HUMAN RESOURCE MANAGEMENT (HRM

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JOB ANALYSIS, JOB DESIGN & JOB EVALUATION
JOB ANALYSIS
Strategic Overview
Jobs are dynamic and subject to change. Before people are assigned work, managers must examine jobs scientifically and describe the tasks needed clearly.

Learning Objectives
• • • • • • • Nature of job analysis Identifying how job analysis information is used in other HR activities Process of job analysis Methods by which job analysis is typically completed Assessing he impact of behavioral factors on job analysis Distinguishing job descriptions and job specifications Job analysis changes as organizations change.

Introduction
India being a labor surplus country, jobs are very important to individuals. Jobs help determine the standards of living, places of residence, status and even one’s sense of self-worth.

What is Job Analysis?
Job

analysis is a systematic exploration of the activities within a job. It is a technical procedure, one that is used to define the duties, responsibilities and accountabilities of a job. This analysis “involves the identification and description of what is happening on the job… accurately and precisely identifying the required tasks, the knowledge and the skills necessary for performing them, and the conditions under which they must be performed now and in the future”.

Uses of Job Analysis
Good human resource management demands of both the employee and the employer a clear understanding of the duties and responsibilities to be performed on a job. How job analysis helps with other aspects of work are summarized below.
Human

resource planning: Job analysis helps in forecasting human resource requirements in terms of knowledge and skills. By showing lateral and vertical relationships between jobs, it facilitates the formulation of a systematic promotion and transfer policy. Also helps in determining the quality of human resources needed in an organization. 2. JOB ANALYSIS, JOB DESIGN & JOB EVALUATION RAHEJA COLLEGE - SEM. V – ACADEMIC YEAR 2009-2010 1

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Recruitment:

Job analysis is used to find out how and when to hire people for future job openings. An understanding of the skills needed and the positions that are vacant in future helps managers to plan and hire people in a systematic way. For e.g. a company for its financial analysis section may be hiring MBAs. An analysis may show that a graduate with an analytical bent of mind can also serve the purpose. The prospect can result in savings to the company.
Selection:

Without a proper understanding of what is to be done on a job, it is not possible to select the right person. If a college has not clearly identified what a clerk has to do, it is difficult to ascertain if the person selected is in a position to handle stores or maintain a cash register or even the books of accounts.
Placement

and orientation: After selecting people, we have to place them on jobs best suited to their interests, activities and aptitude. If we are not sure about what needs to be done on a job, it is not possible to identify the right person suited for the job. Similarly, effective job orientation cannot be achieved without a proper understanding of the needs of each job. To teach a new employee how to handle a job, the job has to be clearly defined.
Training:

If there is no proper job analysis it will lead to confusion and proper training cannot

be initiated.
Counseling:

Managers will be in a position to counsel employees about their careers when they understand the different jobs in an organization. Likewise, employees can better appreciate their career options when they understand the specific needs of various other jobs.
Employee

safety: A job analysis will indicate unsafe conditions associated with a job.

Performance

appraisal: Only on a proper job analysis being made available will it be possible to assess or compare individuals. It is necessary to compare what individuals should do (as per performance standards) with what they have actually done (as per job analysis).
Job

design and redesign: Once the jobs are understood properly, it is easy to locate weak spots and undertake remedial steps. Unnecessary movements, simplifying certain steps and improving the existing steps through continuous monitoring can be followed through a process of redesign.
Job

evaluation: Job analysis helps in finding the relative worth of a job, based on criteria such as degree of difficulty, type of work done, skills and knowledge needed, etc. This in turn helps in designing proper wage policies and rewards.

