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• Drafting was previously a set of techniques (using compasses, angles, T-squares, etc.) for creating drawings that could be understood and used in manufacturing. • More recently drafting is focusing less on techniques and more on conventions, because of CAD systems. • The conventions of drafting are very important because they allow us to define parts in a way that they will be understood by any engineer, machinist, technologist, etc.
2.1 CONVENTIONAL DRAFTING
• The purpose of drafting is to present technical ideas in precise and concise forms. • A properly drafted drawing should be understood by any engineer. • A sample of a drafted drawing is given below.
0.25 2.50 Ø1.0005/0.9995 section A-A Notes: 1. Break sharp edges to 0.01 max. 2 Drill Ø0.985 ream to spec. part: bushing date: etc.... 2
2.1.1 Manual Drafting
• This is the use of drafting boards, pencils, pens, and a number of specialized tools for drafting. While this method is still very popular, the techniques used in manual drafting are quickly being displaced by CAD (Computer Aided Design) systems. • I will not cover some of the manual drawing topics list below, but more information on them appears in a large number of drafting books. - lettering - hand sketching - drawing ellipses - etc
2.1.2 Turning Three Dimensions Into Two (Multi View Drawings)
• The problem with drafting is that the paper is flat, while the object drawn is not. • To get around this we can develop a number of views to work with. - Front View - Top View (Plan View) - Right Side View - Left Side View • This method of developing views is known as Orthographic projection • This method eliminates the perspective distortion in real vision, thus making it easier for technical depiction. • In this method, object faces that are parallel to the viewing plane are shown as actual size, but objects that are not parallel are foreshortened. • The number of views used is a function of the geometry. For a simple object such as a washer, only one view is needed. A more complicated object, such as a piston, would require at least two views.
184.108.40.206 - The Glass Box
• The views are developed as if a glass box was placed over the object. The view from each direction was frozen, and when the box is unfolded, the resulting views are seen. • Imaging the case below of a small tetrahedron (a three pointed triangle),
cover with a glass box the part
freeze the view through each side of the glass box
Unfold the sides to get a set of views
• The drawings are layed out with certain conventions. The example above is continued below for illustration, In the figure extra construction lines are added to show how the drawings in the different views are related.Note that the top view is related to the side view using a 45° line. These properties are a result of the ‘glass box’ concept. The folding lines are often shown on drawings (they have two dashes and one long). Also note that in the figure shown below, the points in the top view will be the same distance from the folding line as they are in the side view.
the right side view would be on the left hand side. . In this drawing the right side view is to the right of the front view. For example.page 7 T F F R-S • The layout of the drawings is done by convention. • A useful method for keeping the large number of points in a drawing sorted is to number them. If this drawing observed european standards.
• Hidden lines are dashed lines used to show lines that not visible.3 3 4 2 4 • The view that is selected as the front is arbitrary.appear stable .1.chosen to minimize hidden lines in other views .3 Lines • The number of lines on drawings will become confusing.page 8 3 2 1 4 T F 1 1 F R-S 2.be a natural front to the object. but it should . . therefore this calls for some method for differentiating between lines.be the most important view . .contain most of the detail 2.
page 9 • Centre lines are used to show the axis of rotation for an object surface. . These lines are so light that they are often not even erased when the drawing is complete.S breaks . As a result.freehand breaks .for thin long/wide objects . These lines have long/ short dashes. There are three types of breaks commonly used.for long rectangular objects . • Construction lines are drawn on to help locate final drawing lines. construction line centre line hidden line phantom line drawing line break line dimension line leader cutting plane • Some objects have disproportionate dimensions. it may be necessary to ‘break’ them to show any reasonable level of detail.Z breaks .for round objects .
4 Holes • There are a number of holes commonly depicted in drawings. .1.page 10 S break Z break freehand break 2.
1.5 Special Cases 2.5. and shown at a consistent radial distance.1 .these holes stop part way through an object Tapered Holes - Counterbored Holes - 2.in some cases. but not necessarily in the correct position.page 11 Through Holes . • Holes are commonly rotated to simplify views . features are revolved.Aligned Features • Aligned features .1.these are cut all the way through an object Blind Holes .
page 12 preferred • Ribs and wings are commonly rotated to simplify views Preferred .
page 13 • Large features on parts may be rotated to simplify views. such as slots may also be rotated between views for clarity. and the undeformed state. Part is imagined in this position. and correctly dimensioned in the front view with the bend artificially removed • Sheet metal parts start out flat. but are deformed to new useful shapes. but drawn correctly in the top view But the part can be drawn. small features. . Therefore it is common to draw sheet metal parts in the deformed.
we may sometimes just leave them out. but they are commonly used in practice. .Incomplete Views • Incomplete views . • Some views will end up having an excessive number of hidden lines.5.certain details can be omitted to simplify the view. To combat this problem.2 . This method produces drawings that are not correct.page 14 2.1.
