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1834 /





t i

Regions of sorrow, doleful shades, where peace And rest can never dwell. hope n"u", "o-".That comes to all;3 but tortuie without end S_till urges,o and a fiery deluge. fed


|1d $rqi in the glorious enterpirise, Joined with me once, now misery hatir loined In equal ruin: into what pit thou seest height fall,n, io m.rch rhe srronger proved !'_rom_r.1, He with his thunder:o and till then who kneThe florce of those dire arms? yet not fo.ltl.,.
Nor what

For those rebellious, here their p.i.on ordained In utter darkness, and their portiion set As far removed from God and light of Hear/n As from the center thrice to th,itmost oole.l O- how unlike the place hom whence thev fellt fhere_the companions of his fall, o,erwhelmed With floods and whirlwinds of tempestuous fire, He soon discerns, and welt'ring" by his side One next himself in power, ,nJ n"*t in crime. Long after know.n in Pa]estine, and named Belzebub.' To whom th' Arch-Enemv. And thence in Heav'n called Satan,. #th bold words -f Br.eaking the horrid silence thus began. rtTf fL^,, l-^^^+ L^. L--- n r c r, ,, -\ "If thou beest he; but O how fall,"nl, how changed\ _ From him, who in the happy realms of lisht Clothed with transcende"i brightness dif,si outshine Myriads,though briglt: if he w"hom mutual league, !ni.tga thoughts and counsels. equal hope

With ever-burning suiphu, in"onrr-"d: Such. place Eternal Juitice had prepared

I never to submit or gir* orercsccP be to t else not ,/ I never snatl nts \rFdln r -I xn me. Io bou u.,o his deifr phant knee, and 1 th" t"r.o, of this arm so Irc his empire, that were low indeed' an igntminY and shame beneath ;"i;"" by fut" the strength of1 weal substance cannot fail," o[ this great event -r!h "*p"ti"nce in foresight much advan oot-*o.rl,

r,*HP1 Prc

*ih *o."

srrccessfirl hoPe resoh'e

rolling in

force or guile eternal war

ilable, to our grand foe,

thus answered soon his bold coml Pot , O Chief of manY thron6d

trifmphs, uid in th'excess of joY ine holds the tYT annY of Heav'n'r f,r'apostate attgel' though in Pa aloud, but racked with deeP desP

conduct, and in dreadful deeds endangered Heav'ns PerPetual Ki

i embattled SeraPhim' to !t?r



Can else inflict, do I repent o. "hu.r!", ThgrlSh changed in ouiward luster, ihat fixed mind ."--,., And high disdain, from sense of injured That with the mighriest raised i.' ./ -" io ^"rir, And to the fierce contention brought "ont"n along Innumerable force of spirits armei That durst dislike his reigrr, and me preferring, His_utmost power with udrr".r" po*"'. orror"i In dubiouso battle on the plains of Hearf,n, -And shook his throne. What though tn" n"ta be losti AII is not losf the unconquerabl"-r"ill,




o\st, ii

h sad overthrow and foul defeat t us Heav'n, and all this mighrY- tx {e destruction laid thus low, ts gods and hear"nlv essences \ti.h, lor the mind and spirit remair

@s. U our glory extinct, and haPPl su

And study' of revenge, imrnortal hate,

3. The phrase alludes to Dante (,All hope aban_ don, ye who enter here,,). 4. Milton m-akes use or of vanous various rmages images ot of the cos_ cosmos in Pqradise Lost: { r) the irthe."ni*f
5. A phoenician deitv, or Baal (the na of Flies,,). He is called th. ir"i,firr"i"* in Matthew 12.24. I ) )4 As a. with ,,;tL tt rL- o*!.i"ru ^1L:_ r^*_ "'r.g.rr" name has been obriterated. : concenrncspheresr nou calted by rhe name he will ber a

