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Eor

Eor

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Published by Eng Tanvir Hossain
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WHAT IS E O R ? • EOR is oil recovery by the injection of materials not normally present in the reservoir.in another definition.

• EOR is applying methods to recover more oil than producible by natural mechanisms or primary recovery.
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Tayfun Babadagli, PhD, PEng

Short Course - EOR

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ENHANCED OIL RECOVERY TECHNIQUES
1. WATERFLOODING 2. IMPROVED WATERFLOODING  Viscous or Polymer Injection  Low Interfacial Tension Waterflooding  Alkaline Injection 3. MISCIBLE TYPE WATERFLOODING  Alcohol Injection  Surfactant/Polymer (Micelle) Injection

Tayfun Babadagli, PhD, PEng

Short Course - EOR

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ENHANCED OIL RECOVERY TECHNIQUES
4. HYDROCARBON and OTHER GAS INJECTION  Miscible Solvent (LPG or propane) Injection  Enriched Gas Injection  High Pressure Gas Injection  Flue gas (87 % N2, 13 % CO2)  CO2  Nitrogen Injection 5. THERMAL METHODS  Hot Water and Steam Injection  In-situ Combustion 6. MINING and EXTRACTION METHODS 7. MICROBIAL
APPLICATION OF TWO or MORE OF THESE METHODS SIMULTANEOUSLY
Tayfun Babadagli, PhD, PEng Short Course - EOR File-3

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ENHANCED OIL RECOVERY METHODS 1. 2. WATERFLOODING GAS INJECTION  Hydrocarbon gases (miscible)  Nitrogen or flue gas (87 % N2, 13 % CO2)  CO2 3. CHEMICAL INJECTION  Polymer injection  Low interfacial tension (surfactant) injection  Alkaline injection THERMAL METHODS  Hot water injection  Steam injection  In-situ combustion 5. OTHERS  Microbial  Mining or extraction
Tayfun Babadagli, PhD, PEng Short Course - EOR

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•Another critical question is the distribution of oil remaining. chemical.EOR 5 File-3 . •Two thirds of the OOIP is the target. gas. horizontal etc) [For terminology see Stasur. PEng Short Course . Tayfun Babadagli. 2003). •The critical question is how much of these reserves can be recovered by EOR (thermal. PhD. light oil reservoirs yield one third of the OOIP by natural energy.ENHANCED OIL RECOVERY •On average.

SPE 84864) Tayfun Babadagli. PhD.EOR 6 File-3 .STATUS OF EOR In the USA: 37 % Primary 51 % Secondary (waterflooding and gas pressure maintenance) 12 % EOR In the world: 3. PEng Short Course .9 million bbls/day) (Stasur.7 % EOR (2.

Note the late response of EOR Peaks (Stasur. SPE 84864) 7 Tayfun Babadagli.EOR File-3 . PhD. PEng Short Course .

SPE 84864) Tayfun Babadagli.FUTURE of EOR will depend on •The rate of technology development •World’s economic activity •Climate change scenarios •Population growth •Politics •OIL PRICE and SUPPLY Technologies that have not materialized: •Horizontal wells in EOR •4-D seismic and crosswell tomography (to tell where the oil left is) (Stasur.EOR 8 File-3 . PhD. PEng Short Course .

PEng Short Course . SPE 84864) Tayfun Babadagli.EOR 9 File-3 . PhD. •US reached its peak for EOR production. •EOR contribution will not exceed 18% of toal production in the US and world. (Stasur.NEXT 25 YEARS •EOR extremely sensitive to oil price and its stability.

PhD. PEng Short Course . and Eng. Dec.EOR 10 File-3 .EOR FIELD EXPERIENCES SPE Res. 2007 Tayfun Babadagli. Eval.

Tayfun Babadagli. PEng Short Course . PhD.EOR 11 File-3 .

Tayfun Babadagli. PEng Short Course .EOR 12 File-3 . PhD.

Tayfun Babadagli. PEng Short Course . PhD.EOR 13 File-3 .

PEng Short Course . and Eng. J. Sci.EOR •10-20% error for ROS is tolerable for primary and secondary •5% error for ROS is disaster for EOR (Egbogah.ECONOMICS OF EOR Discounted Cash Flow ROR. 1978 Tayfun Babadagli. Pet. %PV Blackwell. % 20 15 10 5 0 20 25 30 35 40 Residual Oil Saturation. PhD.) 14 File-3 . 1994.

enhances gravity drainage. GAS INJECTION Nitrogen and flue gas: provides gas drive. Tayfun Babadagli. Methane + ethane + propane. Decrease oil viscosity by swelling. PEng Short Course . CO2 (miscible or immiscible). LPG. First or multiple contact miscibility is achieved. Recovery by reduction in IFT and generating miscibility. PhD. generates miscibility by vaporizing the lighter part of the oil.MECHANISMS WATERFLOODING To maintain reservoir pressure or to displace oil by increasing viscous forces.EOR 15 File-3 .

