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Losr, Boor 2 / 1857

dght long

ence lull bv chance


nsed' the fear
esire ht rise







e spake.

ring of Heav'n


'be called

p here

rdream, hath doomed




l-o""a. .rf, rrnf _3 P *t .\''"-,* rill reign-v ^J ,'))",;'--' tei$

rd rvar?

y'n, whose high walls fear no assault or siege, Or ambush from the deep. What if we find enterprise? ihere is a place So-" --. \ "uri", and prophetic fameo in Heav'n [f ancient Err not) another world, the happy seat Of some new race called Man, about this time To tre created like to us, though less h power and excellence, but favored more O,f him who rules above; so was his will fronounced among the gods, and by an oath, ILat shook Heav'n's whole circumference, confirmed' 'fhither let us bend all our thoughts, to learn \[lrat creatures there inhabit, of what mold, (k substance, how endued,o and what their power, -llnd where their weakness, how attemptedo best, Ds force or subtlety, Though Heav'n be shut, -1lnd Heav'n's high arbitrator sit secure h his orm strength, this place may lie exposed, fhe utmost border of his kingdom, left Uo their defense who hold it:3 here perhaps $me advantageous act may be achieved 3h sudden onset, either with hellfire To n'asteo his whole creation, or Possess flI as our own, and drive as we were driven, trhe puny habitants, or if not drive, ttduce them to our party, that their God illry prove their foe, and with repenting hand fiolish his own works.o This would surpass n revenge, and interrupt his joY our confusion, and ourjoy upraise his disturbance; when his darling sons headlong to partake with us, shall curse frail original," and faded bliss,
so soon.



attacked, tempted.

lay waste

originator, parent

Advise'if this be worth ing, or to sit in darkness here



rvill be giv'n

hom the author of all il could sPring deep a malice, to confounde the race
rningle and involve, done all to spite

vain empires." Thus Belzebub s devilish counsel, first devised latan, and in part proposed: for whence,

nankind in one root,s and earth with Hell

Tc- :o the best of our Power. teth me that I have made them."' 5. Adam, the first man, is the "root" of the human

order 9. Ihe olficial titles of angelic -:r l. I.".. *rt has decided the questtor
also limited us'


dE Genesis 6.7: "And the Lord said,


defended by the occupants.

'I will

ran fand all other creatures]; for it repen

1858 / JonNMtrroN
The great Creator? But their spite still serves His glory to augment. The bold design fleaied highly those infernal States,o and joy Sparkled in all their eyes: with full assent T'hev vote: whereat his speech he thus renews' .. \tL "Well have ye judged. well ended long debate' > '/^ Svnod oI eods, and like to what Ye are, ir"rt thiigt resolved, which from the lowest deep Will once irore lift us up, in spite of fate, Nearer our ancient seatl perhaps in vieln' Of those bright confines, whence with neighboring arms And opportune excursion we may ch-ance
Reentei Heav'n; or else in some mild zone ,rr.irit"d of Heav'n's fair light O*"fi "* Secure, and at the bright'ning oriento beam Purge off this gloom; the soft delicious air, To freal the scar of these corrosive fires itrutt Ut"uttl" her balm. But first whom shall we send Ir, ,"u."h of this new world, whom shall we fi'.td S-"in"i"*l Who shall tempi' with wand'ri ng f eet--":.

to devour, immures

1d,' and gates of burning i over us prohibit all egresr ru the ro i[ anY anY Pass, *ie passed, rt Pass. rnc
ume'ssential Nigirireceives


ie gaping, and with utter,los: i".rr h"i*, plunged in that nce he scaPe into whater-e

wrlmown ."gio., what remai unknown?angers and as l I should ill become this thl

usinso to accept as great a s

},uua"rd as

The dark unbottomed infinite abYss And through the palpable obscure6 find out His uncorith'way, oi spread his aery flight

