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Map 86 Paphlagonia

Compiled by C. Foss, 1995 Introduction

The map comprises ancient Paphlagonia, and extends into eastern Bithynia and the northernmost part of Galatia. Evidence for the ancient topography is most abundant on the coast, along the Roman roads, and in Galatia. Arrians Periplus Ponti Euxini (written c. A.D. 132), together with an earlier text by Menippus (c. 20 B.C.) and a related Late Antique anonymous work, describe the coast in great detail. Most of the sites named in these works can be located at least approximately, although a few resist identification; Mllers commentary in GGM I remains valuable. For the Roman roads, ItMiller is uncritical; French (1981) is far more useful, but treats only one major road. The roads of Paphlagonia are presented in admirable detail by TIB Paphlagonien, those of northern Galatia likewise by TIB Galatien. The interior of Paphlagonia is a remote, mountainous country, cut off from the regions to the south by long, parallel ranges. Communication east and west is relatively easy; north and south, it is much more difficult. The country contains a few long, wide plains and river valleys, some of considerable fertility. In antiquity, the mountains were heavily forested. For the most part, the region was never densely populated. For a general description, see Leonhard (1915); and for an excellent account of some areas (including eastern Bithynia), with discussion of specific problems, note Robert (1980). RE Paphlagonia gives a full list of all named sites (cols. 2537-50) and of physical remains (2498-2510, 2515). Some features listed there do not appear on the map because of limited significance or uncertainty of dating. TIB Paphlagonien documents many minor sites such as unidentified villages, unlocated villages mentioned in inscriptions, and places attested only by Stephanus of Byzantium.

Directory
All place names are in Turkey Abbreviations
IK 31 INik TIB Galatien TIB Paphlagonien F. Becker-Bertau, Die Inschriften von Klaudiupolis, Bonn, 1986 S. ahin (ed.), Katalog der antiken Inschriften des Museums von Iznik (Nikaia), 4 vols., Bonn, 1979-87 K. Belke, Tabula Imperii Byzantini 4, Galatien und Lykaonien, DenkWien 172, 1984 K. Belke, Tabula Imperii Byzantini 9, Paphlagonien und Honorias, DenkWien 249, 1996

Names
Grid D2 B2 B2 D2 C2 E2 Name Abonouteichos/ Ionopolis Acheron/ Soonautes fl. Acherousias Pr. Aday *Agrippeia? = Krateia Aigialos Aiginetes Period RL CH/ HR CH R?L? AHRL L Modern Name / Location Inebolu Limanba Deresi Baba Burun Karaaa Liman Hacveli Reference TIB Paphlagonien 219-21; NPauly Abonuteichos RE Sonautes; Asheri 1972, 40-42; TIB Paphlagonien 208 RE Acherusia 2; TIB Paphlagonien 208 TIB Paphlagonien 155 TIB Galatien 117-18; TIB Paphlagonien 158 TIB Paphlagonien 158-59

1218 Grid D2 E2 C2 D2 D3 C4 E2 C3 A3 B3 F1 A3 C3 C2 E2 B3 B3 A3 E3 C2 A3 B3 D2 C3 A3 D4 D2 C3 A3 E4 C2 C4 A3 A3 B3 C2 B2 E4 C2 A3 B3 B3 B2 C3 Name Aiginetes fl. Akasu Amastris/ Sesamos Amnias fl. Anadynata Ancyra Antikinolis Antoniopolis Apollonia Ins. = Thynias Ins. Apsoda Araunia Armene Artemis *Artiknos Asa Gney Assyria Aulia = Metroon Ayman Yaylas Balgatia Bathys fl. = Hermos fl. Bebrykes Bedut Billaios fl. Bithynia Bithynion/ Claudiopolis/ Hadriana Blaene Bloukion Boane/ Sunonensis L. Bolecasgus *Bonita Carus Vicus amda Cappadox? fl. avular Cenaxis Palus Cenon Gallicanon? Ceratae etikren Chele Pr. Claudiopolis = Bithynion mleki Corniaspa Cytorus M. Dableis Dadastana Dadokome Dadybra Daphnousia Ins. = Thynias Ins. Demirciler Period L R HRL/ AC HR L RL RL L L CRL R H CH RL L