But. use half circles or use a break .page 15 • Large radial/cylindrical parts are often cropped to save space. enough is shown to make the remainder of the geometry obvious.
1 .two methods for representing materials. use 45° lines. .Full Sections • Full sections .generally a straight section line cuts through a part to give a complete view of the inside. except for clarity in some cases. use a conventional set of fill lines to represent the different types of materials. 2.1.has letters placed beside the arrow heads.does not have to be a straight line • sections can be lined to indicate.shown with thick black dashed lines. they may be hard to identify in normal views with hidden lines.has arrows at the end of the line to indicate the view direction .page 16 2. These will identify the section . these are called section views.when the section plane slices through material . lines at 30° and 60° may be used for example.6.1. This section typically replaces one of the views that is confusing. . First. • In these views hidden lines are generally not used.6 Section Views • when there are complicated internal features. and refer to material in title block. . If there are multiple materials. • The cutting plane for the section is. Second. . A view with some of the part “cut away” can make the internal features very easy to see.
.2 .6.page 17 A A A section view can clarify a view appreciably SECTION A-A 2.Offset Section • Full sections will experience difficulties when the features do not lie along a single line.1.
Half Section • In some cases it is better to illustrate internal features with both a section. but the direction must be observed . In this case we can cut away only part (a quarter) of the object. and a full view. • this method is well suited to symmetrical parts.page 18 • We can use a section line that is turned to cut through features.6. and draw a view that is half normal.3 .1. half section. with the section starting at the axis of symmetry • Take note that the section line here only has one arrow head. This view can be used to replace one of the principle views. A A SECTION A-A 2.
• In this case a break line is used. .Cut Away Sections • Instead of doing large scale sections.6. we can cut away a very specific region of interest.4 .1.page 19 A Section A 2. and the cutting plane lines used in other cases are not applicable.
The sections are then drawn at some other location on the page.page 20 2. In this case we can break out a section.1.1. we will want to show the shape. .5 .Revolved Section • When we have transition pieces.6. draw a section that is rotated 90° so that it is obvious on the drawing.6. or airplane wings. in between the breaks. select a characteristic section. but this is not easy with conventional views. and draw cut lines to either side. • With this method a break is not used.6 . • The basic procedure is to 1. • This method is useful when space is at a premium • The cutting plane line is not used with this technique 2. 2. • The only features shown are the features of the section. such as ribs.Removed Section • this is a more exact alternative to the revolved section method. but a cutting plane line is.
• these views are often placed at a distance and arranged in the same order as the sections. etc are used to avoid ambiguity. A B SECTION A-A A B SECTION B-B • These section may also be shown using lines extended from the object . B-B.page 21 • labels such as A-A.
1.7 .Auxiliary Section • A section can be done that does not lie in one of the primary planes. • This done as a normal section .page 22 • modified scales may also be used with appropriate notation 2.6.
spot welding. but a small space is left between the piece to indicate the assembled faces (operations such as crimping. such as sheet metal. • This illustrates how the pieces butt up against each other. • There are a number of elements present in these diagrams. To do this a cut away assembly drawing can be used. and that they can be assembled. • The sections are filled with black. SE CT IO N A A -A .Assembly Section • When placing parts together we want to verify that they will match.6.1.Thin Wall Section • This method is used for assemblies of thin materials.1.8 . We also want to provide assistance to the assembler.page 23 A 2.9 . etc are used for these) 2.6.
10 . .6. 1. 2.Special Cases • Because sections are to clarify confusing features on diagrams.generally section views are used. they are sometimes not theoretically correct.1. cutting lines may intersect ribs.two or more parts .page 24 . and oriented along the main assembly axis 3 2 4 1 4 3 2 1 ref # piston rod chamber o-rings description M8765 M87101 M8734 P8703 part # 1 1 1 3 qty.a parts list with numbered items . but they may be drawn offset somewhat to clarify the rib geometry. • A few of the cases that are considered when working with sections are.
sections may be aligned to clarify the views A A .page 25 A A Preferred 2.
