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Laponite Technical Bulletin

L/301/01

Laponite starting formulations

Applications for Laponite in surface coatings
decorative and architectural finishes for DIY and professional use textured coatings water-in-water multicolour paint automotive OEM and refinish clearcoats and varnishes exterior and interior woodstains protective coatings for structural steel artist's and children's paints

Formulary for water based surface coatings

For more information, consult The Laponite Te chnical Directory available from

Rockwood or your local distributor

Rockwood Additives Limited
Moorfield Road Widnes Cheshire WA8 0JU, UK

+44 (0) 151 495 2222 fax: +44 ( 0) 151 420 5129 e-mail: help@laponite.com Web site: www.laponite.c om

Laponite is a registered trademark of Ro ckwood Specialtie s Inc. All infor mation he re is given in good faith b ut without warranty o r guarantee of any kind whats oever , wh ether implied or expressed. Freedom from patent rights must not be assumed. This leafle t does not form part of the condit ions of sale, is of a general nature and s hou ld not be used as t he basis of a s pecificat io n.

1.

Introduction
Laponite is a synthetic layered silicate with a structure resembling that of the natural clay mineral, hectorite. It is used as a cost effective and highly thixotropic rheological additive in a wide range of surface coatings. Starter formulations have been developed both in-house by Laporte and also by other raw material suppliers, which demonstrate the versatile performance characteristics of Laponite. A wide range of examples are shown in this formulary. In addition to its use in surface coatings, Laponite also finds applications in personal care, cosmetic and household products. As a synthetic product manufactured by a controlled batch process, product consistency is excellent and Laponite is completely free of crystalline silica impurities found in naturally occurring clays.

2.

Benefits of Laponite in surface coatings
Laponite disperses easily and quickly in water to give clear, colourless gels or sols without the need for wetting or neutralizing agents or high shear mixing. The viscosity or structure imparted to a formulation depends upon both the level of Laponite added (typically 0.1-1.0%) and also upon other components in the formulation. Key properties demonstrated by surface coatings stabilized with Laponite: • • • • • • highly shear thinning, thixotropic rheology excellent suspension and syneresis control does not affect gloss at normal use levels viscosity build not destroyed by heat or prolonged high shear resistant to microbial attack stability from pH 3 to pH 13

3.

Summary of application areas
Laponite is already used in: • • • • • • • • • decorative and architectural finishes for DIY and professional use textured coatings water-in-water multicolour paint automotive OEM and refinish clearcoats and varnishes exterior and interior woodstains protective coatings for structural steel artist's and children's paints printing inks

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4.

Laponite grades and mode of addition
Two grades of Laponite are recommended for use in surface coatings: Laponite RD - a rapidly dispersing gel forming grade which should be added to water at the beginning of the formulation and allowed to fully hydrate before addition of other ingredients. In this way it is handled in a similar manner to many other thickeners for water based systems. Laponite RDS - a rapidly dispersing sol forming grade which can be made into a concentrated stock dispersion (up to 10% solids) of low viscosity. Laponite RDS is modified to delay its gelling properties until it is added as a dispersion into a formulated product. The unique sol forming properties of Laponite RDS allow it to be used as a post-additive or corrective thickener and also in free water lean formulations. The stock dispersion may be prepared in advance and then added to successive production batches. Both Laponite RD and Laponite RDS should be pre-dispersed in water and allowed to fully hydrate to form clear dispersions before use.

Example recommended dispersion and hydration times (20C) Concentration in premix Laponite RD Laponite RDS 2 10 Dispersion and hydration time 15 minutes 40 minutes

Laponite disperses readily in tap water at ambient temperature; at elevated temperatures, up to 60C, the rate of hydration is greatly increased. The use of high shear mixing is not required to disperse Laponite.

5.

Compatibility
Laponite is compatible with a wide range of resin types, glycol ethers, alcohols, commonly used biocides, hydroxides and sodium hypochlorite. It may often be used with great effectiveness with other thickeners for water based systems, for example cellulose ethers, Xanthan gum, polyacrylates, polyurethanes etc.. In some combinations of thickeners synergistic interactions with Laponite give greatly improved efficiency and cost effectiveness. Laponite will assist in the emulsification of silicone or mineral oils in water by increasing the low shear viscosity of the aqueous phase. It is compatible with non-ionic and anionic and some amphoteric surfactants. Laponite itself is a highly anionic material and will co-flocculate cationic compounds giving greatly reduced viscosity build.

6.

Regulatory status
• TSCA listing under the CAS name sodium magnesium lithium silicate. CAS No. 53320-86-8.

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brush Paint for door application .roller Industrial clear wood coating for spray Water reducible wood stain Clear coat finish for interior wood Water based wiping stain Wood stain .Index of Formulations Interior decorative coatings Formulation Ref ID/1 ID/2 ID/3 ID/4 ID/5 ID/6 ID/7 ID/8 ID/9 Smooth masonry paint Textured masonry paint Contract vinyl matt First quality vinyl silk Coalescent free paint for new plaster Solid paint Interior float coating Silicate based emulsion paint Multicolour paint Page 1 1 2 2 3 3 4 4 5 Exterior decorative coatings Formulation Ref ED/1 ED/2 ED/3 ED/4 ED/5 ED/6 Water based paint Silicone based coating Exterior round aggregate Exterior floating 'One-coat' wall coating Water reducible white brushing enamel 7 7 8 8 9 10 Coatings for wood Formulation Ref CW/1 CW/2 CW/3 CW/4 CW/5 CW/6 CW/7 CW/8 CW/9 Interior/exterior gloss paint Paint for door application .reddish brown 11 11 12 12 13 13 14 15 15 iii .brown Wood stain .

2 Anticorrosion primer (dip or spray) Inorganic zinc primer Spray paint .1 Anticondensation paint .high gloss Stoving enamel Two-pack finishing paint Page 16 16 17 17 18 19 19 20 20 21 21 22 22 23 23 Printing Inks Formulation Ref PI/1 PI/2 PI/3 PI/4 PI/5 PI/6 PI/7 PI/8 PI/9 PI/10 PI/11 PI/12 Screen ink for wallpaper Screen ink for textiles Metallic screen ink for textiles Gravure bright silver (non leafing) Gravure bright silver (leafing) Gravure rich gold Flexographic bronze rich gold Gravure bronze rich gold Flexographic bronze rich gold Pearl lustre gold Pearl lustre silver Gravure ink based on aluminium pigment 24 24 25 25 25 26 26 26 26 27 27 28 Guide to raw material suppliers for ink formulations 29 iv .high gloss Industrial dipping paint Finishing paint Brush application paint .Industrial and Protective coatings Formulation Ref IC/1 IC/2 IC/3 IC/4 IC/5 IC/6 IC/7 IC/8 IC/9 IC/10 IC/11 IC/12 IC/13 IC/14 IC/15 Rust conversion coating Anticorrosive primer High build finishing paint Satin gloss corrosion resistant finish Non leafing metallic paint Anticondensation paint .