rrved uP in endless misery' '',. ori conqueror (whom I no ,.lve almiglitY, since no less . could have"o'erPow'red such fc us this our sPiritind strength er to suffer and suPPort our Parns' may so sufficeo his vengeful ire' Lim mishtier service as his thralls r Duslllc)) be nIS business whatg-er his war. whatej:'r h of wa"r, rhe heart of-ll"ll to work in frre. his errands in the gloomY deeP:cen it then avail though Yet we feel undiminished, or eternal being
does it mean not to be overcomei used in the Poem for angels'

lli,I-,:l".Tlr:lr":"r1"r,.1,:" (2) the earth and the whore cosmos.are an-append- a"r,r.Tilllil.,T age hanging ftom Heaven hv e golden.rrjil, liuiionr'",r".n,rg ro rhose names in hm i]r the cosmoi seems Coperniia. -f.* ,t" ;;;-"' pefspecrrve (see tsook g). Herc. the ra, "r*lli liom o. in Hebrew rhe name means..adversmHeaven to Hell_is descr:ibed as thrice as f;;";-.h; ;. ;i*;"" rn r"^i_l, 1n 1i. qu-.




i#Ii. Ili::?Uil'ffi?:'#.h:ff

L;#'r.-t*: Jl':l,,li, l,";'Il.,X#

; ;i.;.'ih"t.

md hii followers it means more' a to fate the position of a god, subject i'emplreal"
substince is

o c ! t

of the empyrean.

Pan.rorsr Loshades, where peace )Pe never comes rre without end

And courage never to submit or yield:



rnconsumed: rad prepared reir prison ordained


portion set light of Heav'n th' utmost pole.a

r rvhence they felll s fall, o'erw'helmed of tempestuous fire, ing" by his side rollintffitr and next in crime, ne, and named ch-Enemy, Satan." wirh bold words--o-a.\nlk It:1l

ro.our g.und fol,' {ll;T:l!ble, who now tririmphs. ,id

cannot Fail.o 5ince rhrough experience of ,ti.'g;;ui", rn arms not \ orse. in foresight m"r"f-t ,arr,r,""a, "o, we may r.r irh more,r".""rrf?iio; o .rg".fl force or gurle eternal war ,,

fl?,,'il'J'il] since.?l^rr," :,,1 al i,.f :": Ard this empyr.eal suDstance,t " ,,r"ng,tlf godr"

lL{:}[i';""JI]h.i, li,l*::l;:n:_,, ._ -k"ii* :ffi ,ri"{xT *;*',,.ffi,,! I #r[ll * "" fiH fl I ff #;:'ht ;:; " ", r rrs eowntalll il,1' J-#



cease to exist



'realms of light

(9 / ow fall'nl' how changed v outshin" ''rlho- -rtrul league. ls, equal hope diist

T" t


in th.-"*""r. of iov )ote reigning holds the r)r.anny H;;,il1 :

So spake th.apostat


<i-t,. :""-

tv,a'{@ F'"-

rh,r '

r"a i i : ";b;;; Under thy conducr,

f il,r ff I d* "0 Prince, O Chief ':;l".{ru[ ?iflj li#;,: :.

;:;.J#?;li.;';l.o.;"^. ,rd ir-;;;;lf;;;::_ eartess, enda ngered H";; ;;;#,:.Jlir*,


hath joined ihou seest nuch the stronger proved Il then who knew





#iil.'lTLt1-:':^*,,5-, 'i::-l::?:::'d' '\ ' 4ut\" .ii., -*

rable rrtal


:.i I.'

upin enoress rrrrsery' I',::,'^i:'1.'l"d qut what if h" orl"orrorrurss) misery.

luqr uerear Hath lost iq X1,,, "rdii 'rurr {esrrucrion taid rhus t;;b".) i: i::,1,: .\s flar as gods and f-,"r"."fy can Perish: [(!he mincl ";;:; and cni"ir ,

H,!* """ H"uu.r,-r," J# [r,,o,il,? n.,, i:ii ,. i:#


*l;i6ixTtri;" :;;:," I see and rue rhe dire "_ event.o 1f^*".11


*;:;t*u,'1.f.;:":lijruilJliir...",, ins'of Heau'i . ,,JLL-@.1.,a strongly r;.;ii;;j:;l" "o strength entire thoughthefieldbelost?1h"It"*",*l,ril"""fl,ilT".-g*:..'.
will, hate. .o,_
9f i,ai.
itztznn .,,wLratio



*f,ur"f. f,,,"rr"ili

eternal " being

as his thralls


5. A phoenician rreirl. or




;"'ii1,:l"l ;',

rcspheres; n append-

norv called by the name he r: deitr. Thrrt literan slrateg\ c -.