Upborne with indefatigable wings Over the vast abruPt,T ere he arrive 4ro The happy isle? W.hat strength, what art can then Suffice, ti what evasion bear him safe Through the strict senterieso and stations thick Of arrg'els watching round? Here he had need All cir:cumspection, and we now no less 4t5 Choiceo in our suffrage; for on whom we send, The weight of all andour last hope t-"11".t'" This slaid, he sat; and expectation held His look suspense,s awzliting who aPPeared To second, o, oPPote, or undertake The perilous attempt: but all sat mute, Po.rd".i.rg the danger with deep thoughts; and each In other's=count'nance read his own dismay Astonished. None among the choice and prime Of thor" Heav'n-warring champions could be found So hardy as to proffer or accePt Alone the dreadlul voyager till at last Satan, r.thom now transcendent glory raised Above his fellows' with monarchal pride Conscious of highest worth, unmoved thus spake' 'r "O progeny of Heav'n, emplT eal-Thrones, 430 With ieason hath deep silence and demuro Seized us, though undismayed: long is th9 way And hard, that out of Hell leads up to light; Our prison strong, this huge convex of fire,
6. Darkness so thick it can be felt (cf'
Exodus sense.

o[ honor, due alili him who reigns, and so mut hrrard rnor"l u. he above th honored sits? Go theretor of Heav'n, though fall'n here shall be our home' present misery. and-rende e tolerable; if there be cur respite or deceive, or slack thii ill mansion: intermit nr a wakeful foe, while I all the coastso of darl nce for us all: this ent e shall partake with me' -onurih, and Preventedo t, Iest from his resoluti among the chief might to be refused) what e might in oPini refused so rhals, winning cheaP the ich he through hazard hu1 taded not more th' adventr ldingl and at once uith 'rising all at once was a: ndei heard remote. To alrfulo reverence Prone: ' lhim equal to the Highe [ailed theY to exPress ho'
r [or the

s".,"rul iafen ht osn: for"neither do the S

all their virtue; lest bad

iftfi's fierv walls and

o t". liir.s
8. I.e., he sat waitingin susPe

gates have n 645ff.). "Adamant" rfd

hard metal.

10.21). 7. Chaos, a striking eremple of sound imitating





s light,


tun. rice

rined sr bome



ta r\+
l1pr 51 "
own works and their works at once to view: him all the sanctitieso of Heaven thick as stars, and flom his sight received -rtr5 i+$ ude past utterance; on his right


n orbs.

land embosomed without firmament,n




interrupt' can hold;

so bent he seems

ul$:lfillilll Lruia ith@gh no. camed-Aqe" Cataact-rffsio ilii"a t-he mediel tem fr \tft*' 'ros" The muntain of siPmd mts Siloa ad kidrca I.e-- blind lile mThamis tm a bl;rrt Thsfl: r I frr. Iim. -llmils' hecTircsimru*rbba hims ws a blindt-iaf ra

f# off Heav'n, in the precincts of light, rectlv towards the new-created world, ,d matt there placed. with purpose to essayo him by force he can destroy, or worse'
a wide breach between Heaven and

desperate revenge, that shall redoundo ,.r hl* own rebellious head. And now all restraint broke Ioose he wings his way



1874 / JonN MrI-roN

Bv some lalse guile pervertl and shall Pervertl Fo, *un will hearken to his glozing" lies' And easilv transgress the sole command' Sole pledge of his obedience: so will fall H" hls faithless Progeny: whose fault? Whose but his own?1ngrate, he had of me Father. gracious was that \r

r uttering thus he to h,is Fal

i"t t"ttc". thal


thi"h Eoth Heav'n

and earth


.,.;r . .


nt to have stood

Useless and vain' of freedom both despoiled, Made passive both, had served necessity,


Not ml. They therefore as to right belonged, So were created, nor can justly accuse Their Maker, or their making, or their fate, As if oredestination overruled Their will, disposed by absolute decree Or high forek rowledge; they themselves decreed Their-own revolt' not I: if I foreknew, Foreknowledge had no influence on their fault, Which had no less proved certain unforeknown'2 So without least impulse or shadow of fate, Or aught by me immutably foreseen, in all