25 100.27 71.00 0.70 0. then add stepwise with slow speed mixing: Vinamul 3459 Bevaloid 6685 Texanol water pH adjustment (0.11 2.Formulation ID/1 Order of addition water Natrosol Plus Laponite RD Premix @ 600 rpm for 15 minutes Dispex G40 CF 107 Acticide BX Acticide EP Paste TiONa 535 Speswhite clay Snowcal 60 Microtalc AT 200 0.91 Ammonia) Total 33.00 0.33 @ 20C PVC = 40% 28.24 0.86 0.79% pH = 8.11 0.31 4.10 0.26 1.00 6.21 22.12% ICI Gel Strength = 27 gm/cm pH = 8.15 0.12 Formulation ID/2 Order of addition water Natrosol Plus Laponite RD Premix @ 600 rpm for 15 minutes Dispex G40 Bevaloid 6685 Acticide BX Acticide EP Paste TiONa 535 Microdol 1 Microdol 40/200 Durcal 40 0.25 0. then add stepwise with slow speed mixing: Vinamul 3459 CF 107 Texanol water pH adjustment (0.86 0.27 75.13 0.17 0.5 @ 20C Stormer Viscosity = 102 KU SG = 1.57 5.00 30.70 0.00 ICI Rotothinner viscosity = 10.11 0.49 Non-volatile content by weight = 56.25 0.50 13.00 0.00 5.07 Disperse at high shear for 20 minutes.45 0.13 0.00 3.25 100.31 3.25 0.65% ICI Rotothinner viscosity = 8.10 0.40 15.25 0.11 1.10 0.00 0.91 Ammonia) Total Non-volatile content by weight = 48.5P ICI Gel Strength = 45 gm/cm Stormer Viscosity = 112 KU 26.20 22.00 0.10 1.00 % weight 12.5P Non-volatile content by volume = 39.40 20.00 15.11 0.09% Non-volatile content by volume = 30.25 Textured Masonry Paint Volume 12.00 % weight 15.21 0.30 0.76 1.58 13.4 @ 20C PVC = 42% 1 .11 1.00 3.25 0.20 @ 20C SG = 1.00 3.45 Smooth Masonry Paint Volume 15.84 0.15 0.24 0.00 0.11 Disperse at high shear for 20 minutes.75 1.

00 12.21 18.17 2.00 6.30 100.91 Ammonia) Total Non-volatile content by weight = 42.51% pH = 8.Formulation ID/3 Order of addition water Natrosol Plus 330 Contract Vinyl Matt % weight 18.35 Premix @ 600 rpm for 15 minutes Dispex G40 CF 107 Acticide BX TiONa 376 Microdol AT Extra Talc 262840/200 Speswhite clay 0.34 3.34 1.05 1.11 0.70 Disperse at high shear for 20 minutes.79 Disperse at high shear for 20 minutes.86% Non-volatile content by volume = 30.00 0.20 4.6 @ 20C SG = 1.33 82.71 Formulation ID/4 Order of addition water Laponite RD 9H4 CMC Premix @ 600 rpm for 15 minutes Dispex G40 Henkel 8034 Mergal K6N TiONa 535 Snowcal 60 0.10 5.33 4. then add stepwise with slow speed mixing: Viking 2920 Coatex 2000 Henkel 8034 Ropaque OP62 Texanol water pH adjustment (0.00 25.23 First Quality Vinyl Silk Volume 20.22 @ 20C PVC = 26% 37.11 0.15 0.00 0.00 ICI Rotothinner viscosity = 7P ICI Gel Strength = 12 gm/cm Stormer Viscosity = 89 KU 11.95 0.00 ICI Rotothinner viscosity = 8P ICI Gel Strength = 27 gm/cm Stormer Viscosity = 97 KU 34.32 0.30 0.45 0.05 2.00 0.00 0.24 @ 20C PVC = 79% 12.23 0.01 0.5 @ 20C SG = 1.00 14.53% pH = 8.22 0.05 0.95 0.15 0.14 % weight 20.05 14.95 0.00 0.15% Non-volatile content by volume = 34.00 25.35 Volume 18.05 1.12 0.21 10.04 1.40 0.53 0.22 80.11 5.13 3.05 2 .15 12.00 2.05 0.25 0.33 0.91 Ammonia) Total Non-volatile content by weight = 47.20 100. then add stepwise with slow speed mixing: Harco VV 575 CF 107 Texanol 10% Laponite RDS water pH adjustment (0.10 0.00 0.00 10.

29 Volume 37.0 50.6 1. highly thixotropic.19 0.Formulation ID/5 Order of addition water Laponite RD 9H4 CMC Coalescent Free Paint for New Plaster % weight 37.6 @ 20C SG = 1.50 0.0 80.10 0. height of cap in coating µm (%) Washability according to DIN 53 778 Viscosity (mPas) Gloss at 85 (%) 3 Density (g/cm ) 3 .19 0.70 Disperse at high shear for 20 minutes.25 0.29 Premix @ 600 rpm for 15 minutes Dispex G40 Henkel 8034 Mergal K6N TiONa 376 Polestar 200P Snowcal 60 Speswhite clay 0.10 7.0 7.00 ICI Rotothinner viscosity = 11P ICI Gel Strength = 21 gm/cm Stormer Viscosity = 106 KU 70.0 2.11 7.50 0.0 3.50 99.5 20.0 40.5 2.0 30.44 3.96 4.10% Optimix A K6N Byk W Tiona 372 Socal P2 Finntalc M 15 Chinafill 84 Naintsch ST 60 Omya Special Acronal 290D Taxanol White Spirit K 60 Borchigel L 75.00 0.24 Total Non-volatile content by weight = 49.0 95.22 8. then add stepwise with slow speed mixing: Vinamul 3692 Henkel 8034 water pH adjustment (0.HBW-A (%) Contrast ratio.89 2.35 Formulation ID/6 Emulsion paint resistant to scrubbing according to DIN 53 778.29 3.30 0.88 0.11 0. reduced spatter Order of addition Water Laponite RD Concentrated Ammonia Calgon N.55 >5000 4300 2.00 12.0 1000.0 88.0 150.0 5. 10% Solid Paint Weight 374.00 10.40 Brightness according to DIM.0 80.71% Non-volatile content by volume = 28.57% pH = 8.0 1.0 10.91 Ammonia) 9.50 0.50 0.00 8.50 0.30 14.42 @ 20C PVC = 76% 100.0 50.