:iili,:ii,i-" . f H:j;;.l: -'Lren$th undiminished. or

-;;;'h"" iflr@$ a pag.
,. w evil as.

- *..*,]?;::';,:n"".l"rT: ii li:'Li:";*;il;: hat can

it t hen a, ait th?u"fh'

i"i I r""r

,d{ -1 /)'

i5fd ffiilClrrtt*it .=*.[5ffi',*;+'r*fir'",g*ii[ rrr***;l*:*;H+*n*



ot these titles but do",




1836 / JonN Mtlrox


tl[sc'ated hugest that swim



To undergo eternal -Punis\rn:i'l'w^e

lh:f,"J-ffi':ix,:',T:;Tiii:4"T"1r*repried :;fii'" til,H; be g!,: T::_':b'"

DuLLvLrs --

Eim haply'slumb'ring on the Nor Ihe pilot of some small night-fou &eming some island, oft, as sean

mhh Iixbd anchor in his scaly rin< Mloors by his iide under the lee."


As beinq, the



that end' 'erveit Our labor must be to P ^r evil; ^ r ^-- of qt"'eans t65 And 'iriirl

()ut or ,ur tv,

if I faif sreve him, 1t"1,$ffi

ffi ;;ned
th reca


ffillH'5r i;F:d":i^0.:::Tl 70'"t 70


from the P'":iPi":' i';:'fr;;'';;g"' thutu' the th,nder' of Heav'n '"t"iu"i i"iii"g' "a rase' impetuous and ,7s ffti;H;;ll '"d linhtt'lng now cea-*es shafts' and
Perhaps hath spenihis

*:n;t*:';-;u*::himilHl*ff.' after us in
To bellow'rtro'g'i"i'"


the sea, and wished morn stretched out huge in length ti ained on the burning lake, nor ris'n or heaved his head, but high permission of all-ruling him at large to his own dark, with reiterated crimes he mil on himself damnation, whilr to others, and enraged might all his malice served but to h ite goodness, grace, and merr man by him seduced, but on 1 confusion, wrath, and venE on each hand
,pe their

rears from o

*tl' " "a- ut' ndless deep'' whether scorn' i:, ;;';;';iip' ih' o""lon' our-loe' tiom it t 6, *,i"" tury Yield
Seest thou yorr
Save what the

pointi h'midst a hon

J wings he stet

,80 Iau

at"lty pf"i"' t91t1n

and wild'

the dus(v air 'eight, till on d

: land that


ri.l'""i.r'a"'el*,;:;#tili:*'i,ro' gli
iirlr" ,"t,,


*e with liquid

Iet us'tend casts pale '"d d;;;i;i'i?r'l't'"' fiery these of i..- in the tossing l:l:t' there' any rest can harbor

Consult how we how rePair' il;?;;;;: our own.loss calamitv-' dire this ;;;;;;;''"e r-^'. r.nnc

our, arflid,fl'Xili'"n"'o' ;;;;blinsmaY h

in hue; as u,ht nd transports e or the shattert ,7 whose combr thence concei reral fury, aid t
bottom all