The Process of Job Analysis
Organizational

Analysis: It is necessary to first have an overall picture of the various jobs in an organization. This is required to find the linkages between jobs and organizational objectives, inter-relationships between jobs and contribution of various jobs to the effectiveness and efficiency of the organization. The information can be obtained through organization charts and workflow charts. 2. JOB ANALYSIS, JOB DESIGN & JOB EVALUATION RAHEJA COLLEGE - SEM. V – ACADEMIC YEAR 2009-2010 2

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Selection

of representative positions to be analyzed: It is not possible to analyze all the jobs and a representative sample of jobs can be selected for analysis keeping in mind time and cost constraints.
Collection

of job analysis data: The step involves the collection of data on the characteristics of the job, the required behavior and personal qualifications needed to carry out the job effectively.
Preparation

of job description: This step involves describing the contents of the job in terms of functions, duties, responsibilities, operations, etc.
Preparation

of job specification: The step involves conversion of the job description statements into a specific job. Job specifications is a written statement of personal attributes in terms of traits, skills, training, experience needed to carry out the job.

Methods of Collecting Job Analysis Data
The methods that managers use to determine job elements and the essential knowledge, skills and abilities for successful performance include the following:
Job

performance: The job analyst actually performs the job in question thus giving him/her a first hand information of the job in terms of physical effort, hazards, emotional pressures, social demands and mental requirements.
Observation

Method: A job analysis technique where data is gathered by watching employees work. Difficult to observe managerial tasks. The analyst must observe average workers during average conditions and the analyst should observe without getting directly involved in the job.
Critical

Incidents Technique: CIT is a qualitative approach to job analysis which is used to obtain specific descriptions of work. These incidents can be dissimilar. For e.g. a waiter being rude to a customer can result in the loss of this customer for a lifetime.
Individual

Interview Method: Meeting with an employee to determine what his / her job entails but process is time consuming.
Group

Interview Method: Meeting with a number of employees to collectively determine what their jobs entail.
Technical

Conference Method: A job analysis technique that involves extensive input from the employee’s supervisor. The method does not allow having the employee’s perception of the task. This method is also called Panel of Experts Method.
Diary

Method: requires employees to record their daily activities but the process is very extensive with a number of days observations’ to be taken into account making the process expensive 2. JOB ANALYSIS, JOB DESIGN & JOB EVALUATION RAHEJA COLLEGE - SEM. V – ACADEMIC YEAR 2009-2010 3

HUMAN RESOURCE MANAGEMENT (HRM)
Structured

Questionnaire Method: Workers are given a well-structured questionnaire which they check and rate from a long list of possible task items. This technique while being excellent does not allow for follow-up questions to be asked Some of the standard questionnaires that are widely used: • Position Analysis Questionnaire (PAQ): is a standardized questionnaire developed at Purdue University to quantitatively sample work oriented elements. It contains 194 items divided into six major divisions. The PAQ permits management to scientifically a quantitatively group inter-related job elements into job dimensions. Employees Activities in PAQ 1. Information Input: Where and how does the employee get the information s/he uses in performing her/his job? Examples: Use of written materials Near-visual differentiation 2. Mental processes: What reasoning, decision making, planning and informationprocessing activities are involved in performing the job? Examples: Levels of reasoning in problem solving Coding/decoding 3. Physical activities: What physical activities does the employee perform and what tools or devices does s/he use? Examples: Use of keyboard devices Assembling/disassembling 4. Relationship with other people: What relationship with other people is required in performing the job? Examples Instructing Contacts with public, customers 5. Job context: In what physical and social context is the work performed? Examples High temperature Interpersonal conflict situations 6. Other job characteristics: What activities, conditions or characteristics other than those described above are relevant to the job? Examples Specified work pace Amount of job structure.

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HUMAN RESOURCE MANAGEMENT (HRM) • Management Position Description Questionnaire (MPDQ): is a standardized instrument designed specifically for use in analyzing managerial jobs. The 274 item questionnaire contains 15 sections. Functional Job Analysis (FJA): is a worker-oriented job analysis approach to describe the whole person on the job. FJA is frequently used in government jobs.