and true shape. • These views are useful when we want to draw a view of a surface that is not normal to one of the primary viewing planes. two rounds that intersect at an angle other than 90° would have an unusual shape.6. • common terms used for this method are true size. cast iron and malleable iron steel and wrought iron bronze.page 26 3. if one is not drawn. alloys aluminum and magnesium and their alloys 2. Some examples are given below. the less important feature may be omitted for clarity.1. For example. brass copper zinc.1. • These views can be constructed from any view in a drawing. keep in mind that if a feature does not lie parallel to one of the primary viewing planes. If a cutting plane cuts through intersecting features. . the section becomes much easier to do. lead. typical names for these identify the view that they are drawn from.7 Auxiliary Views • The glass box can also be folded at odd angles.11 . or to save time. This technique produces views known as Auxiliary views. 2. it will appear distorted in every view.Fill Patterns • Sections can be filled with a number of patterns to indicate different materials • This was a common technique in the past.
a number of surfaces are not included because they are distorted. iii) an end view of a line. but normally only the angled face would be drawn. . 2. Also. draw construction lines perpendicular to the surface/line/point of interest. ii) a true length line. This line should go in a direction. and all faces are drawn for illustration. transfer distances from another view. 4.top auxiliary view .side auxiliary view • We can also use auxiliary views to project other views for geometric purposes • hidden lines are typically not used in auxiliary views. because an edge view is available. draw a folding line at an appropriate distance. Step 1: decide to draw the angled face of the block. 3. This view will typically be the view adjoining the view that the auxiliary is drawn from. and far enough that leaves enough space for the view. This will act as a reference plane. select the face that is to be drawn as i) a true surface. Complete the view. • typically steps followed to construct an auxiliary view. using the front view. 1. Because this is the first auxiliary from the drawing.front auxiliary view . it is called the primary auxiliary view.page 27 . • an example is given below. unless needed for clarity. and of little value. 5.
the view will be drawn in the open space in the upper right opening. Just as a visual check.page 28 Step 2: draw construction lines perpendicular to the face. Step 3: draw the fold line in for reference. each of the construction lines should be perpendicular .
9 1 2 d1 5 3 4 d2 9 10 1. We can transfer the distances either 1.8 d1 d2 7.10 4. Here the points are numbered for the readers benefit.7 2.5 from the top or side view.1 3 3.4 8.page 29 6 7 8 6.5 true surface Step 5: the view is completed .10 Step 4: Transfer distances to find points in the auxiliary view.10 5.6 8 9.6 2.9 4. 7 d2 2 d1 3.
and break lines use.Secondary Auxiliary Views • sometimes it is necessary to make an auxiliary view. these can be found in any drafting textbook. . but the distances can only be transferred from the first auxiliary for the second auxiliary.points can be projected into other views . When this is done.8 Descriptive Geometry • The use of drafting to determine geometric properties. find the true shape of the surface • These steps will allow determination of a number of properties.page 30 • There are special drafting techniques for rounded. find the end view of a line 3. using an auxiliary view. 2.7. such as shortest distances between points and lines. or curved surfaces. • This technique allows simplified illustrations of features of interest. 1. The second auxiliary is made from the first. • These methods use extensions to the methods of auxiliary views that allow curved surface to be considered. without full development of an auxiliary view. • These views can be needed for a number of purposes.lines can be projected into other views . they can be draw in part. find the edge view of the surface 4. find the true lengths of a line 2.1. • the basic steps in these methods are. or parallel to any of the viewing planes.1 .Partial Auxiliary Views • It is not necessary to draw entire auxiliary views. 2. etc. but generally they will be needed when the object does not lie perpendicular.1.2 .7. • These methods can also be used to solve statics (vector) problems. the first auxiliary is constructed as normal. 2.1.
2.distances between lines can be found . A list of these techniques are given below.page 31 .a point view of a line can be found .distance between a point and plane . with between half and full depth size) .drawing with circles .9 Isometric Views • These views are done as a way of realistically drawing objects. with full depth size) . This is not correct.drawing ellipses . but of declining interest in view of modern CAD systems. • The viewing directions are skewed so that up is still up.distances between points and lines can be found .cabinet (0-90°.Oblique views .using 30°/60° angles .10 Special Techniques • There are a number of special techniques of interest when doing manual drafting.general (0-90°.the true length of a line can be determined . and are described in good detail in most drafting books. • The values measured off these views will be accurate when measured along the axis.edge view of a plane 2. but it is very good for engineering problems.1. Both of the moved axis are drawn at 30° to the horizontal.cavalier (45°.angle between two planes .using special paper .drawing with revolution . and right goes to the right and back.1.drawing with four centres . . but straight back now goes to the left and back. as a perspective drawing would be.isometric drawing . with half depth size) .