,eo rYU

il'.q1-1,t;':I fi,i;"[:il'.';;;; Y";' d"t^111:; ft?T ii."i *rt^t resolution

noke: such rest

m followed his

" ii-';; i;;;n

the wave' and eves' wiiri.#;frirt 'uJ"" his other parts besides ut""a' i'#t ;;"-'i.liig long and large i'ffi;t; rh;hood'a extended u.t h:^g:,-^ bulk in rood'r Lav floating many

talking to his nearesr-lqlate


thut'*u""d on love' +i.ffiX *';;ilh;";"' who m,th: d,"n'

ir'" fuble' num" tl



ffiffiHiJiiilil,;";;?ff" speech
lines of Satan's 2. Five of the last nine

ve scaped the I :ir own recover Lceo of superna s this the region, this the soil. : then the lost fuchangel, "thir t $e must change for Heav'n. rhat celestial light? Be it so, si now is sov'reign can dispose shall be right: farthest from reason hath equaled, force his equals. Farewell happl' joy forever dwells: Hail hor
with Satan. : :row of the deceived sailor and the illus ore a commonplace, but the reference

tl',f$ffi'J *'a1 eight fil[iy::: Jf:.;^]J:;f#; *H'ru ;T:IiJi: * i:'{';; ,'" ritans,.lea ur Pl":::;-(::l*E'}fli, i:'$i:iini'i[H;"L"** '* * -*,-,.
unit or
and measure, between six

like dragon ofJob 41. Both were a


*Li*silm:;*:, }Jl;,xxt';":Hi'i?i-r-a


Paneorss Losr,

Boor 1 /


f reated hugest that swim th' ocean stream: ffi* t urtr""tlumb'ring on the Norway fgqq
end rePlied'

ii" rir.ii'.r ro*" rr'ilI

night-foundered" skilF


De"mi.,s some island. o[t' as seamen tell'6 ;\ ith fux;d anchor in his scalY rind



rloors bv his side under the lee'" while night inr estso ih" ,"u, and wishbd morn delays: lay * rir"r"f,"a out huge in length the Arch-Fiend t-hence ever nor lake' liri""a on the buriing ;;.1;t;. heaved his"head, but that the will trd hish permission of all-ruling Heaven


red aim.

h"t *lth reiteiated crimes he might l-i-r; .; himself damnation' while he sought :'il to others, and enraged might see ^ :i.-,u all his malice served but to bring lorth'---t
goodness, grace. and mercy


hi"m at

to his own dark designs'



hurous hail h laid'



tuous rage, eases now

ndless deeP' lr scorn, and wild,

t us tend

,t II




w LJuvt'


t {''d'

.o.rf,rsion, wrath, and vengeance poured' pool ;;;"h;rh "ptighi he rears from off the flames the hand each i. mighty ituir."; on and rolled :C'1" BrJf.*ard slope their pointing- spires'o vale-. iillo*r, leave i' th' midst a horrido ::e" *rrt expanded wings he steers his flight n-':it. incumbent ono the duskY air Iand . l-t felt unusual weight, till on dr1.burned ever that :--t iishts,o if it were land t -.niolid, as the Iake with liquid fire' ;J:;;;;ppeared in hue; as when the force --t i .rUt"t.u.r"an wind transports a hill:'h.,- Pelorus, or the shattered side ' ,

-n mariby him seduced' but on

shown \ himself I

^) --

points of flames - ) t-'1 t^*''tlilxg

g ott


-":m m

rost offendo

-r"; t""f"a Jrrt.uilt th"'ce conceiving fire' ;h-;i'with mineralfury, aid the winds' -.--c leave a singbd bottom all involved"



whose combust ible



IerY";$.,",*qt';,u*l 'O r'' r'"

st mate and eYes
arts besides
q and large as huge
r'...N1 1 \*n Sn\'

thr ,- ti"".ft ,*oke' such resting found mate' next his followed Him Jol"i"ti i""t. flood i.* *l".nrg to have scaped the Stygian' strengtn' recovered u =Jt, and by their own {'.= b, th" sufieranceo of supernal Powgr' -.= ihis the region. this the soil' the clime' orr.rtt"" the lolt Archangel' "thisthe seato -

Snxlike, hellish



"C'i' onlog *'-:5\

"nu.g" m* .lut celestial light? Be it

so, since- he- ..-\ {vrl tu"ir;* is sov'reiln can dispose and bid / rW.:;: shall be rightl farthest from him is best ."rt." hfth equaled' force^hath made suq'rem



this mournful gloom

s orks

, h:):

