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Respiratory System

Class: Animal Science Time: 90 minutes Area: Animal Systems Job: Respiratory System Lesson: Respiratory Road Trip

Desired Outcomes for this Lesson

Goal(s) for this lesson: Understand the role of the respiratory system its interactions and impact on animal health

Standards addressed in this lesson: ANSC.03.12.a Identify major parts and their functions ANSC.03.12.b Relate functions to other systems ANSC.03.12.c Determine how changes affect the individual systems and a healthy animal Critical Thinking and Reasoning: Determine reasoning for cattle dying in South Dakota. Interpret information and draw conclusions on how the system relates to body function. Communication and Collaboration: Assume shared responsibility for identifying vocabulary Articulate thoughts and ideas using oral, written and non verbal communication skills Information Literacy: Become literate with information presented in class to make educated assumptions in agriculture Evaluate new information and analyze the importance of the system Essential Questions: What questions will be answered as a result of this lesson? What is the anatomy and function of the respiratory system? What is the normal respiration rate for common domestic animals?

21st Century Skills

Objectives: By the end of the lesson the learner will. Identify major parts of the respiratory system and their functions Relate the respiratory system functions to other systems Determine how changes affect the respiratory system through mapping out the system

Assessments to Measure Student Growth

Unit: Summative Assessment-put together by Mrs. Spaur. This lesson: 10 various types of questions relating to the respiratory system. Road map of the Respiratory System

Respiratory System

The Learning Plan

Materials: Note sheets (see attached) Cards with Vocab words (note cards hand written or typed) Notebooks Pencil Paper-Map of the Respiratory System Phone or Vet Science Book Terms to Know: Pharynx Larynx Glottis Epoglottis Trachea Bronchi (Bronchus) Lungs Bronchioles Alveoli Capillaries Pulmonary Veins Diaphragm Intercostal Muscle Respiration Rates Resources: Ag Ed Net-Respiratory System Lesson (Via Melinda Spaur) Respiratory System Song Special Instructions: Be silly and engaging with the students. The respiratory system can be dry and boring but has the ability to be catchy. Use humor and engagement to pull interest in. Read the class to ensure that a connection will be made. **pre-load video on web browers **set cards around the room for Go Get It moment **hand out work sheets to students so that transition can be easy into notes **hand out blank paper to students for final activity **Make sure that clicker works for powerpoint

Engage/ Motivation: Time: 10 minutes

Welcome students to class. Ask about the weekend and get students engaged in the lesson today. From there, lead into the powerpoint and introduce the Respiratory system song. (Pre-load video on browser) Respiratory System Song After song, discuss with students about the video, why was it important, the relevance of the video

Respiratory System
to the lesson and how they can use that as a study guide for the exam. Explain that the song represents the human respiratory system and that there are different factors of the system in animals depending on size, shape and overall composure of the animal. Finalize discussion on the video and then transition to the note sheet that was handed out at the beginning on class. Use conversation in class to guide discussion into the notes of the respiratory system. **If engaging the class is difficult, split the class in half and tell both halves of the class there will be a competition. One half of the class has to breathe in for 5 minutes the other can only breathe out for 5 minutes. This activity will get students thinking about the breathing process and challenge their learning by answering the question Why can we not breathe in or out for 5 minutes continuously. Transition into why breathing is important Explore/ Discovery of information: Time: 20-30 minutes

Using notes from Powerpoint, begin to discuss the respiratory system. *Use literacy strategy-vocal recall for the vocab words to reinforce pronunciation and phonics. Air enters the animal through the nasal passages or mouth. The air passes through the pharynx. The pharynx is the common opening in the back of the mouth that is used for both air exchange and swallowing. The pharynx has special structures present to help ensure that food is not inhaled. The larynx is the firm cartilage structure at the opening to the major airways. This structure can be palpated (felt) at the top of the neck. In humans, this structure is also called the Adam's apple. The larynx contains the vocal folds, which are the structures that allow vocalization in animals and humans. The opening in the larynx, between the vocal folds, is called the glottis. A cartilage flap, the epiglottis, protects the opening during swallowing. The epiglottis hinges at the base of the larynx and folds upwards during swallowing. While breathing, the epiglottis does not cover the opening, thus allowing for free exchange of air. This action is entirely an involuntary process, automatically protecting the airways. As the air passes through the larynx, it enters the trachea. The trachea is the firm windpipe that is palpable in the neck. The trachea enters the chest, to about the region of the heart. At this point, the trachea branches into two major bronchi. (The singular form of bronchi is bronchus.) Each bronchus leads to half of the lung on opposite sides of the chest. These major bronchi branch into smaller bronchi, dividing and entering different areas of the lungs. The lungs have two halves, surrounding the centrally located heart. The bronchi continue to divide into smaller and smaller airways, forming the bronchioles. The bronchioles have smooth muscle in their walls. This smooth muscle can cause the airways to open further or close more tightly. Irritants, such as smoke, can cause the bronchioles to constrict. This protective reflex attempts to keep irritants out of the lungs. The bronchioles then form into the smallest openings, the alveoli. Gas exchange occurs in

Respiratory System
these microscopic pouches. A very thin simple squamous epithelium lines the alveoli. Capillaries, which also have a very thin epithelium, surround the alveoli. This brings the inhaled air into close proximity to the circulating blood. The blood being delivered in the pulmonary circulation is low in oxygen and high in carbon dioxide. The gases exchange readily with the alveoli, delivering the oxygen and retrieving the carbon dioxide. At this location, the hemoglobin absorbs the maximum amount of oxygen. The blood entering the pulmonary veins has a high amount of oxygen and minimal carbon dioxide.