0 978.5 3.0 50.0 80.0% 99.0 Viscosity.25-1.0 2.5 2. HBW A 2 Contrast ration 300g/m according to DIN Gloss <85 Viscosity. Haake Spreading properties Texture Solids content (weight) 10600 mPas good good 78.8)* Interior Float Coating .0 23.3 4 .2% * Solvay-Alkali product Formulation ID/8 Water Laponite RD Natrosol HHR Ammonia Betolin Quart 5 Betolin EP 219 Tiona 372 Socal P2 Durcal 5 Silica flour H 500 White spirit K 60 Shellsol A Alberdingk SC 44 Byk 040 Betolin Ep 219 Silicate-based Emulsion Paint 127 1 1 1 10 150 80 100 120 150 5 3 50 2 200 1000 Test Data: Brightness.Haake E.0 3.0 58. beads (1.0 1.7% 2000 mPas 2400 mPas 5.Formulation ID/7 Water Tylose MH 300 Laponite RD Ammonia Optimix A KM 102 Byk 073 Mowilith DM 122 Tiona 535 Durcal 10 Durcal 40 Durcal 130 Lime.48 2.0 1. 28 days later Blue-yellow value 88. after preparation Haake E.0 90."Putz" 120.0 44.

By following the mixing procedure described in stage 3 a product is formed where the individual paint particles or flecks are covered in a thin layer of Laponite gel.34 It is possible to further increase the elasticity of the secondary colour by including an associative thickener in the formulation. Modification of the rheology of the secondary colour to give a more elastic texture can allow the production of a paint which has a larger fleck size in the coated film.19 0. The separate colours are blended together again in a stabilized sol dispersion of Laponite. This can be achieved by replacing part of the Laponite and hydroxyethyl cellulose system shown with thickeners which show reduced shear thinning and give extended viscosity in the higher shear range such as polyurethane associatives and some organic gums.66 0. This can have the effect of producing a larger fleck size which is a desirable property in multicolour paint. the flecks. In developing a commercial formulation for multicolour paint it is likely that the secondary colour. 5 .72 100.19 0.73 23. 28. will be made to a slightly different formulation than the primary colour.65 0. The formulation uses a single base paint which is then split into two or more portions and tinted as required.73 0. The formulation has been divided into three stages Stage 1 Stage 2 Stage 3 Preparation of base paints Tinting Blending of separate colours into the multicolour product Stage 1 Preparation of base paint Order of Addition Water Laponite RD Mix until Laponite is fully hydrated Natrosol 250 MHR Mix and add the following Dispersant (Tamol 731)* Wetting agent (Triton CF-10) Defoamer (Dispelair CF107) Biocide (Acticide AZ) Titanium dioxide (RCL 535) Calcium carbonate (Queensfill 300) Disperse to 5 Hegman.37 0. This formulation shows excellent long term storage and application stability. This gel coating acts as a physical barrier to prevent the different colours mixing together. The exceptional shear thinning shown by Laponite gels has the additional benefit of acting as a lubricant between the paint particles to prevent their blending during mixing and spray application.0 0. then add Latex (Viking 2920) Defoamer (Dispelair CF 107) Water Total * In some regions this product is called Orotan 731.09 5.24 % weight 35.09 4.Formulation ID/9 Introduction Water based multicolour paint This describes a starter formulation suitable for making a water based multicolour paint.

80 2.Stage 2 Tinting The primary and secondary colours should be prepared in the required quantities. Multicolour paints covering the whole colour spectrum are possible. Order of Addition Water Tetrasodium pyrophosphate Mix until TSPP is dissolved Laponite RD Mix until Laponite is fully hydrated. Use high volume. For maximum long term colour stability it is highly recommended that pigment pastes dispersed in water are used.50 10. For the purpose of showing an example Stage 3 describes a paint composed of:90 parts white 5 parts red 5 parts blue Tinting should be carried out by adding pigment dispersion concentrates to the concentration required by the paint producer. 6 . Speed and duration of mixing are important factors in determining the particle size of the secondary colours. Apply by spray in cross lay method.56 0.5-5. the product and end application. Application Before use.80 7.57 0. stir the paint gently.04 2. Do not shear. then add White base paint Blue tinted base Red tinted base Water Styrene Acrylic emulsion (Viking 5455) Coalescent (Texanol) Total % weight 41. In practice the actual proportion of each colour varies widely depending upon the manufacturer. This gives a significantly improved scrub resistance to the coating.23 100. low pressure (HVLP) equipment. Stage 3 Blending of multicolour product In this final stage the separate colours are successively added to a concentrated colloidal sol dispersion of Laponite which has been stabilized at a low viscosity by tetrasodium pyrophosphate.0 Mix the final formulation very slowly. A colloidal styrene acrylic emulsion is added to incorporate the free Laponite gel firmly into the film on drying. When the paint comes into contact with the Laponite sol dispersion a thin coating of Laponite gel is formed on the surface of the paint. The Hüls Aquatrend range is suitable.70 bar) with inlet pressure to the gun being 65-75 psi (4. The pot pressure should be 10 psi (0.00 32.35-0.2 bar). This is caused by the interaction between the polar compounds present in the paint and the Laponite sol.50 2.70 bar) and the air pressure at the gun should be 5-10 psi (0. The Sata NR HVLP or the Binks Mach 1 HVLP sprayguns are suitable. Do not thin. Slow speed mixing (50 rpm or less) causes the paint to break up into small particles which are separated from each other by the protective coating of Laponite gel.

5 50.0 70.s) 93.0 180.0 1000.7 11.0 Test results: Brightness HBW-A Contrast ratio µm Blue/yellow value Gloss >85 Viscosity.0 2.0 290.0 Test data: Brightness HBW-A Contrast ratio.09 0.0 1000.s) (mPa.0 2.0 1. Haake E (%) (%) (%) (%) (%) (mPa.0 135.Formulation ED/1 WATER-BASED PAINT for exterior application. Haake-E after preparation after 28 days at 50C sd value water absorption capacity (%) (%) (%) (%) (mPa.0 3.0 450.8 98.0 8.0 1.5 1300 Formulation ED/2 SILICONE-BASED COATING Water Laponite RD Walocel XM 40000 pv NH3 Optimix A Tiona RCL-388 Socal P2 Calcidar 5 Mica P Tego Phobe 1000 Mowilith DM 60 Texanol K6N Foamex LA 129 189.5 98.s) (m) 2 (kg/m /h) 86.0 90.0 50. thixotropic. height of gap in coating 200 µm Blue/yellow value Gloss <85 Gloss <60 Viscosity.0 67.18 -0.0 110.0 -5. satin finish Water Laponite RD Propylene glycol Optimix A Tiona RCL-535 Socal P2 Byk 020 Parmetol A 23 Water Methyl diglycol Dowanol DPmB Rohm and Haas EP-2592 Ropaque OP-62 Acrysol RM 1020 Acrysol RM 8 Triton CR7M 61.0 12.0 3.5 1.0 7.0 100.4 1200 3000 0.0 1.0 47.5 40.5 2.7 53.24 Formulation ED/3 7 .0 5.0 1.0 20.3 2.