MAP 86 PAPHLAGONIA Modern Name / Location Abana Deresi Amasra Gksu near Kurunlu opposite Kinolis erkes S atak SE Sykeon Akliman Yamurdede rock tomb SW Sinope Reference TIB Paphlagonien 158-59 TIB Paphlagonien 159 RE 1; TIB Paphlagonien 161-70; NPauly 4 RE; NPauly TIB Paphlagonien 171-72 See Map 63 TIB Paphlagonien 232-33 TIB Paphlagonien 172 INik 2.1.17 TIB Galatien 132 RE See Map 52 Mitchell 1982, 146 Gall 1966, 103-104 RE Leukosyroi TIB Paphlagonien 175-76 between Iuliopolis / Sykeon rock tomb Filyos ay / Gerede ay / Yenice Irma Bolu Kastamonu region Karalar TIB Galatien 137-38 See Map 52 Gall 1966, 101-102 RE; Robert 1980, 176-81; TIB Paphlagonien 178 See Map 52 RE; RE Claudiopolis 3; TIB Paphlagonien 235-37 TIB Paphlagonien 171 Lasserre 1981, 191; NPauly Blukion See Map 52 See Map 63 TIB Paphlagonien 178-79 FOA VIII, 13; TIB Paphlagonien 121 (n. 22) Robert 1980, 5-10 RE Kappadox Leonhard 1915, 143-44; TIB Paphlagonien 182 See Map 63 INik 2.1.19 INik 2.1.19 (n. 66) TIB Paphlagonien 183-84 Belke 1992, 147 TIB Paphlagonien 204 See Map 63 Robert 1980, 148-50; TIB Paphlagonien 140 (n. 12) INik 2.1.17-19 TIB Galatien 154; NPauly IK 31.104-105; TIB Paphlagonien 186 Wittek 1935, 40; TIB Paphlagonien 186-87 TIB Paphlagonien 188

H HRL HR/ RL/ R R HR

R R H R HR? R L RL L R HR RL L R L R

Mere ukurren perhaps Delice Irmak settlement with tombs Gynk mansio at Beydili Delikile Burnu fortified settlement Kidros Da near ayky near Karahisar near Kroluderbend Devrek

MAP 86 PAPHLAGONIA Grid B3 B2 E2 A3 A4 D4 B2 B2 B3 C3 C3 C2 E2 B3 B3 A3 D3 D2 C3 C3 C4 E2 B3 C3 B3 Name Dereky Dia/ Diospolis Domanitis Doris Dorylaion Ecobrogis/ Eccobriga Elaios Elaios fl. Embolos *Endeira *Ergobrotis Eryth(r)inoi Euarchos/ Euechos fl. Fines Flaviopolis = Krateia Galatia Gallos fl. Gangra/ Germanicopolis Garios Gebeler Germanicopolis = Gangra Gezatorigis Girme Gkeaa Gkesu Gordiane Gordioukome/ Iuliopolis Hadriana = Bithynion Hadrianopolis = Kaisareia Halmyros fl. Halys fl. Hamamz Hambarkaya Hambarkaya Heraclea Hermos/ Bathys fl. *Hieronpotamon Hieros/ Siberis fl. Horma Hypios? M. Hypios fl. Ikotarion? lbarut Ionopolis = Abonouteichos skilip Period L RL/ R R L Modern Name / Location Akakoca lower Amnias valley ayky region Reference TIB Paphlagonien 189 TIB Paphlagonien 189-90 NPauly 6 TIB Paphlagonien 44, 171, 256 INik 2.1.19 See Map 62 See Map 63 RL RL R R L AHRL RL/ L L at mouth of Elaios fl. Kocaman Dere Beyky Emrodere Tiske akraz Kabal ay near Ericek RE; TIB Paphlagonien 193 RE; TIB Paphlagonien 193 Robert 1980, 107-15; TIB Paphlagonien 193-94 TIB Paphlagonien 194 TIB Galatien 235 RE; TIB Paphlagonien 194-95 RE 1; TIB Paphlagonien 43 TIB Galatien 164-65 See Map 63 ahin 1986, 125-29; TIB Paphlagonien 244, 271 RE; RE Germanikopolis 2; Robert 1980, 203-19 TIB Paphlagonien 199-200 TIB Paphlagonien 201 Strobel 1994, 43 See Map 63 TIB Paphlagonien 202-203 TIB Paphlagonien 203 Mitchell 1993 II, 135, 139; TIB Paphlagonien 204 TIB Galatien 181-82