12.. Till

th"y themselves ordained their fall' The first sort'ty their own suggestion fell, 130 Self-tempted, *"lf-d"pt,t'"d' man falls deceived [ilh; Jh"; first' man theref-ore shall find grace, Tile other none: in mercy and justice both' Through Heav'n ard earih, so shall my glory excel, But mlrcy first and last shall brightes^t shine'" Th,-,s #hile God spake, ambrosialo fragrance filled r35 All Heav'n, and in the blessEd Spirits elect" Sense of new joy ineffable' diffused: Bevond compare the Son of God was seen Most glorious, in him all his Father shone 1,r0 Substintially expressed' and in his face

Their nature, and revoke the high decree Unchangeable, eternal, which ordained -

ih"i. f.""d"-,

shall resound thee tt,i.rfJ man finallY be lost' sl creature late so loved, th1'r-< circumvented thus bY fraud' his own follv? That be fron far be from ihee, Father, lr ell thinss made, and judgest shall th"e Adversary thus obta end. and frustrate thine' shz goodne,ss br -rli.", and thY rl,u.n thoigh to his h accomPlished' r"r"ng" f.ith after him the whole race r corrupted? Or wilt thou thv cieation, and unma mrn. *f,ut for thY glory thor ho,.,id thy goodness and thr ion"d"u.rd blasPhemed fi *rhom the great Creator t Son, in *hori mY soul hath of mv bosom, Son who art \l'ori, my wisdom. and effr ihast thootPoken as mY tho rrl eternal Pr.Pot" hath de shall not quite be lost, bu not of will in him, but grac fi- vouchsafedlo once more hpsdd powers, thouqh forl ririto fo"l exorbitant desix rld bv me, Yet once more g.outti againsl hism "."n that he maY kn upield, -e r fall'n condition is, and to his deliv'rance, and to non ne I have chosen of Peculi above the rest;6 so is mr rest shall hear me call' ar ir sinful state, and to aP1x incensdd DeitY, while offt s ; for I will clear their

praises, with th' innumerabl and sacred songs, u-he



"o.ttpattio., end, and without measure grace, Love without

2. I.e., if I had not foreknown it

visibly appeared,

tLe Son echoes (or rather foreshado .eL"af"g *ttt ttie Lord to spare Sod Hn* il"" to do after this mam ,-*-,"out *i,h th. *i.k"d thatb

".i EEis 18.25).

itt" 1"ag.

tf AI the earth tp"""t is rhYthmic and

Satan and his crew'

Penaorss Losr, Boor

3 /


shall Pervert;

ingl lies'

5"i;,.:lt1i:,::5::H:,';:l;-"lHc,osedLh"{[-,,r'ry Thy sov'reign sentence, that man should find grace;

For which both Heav'n and earth shall high extol Thy praises, with th' innumerable sound Of hymns and sacred songs, wherewith thy throne
Encompassed shall resound thee ever blessed.

nill fall
rose fault?

had of me ust aod-riglrt'


Ifroo tojall.-.-

For should man finally be lost' should man

Ihy creature late so loved, thy youngest son fall circumvented thus by fraud, though joinedfTith his own folly? That be from thee far, Ihat far be from thee, Father, who artjudge
Of all things made, and judgest only right.a 0r shall the Adversary thus obtain Eis end, and frustrate thine' shall he fulfill [Iis malice, and thy goodness bring to naught, proud return though to his heavier doom, -ith ."u"r,ge accomplished, and to Hell rw after him the whole race of mankind, him corrupted? Or thou.thyself sh thy creation, and unmake, him, what for thy glory thou hast made?

dience Paid, also is choice)

oth desPoiled,



igtrt belonged,
r accuse


or their fate,
le decree

hemselves decreed reknew, ilce on their fault,

tain unforeknown'2
hadow of fate,

of my bosom, Son who art alone Word, my wisdom, and effectual might,5 hast thou spoken as my thoughts are, all my eternal purpose hath decreed: rn shall not quite be lost, but saved who will, not of will in him, but grace in me

high decree h ordained


ordained their fall' uggestion fell, man falls deceived :fore shall find grace,

vouchsafed;o once more I will renew lapsbd powers, though forfeit and enthralled sin to foul exorbitant desires; by me, yet once more he shall stand even ground against his mortal foe,


rd justice both, so shall mY glory excet'