0 2.0 891.7 Cranicalcium 0. Haake E Spreading properties Texture Solids content (weight) (%) Formulation ED/4 EXTERIOR FLOATING Water Tylose MHB 10000 yp Laponite RD Ammonia Optimix A Mergal AF Byk 0.s) 11900 good good 74.0 2.0 989.s) (%) 8700 god good 76.0 558. 73 Mowilith DM 122 Tiona 535 Durcal 40 Durcal 130 Quartz (beads No.4) 80.5 2.0 2.0 350.0 8.0 4.0 14.0 3.0 Viscosity.0 80.EXTERIOR ROUND AGGREGATE Water Tylose MH 300 Laponite RD Ammonia Optimix A Mergal AF Byk 073 White spirit K 60 Mowilith DM 122 Tiona 535 Calibrite SL Durcal 130 Granicalcium 0.0 40.0 100.0 2.5 Butyl diglycol acetate Dibutyl phthalate 63.0 2.0 2.0 4.5 (mPa.0 50.3 8 .0 120.0 1.5 3.5-1.0 97.35-0.0 20.0 Viscosity.5 2.0 2.0 140. Haake Spreading properties Texture Solids content (weight) (mPa.

0 30.76 -5.0 40.0 12. 10% Calgon N.0 60.0 3.0 10.s) (mPa.0 3.10% Optimix A Tiona RCL-388 Socal P2 Finntalc M 15 Chinafill 84 Mica P Acronal 290 D Ethylene glycol White spirit.s) (µm) 99.5 1.4 3300 3800 2000 9 .5 (%) (%) (mPa.Formulation ED/5 ONE-COAT WALL COATING FOR EXTERIOR APPLICATION Water Tylose MHB 30000 yp Laponite RD Caustic soda solution.0 4.0 Test data: Brightness HBW A Opacity Contrast ratio.0 50.0 70. K 60 Butyl diglycol Parmetol A 23 Byk 073 222.0 1.0 10.0 1000. height of gap in coating 200 µm Blue-yellow value Gloss <85% Viscosity.5 25.0 230.0 3. Haake E after 1 day at room temperature after 28 days storage at 50C Crack free up to (%) 88.

84 0.Formulation ED/6 WATER REDUCIBLE WHITE BRUSHING ENAMEL Use of water reducible alkyds is growing as coatings are increasingly being converted from solvent based to waterborne.85 19. In this formulation Laponite RDS increases viscosity and improves sag resistance and syneresis control without decreasing gloss or levelling.0 2.35 100. premix the following: PART B Butyl Cellosolve 6% Zirco Intercar drier 6% Cobalt Intercar drier Activ-8 Antiskinning agent mix rapidly: Cargill 74-7432 Alkyd Propyl propasol add the following. then disperse to 7 Hegman Ammonium hydroxide (0.11 0. then add: water Ammonium hydroxide (0.50 7. add Part A. allowing a stock to be prepared which may be used in a succession of paint batches.00 Finally.91) 0.Laponite RDS premix Laponite RDS water mix for 30 minutes.40 0.50 31.44 5. stir for 30 minutes. order of addition % weight PART A . add Part B.91) mix until homogenous.91) Titanium dioxide CR-800 water then add: Cargill 74-7432 Alkyd Ammonium hydroxide (0.33 0.00 0. the Laponite RDS premix and stir until homogenous 10 .94 0.00 3. Laponite RDS is used here in a premix that will remain fluid over 2-3 weeks.11 20.30 7.33 0.

66 thickener Formulation adapted from original work by Zeneca.25 0.0 Test Data Brightness.0 3.95 2.0 60.0 2.0 15. then add: Neocryl XA 5090 Dowanol DPM Dehydran 1620 2. 10% Calgon N. highly suitable for brush application Water Tylose MHB 30000 yp Laponite RD Caustic soda solution.0 140.s) (mPa. HBW A Opacity Contrast ratio with height of gap in coating 100 µm height of gap in coating 100 µm Blue-yellow value Gloss < 85 Viscosity.Formulation CW/1 Interior/exterior gloss paint Order of addition % weight function Water Polypropylene glycol AMP-95 Dehydran 1620 Surfynol 104E Neocryl BT-24 Tioxide TR92 Grind to Hegman 7. 10% 333.14 24.88 2.95 99. then add to the formulation Laponite RDS Water Then add Rheolate 350 0.36 dispersant defoamer dispersant dispersant pigment 59.40 3.00 thickener 0.43 0.0 80.s) 93.0 1. Haake VT 500 after 1 day at room temperature after 28 days storage at 50C Washability according to DIN 53 778 after 28 days.0 2.26 acrylic emulsion coalescent defoamer Premix the following for 20 minutes.0 10.52 11 .0 2.0 150.96 100.0 2. 10% Optimix A Tiona RCL-535 Socal P2 Steamic OXO Durcal 2 Alberdingk + Boley AS 6000 Mergal K 9 N Byk 033 Borchigel L75.28 0.47 -1. Formulation CW/2 PAINT FOR DOOR APPLICATION According to DIN 53 778-S-M solvent-free.20 0.0 98.0 1000. 23C/50% relative humidity Density (%) (%) (%) (%) (mPa.23 2.2 2100 2300 (cycles) 3 (g/cm ) >5000 1.0 200.

60rpm.0 @ 20C Brookfield Viscosity = 85cP (sp 2.00 Function acrylic resin flow additive defoamer polyurethane dispersion rheology control agent coalescing solvent polythene wax preservative defoamer pH = 8. 10% Calgon N.0 98. 1 min) 12 .0 10.10 33.2 2100 2300 (cycles) 3 (g/cm ) >5000 1. 10% Optimix A Tiona RCL-535 Socal P2 Steamic OXO Durcal 2 Alberdingk + Boley AS 6000 Mergal K 9 N Byk 033 Borchigel L75.0 Test Data Brightness.47 -1.0 2.52 Formulation CW/4 INDUSTRIAL CLEAR WOOD COATING FOR SPRAY APPLICATION Order of Addition Luhydran A8485 BYK 346 Tego Foamex 805 Incorez W830/310 Laponite RDS (10% dispersion) Butyl Diglycol Aquacer Acticide LG Tego Foamex 805 % weight 60. HBW A Opacity Contrast ratio with height of gap in coating 100 µm height of gap in coating 100 µm Blue-yellow value Gloss < 85 Viscosity.0 1000.10 0.60 3.50 1.00 0.0 2.0 150.0 2.0 200.0 3.s) (mPa.s) 93. 23C/50% relative humidity Density (%) (%) (%) (%) (mPa.0 2.0 1.10 1.00 0.0 60.0 140.95 99.0 80. highly suitable for roller application Water Tylose MHB 30000 yp Laponite RD Caustic soda solution.Formulation CW/3 PAINT FOR DOOR APPLICATION According to DIN 53 778-S-M solvent-free. Haake VT 500 after 1 day at room temperature after 28 days storage at 50C Washability according to DIN 53 778 after 28 days.10 100.10 0. 10% 333.0 15.

