CCTV SYSTEM SOLUTION

CCTV Course Content
• What are CCTV Systems? • Benefits of CCTV • Concept & Integration of CCTV systems - 3D & M³ • Application & Market Segments of CCTV • CCTV Components & Terminology • CCTV System Checklist • Certis Product lines

CCTV Systems
Traditional analog surveillance technology (referred to as Closed Circuit Television or simply CCTV) has been around for over 20 years. There are three types of CCTV : Traditional Analog CCTV DVR + Analog CCTV NVR (Network Video Recorders)

The picture shows the current market trend of video surveillance and how over time it is becoming an extension of the computer network.

3D & M³ Philosophy for CCTV
3-D Philosophy: • Deter - Visible cameras deter would be intruders • Detect - Monitoring & Recording used to detect intruders • Deny - Used together with Access Control, can effectively deny access to critical areas Certis M3 Philosophy; • Man - Security personnel managing and monitoring CCTV system • Machine - CCTV System assists Security personnel in day to day operations • Methods - Pre-defined responses to security breach situations

CCTV System Components
Typical Setup of a Traditional Analog CCTV System
Cameras

CCTV Monitor

Time Lapse VCR (OUTDATED)

Multiplexer

CCTV System Components
Typical Setup of a Digital CCTV System
Typically 4/8/9/16 Cameras PAL Format Europe & Asia Door Contacts/ PIR Sensor

Removable Storage

Permanent Storage

CCTV System Components
Camera
Fixed CCTV cameras come in two main types:
• The first type has a camera body, to which a lens of varying focal lengths may be attached. • Features such as BLC (Back Light Compensation), Auto Iris Drive and AES (Auto Electronic Shutter) are provided. • The second style is basically a fixed lens mounted on a camera circuit board. These cameras may be packaged in a small case (Mini Cameras) or dome (Mini Dome). • Remember - All cameras need a power supply! (e.g. 12VDC/ 24V/230VAC).

CCTV System Components
Camera
Pan, Tilt, Zoom (PTZ) Cameras
• PTZ cameras operate; • 360 degrees horizontally (Pan) • 180 degrees vertically (Tilt) • Provide Optical Zoom. • Controlled through Keyboard / DVR. • Auto-scan to move through a range of pre-set positions. • Allow Privacy Zones (e.g. Cashier NETS Pin Masking) • Programmable preset positions

CCTV System Components
Camera
Type and Quality of the Imaging Chip in the camera - Most cameras use CCD (Charge Couple Device) chips today - The size of CCD chip is normally 1/4”, 1/3” or 1/2” - Most common size is 1/3” - For reference - the bigger the size chip, the higher the quality of the image produced. - High end IP cameras use CMOS chip technology

CCTV System Components
Camera
• The make of the CCD chip - Sony and Panasonic are generally recognized as the producers of the best CCD chips. • The type of DSP (Digital Signal Processing) Chip in the camera - DSP chip digitize the analog video stream produced by the CCD chip to produce a better picture quality. • Number of Horizontal TV lines (TVL) - The larger the number, the better the resolution and hence the overall picture quality - Over 470 TV Lines is considered good resolution - Over 540 TV Lines is considered high resolution

CCTV System Components
Camera
• Light Sensitivity (LUX)

CCTV System Components
Camera
• Light Sensitivity

- Sensitivity ratings are generally given as the minimum

"Lux" levels at which the camera will produce a useable image (1 Lux equals 1/10 Candle Light). - The lower the Lux level rating, the more light sensitive the camera • Signal to Noise (S/N) Ratio - The higher the Signal to Noise ratio, the clearer the video image produced by the camera. - Good CCTV cameras will have a S/N ratio of at least 48dB.

CCTV System Components
Camera Lenses
Getting the right CCTV Lens
• Focal length - Lenses either have a fixed or variable focal length - Manually variable focal length lenses are called Vari-Focal Lenses. (Typically used for specifically known area/object surveillance) - Powered variable focal length lenses are called Zoom Lenses - Typical Fixed focal length lenses vary from 3.6mm - 16mm (Typically used for general area surveillance) - Zoom Lenses can go over 70mm. (Typically used for outdoor perimeter surveillance)

CCTV System Components
Getting the right CCTV Lens

CCTV System Components
Selecting the right CCTV Lens
3.6 mm Lens Picture area 49' w x 35' h

6mm Lens Picture area 29' w x 21' h

8mm Lens Picture area 22' w x 16' h

CCTV System Components
Selecting the right CCTV Lens
15mm Lens Picture area 12' w x 9' h

55mm Lens Picture area 3.25' w x 2.50' h

CCTV System Components
Camera Lenses
Lens Focal Length (mm) Viewable Angle (Degrees) Horiz. Vert. 5 feet away Horiz. Vert. Field of View (in feet) 10 feet away Horiz. Vert. 15 feet away Horiz. Vert. 25 feet away Horiz. Vert. 50 feet away Horiz. Vert. 100 feet away Horiz. Vert.