Wettability alteration. PEng Short Course .MECHANISMS (cont.) CHEMICAL INJECTION Micelle. surfactant and alkaline (caustic) reduced IFT. Steam supplies pressure to drive oil to the production well. PhD.EOR 16 File-3 . Tayfun Babadagli. THERMAL METHODS Increase the recovery by reducing the viscosity of oil and thermal expansion of oil. Polymer increases water viscosity and decreases the relative permeability to water phase.

heterogeneity. pressure etc. low API gravity) Tayfun Babadagli. PhD. fractures. Properties of oil (high viscosity. Reservoir rock properties (low k.REASONS OF LOW OIL PRODUCTION 1. PEng Short Course .EOR 17 File-3 .) 2.

18 Tayfun Babadagli. Surfactant. alkaline. CO2 injection. In this case. the viscosity of oil should be reduced (thermal methods. the availability of injection fluid is critical in this decision. Also. · INCREASING THE VISCOSITY OF INJECTED FLUID: Ideally.REASONS OF LOW OIL PRODUCTION Based on these reasons proper methodology should be selected and applied. displacing fluid should have a viscosity value close to displaced one. · REDUCING OIL VISCOSITY: Ideally. PhD. In this case. the viscosity of water should be increased (polymer injection). If they are miscible (IFT = 0) this does not occur. it moves faster passing it (viscous fingering). immiscible CO2).EOR File-3 . HC gases. displacing fluid should have a viscosity value close to displaced one. · REDUCING IFT: If displacing fluid is faster than displaced one. PEng Short Course .

EOR SCREENING CRITERIA (After Teber at el. SPE Res. PhD. Aug.. PEng Short Course .EOR File-3 . 1997) 19 Tayfun Babadagli. Eng.

PhD. PEng Short Course .EOR File-3 ./POLY. & MICELLAR POLYMER IN-SITU COMBUSTION STEAM 20 Tayfun Babadagli.CRITICAL PARAMETERS IN EOR ROCK PROPERTIES RESERVOIR PROPERTIES FLUID PROPERTIES    Porosity Permeability Fractures       Lithology Depth Thickness Amount of oil in place Pressure Temperature    API Gravity Oil Viscosity Formation water OIL GRAVITY 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 N2 and FLUE GAS HC GAS CO2 MISCIBLE IMMISCIBLE GAS ALKALINE/SURF.

RESIDUAL OIL SATURATION WATER WET 1 RELATIVE PERMEABILITY. kr Oil Water 0 Swi 50 S or 100 WATER SATURATION.EOR 21 File-3 . PEng Short Course . PhD. % Tayfun Babadagli.

PEng Short Course . SPE Tayfun Babadagli. PhD. Handbook.EOR 22 File-3 .ROS and Temperature (natural sand) Swi and Temperature (natural sand) Petroleum Eng.

SPE Tayfun Babadagli. PEng Short Course .Oil-Water Relative Permeabilities and temperature (Houston sand. 80 cp oil) ROS and Temperature (natural sand) 23 Petroleum Eng. Handbook.EOR File-3 . PhD.

PEng Short Course . PhD. Handbook.ROS and Temperature (Boise Sandstone) Viscosity and Temperature (natural sand) Petroleum Eng.EOR 24 File-3 . SPE Tayfun Babadagli.

Pet. PhD. 37.Farouq Ali (J. Sci. PEng Short Course . and Eng. 2003. Tayfun Babadagli.EOR 25 File-3 .

HYDROCARBON MISCIBLE PROCESSES Tayfun Babadagli.EOR 26 File-3 . PEng Short Course . PhD.

Petroleum Engineer (1976) Advantages All contacted oil is totally displaced. Low pressures are needed for miscibility.. PhD. It can be used as a secondary or tertiary process. Tayfun Babadagli. PEng Short Course . is best applied in steeply dipping beds. 27 Slug materials are expensive. Disadvantages Process involves poor sweep efficiency.LPG Slug Process After Herbeck et al. Sizing of slug is difficult due to dispersion.EOR File-3 . The process is applicable in a wide range of reservoirs.