Brookfield LVT.30 2.00 0. based on the acrylic emulsion Neocryl XA-6053 from Zeneca.00 73.11 5. 3rpm Gloss: 80%.18 100.10 0. then add to batch. then add with mixing: Propylene glycol n-Butyl ether (Dowanol PnB) Dipropylene glycol n-Butyl either (Dowanol DPnB) Plasticizer (Kodaflex DPB) Ammonium hydroxide (28% solution) Defoamer (Dehydran 1293) Then add with rapid agitation: Neocryl XA-6053 Mix for 10 minutes.81 0.18 % weight 15.33 61.91) Mix the following for 30 minutes.70 0. Spindle 3.Formulation CW/5 WATER REDUCIBLE WOOD STAIN Order of addition % weight Add with mixing Cargill Modified Linseed Oil Dow Corning Additive #51 Brown Iron Oxide B-2093F Patcote 577 Disperse to 6 Hegman.12 13 .24 0.15 0. Order of addition water Tetrasodium pyrophosphate Laponite RD Stir for 15 minutes.00 7.18 0. then add: wetting agent (BYK 346) Mar aid (BYK 301) Viscosity: 12000 cP. stir until homogenous water Laponite RDS 8.68 7.004 0.29 Formulation CW/6 CLEAR COAT FINISH FOR INTERIOR WOOD This formulation.40 0.67 100. then add: water Ammonium hydroxide (0. 60% Angle (Formula adapted from original work by Zeneca) 0.00 0.9 11. then add: Cargill Modified Linseed Oil Premix the following: Butyl Cellosolve Manganese hydrocure II (8%) Stir premix into the batch.22 3. has been developed for use on primed or stained wood.44 1.

then add to the formulation Laponite RD Water 0.00 * (Rhoplex ST-77 formerly E-2977) Formulation adapted from original work by Rohm and Haas.05 8.48 0.38 0.52 11.96 0.69 2.08 6.73 function pigment pigment pigment pigment pigment When dispersed add: Rhoplex ST-77* Foamaster Exp 63 Propylene glycol Ammonia (14% solution) Water Acrysol ASE-60 36. Mix with agitation Water H-D Trans Yellow B223 H-D Trans Red B123 Irgasperse Red G-U Irgasperse Brown R-U Aurasperse W-7017 Black % weight 17.97 100.38 0.91 anti-settling agent Adjust viscosity to 35-45 seconds.Formulation CW/7 Water based wiping stain In this formulation.23 4.02 acrylic emulsion defoamer coalescent neutralizing agent thickener Premix Laponite for 20 minutes. Laponite prevents pigment settling without increasing viscosity.2 Zahn cup Water 6. 14 .53 1. No.07 2.

0 6.0 2.0 2.5 6.0 Test data: Viscosity. reddish brown Worlessol 31 Worleesol 22 Laponite RD Concentrated ammonia Activ 8 Servosyn WEB.5 1000.0 490. Mn 9% Luconyl orange 2416 Luconyl red 2817 Water 347.8 0. co 8% Servosyn WEB.3 Formulation CW/9 WOOD STAIN water-based.0 0.5 1.0 7. brown Water Concentrated ammonia Laponite RD Optimix A Colanyl black Luconyl orange Byk 033 Texanol Dilexo 37 Mergal BCM 691.4 12.0 4.s) 1050 7.Formulation CW/8 WOOD STAIN water-based.0 43.0 Test Data: Viscosity.5 15 .1 15.3 1000. Haake-E after preparation pH (mPa.0 0. Haake-E after preparation after 28 days storage at 50C pH (mPa.0 270.s) 45 60 9.0 1.0 84.0 15.s) (mPa.

225 76.22 55.05 0.38 68.08 0.20% 54.56 function thickener defoamer dispersant coalescent biocide anti-corrosive pigment extender pigment dispersant vinyl acrylic copolymer Non volatile content by weight Non volatile content by volume pH SG PVC = = = = = 60.21 0.20 4.70 0. Formulation IC/2 Anti-corrosive Primer (based on Haloflex 202/Zinc phosphate and Laponite RD) Order of addition Water Laponite RD Bevaloid 642 Synperonic PE/F87 (30%) Butyl Ethoxol Acticide AZ Zinc phosphate Micronised Barytes Micronised red iron oxide Synperonic PE/F87 (30%) Haloflex 202 (adjust pH to 4.00 2.3 @ 20c 18.47% 42.37% 3.67% 4.57 3.10 5.09 1.46 @ 20c 19.5 @ 20c 1.54 59.79 1.086 5.125 0.Formulation IC/1 Rust Conversion Coating (based on tannic acid/Polidene 33-065 and Laponite RDS) Order of addition Water Laponite RDS Bevaloid 642 Kelzan 'S' Tannic acid (Tec 90) Dowfax 2A1 Micronised barytes Butyl Ethoxol Haloflex 202 % weight 11.51 3.00 volume 8.98 0.74 2.73 15.0 with ammonia) Water % weight 8.75 0.20 0.46 46.14 0.43 3.71% A formulation based upon gallic acid is available on request.22 0.125 10.22 0.21 0.09 0.84 function thickener defoamer thickener chelating agent surfactant extender coalescent vinyl acrylic copolymer Non volatile content by weight Non volatile content by volume pH SG PVC = = = = = 64.3% 16 .50 45.76 2.10 25.00 volume 11.3 @ 20c 1.08 0.92 2.42 2.19 0.43 0.20 0.47 100.78 2.38 100.