1219

RL HRL/ R RL R? R RL R L H/ RL

Mudurnu ay ankr Katrga near Yeniaa / Gerede

Krateia region Sarlar

D3 D4 F3 E2 F2 B2 A4 B3 B3 D2 A3 A3 D3 C2 E3

L R C H CHRL L R/ L RL R HRL R RL C

Ac ay rock tomb rock tomb Ereli below Tahir Girmir ay Kardz Da Byk Melen Su / Akarsu Elecik site with graves rock tomb

TIB Paphlagonien 206 See Map 87 Jerphanion 1914, 17-21 Gall 1966, 88-90 Gall 1966, 104-106 PECS; TIB Paphlagonien 208-16 See Map 62 TIB Galatien 224 Siberis, 228 RE; TIB Galatien 244 TIB Paphlagonien 216-17 Robert 1980, 64-65; TIB Paphlagonien 217-18 RE; Robert 1980, 63-64; TIB Paphlagonien 217-18 TIB Galatien 178-79 TIB Paphlagonien 218 Gall 1966, 91-97; TIB Paphlagonien 221-22

1220 Grid A3 C3 E2 B2 B2 Name Iuliopolis = Gordioukome Iustiniani Pons Kaisareia/ Hadrianopolis/ Proseilemmene Kalekap Kales Kales fl. Kallichoros? fl.= Oxinas fl. Kallistratia? = Marsylla Kalmizene Kalpe Kandam Kandara? Karakoyunlu Karambis Karambis Pr. Karousa/ Polichnion *Karza Kastamonu Katapaspanas Kaukones Kavacik *Kelesa Kieros = Prusias ad Hypium Kieros fl. Kilisecik Kimiata *Kimista Kinolis Krktepeler Klimax *Klossama *Kobara Koloussa *Konkarztiakon Krateia/ Flaviopolis/ *Agrippeia? Kreteia Krenides Krentios Kromna Kurtolu Kyptasia Kytoros Ladon fl. Lagania/ Anastasioupolis Laziane Lamounia Legna Lepte/ Syrias Pr. Lilaios Period L RL/ RL/ R CHRL CRL RL

MAP 86 PAPHLAGONIA Modern Name / Location Reference Whitby 1985 ayrl settlement and rock tomb Alapl Alapl Su Mendel 1901, 6-13; RE Hadrianopolis 4; RE Proseilemmenitai 1; TIB Paphlagonien 63 Gall 1966, 13-57; TIB Paphlagonien 222-23 TIB Paphlagonien 223 TIB Paphlagonien 223

D3 A2 B3 D3 C2 D1 D1 F2 C3 D2 A3 C2 C3 B2 B3 B2 D3 C3 E2 E2 D2 D3 D3 E2 D3 C3

R L CHR HRL HR HRL R C R AC R? R H RL H R RL AH RL R L C L RL/ R/ R HRL RL ACHRL R? RL ACHRL R

Malos region Cendere settlement with tombs Fakas? Kerembe burnu Kyceiz rock tomb Yukari Knk between Tieion / Parthenios fll. Akkaya Kk Melen Su 2.5 miles S Heraclea Kurmalar, Ilgaz Deresamail Ginolu 10 tumuli W Pompeiopolis Kazall near Akata Doantepe Gllsu iftlik Gerede