• Some abbreviated terms are given below. or explain operations. CBORE CSK DIA HDN L LH NC NF P R Rc RH THD TIR TPI UNC UNF Description counterbore countersink diameter case harden lead left hand national course national fine pitch radius Rockwell C hardness right hand thread(s) total indicated runout threads per inch unified national course unified national fine .page 32 a unit cube is shown for illustration angle distance - 2.2 NOTATIONS • Typically these are a number of notations added to drawings to describe features. Abrev.
005” 1. . • Combines rules and independent symbols in addition to the normal tolerancing symbols • Allows old style tolerances. but adds new methods that cover geometrical forms.505” 1.495” • Tolerances use a nominal dimension and differences.5 (1983).005” 2.500” -0.2.1 Basic Dimensions and Tolerances • The size of an object. +0. • Allows easy specifications of datums.2. 1.page 33 2.2 Geometric Dimensioning and Tolerancing (GD & T) • Specified in standard ANSI Y14. etc. and the required accuracy can have a significant bearing on the cost • Unilateral Tolerances • Bilateral Tolerances • Limits can be used to exactly define the size boundaries of a feature.
allows separated features to be related . then C. • This indicates what the tolerance is.makes drawings clearer and more ambiguous . 0.page 34 • Advantages of this method are. but they provide the designer added flexibility in how they specify tolerances.the shapes specified must have the correct geometrical form fit .the overall dimensions are as specified form . the reference datums. This forms a reference coordinate frame.001 M A B C datums to be used in this case the part is placed against A. • An example of a feature control is given below. and any modifiers needed.the method helps specify manufacturing and metrology methods • The main purpose of GD&T is to ensure.the product conforms to performance specification 2. size .Feature Control Symbols • The basic of GD&T is the feature control symbol. its value. The maximum metal modifier the basic tolerance value the zone identifier the type of feature control (parallelism) • not all of these symbols/categories will be used on a regular basis.two parts must mate as specified function .1 .2. then B. . .2.uses symbols instead of words to reduce language translation problems .
page 35 2. all the surface elements are constrained to lie within two parallel surface places.2. separated by the tolerance .Symbols and Meaning • The basic symbols are shown below. tolerance type characteristic straightness flatness symbol individual features form circularity cylindricity for individual or related features profile of a line profile profile of a surface angularity orientation perpendicularity parallelism position related features location concentricity circular runout runout total runout • Flatness .basically.2.2 .
In effect.001 tolerance zone parallel planes means <0.001 tolerance zone parallel lines means <0. this means that if any line across the surface is within two parallel lines. separated by the tolerance.001 • Circularity . This can be tested by running a comparator across the surface (using a reference plane) 0.basically. the part is acceptable.all of the points on a cylindrical surface are constrained to lie within two circles.page 36 0. This can be tested with a talyrond.001 • Straightness . one the surface elements is constrained to lie within two parallel surface places. .
01 0.01 tolerance zone means • Cylindricity . This could be measured with a sine bar and a height comparator.01 tolerance zone 0.01 means and 0. 0. .requires that all points on a specified feature must form an angle with a datum.page 37 0.01 tolerance zone • Concentricity • Angularity .an extension to circularity that specifies the tolerance along the cylinder.
page 38 0. • Line Profile .1 0.the amount of deviation that is allowed (typically for irregular lines) . but it is specifically applied to 90• angles. This could be measured with squares and reference plates.01 A -A0.all points on a surface are to be parallel to a given datum.02 tolerance zone 40° 40° -A- • Perpendicularity . • Symmetry • Parallelism .01 tolerance zone 05.this has the same meaning as angularity. within a specified tolerance 0.02 A 0.5±0.
01 • Surface Profile .01 This means over the entire surface • Circular Runout .01 0.when dealing with a surface of revolution.page 39 0. This specifically refers to a specific point . this determines the amount of deviation allowed from the central axis.the amount of deviation that is allowed for a surface 0.
axes .01 A -A0. for manufacturing or production • Typical features used are. .2. the cross section of the part will result in the specified tolerance • Total Runout .01 tolerance zone this means that at any point along the axis. 2 in the secondary plane.Datums • These are reference features. but this applies to the entire part. .three perpendicular planes . that other features are to be measured against. In effect. and 1 in the tertiary • A datum is specified with a boxed letter with two dashes.cylinders . circular runout uses two circles.3 contact points in the primary plane. • These can be used when setting up parts. 2.planes .similar to circular runout. whereas total runout uses two surface planes. .lines .2.3 .points • A datum reference frame can be constructed with.page 40 0.