Impact of Behavioral Factors on Job Analysis
While carrying out a job analysis, managers must take note of certain strong behavioral responses from the employees. Employees do not always like someone taking a hard look at their jobs.
Exaggerate

the facts: Employees tend to exaggerate the importance and significance of their jobs during interviews so that their jobs can result in higher pay levels.
Employee

anxieties: Most employees fear that job analysis may put them in a ‘Strait-Jacket’, curbing their initiative and latitude to perform. Another feeling could be that as long as someone does not know what I’m doing – I’m safe.
Resistance

to change: With technological changes there is a need to revise job descriptions and job specifications – to make them more meaningful.
Overemphasis

on current efforts: Job analysis efforts should not place heavy emphasis on what the employees are currently doing. Some employees are gifted with unique capabilities and given a chance they may expand the scope of the job and assume more responsibilities.
Management

‘Strait-Jacket: Job analysis efforts may put managers in a ‘Strait-Jacket’, limiting their freedom to adapt to changing needs from time to time.

Job Description (JD): A written statement of what the jobholder does, how it is done,
under what conditions it is done and why it is done. It should accurately portray job content, environment and conditions of employment.
Job Description acts as a resource for describing the job to potential candidates, guiding newly-

hired employees in what they are specifically expected to do and providing a platform for appraisal. According to Ernest Dale, the following guidelines should be kept in mind while writing job descriptions: 1. JD should indicate the nature and scope of the job 2. JD should be brief, factual and precise 2. JOB ANALYSIS, JOB DESIGN & JOB EVALUATION RAHEJA COLLEGE - SEM. V – ACADEMIC YEAR 2009-2010 5

HUMAN RESOURCE MANAGEMENT (HRM) 3. Specific words to be chosen to show the kind of work, the degree of complexity, the degree of skill required, the extent to which problems are standardized and the degree and type of accountability 4. The extent of supervision available should also be clearly stated 5. The reporting relationships must be clearly stated (e.g. who reports to whom, frequency, etc.)

Job Specification: The minimum acceptable qualifications that an employee must possess
to perform the job successfully. Based on the information acquired through job analysis, the job specification identifies the knowledge, skills, education, experience, certification and abilities needed to do the job effectively. The personal attributes required for a job specification are: 1. Essential attributes: skills, knowledge and abilities (SKAs) a person must possess 2. Desirable attributes: qualifications a person ought to possess 3. Contra-indicators: are attributes that will become a handicap to successful job performance.

Role Analysis: Over a period of time, roles to be played by a job holder may undergo a
change. Role analysis provides a satisfactory answer to this problem. A role is a set of expectations people have about the behavior of a person in position. A position holder may perform three types of roles in day to day life. Expected role: For e.g. a faculty member is expected to come on time and teach the subject well. Perceived role: is how the individual thinks s/he should behave to fulfill the expected role. Enacted role: is the actual role – the way a person actually behaves in an organization.

Job Analysis Changes as Organizations Change
The concept of a job has been changing over the past few years. Employees do not like standardized, routine operations nor do they enjoy supervisors overseeing their work from close quarters. Employees now want more challenging work which is meaningful and interesting. Certain techniques that have helped in redefining jobs in this manner are:
Flatter

organizations: Most progressive organizations are trimming the excess fat and also at the same time reducing levels. As the remaining managers are left with more people reporting to them, the roles of subordinates get larger.
Work

teams: Till the other day, jobs were rigid in the functional sense. Workers performed the same tasks daily. The situation has now changed. Work is organized around teams and processes rather than around specialized functions.

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HUMAN RESOURCE MANAGEMENT (HRM)
Organizations

without boundaries: In these types of organizations, boundaries that normally separate organizational functions (production, marketing, finance, etc.) and hierarchical levels are reduced.
Re-engineering:

brings about a radical change in an organization. For e.g. specialized jobs are combined and enlarged and each person’s job is made more interesting.

Questions for Practice
What

are some of the important reasons for the drastic changes we are seeing in the way jobs are done?
How

will one carry out a job analysis in an organization that never has had job descriptions?