89 0.00 2.64 3.43 2.71 12.10 1.37 @ 20c 16.09 0.93 45.97 69.01 0.30 21.20 1.49 0.97 100.45 2.27 4.0 with ammonia) Water % weight 1.63 0.Formulation IC/3 High build finishing paint (based on Haloflex 208 and Laponite RD) Order of addition Water Laponite RD Bevaloid 642 Orotan 850 Acticide AZ Synperonic PE/F87 (30%) Butyl Ethoxol Micro Mica W1 Kronos 2190 Synperonic PE/F87 (30%) Haloflex 208 (adjust pH 4.62 0.22 1.69 0.5% 6.01 0.1% 42.9% Formulation IC/4 Satin gloss corrosion resistant finish (based on Haloflex 208 and Laponite RDS) Order of addition Water Laponite RDS Bevaloid 642 Synperonic NP 30 (20%) Texanol Acticide AZ Orotan 850 Kronos 2190 Synperonic NP 30 (20%) Haloflex 208 (adjust pH to 4.20 0.99 2.54 7.1 @ 20c 1.9% 38.86 function thickener defoamer dispersant biocide dispersant coalescent extender pigment stabilizer vinyl acrylic copolymer Non volatile content by weight Non volatile content by volume pH SG PVC = = = = = 60.89 0.1 @ 20c 1.21 0.73 73.00 0.0 with ammonia) Water % weight 8.00 0.57 40.8% 17 .00 volume 8.02 function thickener defoamer surfactant coalescent biocide dispersant pigment surfactant vinyl acrylic copolymer Non volatile content by weight Non volatile content by volume pH SG PVC = = = = = 54.48 4.23 11.94 2.90 9.73 100.54 33.22 0.00 58.16 2.37 5.18 0.4% 5.34 9.35 11.30 18.43 @ 20c 37.00 volume 1.21 0.18 0.

Formulation IC/5 Non-leafing metallic paint Order of addition water Kelsol 3906 % weight 41.60 pigment Disperse until homogenous.25 0.28 0. then add the premix of Laponite RDS water Laponite RDS 11.45 100.64 0.30 Function Am short oil alkyd resin Mix.34 metal drier coalescent metal drier Add the premix to the alkyd resin dispersion. then premix the following: Butyl cellosolve Cobalt Hydrocure II 8% Active 8 Manganese Hydrocure II 8% 1.01 12.32 0.00 anti-settling agent 18 .55 27. then add the following: Butyl cellosolve Hydropaste 82255 Aluminium 3.

2 10.82 neutralizing agent coalescent plasticizer % weight 20.0 17. then add: Dimethylethanolamine Dowanol DPnB Kodaflex TXiB 0.8 39.6 thickener Formulation IC/7 Anti condensation paint . 0.4 5.75 16. then add to the formulation Laponite RD Water Then add: Collacryl PU 85 (25%) Microspheres B46/4000 Water Formulation adapted from original work by Goodyear 0.0 thickener filler 0.5 1.0 4.3 0.0 0.0 0.1 Suitable for air or airless spray application Order of addition Pliotec LSI Disperbyk 181 Surfynol 104E Foamex 7447 Tioxide RHD2 Blanc Fixe N Alumina Trihydrate SH100 Disperse. then add: Dimethylethanolamine Dowanol DPnB Kodaflex TXiB 0.00 thickener filler 0.0 4.5 1.18 100.4 27.0 8.2 Suitable for air or airless spray application Order of addition Pliotec LSI Disperbyk 181 Surfynol 104E Foamex 7447 Tioxide RHD2 Blanc Fixe N Alumina Trihydrate SH100 Disperse.0 100.8 14.2 0.0 Function acrylic emulsion dispersant dispersant defoamer pigment extender extender Premix the following for 20 minutes.25 0.2 5.0 Function acrylic emulsion dispersant dispersant defoamer pigment extender extender Premix the following for 20 minutes.Formulation IC/6 Anti condensation paint .3 0. then add to the formulation: Laponite RD Water Then add: Collacryl PU 85 (25%) Perlite Maxol P Formulation adapted from original work by Goodyear.53 thickener 19 .2 0.82 neutralizing agent coalescent plasticizer % weight 20.25 0.

9 21.00 2. matt Ingredient Bayhydrol B130 Ascinin Rmin WEB Co 8% Butyl glycol Bayferrox 110 M Omya DRB 3 Talcum 15 MO Heucophos ZMP Zinc white resin sealant F Aerosil 300 Laponite RDS.5 53.0 20.DIN-4 Degree of grinding pH (%) (%) (Pa.0 500.Formulation IC/8 Anti-Corrosion Primer for spray and dip application water-thinnable.53 2.00 20 .09 70. 10% Function anti-corrosion primer anti skinning agent drier red iron oxide pigment CaC03 extender talc extender anti-corrosion anti-corrosion matting silica wt % 293.86 20.88/26.5 1. high opacity.0 53.0 25.0 5.58 5.0 53.21 0.7 1.0 10.8 4.30/20.0 9.1/7. then add: Astrazon 7 GLL 200 Yellow dye (5% solution) Addition at time of application Zinc dust % weight 5. 30% PART B Premix: water Laponite RDS Add Part B slowly to Part A using high shear.s) (%) (s) (µm) 100.93 0.7 42.4 39.VT-500 Water Viscosity after manufacture .0 Formulation IC/9 Inorganic Zinc Primer Order of addition PART A Premix: water Potassium silicate.5 0.0 Product Evaluation Hiding power Contrast ratio with a 100 µm applicator aperture Gloss <20/<60/<85 CIELAB-L*/a*/b* Viscosity after manufacture .38 100.

73/39.8 40.3 58.0 35.0 0.0 15.2 1.0 3.5 4.0 red pigment drier drier spraying varnish anti skinning levelling Product Evaluation Hiding power Contrast ratio with a 100 µm applicator aperture Gloss <20/60/85 CIELAB-L*/a*/b* Viscosity after manufacture .0 3.5 13.7 51.0 125.2 10.6/97.5 Formulation IC/11 Industrial Dipping Paint High gloss.5 .67/19.0 15.98 210 20 9.5 5.0 13.0 3. water-thinnable Ingredient Worleesol 61A Triethylamine Water Byk 080 WEB Co 8% WEN Mn 9% Butyl glycol Bayferrox 110 M Tiona RCL-535 Worleesol 61A Triethylamine Butyl glycol Butyl diglycol Water Laponite RDS. concentrated Ethylene glycol Water Butanol Add 330 Add 327 Laponite RDS.0 1.5 0.5 9. water-thinnable Ingredient Worleesol 61A Triethylamine Water Sicomin red L 3025 WEB Co 8% WEB Mn 9% Ethylene glycol Worleesol 61A Exin 2 Ammonia.5 181. 10% Function spraying varnish wt % 50.5 1.DIN-4 Degree of grinding pH (%) (%) (s) (µm) 73.0/96. 10% Function binder wt % 50.Formulation IC/10 Spray Paint High-gloss.0 189.3/98.8 66.0 3.0 500.DIN-4 Degree of grinding pH (%) (%) (s) (µm) 21 97.12 79.0 10.0 1.0 37.00 87.9/53.0 defoamer drier drier red iron oxide pigment binder Product Evaluation Hiding power Contrast ratio with a 100 µm applicator aperture Gloss <20/<60/85% CIELAB-L*/a*/b* Viscosity after manufacture .0 2.0 1.5 108.23 17 20 9.0 500.28/28.4/93.