I brightest shine"' ^., fragra nce fi I led

bd Spirits elect'

me upheld, that he may know how frail fall'n condition is, and to me owe =\ q his deliv'rance, and to none but me. / I have chosen of peculiar grace above the rest;6 so is my will: rest shall hear me call, and oft be warnedo sinful state, and to appease betimes incensbd Deity, while offered grace [or I will clear their senses dark,
Son echoes (or rather foreshadows) Abra


t God was seen s Father shone d in his face rppeared, rout measure grace'
3. Satan and his crew

6. In this,
ist doctrin
destined t individual cient for sa

ading with the Lord to spare Sodom: "That Eom ihee to do after this manner, to slay
hteous with the wicked . . . that be far from not the Judge of all the earth do right?"
l 8.25).



rhJthmic and sometimes

if th, persevere. I
special grac

1876 / Jouu MIr'ros rq0

What may suffrce' and bring obedience due' To pray. rePent' and Thoueh Mine earcnutt
soften stony hearts


his sake s-ill lei -suount me manl I for br."*; r"d tr'it clgtv ","*:,:olL*

-h"' noi'i" Jo*' *in":l:,-i:t '' hear' ^u F'td" n"il *irr place within them asif't["y will re5 My umPire "ot''"t"rr""'-whom shall attain'7 t :ohr atter [snt *"ii ;t"d they arrive' sqfe '^fil;i;; p""i'ti"g' " grace mv d'av ot "id Tii,il'il-'u'fftttt'"" "nd iil"v' #t " ;:tr"::i:l.ffi ::' ;:tl,ffi::' ffl::
2oo But hard be hard o'' uttd deeper fall; That they mercy I exclude' And none Uut sulft'from d,isobeying' man But vet all is not donel. ""A U."rL. ;-i" fealtv. and sins of Heav'n' )nq X;ffit"h" hish';;P;;;"'Y 20q and so losing al["'

To prayer' repentance' 1"a 9S1ai"":"'::"' sincere intent' but endeavored with

die .:";;';rrl;.J roi nii" lastlv ''*realt^r Death let ;e I Pleastu' ;H.""a"; ' :;hall not lo ier his s,loomy Power r git:", hutt iht' f:t'

ffi ":g*r;";xl l',,I:: that debt



sor ffi;;,';;;*it"' ,nY unsPotted there,to drre ffi.l;;iil "o.tuPtlon subdl

vl'' i?';;iil;ai"' f,Jiffi;;; l"r,' rne'in the loathsc


ffi;:ili#;#i.6', sPoiled

*'v '**ifl

il] t *qrltt'er, :f shall ill'',"J]tl then I ;ilfil;;;i,'J*o""d sting disarn mortal .i-irs I".rt' ,truu5' 'n triumph t arr rl
amPle roush the "iill'"lPtlu"

ffiil:,t;;"-i'[n"'a' nath nalshlftJ' T;;;i;"t" his treason o:.':::' sacred.

g;ri,'; d"t"'ction ""d must Gre' fr"'*itt.r his whole posterity unless for him
Die he or justice rnust: and as willing' PaY ' 'ble' t"u51'"ti.,n' death for death'

ffi"i"?d [*. o:';" ;';i'

)tn 2r0

i;'L "" LY,o; ;1t'.: i'.;,;f-H;;;en shalt look d' ruin' I i, t[""'.ri'"a his carcass "]li.: glu iiti.'r.i *ttt' redr mv of ,i;,i',i';;;iiit'd" absent' an
Heaven long enter ' ,^-*^ '1r, face, wherein no

mauqreo Hell


)15 2ri

))o Much 22o

'iutl reoeem to ffii.n otYe will be mortal ttr' unilst t: sfle'*' a'nd iust deari Man's mortal "'i*"'' ii*"[t i" all Heaven charity'so stood mqte" He asked' bi"";l:';;;;;""'"rv 'n91r \ t,. And silence *;; i" fi;""'"' :l-T::.ibehalf none fPPeareu' Patron or intercessor head draw
Sav heav'nlv



n"a such love'