TIB Galatien 201 See Map 52 TIB Paphlagonien 224 TIB Paphlagonien 224 TIB Paphlagonien 226 RE; TIB Paphlagonien 226-27 RE Karambis; TIB Paphlagonien 226-27 See Map 87 TIB Paphlagonien 227 Gall 1966, 65-68 INik 2.1.18 RE Drner 1952, 37, 57 BE 1963.264 Robert 1980, 63-64; TIB Paphlagonien 264 Asheri 1972, 50-59; TIB Paphlagonien 231 Kaygusuz 1983; TIB Paphlagonien 231-32 Kaygusuz 1982, 179; TIB Paphlagonien 232 RE Kimolis; TIB Paphlagonien 232-33 RE Paphlagonia, col. 2504; TIB Paphlagonien 184 Belke 1992, 149; TIB Paphlagonien 237 Mitchell 1982, 169-70 TIB Paphlagonien 238 TIB Paphlagonien 238 Mitchell 1982, 173-76; BE 1987.487 RE Flaviopolis 1; IK 31.73; TIB Paphlagonien 239-40 RE; TIB Paphlagonien 240-41 TIB Galatien 195 RE; TIB Paphlagonien 241-42 TIB Paphlagonien 243 RE Paphlagonia, col. 2545 RE; TIB Paphlagonien 245-46 Robert 1980, 183; TIB Paphlagonien 246-47 See Map 62 TIB Paphlagonien 247 See Map 62 RE; TIB Paphlagonien 247-48 RE Lepte 1 TIB Paphlagonien 248

B2 C3 C2 C2 F2 C2 B2 C4 D3 A4 C3 E1 B2

Kilimli near Girindos Teken near Eren Boaz Kidros / Stlce Devrek ay

L R RL RL

region around *Kobara near Krpazar nce Burun E Akakoca

MAP 86 PAPHLAGONIA Grid B2 D4 D3 C3 C3 C3 A3 A2 D1 C2 B2 A4 B3 C3 C3 B3 C2 F2 D2 A3 A3 D3 B2 B2 Name Lykos fl. Magaba/ Mordiacus M. Malos Mandris Manegordo Mantineion Mariandynoi Mariandynus Sinus Marsylla/ Kallistratia? Meles fl. Metroon/ Aulia Midaion Milia Mnizos Modicus M. Modra Mokata? Ocherainos/ Ochosbanes/ Ochthomanes fl. Olgassys M. *Ontoraita Optatianai, Mon. renehir Oxinas Oxinas/ Kallichoros? fl. Papanios fl. = Psilis fl. Paphlagonia Parthenia Parthenios fl. Peion/ Peon Petobrogen Pimolisa Pithekas? fl. Pompeiopolis/ Sebaste Pontus Euxinus Poseidon, T. Potamia Potamoi Potomia Cepora Prasmon Proseilemmene = Kaisareia Prusias ad Hypium/ Kieros Psilis/ Papanios fl. Psylla Period CHRL Modern Name / Location Gln Su Reference RE 5; TIB Paphlagonien 248 See Map 63 RL L L R?L CHR R L/ RL R RL/ L L RL L RL? H C/ R/ L R R? RL RL Kalecik Doanc Avdan near Ada Ky between Sangarius and Billaios fll. W Heraclea Kla? stream of Kromna near Kseaz near Eymir Baliek iftlii Abdssalm Da Mudurnu Muda, formerly Mukata Kara Su Ilgaz Dalar TIB Galatien 201-202 RE Manoris; TIB Paphlagonien 249 RE Manegordos Robert 1980, 138-46; TIB Paphlagonien 249-51 RE; Asheri 1972, 17-20; TIB Paphlagonien 251 Asheri 1972, 19 Belke 1992, 152; TIB Paphlagonien 223 Robert 1937, 265 (n. 3) RE 2; TIB Paphlagonien 252 See Map 62 TIB Galatien 205 TIB Galatien 207 TIB Galatien 207 Neumann 1986; ahin 1986, 125-29 TIB Paphlagonien 253 RE RE; TIB Paphlagonien 256 See Map 52 See Map 52 TIB Paphlagonien 256 TIB Paphlagonien 257-58 TIB Paphlagonien 257-58

1221

Oksina? Ilk Su?