Explain/ Provide new information: Time: 10-20 minutes

How does breathing happen? Breathing allows air to be exchanged between the animal and the environment. This two-step process includes inspiration, where air is taken into the lungs, and expiration, in which the air is forced to the outside. When inhaling, the chest cavity increases in volume. This occurs in two ways. First, the muscles between the ribs (the intercostal muscles) contract to raise the ribs, expanding the chest. Also, the diaphragm contracts, forcing itself toward the abdomen. Again the movement of the diaphragm increases the volume of the chest. Increasing the volume of the chest effectively lowers the pressure within the lungs. This allows air from the environment to flow into the lungs. During this entire process the lungs maintain close contact with the lining of the thorax. When the intercostal muscles relax, the ribs lower. As the diaphragm relaxes it domes forward towards the chest. The elastic tissue in the lungs recoils, driving out the air. Expiration can be a passive process. By relaxing, the process automatically forces air outwards. Contracting other intercostal muscles and the muscles of the abdomen can voluntarily increase expiration. This happens during periods of high activity, where the demand for oxygen increases. By initiating this muscle activity, air can be forced outward more

Elaborate/ Apply in a new context: Time: 10-15 minutes

Go Get ItAround the room, place cards that have various vocab words on them. Students will get out of their seats and go get a card. They will read over the card, and add something new to the card. After they have the card they will partner with another student and discuss what their card said and why it is important in the respiratory system. Students will then go around the room and explain their card so that the entire class gets to understand the main points. Before entering back into the respiration rate, extend the students knowledge though elaborating on the South Dakota Cattle Incident. Show picture of lungs that are normal in a cow, lungs that are at the beginning stages of pneumonia and advanced stages of pneumonia. Have students analyze the differences between the three and why it is important to understand the system. Transition into what really happened to the cattle: drowning. This happened because the cattle breathed in the snow which collected in their lungs rendering them incapable of breathing, which led to most deaths. Explain how veterinarians were contacted to

Respiratory System
examine bodies of cattle to determine cause of death as the causes led to compensation from insurance. *Ensure that students understand the connection between the 2 types of death in animals and why understanding the respiration system is essential in the real world. From this point transition into the respiration rates of animals. Use the examples from the cattle in South Dakota to help students understand that respiration rates increase due to action in the body and that increased respiration rates are the result of more active muscles making the body work harder.

Respiration Rates This basic respiration rate changes in response to the demands of the body. When an animal is more active, the muscles produce more carbon dioxide. Carbon dioxide stimulates faster respiration. Special receptors in major arteries detect the increase of carbon dioxide in the blood. Signals are sent to the brain from these receptors. The brain then stimulates a faster respiration rate. The increase in carbon dioxide also stimulates the bronchioles to dilate. This opens the airways and improves the delivery of air to the alveoli. Table 1 shows the respiration rate for several animals.

Table 1: Animal Respiration Rate Animal Cat Dog Sheep Cow Horse Human Guinea Pig Hamster Respiration Rate (breaths per minute) 26 22 19 30 12 12 90 74

**Discussion points-Cow and horse respiration rate differences-Difference in capacity of lungs, more body components to power which results in more work that a cow has to endure (4 stomachs compared to 1). Compare humans to guinea pig, compare lung capacity. Have student look up on phone the respiration rate of a mouse (161 bpm). This will help students put respiration rates into perspective. Have students ask questions then transition into the key point review. Have students go around the room (depends on size of class) read each key point off the slide show. These key points will help students finalize their notes and solidify new information from the lesson.

Respiratory System
Why is this important Wrap up by having a discussion about why respiration is important. Hit key points Air passes through the pharynx The Larynx is the opening to the major airways The epiglottis allows free exchange of air Air enters into the trachea which is an entrance to the chest. Bronchi branches from the trachea-entering into the lungs Bronchioles have smooth muscles on walls that open or close to protect the lungs Alveoli are the smallest opening that allows for gas exchange Capillaries surround the alveoli which brings air near circulating blood Blood delivered is low in oxygen and high in carbon dioxide-pulmonary circulation Blood entering is high in oxygen and low in carbon dioxide-pulmonary veins Hemoglobin absorbs oxygen 2 steps in breathing-chest expands increasing volume-chest contracts decreasing volume

From here, students will be asked to pull out the blank sheet of paper. The directions will be posted on the screen for students to read. Use examples to demonstrate the quality of work that is expected from the student. Show a poor one without color or labeling and show one that is colorful and labeled, show an example of mind mapping, in order to get the students thinking about their project. **this will be assigned as homework but students should have about 10-20 minutes to get started on the project. Evaluate/ Assessment: Time: 10-20 minutes (homework)

Road map of the Respiratory System Work individually to create an illustrated guide to the respiratory system in the style of a flashy road map, mind mapping, or travel brochure. It can be as creative or simple as the student wants. It must contain color, vocabulary words, pictures, diagrams or examples, and an accurate representation of the respiration system, as it pertains to the body function of humans or animals. The goal is for someone who has never been to the respiratory system to understand how to move around and to find their way around the system.

Closure: One thing you learned today-go around the room-one word to describe information that was learned, a key take away from the lesson. *if class is bigger, have students take out a sheet of paper and write a ticket out the door to summarize learning for the day.

Modifications Accommodations

*For special needs partner student with another student in class to help work through the notes depending on severity. *Leave directions on powerpoint for student reference back. *Use blackboard to send out other information that may help solidify information.

Respiratory System