&ic:e joy forever dwells: Hail horrors'

t his equals. Farewell happy fields. .,4 hatt


H*f'"T1$rxr:[tH","ri]; 'ti'"^ stories an

in these

Noroay suggests

Nlasnus, a Suedish htslorta"'

z. F"lnrrt and Erna are volcanic mountalirs m


l:"]il:Y*"ll':Hiniti"n'in"a' ;.,;:i'",;;;;";;lortheLord

1838 / Jourl Mtr-to'lt

thou lnfernal world' and brtngs Receire thy new possessor:'one'nho or'ttme' place bv l;;i t'oi to u"'tl-tunged 1,"'-l is its o1 n


rear.en's azure; and the :ie on him sore besides.


^a Can make a Heav n

-Whomthundern"lt*la"g'"ut"'?Here'atleast huth
n'irn'gft-ty l-o^t^b:ltt We shall be lreer tn: nill no1 drive us hence:

if I be still ' ifi;t';;i';' nhere-'b"' than" he ilf;t.,ii i;hould all but less

:1";:ii:';:'i':;'1, """'. the'same'

rgions, angel forms, uho '.{ as autumnal leaves that ,=llomhlats45 where th' Et

:Jess" he so endured. tiil r :--lat inflamedo sea, he stoc

ct. u,hen with fierce vr.inds -, iexed the Red Sea coast

erarched embort'rlo or

"n'ry" maY rerBt' ':'.;; we *uY Here ;; iiil '"!s' '::1'"' i,11.'iTl;[ii:" ihorgh in Hell: is orth
To reign


?I9.' -,-^^ ^^^,- Heav n,' 'n




resounded. ,,princes. p :rors. the rrvyv flow'r r uf of rHeav,n, Ieav n, ;h astonishment as this ca ia1 Spirits: or have ye chos - rhe toil of batrle ,o ,"por. 'uearred virtue,o For the ea r"amber here, as in the valer ::" this abject posture have r

t and lost lay these, cor-er amazement of their hidt alled so loud, that all the l


:h\ us to the bottom ol rhis be foler erJall'n -er. heard. Endfere ,irulf'*
'e and bestir themselvls ere

and Seraph rolline in tl : scattered arms and elsign .*ift pursuers from U"ur'i .dranlsgq, and descending t dr,roping, or with tin["a tf

thecon;r"..ri ;;; ;

:. the r,ring. as when men rrr :ur.v, sleeping found by whor

.:jd rhey not perceive the eri :ic.h thel *"i", o. the fierce :'' their general's voice ther s r,r:nerable. As when the poten t:nram's sone in Eglpt,s evil d round the coa.I, up called :usts, warpingo on the easter

trdl: m:an: ,,shatl1 rullcr" and reler" r

:mDered in celesti=

--' irholookedthr"u;- ' ^ :-snrE L)i .m the hill to\\n

in Trr.rnr _1reiee. r. rg rne nrrmberless

rgn tn the Apcnnincs. about

LrlL earth than Krng arrlurr$ to be a farmhand on 'r '-l from thc nslerred -,',"' n"." ).Ti." "pi't'"' ohliriou'' tttr" to the Ptror ':l::';;:.n


describing the mountarns

rr.".lin""ol.ll^::. L'L' --: IT




\:: -^-

decd to lalling lea, Erent in epi( (e.g.. \encid 6.J0qr ts a tonstellalion uhose risinq I(}i=.near sr r summer and a ul u m n u as asso(.iated s r the Red Sea ical Egyptian pharaoh, whom X,lilton ass

ml ,;ii-.i,:i.' ii.,


fallen angels


50 /

JonN Mrr,rou

Of that infernal court' But far within And in their own dimensions like themselves

to prosper than prosperiq' have assured us;i and bv w of open war or covert gu now debate; who can advise, r


"P^owers and Dominions,2 deities of Heaven,
o__ -'