C2 C2 C2 C3 C3 E3 A3 E2 B1 C2 C3 E2 C3 C3 B3 C2 B2

ACHRL RL? ACHRL HR/ L L HRL HRL/ R R? R RL L L HRL/ H L/ L RL

north-central Asia Minor Bartin Bartin Su Tabanlolu Kale near Perli iftlik Osmanck Takpr at mouth of Bartin Su Bayndr region Gibelit near Bayndr NE Ayas Konuralp

RE RE ; TIB Paphlagonien 258-59 RE 12; TIB Paphlagonien 259 TIB Galatien 212-13 TIB Galatien 215 RE; TIB Paphlagonien 207 See Map 52 RE; TIB Paphlagonien 260-62 See Map 1 RE Parthenios 12; TIB Paphlagonien 262 RE Paphlagonia, col. 547 TIB Paphlagonien 262-63 RE Paphlagonia, col. 2547; TIB Paphlagonien 263-64 TIB Galatien 216-17 RE Kieros; RE Prusias 5; TIB Paphlagonien 264-66 RE Paphlagonia, col. 2547; TIB Paphlagonien 266 von Diest 1889, 76; TIB Paphlagonien 266-67

atal Az

1222 Grid E2 B3 B2 A3 A3 D4 Name Sallar Salon Sandarake Sangarius fl. Sarcakaya Sarmalius Sebaste = Pompeiopolis Sesamos = Amastris Siberis fl. = Hieros fl. Sinope Sipahiler Skopas fl. Skopelos M. Soonautes fl. = Acheron fl. Sora Stephane Sunonensis L. = Boane L. Sykeon Syrias Pr. = Lepte Pr. Taouion/ Tabia Tarsos Tattaios Tektosages Tembris fl. Tepecik Thymena/ Teuthrania? Thynias/ Apollonia/ Daphnousia Ins. Tieion = Tios Timolaion Timonitis Tios/ Tieion Tolistobogioi Transmonte Trikomia? Trokmoi Xanthos fl. Ximene? Yagbalar Ylanl Yukarkararen *Zeita Zephyrion Ziporea Period C R RL

MAP 86 PAPHLAGONIA Modern Name / Location rock tomb Bolu region Zonguldak Reference Gall 1966, 57-65; TIB Paphlagonien 269 Robert 1980, 134; TIB Paphlagonien 270 RE ; TIB Paphlagonien 270 See Map 52 See Map 52 See Map 63

F1 C2 B3 F1 C2 E2 B3 E4 A3 A3 C3 A4 E2 D2 A2

R? RL RL L CRL L

temple Alada ay peninsula of Sinop Zora / Kaleky Istifan below Tahir

See Map 87 TIB Paphlagonien 271-72 TIB Galatien 226 RE 6 TIB Paphlagonien 272-73 RE 4; TIB Paphlagonien 273-74 TIB Galatien 228-29 See Map 63 See Map 52 See Map 52 RE Tektosagen; Mitchell 1974, 74 See Map 62 RE Paphlagonia, col. 2504 RE Teuthrania 3; TIB Paphlagonien 274-75 See Map 52

HR H RL/ R

Murtad Ova-Halys 4 tumuli, S Pompeiopolis Timne / Uurlu

D1 B2 C2 B3 B3 A4 E4 D3 E3 B3 C3 C3 C3 D1 D2

RL R HRL/ HR L

near ayyaka region of Mengen Hisarn near Baglca

TIB Paphlagonien 275 Strobel 1994, 48-49; TIB Paphlagonien 275-76 RE; TIB Paphlagonien 276-78 See Map 63 TIB Galatien 237 See Map 62 See Map 63 Robert 1980, 207-10; TIB Paphlagonien 281-82 RE TIB Paphlagonien 282 TIB Paphlagonien 283 TIB Paphlagonien 283

R R R RL RL R RL RL

Tatl ay orum region

Meydan Doganyurt Karafasl

TIB Paphlagonien 284 TIB Paphlagonien 284 TIB Paphlagonien 284-85

MAP 86 PAPHLAGONIA

1223

Aqueducts
Grid B2 B3 C2 Location Heraclea Prusias ad Hypium Tieion Period RL? RL? RL? Reference Hoepfner 1966, 31-33 IK 27.13 Marek 1993, 124-25

Bridges
Grid B3 B3 B3 C2 Location Iuliopolis Prusias ad Hypium on Siberis fl., near *Hieronpotamon SE Tieion at Derecikren Period L R L R Reference TIB Galatien 182 TIB Paphlagonien 264-65 TIB Galatien 228 TIB Paphlagonien 128, 189

