-3906 979-691-4000 William J. Clinton Library 1200 President Clinton Avenue Little Rock, AR 72201-1749 501-374-4242 George W. Bush Library 1725 Lakepointe Drive Lewisville,TX 75057 972-353-0545

President Barack obama delivered a nationally televised speech on may 21, 2009, from the rotunda of the National archives Building. Behind him are all four pages of the u.S. constitution.

Prologue Summer 2009