P,. tJI

For since no deep within her gulf can-!o-I,{ Immortal vigor' tiough oppressed and fall'n,
give not H-eav'n for lost. From this descent C*elestial Virtues rising, will apPear


And trlust themselves to fear no second fate' ff,i" ,flt"gt just right, and the fixed laws of Heav'n bid fr.;;-"."'.te yJur ieud".' next, foee choice, With what besides, in counsel or in fight, Hurtr U""" achieved of merit, yet this loss .- i Thus far at least recovered, hath much mory ,/ Established in a safe unenvied throne Yielded with full consent. The happier state In Heav'n, which follows dignity, might draw Enw from each inferior; but who here Wif enr,y whom the highest pla-ce exposes Foremost to stand against the Thunderer's aim Your bulwark, and condemns to greatest share Of endless pain? Where there is then no good For which io strive, no strife can grow up !h91e From faction; for none sure will claim in Hell Prec6dence, none, whose portion is so small Of oresent pain, that with ambitious mind Will covet more. With this advantage then To union, and firm faith, and firm accord, More than can be in Heav'n, we now return To claim our just inheritance of old,

Mor" glorio,rs and mo"re dreadlhan from no fall,

our tortures into horrid" r tbe4ertUfS:f; when to me almighty engineo he shall h rl thunder, and for lightnin fire and horror shot with eq his angels; and his throne with Tartarean- sulflur, and own invented torments. But p

way seems difficult and steep upright wing against a highe

such bethink them, if the slee forgetful' lake benumb nc in our propero motion we asr our native seat: descent an< is adverse. Who but felt of l the fierce foe hung on our 5 and pursued us throug what compulsion and laborir sunk thus low? Th' ascent is c to is feared; should we ag stronger, some worse way his destruction: if there be in to be worse destroyed: what to dwell here, driven out fro
xe the play on "surer," "prosper," "prosp msured," a favorite device of Milton's. typical epic convention (in Homer, liq

o. Crouded together, and in full complement'

;. a;;;1,",i;"",;fte; secret and sedi'tious' r.". "Ormus": an island in the Persian Gulf,

modern Hormuz' fmou 2' Angelic orders'


, and elsewhere) involved councils debati peace, with spokesmen on each side. Sat

PeRaorss Losr, Boor


2 /



*lrer to ProsPer than

like themselves rd Cherubim

rnclave sat, lden seats,

(c*rld have assured us;t and

f;;"t i;;;

by what Uest way' ,^ ^ of oPen \'\ar or covert guile'a .*A\q a"br't", who can ad-t'rsg' may speak"




rrt silence then

rt consultT began.

i, ,


',ii; I

Book 2
ate. rrhich far nus and of lnd,r




sith richest hand ic f"arland gold,





rope, aspires to Pursue


successo untaught displayed.


deities of Heaven. rr gulf can hold ressed and fa'll'n,

rom this descent


:ad than From no lall, r no second [ate. he {lxed laws qf Heav'n

;";,-tr"; choice. selor in fighr.


, r ,r/-\' ; kl-^(A



*J:l'il"," 7 Y

uc'l-r( ,'

he happier state
gniw, might draw
rt u-ho here

r place eposes
he Thunderer's aim

n. ,o gr"ur"at

:re is then no good , Y^ a/ 'e can grow up there GS- {' .-r-q S" : uill claim in Hell - 7 L' ,ortion is so small '/






lmbitious mind
adrantage then
nd firm accord, n- \re now return ce of old,
ot co\er(' ofters only the option o[-uar' open
umphantlY scorning'

:plement. iriour.
)enian Culf,

modern Hormuz, famous for pearl.

2. Argelic


i. \ote the play on 'surer"' 'Pro^si9l' : "-;..;;"d:'a'laro,it" devici of \4ilton s' \ irgil' !- t tri.ri "*.-.ont"tLion 1in Homer' l*-. J"a ere) involved councils debating "ftJ*t spokesmen on each side Satan J - p"*", -r,tt


;. i;;;'rt is a ilassical name for hell' also ;. Wt,h ,h" L;l,in sense of stamPing onr