.the tolerance is at the extreme that would result if too little material was cut off. To do this the basic surface must be specified as a datum. and the minimum material remains.Modifiers • to overcome shortcomings in symbols.a tolerance zone can be extended beyond a surface.2. P Projected tolerance zone . and the maximum material remains. S Regardless of features size (RFS) .2.the tolerance is at the extreme that would result if too much material was cut off. modifiers can be added to change their meanings. M Maximum material condition .4 . regardless of variations in this size of the object.page 41 -B- -A- 2. • in particular.this indicates that the tolerance must be maintained. L Least (Minimum) material condition .
.a drawing (one a separate sheet with a separate title block) for each part .indicate manufacturing preferences • generally.part number .3.1.an assembly drawing • a typical working drawing package will contain.drawing number . and division if applicable .assembly drawings (and a Bill of Materials) .describe the exact geometry of parts .3 WORKING DRAWINGS • The basic skills/topics discussed below lead up to preparing. • The purpose of working drawings is to. . and understanding a complete set of drawings.1 .modified purchased parts 2.a design layout .subassembly drawings .machine or department name . the drawing package will include a number of items.the number of parts required . .indicate other details associated with drawings (for example.3.purchased parts .detailed drawing .Title Blocks • Most of the important details are put in this block.a bill of materials .show how parts are assembled .part name .the scale . material) . .page 42 ************ Include an example of tolerances using GD&T 2. Each block is individualized to a company. but generally they include.company name.1 Drawing Elements 2.
3. • Computer CAD systems still do not sufficiently deal with problems such as these. accuracy. are other steps sufficient for product life.completeness . or marked void (failure to do this can lead to very expensive mistakes) . and new drawings made . and drawing number are commonly printed in large fonts 2. etc. are tolerances sufficient/excessive.appearance .page 43 . and is being developed for product information management (PIM) that will deal with these changes in a manner suitable for CAD.1.units of drawing • The block is typically located in the bottom right hand corner of the drawing • The drawing title.redundancy . it is considered final.Drawing Revisions • When a drawing has reached production.drawing checker name/date .legal and corporate .within standards .drafter name/date . etc should be present for production .this can be a large issue for hand drawn work . and often rely on the previous manual drafting systems to process these updates.when a drawing has been changed a number of times. it should be redrafted. This means.3 .the cost and feasibility of production should be considered.material . especially solid modeler should reduce the emphasis on checking the drawings.3.sufficient dimensions.redundant information should be eliminated unless essential . Some of the main features checked for in manual drawings are.all description.tolerances . But.manufacturability .all old drawing must be collected. . - 2. .all changes are recorded on the drawing. but changes are frequently made.2 . . dimensions. • It is very important that drawing changes are dealt with properly.clarity .finishing details . etc should be well understood .1. • modern CAD systems. software is available.Drawing Checking • this is a process whereby a drawing is reviewed for completeness.
2 Drawing Types 2. . specialty purchase (e. 1.all part names .g. standard purchased hardware (e.g. or on the drawing itself • The typical (but not the only) order for listing parts on a BOM is.quantity of parts required .materials required .3. washers) 4.2.Bill of Materials (BOM) • An important list on most drawings is a Bill of Materials.Assembly Drawings • These are used to specify an assembly with. produced in-house 2.page 44 220.127.116.11 .all part numbers . lubricants) 2. . .3. Details may also be omitted if they have no bearing on the product • assembly instructions may also be included in these drawings to guide workers • full section assembly drawings are often used • dimensions not included unless essential • Small blow-up bubbles are often used to emphasize details • The parts can be identified using. • This list contains.g.1 .. this is a list of all required materials/ parts required to make to part depicted in the drawing. roller bearings) 3.source • This is sometimes given on separate sheets. bulk items (e.a drawing of the assembled part • Hidden lines are typically omitted from these drawings.
the orientation of the part .Detailed Drawings • These drawings use the techniques discussed earlier in this section to depict.2.3. whereas a sub-assembly might be the car radio. .numbers with arrows and a block list of parts including.Subassembly Drawings • these are basically the same as assembly drawings.quantity .page 45 .3 . .3.part number .part name .quantity . • Modern equipment is complex and is assembled in stages. ************************* INCLUDE A COMPLETE DRAWING PACKAGE TO ILLUSTRATE .4 . The final assembly might be something like an automotive body welding shop. and dimension parts.which part goes where . and indicates their assembly paths.part name .part source .2.drawing number . 2.the order of assembly 2.2 .arrows and descriptions .part number .the part of approach . This can help when determining.Exploded Assembly Drawings • these are drawings that show each piece separated.3.part source .reference number .drawing number 2. except that there are components that have already been assembled.2.
4 PRACTICE PROBLEMS 2. D.G..page 46 2. McGraw-Hill. . 1997. The Mechanical Design Process.5 REFERENCES Ullman.
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