3.6

74

55

7.5

5.2

15.1

10.4

22.6

15.6

37.7

26.1

75.4

52.1

151

104

6.0

42

32

3.8

2.9

7.7

5.7

11.5

8.6

19.2

14.4

38.4

28.7

77

57

8.0

32

24

2.9

2.1

5.7

4.3

8.6

6.4

14.4

10.7

28.7

21.3

57

43

12.0

22

17

1.9

1.5

3.9

3.0

5.8

4.5

9.7

7.5

19.4

14.9

39

30

16.0

15

11

1.3

1.0

2.6

1.9

3.9

2.9

6.6

4.8

13.2

9.6

26

19

CCTV System Components
The Camera Lens In Summary
Most lenses used today are vari-focal lenses which are suitable for both indoor and outdoor applications and can be adjusted on site to the field of view required by the user

CCTV System Components
The Camera Lens
Auto Iris Lens - Commonly used in varying light conditions (e.g. outside or inside facing a window) where the iris on the camera will need to open and close to accommodate changes in light intensity. - This is similar to your eye (iris) opening to allow in more light during low light levels. - Conversely during bright sunlight your iris closes.

CCTV System Components
Types of Camera Housings and Brackets Indoor Housing : In-ceiling, wall and corner mount to
prevent dust.

Outdoor Housing : Designed to withstand wide ranges
of temperature, humidity, rainfall, and sunlight. May include blower, heater, sun shroud & thermal insulation. Minimum standard is IP65

IP (Ingress Protection) Ratings Chart
First number (Protection against solid objects) 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 Definition No protection Protected against solids objects over 50mm (e.g. accidental touch by hands Protected against solids 2 objects over 12mm (e.g. fingers) Protected against solids 3 objects over 2.5mm (e.g. tools and wires) Protected against solids 4 objects over 1mm (e.g. tools, wires and small wires Protected against dust - limited 5 ingress (no harmful deposit) Totally protected against dust 6 Second number (Protection Definition against liquids) 0 No protection 1 Protected against vertically falling drops of water Protected against direct sprays up to 15o from the vertical Protected against direct sprays up to 60o from the vertical Protected against sprays from all directions - limited ingress permitted Protected against low pressure jets if water from all directions - limited ingress permitted Protected against strong jets of water e.g. for use on shipdecks - limited ingress permitted Protected against the effects of temporary immersion between 15cm and 1m. Duration of test 30 minutes Protected against long periods of immersion under pressure

7

8

CCTV System Components
Types of Camera Housings and Brackets
Explosion Proof : Housing required for potentially combustible atmospheres eg. Laboratory, Chemical storage areas. Vandal Proof : Used where structural integrity and vandalism are a priority eg. for public areas & prison facilities. Pressurized Housing : operating in tough environmental conditions e.g. on board ships

CCTV System Components

Comparisons between Normal, Back Light Compensation (BLC) and Super Wide Dynamic Range (WDR) cameras Back Light Compensation cameras automatically adjusts the image to compensate for bright sunlight or bright lights, to give more detail on the darker areas of the image. (eg To focus on the detail of a face of a person that has sunlight shining from behind. Wide Dynamic Range cameras allows optimizing an image by automatically adjusting both dark and light areas to ensure the targeted area has ideal contrast and visibility.

CCTV System Components
Camera Feature - Wide Dynamic Range

Camera without Wide Dynamic Range

Camera with Wide Dynamic Range

Day Night Camera

Day night cameras automatically switch to black and white mode (night) when the light level (lux) decreases below a preset minimum.

CCTV System Components
Digital Video Recorder
Digital Video Recorders (DVRs) consist of three main types: • PC- based DVR (OUTDATED) - Computer-based system incorporating; • Video capture and display • Video multiplexing • Video recording and playback • Remote video access via modem, Internet and/or LAN • Expandable - add on video capture card • Operating System and application functions installed to Primary Hard Disk

CCTV System Components
Digital Video Recorder
• Embedded DVR - Operating System and all application functions are contained (embedded) in firmware (software encoded on chips). - Allows Triplex operation (View, Record and Playback at the same time) - Fixed number of camera channels
- Embedded DVR's are more suitable for less protected locations

such as warehouses, manufacturing, restaurants, etc.