"*ain, *tuth shall be ""t; t in thy Presence -lr

and breathed imr E561-acrifice

but Peace a

e ended' but his rr

lankind And now *t'il;;;*P":" 'all to death and Hell Must have b#il;;;jilg"d Son of God' il'l ;;i 'h" love divine' Bv doom '"t"'o dwells or 225 iJ thus renewed' *JJixiott" His dearest find grace; m1n thall "Father' her wav' finds that t"""' And shall gt":;;;fr;f, messengers' ii-tl tf""aT"tt of thy wingEd and' to all 2r0 +;;it:t' all thv creaiures'

irr" i"'ai,


th* ;;;;; 'pt" t'ii ownset' rtrfeiture' ind ranso'm

whic-hd il'T6ii-t"ndt t!"

er' Admiration-


might mean

on th'Almighry v'n and earth th

rlirrd undsr *r


thfi;fii; i"*a'

rcelo well thou rorks, nor man d. that for hin

right 'm and

t"'i*Plot"d' comes'"P'"';;;;'; he her aid coming; *"u"' fot H"PPY 'o tittt and lost; in a"J Can never t""ft' cl"t" offeringrneet'o Atonement i*ii*t"ff "r



i:'Ti:$$"}#[r,HJ,';:iJtlil:i: tattl anger thine let me

I offer' on
well they will 7. Bv using the light of conscience qain more light. 214. but E "Nlorml" means "human lin line




u< Latin sense, loo*l -ft iltecedent ol "u-hon].,''' l"{*"dii'il'" iH :'llxH,'i;

throw down'

Panaorss Losr, Boox

rcarts : due.

3 /



intent, not shut.


s.ill hear, attain,T


of grace ser taste; bd more,

:r fall;




maugreo i{ell, show l'he powers of darkness bound. Thou at the sight Pleased, out of Heaven shalt Iook down ,"a ,riit",

to Death I field, and am his due A]l that of me can die, yet that debt, --Thou wilt not leave me in the loathsome grave His prey, nor suffer my unspotted soul Fore_ver with corruption theie to dwell; But I shall rise victorious, and subdue My vanquisher, spoiled of his vaunted soo-ilDeath his death's wound shall then receive, and stoop Inglorious, of his mortal sting disarmed. I jhl.ygt- t_t ".ample air in tri-umph high "and Shall lead Hell captive

in- myself forever, life Though

Account me man; I for his sake will leave Jhy bosom, and this glory next ro thee Freelyput off, and foi him Iastly die pe{l pleased, on me let Death ivreak all his rage; Under his gloomy power I shall not lo;; Lie vanquished; thou hast giv'n me to p"ossess
by th'ee


in spite bf




tst to save, ,* I " r -- yllta '


.rV- lpllat*t [n-i. Sla o(fud5

'stood mute.e

iehalf V
ad draw

Death last, and with his carcass giut the grave: -' Then with the multitude of mv rfd""-".l' Shall enter Heaven long absent, and return. Father, to see thy face, wherein no cloud Of anger shall remain, but peace assured, \r And reconcilement; wrath shall b" no _ -o.e Thenceforth, but in thy presence iov entire.', His r,l'ords here ended, but his meek asoEcr To mortal men, above which oalyshone --=-Silent yet spake, and breathed







th and ;od,


the will




all find grace;

inds her way,



-rY ]Lo ing: ,}.-0' fe - -r\' -



To me are all my works, nor man the least Though Iast creared, that for him I spare Thee from my bosom and rieht hand. to ."*,"^ By losing thee a while, the r.ihole race lost. Thou therefore whom2 thou only canst reJeem, Their nature also to thy nature jbin; And. be thyself man among men on earth, Made flesh, when time shill be, of virgin seefir By wondrous birth: be thou in Adam's"room The head of all mankind, though Adam,s son.3 l. In the Latin sense, throw doun. 2. The antecedent of'.whom" is, Iooselv con_ strued. the "their nature" that follows it. 3. The Son of God. who long antedates lhe crea_

Admiration" seized Al-[ieav'n, what this might mean, and whither tend Wond'ring; but soon th'Almighty thus replied: "O thou in Heav'n and eurii-, earii-r tir" t[r" o.rlu .,.,1, rT".u "1r." Found out for mankind under wrath. ti it", My sole complacencelo well thou know'st how dear


'deadly" in line

I 5.