. substitute gases require higher injection pressure.High Pressure Lean Gas (Methane. N2 or Flue Gas) After Herbeck et al. Lean gas is less expensive than propane or enriched gas. PEng Short Course . Petroleum Engineer (1976) Advantages The lean gas process provides a displacement efficiency approaching 100%. It involves high injection pressures. 28 Cost of natural gas is high. Ethane. Areal sweep efficiency and gravity segregation are poor. Tayfun Babadagli. No slug sizing problems due to continuous injection occur. PhD. Gas can be cycled and reinjected. Disadvantages The process has limited applicability because reservoir oil must be rich in C2-C6.EOR File-3 . The process can regenerate miscibility if lost.

butane) Drive After Herbeck et al. PEng Short Course .Enriched Gas (Methane with ethane. Disadvantages The process has poor sweep efficiency. Petroleum Engineer (1976) Advantages The enriched gas process displaces essentially all residual oil contacted. Miscibility can be regained if lost in the reservoir. Large slug sizes minimize slug design problems. It develops miscibility at lower pressures than lean gas drive. Gravity override occurs in thick formations. 29 Viscous fingering leads to slug dissipation. Gas costs are high.. PhD. propane. This process is lower cost than the propane slug process. Tayfun Babadagli.EOR File-3 .

Special handling and recycling of produced gas.. PEng Short Course .CO2 Injection After Herbeck et al. PhD. Tayfun Babadagli. Applicable to wider range of oils than HC methods. Additional recovery due to solution gas. Corrosion.EOR 30 File-3 . Expensive to transport. Petroleum Engineer (1976) Advantages Miscibility can be achieved (and regenerated if lost) in low pressures. Disadvantages Availability. High displacement efficiency if it is miscible displacement. Poor sweep and gravity override.

S.EOR File-3 . DOE 31 Tayfun Babadagli. PhD. PEng Short Course .After U.

PEng Short Course .EOR 32 File-3 . PhD.THERMAL TECHNIQUES Tayfun Babadagli.

PEng Short Course . PhD. DOE Tayfun Babadagli.After U.S.EOR 33 File-3 .

DOE Tayfun Babadagli.S.After U.EOR 34 File-3 . PEng Short Course . PhD.

Steam Injection After Herbeck et al. Finding good quality boiler-feed water (or treatment). Front-end costs are moderate compared to chemical methods. emission from generators.. Tayfun Babadagli. Petroleum Engineer (1976) Advantages Proven technique.EOR 35 File-3 . Sand production. PEng Short Course . emulsion. Disadvantages Ultimate recovery for steam soak is low. Displacement efficiency is high. Close spacing is required. Produced oil or gas could be used to fuel the steam generators. Depth limitation applies due to heat losses and high steam pressure. PhD.

Petroleum Engineer (1976) Short Course . PEng After Herbeck et al. emulsion handling.In Situ Combustion Advantages Applicable to wide variety of reservoirs (up to 40 API) Heat generation is more efficient High displacement efficiency Air is readily available Produces lighter oil than in the reservoir Disadvantages Controlling flam front Corrosion. PhD..EOR 36 File-3 . compression cost Gravity segregation Noxious gas due to combustion Excessive heat damages producing equipment Tayfun Babadagli.

PEng Short Course . DOE Tayfun Babadagli. PhD.S.EOR 37 File-3 .After U.

PEng Short Course .EOR 38 File-3 .CHEMICAL TECHNIQUES Tayfun Babadagli. PhD.

Production technology is similar to waterflooding. Petroleum Engineer (1976) Advantages High unit displacement and areal sweep efficiency . Disadvantages Chemical cost is high..Micellar-Polymer Flooding After Herbeck et al. Tayfun Babadagli. Slug design process is sophisticated.EOR 39 File-3 . PhD. Gravity segregation is not critical. Performance prediction is poor due to mixing and dispersion of slug. Applicable to wide range of reservoirs. PEng Short Course .

PhD. Performance prediction is poor due to mixing and dispersion of slug. Petroleum Engineer (1976) Disadvantages Corrosion. Not well suited for carbonates. Applicable to wide range of crude oils.EOR 40 File-3 . PEng Short Course . After Herbeck et al. Conversion from waterflooding to caustic is easy. Tayfun Babadagli. Gypsum and anhydrite precipitation.Caustic (Alkaline) Flooding Advantages Relatively inexpensive. Better mobility control than gas injection..

Polymers are nontoxic and noncorrosive.. Petroleum Engineer (1976) Advantages High vertical and areal sweep efficiency .Polymer Flooding After Herbeck et al. Tayfun Babadagli. Expensive. Polysaccharides require filtration and bactericides. Polyacrylamides require special surface handling. PEng Short Course . bacterial or shearing action. Disadvantages Polymers are degradable by chemical. Reduces WOR. PhD.EOR 41 File-3 . Similar production technology to waterfloods.

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