CCTV System Components
Digital Video Recorder

• Network Video Recorder - Used for Network centralized storage and remote monitoring & playback of recorded images - Multiple site capability

CCTV System Components
Digital Video Recorder - RAID5 Storage DVR's can be arranged as fault tolerant enterprise servers (RAID5) which are often required in casino, law enforcement, government and various mission-critical applications. RAID5 server is a DVR with multiple hard drives and if a single hard drive fails you won't lose your data, unlike a standard PC where if a hard drive fails you lose everything on that drive. RAID5 systems are costly and can increase the costs by as much as fivefold

CCTV System Components
Digital Video Recorder Embedded V’s PC Based
• Embedded DVR - More stable DVR system compared to PC Based DVR - Generally more expensive in the market - Fixed system - unable to customize features • PC-based DVR - Generally more economical compared to Embedded DVR, but comes with system stability issues due to the Operating System (OS) - Generally more flexible - features customization possible - PC components are more sensitive to temperature changes, dust and vibration.

Recording Format - JPEG Vs MPEG4

"I" frame or initial frame. Use the same background or limit simultaneous movements they can re-use components of other frames. If much of the image that the capture board is displaying stays the same then it only needs to change those partial frame segments which are moving, these are known as "P" frames.

• JPEG compression is very good for capturing high quality images but requires more storage space on DVR • MPEG4 compression requires smaller storage space (1/10th of JPEG approx) and network bandwidth while maintaining high quality moving images

Recording Format - JPEG Vs MPEG4
Recording Format

Video Recording using JPEG / MJPEG Format

Video Recording using MPEG4 Format

Able to zoom in to picture with good resolution

Poor resolution upon zooming in

CCTV Terminology for DVR’s
• Simplex operation = Live monitoring or Recording or Playback
• Duplex operation = 2 functions of the above - e.g. Recording & Playback or live monitoring and recording • Triplex operation = 3 functions of the above - e.g Recording, Playback and Viewing

• Frames Per Second (fps) is the number of frames recorded/viewable per second • ie. The human eye sees 25fps as close to real time • Recording resolution - 1 CIF, 2 CIF or 4 CIF 1 CIF = 352 x 288 (pixels per line x no. of lines) -1/4 frame 2 CIF = 352 x 576 (pixels per line x no. of lines) -1/2 frame 4 CIF = 720 x 576 (pixels per line x no. of lines) - full frame

CCTV System Components
New CCTV Technology
• Video Content Analysis (VCA) can provide; • Unattended object detection • Removal of object detection (theft) • Intrusion of pre-determined sensitive zones • Perimeter defense (fence lines) • Unusual people movement (against normal traffic flow) • People counting/direction

CCTV System Components
All DVR’s ARE NOT ALIKE

Overall, the biggest concern in DVR performance is reliability

Determining DVR System Requirements

• Number of Video camera inputs required? • Record rate ie. real time 25fps or time lapse mode? • Recording resolution - 1 CIF, 2 CIF or 4 CIF • Continuous, Time based or Event based recording • Duration to record images on HDD (no. of days) You can then determine the Storage Capacity of HDD Other questions to ask the client; • Backup / Archiving - How? (CD, External USB drive) • Remote Monitoring Required? (Dial-up, Broadband) • P/T/Z control, Audio, ATM/POS Text recording required?

CCTV system checklist products
HARDWARE Qty’s Required • DVR ( w/keyboard & mouse ) • Monitor • Cameras • Camera Lenses • Camera Brackets • Cameras Housings (if necessary) • Rack Cabinet (optional) • Printer (optional) OPTIONAL ACCESSORIES • Hot Swappable Drives • Speakers • Microphones • Relays • Alarm Bells/Horns/Light • RAID Storage • Streaming Server
ELECTRICAL/FITTINGS/CONNECTIONS

• Video Cable • Power Cable • Audio Cable (if using mic.) • BNC Connectors (if using coax RG cable) • Video Baluns (if using Cat5 cable) • Power Supplies (if not using power panels) • Power Panels (if not using power supplies) • Fuses (if using power panels) • Power Strip • Power Cords • Uninterruptable Power Supply (UPS) • Conduit • Screws/Bolts/Brackets • Tie Wraps • Electrical Tape

CCTV Camera Selection
• Main Factors for camera selection : • Indoor or Outdoor • Mounting Locations • Lighting Conditions • Size of area to be captured • Quality of the image required • Available power and type • Vandalism concerns • Distance from DVR • Colour or Black & White • Security Objective

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