Roads
Itinerary Dia Heraclea Tieion Amastris Abonouteichos Sinope Optatianai Bithynion Krateia Kandara? Pimolisa Dia Prusias ad Hypium Dableis Modra Bithynion Gkesu Tieion Krateia Carus Vicus Krentios Map 63 Kaisareia Sora Kastamonu (2 routes) Pompeiopolis Hambarkaya Sinope Salar Kastamonu Kandara? Gangra SW Tattaios Gordioukome Sykeon Anadynata Gangra *Kobara Pimolisa Hamamz Map 63 Map 87 (SE corner of 86) Period RL RL RL RL RL HRL R?L R?L RL R? RL Reference TIB Paphlagonien 127-30 TIB Paphlagonien 117-24 TIB Paphlagonien 130-31 TIB Paphlagonien 131-32 TIB Paphlagonien 133 French 1985, 143; TIB Paphlagonien 124-27 TIB Paphlagonien 134-35 TIB Paphlagonien 134-35 TIB Galatien 95-96 French 1984, 123; TIB Paphlagonien 117-24 Mitchell 1982, 96; French 1984, 123

Unlocated Toponyms
Name Akonai Anthemousis L. Arkiroessa Coralius fl. Dardanis Enete Hodioupolis Kadosia Kalpiton Kressa Krobialos Kyrsaita = Tyndaridai Period HR H H R H A H L H H AH Probable Location near Acheron fl. coast near Heraclea region of Heraclea W Heraclea region of Heraclea probably in Pontus region of Heraclea E Nicomedia N Galatia Paphlagonia coast, near Amastris References RE; TIB Paphlagonien 160 RE Anthemoeisis Asheri 1972, 32; TIB Paphlagonien 173 RE; TIB Paphlagonien 185 Asheri 1972, 32 Lasserre 1981, 208 RE Suppl. 9 Hodiupolis; TIB Paphlagonien 216 Janin 1975, 80 RE RE 2; TIB Paphlagonien 241 RE

1224 Name Lyre = Stheleni mon. Mala M. Marmolitis Mastya Matrix Mision Nymphaion Orminion Oros Paedopides fl. Poimen Poseideion/ Potistia Priola Sakorsa Sandarakourgion Oros Sanisene Skorobas Oros Sthenelou monu./ Lyre Tetrakis Theba(is) Ins. Tition Tobata Tyndaridai/ Kyrsaita Viciu Zoaka L R R L R RL R R H RL H R R R H H C H H R RL/ L L R Period

MAP 86 PAPHLAGONIA Probable Location References

near Gangra region of Paphlagonia between Billaios fl. and Kromna between Gangra and Ancyra near Pompeiopolis on coast, E Heraclea around Bithynion? E Heraclea region of Heraclea on coast, E Heraclea region of Heraclea near Pompeiopolis near Pimolisa Paphlagonia Bithynia / Paphlagonia border region W Paphlagonian coast W Sinope region of Heraclea in territory of Mariandynoi near Gangra on coast, E Heraclea road station between Gangra and Pompeiopolis near Gangra

TIB Paphlagonien 249 RE RE Mastya Milesiorum; TIB Paphlagonien 252 RE 2; TIB Paphlagonien 252 TIB Paphlagonien 252 RE 5; TIB Paphlagonien 255 RE; TIB Paphlagonien 256 TIB Paphlagonien 258 RE 5 Arrian, PPE 13.4; TIB Paphlagonien 262 RE; TIB Paphlagonien 264 TIB Paphlagonien 269 RE; TIB Paphlagonien 145-46 RE RE; TIB Paphlagonien 271 RE Sthenelos 1 RE RE TIB Paphlagonien 278 TIB Paphlagonien 278 Arrian, PPE 13.4; TIB Paphlagonien 279 TIB Paphlagonien 281 TIB Paphlagonien 285

False Toponyms
Name Diakimelion Dusae ad Olympum Reference BE 1987.487 RE Prusias 5, col. 1132 Comment misreading for Diakeimenon misreading for Prusias ad Hypium

Bibliography
Asheri 1972 D. Asheri and W. Hoepfner, Herakleia Pontike: Forschungen zur Geschichte und Topographie, DenkWien 106, Vienna, 1972. Belke 1992 K. Belke, Untersuchungen an der paphlagonischen Schwarzmeerkste, in R. Pillinger et al. (eds.), Die Schwarzmeerkuste in der Sptantike und im frhen Mittelalter, pp.145-54, Vienna, 1992.