9. Compare the devils in the Great Ccsft"


tion of Adam and who is actually the first created being (3.383), is later incarnarei h f..r" Cn.i.r, called, Second Adam and So" ofrutrn Uy'r"rson ol his descent from lhe first man. Adam.'Cf. I

1878 / JoH''r Mrlror

As in him Perish all men, so-in thee A; il; u ,""orld root shall be restored' none'. As many as are restored, without thee ,/ Hlt..i*" makes guilty all his sonsl thy merit Imouted shall absolve them who renounce righteous and unrighteous deeds'


a.rd lirr" in thee transplanted, and from thee

Receive new life.o So man, as is mo-st-just'

golden days, fruitful of golden-de joy and love triumphing, and lai thou thy regal scepter ihalt lar egal scepter then no more shali r

rrorld shall burn, and lrom her a lear'nl a.nd earrh, wherein rhe j after all their tribulations long

t"titfy for man,

be judged and die'

And dying
So heav'n

H;#";h'.;;, .u.rro-"d
Giving to




with.hi- t"?",

in''ith his orvn dear


hall be all in all. But all y" goJ, him. who [o compass ali th]s dl the Son. and honor him as me. sooner. had rh' Almighty ceased. ultitude of angels w]th'a shout


d""urlv to redeem what hellish hate So easilv destroyed, and still destroys In those r,rho, when they may' accept not grace'

from numbers without numbr n b,lest roices. uttering joy. Hea

rbilee, and loud hosannai


Nor shalt thou by descending to

assume C own' thine degrade or l"ir"" Mu,',t, nu,rr", in ffi;; ,h.; hast, though"throned highest bliss
Eoual to God, and equallY enjofng Gocllike Eruition." quitted all to save found X;;;il i.o,n ,rr"itoss. and hast bee^n G.od.' ol Son Br merit more than birthright Flr"J*o*t iest to be so by being good' in thee Far more than great or highl beca-use abouncls' glory than more Love hath abounded exalt shall humiliation thy ih"."fo."

wih rh;; ,r'y *r"t'."a;;;;'


throne; --)



f1"." ,hult t(ou sit incarnate, here shalt reign il",f-r C.a and man, Son both of God and man' Anointed6 universal King; all power I uive thee, reign forever' and assume Tfrv merits; under thee as Head Supreme - . I reduce: ii;i.;;;; P;cedoms, Powers-' Dominions'. bide that them of All knees to thee shall bow, ln Heaven, or earth. or under earth in Hell: Wn"" ,f,o, attended gloriousll'from Heav'n Shalt in the sky aPpear, and trom thee send ih" ,rrnrnoning Aicirangels to +h; ;;";e tribLinal: forth-wlrh lrom all windso ih'" tiui"g, and forthr, ith the cited' dead Ol- all pait ages to the general.doomo , . , sleep' Shall hastenlsuch a peal shall rouse their shalt-judge thou ih"r, ull thy saints assembled, S;d'*"" ;a angels, they arraigned" shall-sink, Beneath thy sentence; Hell, her !llmbers tull' shal I be forever sh uillMeanwhi Ie^ if-',"

in loose garlands thick thrown off

nent that like a sea ofjasper shon, with celestial roses smiled.



in of lighr, thyself invisible the glorious brighrness where rh, med inaccessiblc, but" when rhou si full blaze of th1 beams. and rhrougt round about thee like a radiantit

part, such concord is in Hea e Father first they sung omnipote table, immortal. infi nite, Kin^g thee Author of all being.

C-.t"tht"* 1ar: "For as in Adam all die' even * i. Ch.i", shall all be made alive " - vicariousll' of Ch.itt attributed +- Tfr." -.* ,i:i-ru,.J;i io hrman beinSts frees from original rl" i[tt" *t .""ounce their ou n deeds' good and
" bad, and hoPe to be saved bY faith'

5. A heterodox doctrire tf-t-'* CnJbr m"rit. ComPare rrith i.a 6. ln He!4Y1 " 7'Srders of