air drying Ingredient Bayhydrol VP LS 2803 Tiona RCL-535 Byk 020 WEB Co 8% Laponite RDS.9 9.0 5.9 67. 10% Function brushing varnish Ti02 pigment wt % 258.7/95.0 16.1 (%) (%) (Pa.0 22 .0 1.s) 94. air drying. thixotropic Ingredient Jäger MSL 40 Tiona RCL-535 DMEA Water Baysilon oil A Hydrolith drier Water Laponite RDS.0 17.3/95.6 146 15 7.0 126. 10% Function finishing varnish Ti02 pigment defoamer drier wt % 751.s) (%) (Pa.0 20.0 Product Evaluation Brightness HBW-A Hiding power Contrast ratio with a 100 µm applicator aperture Blue/yellow value Gloss <20/<60/<85 Viscosity after manufacture .4 4.1/91.0 wetting agent drier Product evaluation Brightness HBW-A Hiding power Contrast ratio with a 100µm applicator aperture Blue/yellow value Gloss <20/<60/<85 Viscosity after manufacture .0 10.VT-500 pH (5) 89. water-thinnable.0 220.DIN-4 Degree of grinding pH (5) 86.0 74.0 9.0 1000.0 Formulation IC/13 Brush Application Paint High gloss.0 3.05 -1. water-thinnable.2 (%) (%) (s) (µm) 96.0 439.VT-500 Water Viscosity after adjustment .0/86.80 -2.0 880.Formulation IC/12 Finishing Paint High gloss.0 6.9 40.

5 126.0 Function wt % binder glycol ether solvent Product evaluation Gloss <20/<60/<85 CIEBLAB-L*/a*/b* Viscosity component A .0 200.0 8. water-thinnable Ingredient Part A Synaqua 3510 WL Byk 020 Chromoxide green GN Tiona RCL-535 Blanc fixe HD 80 Efka 450 Water Synaqua 3510 WL Byk 341 AMP 90 Efka 34 Water Laponite RDS.0 8.0 30.66/-14.Formulation IC/14 Stoving Enamel High gloss.90 8.4 50. 20 min) Ingredient Synaqua 227WL/58 Luwipal 066 Tiona RCL-535 Chromoxide green GN Blanc fixe HD 80 Butyl diglycol Water Byk 341 Efka 34 Laponite RDS.0 12.0 10.0 6.0 237.0 190.0 1000. 10% Part B Desmodur LS 2980 Proglide DMM finishing varnish defoamer neutralizing amine green pigment barium sulphate extender dispersant finishing varnish wetting agent neutralizing amine anti-crater agent 190.0 100.3/92.3/84.3 52.1 22.3/85.0 500.0 45.0 33.92/13.0 8.0 wetting agent anti-crater agent Product evaluation Hiding power Contrast ratio with a 100 µm applicator aperture Gloss <20/<60/<85 CIELAB-L*/a*/b* Viscosity after manufacture .54/13.0 10.4 45.0 13.0 5.0 8.0 125.0 25.0 124.DIN-4 Degree of grinding pH (%) Pa(s) (%) (s) (µm) 60.DIN-4 Water Viscosity after adjustment . 10% Function wt % stoving varnish Ti02 pigment green pigment barium sulphate extender 200.0 14.7/46.8 Formulation IC/15 Two-pack Finishing Paint High gloss.DIN-4 Degree of grinding pH (%) (%) (s) (%) (s) (µm) 98.22 125.0 10.0 15.0 10.88/-14.0 23 .VT-500 Water Viscosity after adjustment . water-thinnable.0 120.0 14. high opacity (stoving conditions: 150C.0 40.72 5.5 1.0 20.

00 25.00 Add pigment to water/isopropanol and adjust pH with ammonia. 25% 45.0 24 .00 1.10 0.20 19.Formulation PI/1 a) Clear coat Zinpol 1519. Mix for 15 mins at 600 rpm. Add Laponite RDS sol from (a) and mix for 15 mins.0 Formulation PI/2 Silk screen printing ink for textiles % Zinpol D3000 Laponite RD Water Resiflow W51 Defoamer W0146 Sinloihi FZ-5000/6000 Ammonia. Brookfield viscosity T-bar D = 23-27.50 100. Add ammonia to adjust pH.00 Add co-solvents to Zinpol 1519 and mix at 400 rpm for 10 mins.00 Disperse Laponite RD in water and add to resin. stir at 600 rpm.00 10. Brookfield Viscosity = 33.000 cP Ford Cup No.5 rpm Ford Cup No. Add part (a) to (b) and mix for 30 mins.00 20.00 52.00 5.50 30. then add defoamer/resiflow and pigment.20 100.00 0.00 34. b) Pigment preparation Isopropanol Water Mikrolith-WA (yellow) Ammonia (25%) % 15.50 0.600 cP T-bar D @ 1.00 100.00 2. 4 viscosity = 20 s (20% water) pH = 8. 4 viscosity = 18-20 s pH = 8. 40% Water/IPA Water Diaceton alcohol Isopropanol Laponite RDS (10% w/w) Silk screen ink for wallpaper % 40.

10 35. Brookfield Viscosity = 3.00 27.5 rpm pH = 8.00 2.00 Add pigment to resin and stir at 600 rpm. 10% Aquavex E5000AR-207S Aqua Poly 250 Metallic silk screen printing ink for textiles a) % 40.20 0. 10% Aqua Poly 250 Surfynol 104H Rotovario Aqua 610011 Gravure Bright Silver (non-leafing) printing ink % 63.00 1.00 Add Aluminium pigment to resin and mix at 400 rpm.00 100. and mix for 20 mins.00 20. add Aqua Poly 250/Surfynol 104H and stir. 10% Surfynol 104H Aqua Poly 250 Rotovario Aqua 620017 Gravure Bright Silver (leafing) printing ink % 38. 25% % 15.00 12.00 100.50 15.00 100.400 cP T bar D @ 1.10 0. and mix for 15-20 min.5 Formulation PI/5 Zinpol 132 Laponite RDS.Formulation PI/3 Zinpol 1519 Water Laponite RDS.00 Mix pigments at 600 rpm for 30 mins and add to part (a) and mix at 400 rpm for 30-50 min.50 0.50 0.00 Mix as in (1).0 Formulation PI/4 Joncryl 1535 Laponite RDS.5 rpm Ford Cup No 4 = 20 s (20% water) pH = 8.20 1.320 cP T bar D @ 1.5 rpm pH = 8-8. Add Aqua Poly 250 and continue mixing for 30 min.20 60.5 Alternative Aluminium pigment:Aquasilver CPW/1180 25 .00 52. Brookfield Viscosity = 32.00 15. b) Pigment concentrate Isopropanol Water Mikrolith R-WA Mikrolith 4G-WA Ammonia. Then add Laponite RDS sol.000 cP T-bar D @ 1. Add Laponite RDS sol. Brookfield Viscosity = 13.50 100.20 1.