MAP 86 PAPHLAGONIA

1225

Drner 1952 F.K. Drner, Bericht ber eine Reise in Bithynien,DenkWien 75, Vienna, 1952. French 1981 D.H. French, Roman roads and milestones of Asia Minor I: the Pilgrims Road, British Institute of Archaeology at Ankara Monograph 3, BAR International series 105, Oxford, 1981. French 1984 D. French, Roma yollar ve mil talar, Aratrma 2 (1984) 123-29. French 1985 D. French, Roma yollar ve mil talar, Aratrma 3 (1985) 143-54. Gall 1966 H. von Gall, Die paphlagonischen Felsgrber, Tbingen, 1966. Jerphanion 1914 G. de Jerphanion, Inscriptions de Cappadoce et du Pont, Mlanges de lUniversit Saint-Joseph (Beyrouth) 7 (1914-21) 1-22. Hoepfner 1966 W. Hoepfner, Herakleia Pontike-Ereli, DenkWien 89, Vienna, 1966. Janin 1975 R. Janin, Les glises et les monastres des grands centres byzantins, Paris, 1975. Kaygusuz 1982 I. Kaygusuz, Deux inscriptions de Gangra-Germanicopolis (ankr), ZPE 49 (1982) 177-83. Kaygusuz 1983 I. Kaygusuz, Zwei neue Inschriften aus Ilgaz (Olgassys) und Kimiatene, EpAnat 1 (1983) 59-60. Lasserre 1981 F. Lasserre (ed.), Strabon, Gographie, tome IX, Collection Bud, Paris, 1981. Leonhard 1915 R. Leonhard, Paphlagonia, Berlin, 1915. Marek 1993 C. Marek, Stadt, ra und Territorium in Pontus-Bithynia und Nord-Galatien, Istanbuler Forschungen 39, Tbingen, 1993.

Mendel 1901 G. Mendel, Inscriptions de Bithynie, BCH 25 (1901) 5-92. Mitchell 1974 S. Mitchell, Blucium and Peium, the Galatian forts of King Deiotarus, AnatSt 24 (1974) 61-75. Mitchell 1982 S. Mitchell, Regional epigraphic catalogues of Asia Minor II: the Ankara district, the inscriptions of North Galatia, British Institute of Archaeology at Ankara Monograph 4, BAR International Series 135, Oxford, 1982. Mitchell 1993 S. Mitchell, Anatolia: land, men and gods in Asia Minor, 2 vols., Oxford, 1993. Neumann 1986 G. Neumann, Modrovanik, EpAnat 8 (1986) 52. Robert 1937 L. Robert, Etudes anatoliennes, Paris, 1937. Robert 1980 L. Robert, A travers lAsie Mineure, BEFAR 239, 1980. ahin 1986 S. ahin, Studien ber die Probleme der historischen Geographie des nordwestlichen Kleinasiens I: Strabon XII 3,7 p. 543. Der Fluss Gallos, die Stadt Modr<en>e in Phrygia Epiktetos und Schiffbarkeit des Sangarios, EpAnat 7 (1986) 125-52. Strobel 1994 K. Strobel, Galatien und seine Grenzregionen, in E. Schwertheim (ed.), Forschungen in Galatien, Asia Minor Studien 12, pp. 29-65, Bonn, 1994. von Diest 1889 W. von Diest, Von Pergamon ber den Dindymos zum Pontos, Petermanns Mitteilungen, Ergnzungsheft 94, 1889. Whitby 1985 M. Whitby, Justinians bridge over the Sangarius and the date of Procopius de Aedificiis, JHS 105 (1985) 129-48. Wittek 1935 P. Wittek, Von der byzantinischen zur trkischen Toponymie, Byzantion 10 (1935) 11-64.