00 Mix as in (1) Brookfield viscosity = 19.5 rpm pH = 8-8. 10% Surfynol 104H Rotovario Aqua 630020 Flexographic Bronze Rich Gold printing ink % 38.5 Alternative Bronze pigment: Aquador WP/2850/120 Gravure Bronze Rich Gold printing ink % 44. 10% Water Bronze Rich Supertoto 400/7976 Disperse-Ayd W28 Gravure Bronze Rich Gold printing ink % 58. 10% Surfynol 104H Rotovario Aqua 630020 Mix as in (1) Brookfield Viscosity = 13.5 rpm pH = 8-8.0 Formulation PI/9 Zinpol 146 Laponite RDS.80 1.00 100.00 1.50 18.20 54.00 17.200 cP T bar D @ 1.20 55.00 Mix as in (1) Brookfield viscosity = 12.50 5.50 13.000 cP T bar D @ 1.500 cP T bar @ 1.5 Formulation PI/8 Zinpol 132 Laponite RDS.0 26 .00 Formulation PI/7 Zinpol 146 Laponite RDS. 10% Water Bronze Rich Supertoto 400/7976 Surfynol 104H Flexographic Bronze Rich Gold printing ink % 66.50 12.50 0.00 Mix as in (1) Brookfield viscosity = 40.00 7.00 100.00 100.400 cP T bar D @ 1.80 6.5 rpm pH = 8.00 0.00 1.5 rpm pH = 8.Formulation PI/6 Zinpol 132 Laponite RDS.00 100.

00 Add pigment to resin/water and mix at 400 rpm.49 0.21 17.00 13. then add dispersing agent and mix for 20 mins. Mearlin Majestic Gold 9222X Flonac MS20 Paliocrom Red Gold L2500 Formulation PI/11 Pearl Lustre Silver printing ink % 33. 2. Mearlin Card Silver BN001 Flonac ME10 White Soda Kraft paper (woodfree.30 5.21 17. 4 viscosity = 35-40 s pH = 8.0 Alternative Silver Pearl Lustre Pigments:1.30 5. Add Laponite RDS sol and mix for 30 mins.500 cP T-bar D @ 1. yellow or black. Other effects can be obtained by choosing a suitably coloured paper such as red. 2.00 33. Other lustre effects: The lustre obtained is a result of the pigment used and of the colour of the paper.Formulation PI/10 Acronal 290 (1:1 ratio) Diofan 193D Iriodin 300 Gold Pearl Water Pigment Dispersing Agent N. 10% Laponite RDS. blue. Brookfield Viscosity = 6. 3.00 100.00 100.5 rpm Ford cup No.5 rpm Ford cup No. high satin finish) can be used as coating paper. 10% Mix as in (10) Brookfield Viscosity = 6. 10% Pearl Lustre Gold printing ink % 33. green. 27 .49 0. 4 viscosity = 35-40 s Alternative Gold Pearl Lustre Pigments: 1.500 cP T-bar D @ 1.00 33.00 Acronal 290 (1:1 ratio) Diofan 193D Iriodin 100 Silver Pearl Water Pigment Dispersing Agent N.00 13. 10% Laponite RDS. bleached.

00 100. add water/isopropanol and continue stirring for 20 mins.00 50.00 53.00 40.00 19. NB: It is essential to keep stirrer speed low so as to prevent release of hydrogen. 25% Aluminium pigment Poly Aqua 250 Clear Varnish % 20.00 10. 25% " blue.00 Add Laponite RDS sol to resin and stir at 600 rpm. adjust pH with ammonia and continue stirring for 30 mins.00 20. 25% Gravure printing ink based on Aluminium pigment % 25.00 stir at 400 rpm Add clear varnish to Mikrolith pigments and then add aluminium pigment/Aqua Poly 250 and for 30 mins.00 Add pigment to water/clear varnish and stir at 400 rpm for 30 mins.00 100.00 1.000 cP T bar D @ 1. b) Clear Varnish Neocryl A1052 Isopropanol Water Laponite RDS.5 28 . c) Aluminium Pigment % Aquavex E5000AR-207S Water Clear Varnish 30.00 100.00 2.00 Add pigment to water/isopropanol and stir at 600 rpm.00 100.00 15. d) Printing ink formulation Mikrolith yellow.5 rpm pH = 8-8.00 15. 10% % 60.00 20. Brookfield viscosity = 20.00 20.Formulation PI/12 a) Ink Mikrolith Yellow BAW-WA Water Isopropanol Ammonia.

132. 146 Resiflow W51 Defoamer W0146 Sinloihi FZ-5000/6000 Mikrolith-WA Mikrolith R-WA Mikrolith 4G-WA Mikrolith BAW-WA Aquavex E5000AR-207S Rotovario Aqua 620017 Rotovario Aqua 610010 Function Binder Wetting agent Defoamer Fluorescent Pigment Pigment Pigment Pigment Pigment Metallic Pigment Metallic Pigment Metallic Pigment Ciba Ciba Silberline Eckart-Werke Eckart-Werke Wolstenholme Air Products Micropowders Inc S C Johnson Zeneca BASF BASF BASF BASF MERCK MERCK Daniel Products Co.Guide to Raw Material Suppliers Additive Zinpol 1519. D3000. Mearl Mearl Kemira Kemira Schlenk Schlenk Ciba Ciba Supplier Worlée Worlée Worlée Worlée Bronze Rich Supertoto 400/7976 Metallic Pigment Surfynol 104H AquaPoly 250 Joncryl 1535 Neocryl A1052 Acronal 290 Diofan 193D Pigment Dispersing Agent N Paliocrom Red Gold L2500 Iriodin 300 Gold pearl Iriodin 100 Silver Pearl Disperse-Ayd W28 Mearlin Majestic Gold 9222X Mearlin Card Silver BN001 Flonac MS20 Flonac ME10 Aquador WP/2850/120 lAquasilver CPW/1180 Wetting agent Matting agent Binder Binder Binder Binder Dispersant Pearl lustre pigment Pearl lustre pigment Pearl lustre pigment Dispersant Pearl lustre pigment Pearl lustre pigment Pearl lustre pigment Pearl lustre pigment Metallic pigment Metallic pigment 29 .