Individual

exercise: Draw up job descriptions of two or three friends or relatives working in organizations.
Group

exercise: Draw up a job description for the Head of Department (HOD) of the Psychology / Sociology / Economics / Accountancy sections and based on your analytical skills develop a job specification. - Each group to choose one section by a draw of lots to be carried out by the respective Subject Representative.

Job Design
Learning Objectives
• Job Design and approaches to Job Design

Overview
Job design, which is an outgrowth of job analysis, is a way of organizing tasks, duties and

responsibilities into a productive unit of the work. While designing work, HR managers should take care of organizational requirements in terms of timely completion, high quality performance, economic use of resources, etc. At the same time, while trying to realize organizational objectives, employees’ job related needs must also be taken care of.
The focus must be to ensure technical efficiency without negatively impacting the workers’

job-related needs in terms of interest, challenge and achievement.

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HUMAN RESOURCE MANAGEMENT (HRM)

Engineering Approach
The principles offered by scientific management (F. W. Taylor) to job design can be

summarized as follows:
Work

should be scientifically studied Work should be arranged so that workers can be efficient Employees selected for work should be matched to the demands of the job Employees should be trained to perform the job Monetary compensation should be used to reward successful performance of the job

Human Relations Approach
Human Relations Approach recognizes the need to design jobs in an interesting manner. In the

past two decades, much work has been directed to changing jobs so that job incumbents can satisfy their needs for growth, recognition and responsibility. Herzberg’s research popularized the notion of enhancing need satisfaction through what is called job enrichment. According to Herzberg, there are two types of factors, viz. Motivators like achievements, recognition, work itself, responsibility, advancement and growth and Hygiene factors like working conditions, organizational policies, inter-personnel relations, pay and job security.

The Job Characteristics Approach
The

Job Characteristics Theory of Hackman and Oldham states that employees will work hard when they are rewarded for the work they do and when the work gives them satisfaction. Hence they suggest that motivation, satisfaction and performance should be integrated in the job design.
Any job

can be described in terms of five core job dimensions which are:

1. Skill variety: The degree to which the job requires that workers use a variety of different activities, talents and skills in order to successfully complete the job requirements. 2. Task identity: The degree to which the job allows workers to complete whole tasks from start to finish, rather than some portions of the job. 3. Task significance: The degree to which the job significantly impacts the lives of others both within and outside the workplace. 4. Autonomy: The degree to which the job allows workers freedom in planning and scheduling and the methods used to complete the job. 5. Feedback: The degree to which the job itself provides workers with clear, direct and understandable knowledge of their performance.

Socio-technical Systems Approach
While the above theories of job design are concerned with designing individual jobs, the approach adopted by the socio-technical systems method is the design or work systems that foster a meshing of the technical and social aspects of the job. In order to create jobs which have this supportive relationship, work teams - not individual jobs must be studied. 2. JOB ANALYSIS, JOB DESIGN & JOB EVALUATION RAHEJA COLLEGE - SEM. V – ACADEMIC YEAR 2009-2010 8

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Techniques for Designing Jobs
Job

Simplification: is a design method whereby jobs are divided into smaller components and subsequently assigned to workers as whole jobs. Simplification of work requires that jobs be broken down into their smallest units and then analyzed.
Job

Enlargement: expands a job horizontally. It increases job scope; that is, it increases the number of different operations required in a job and the frequency with which the job cycle is repeated. By increasing the number of tasks an individual performs, job enlargement increases the job scope, or job diversity.
Job

Rotation: refers to the movement of an employee from one job to another. Jobs themselves are not actually changed, only the employees are rotated among various jobs.
Job

Enrichment: as currently practiced in industry, is a direct outgrowth of Herzberg’s Two Factor Theory of motivation. It is based on the assumption that in order to motivate personnel, the job itself must provide opportunities for achievement recognition, responsibility, advancement and growth.

Questions for Practice
‘If

you want to know if an employee is satisfied with his job, just ask her/him!’ Do you agree or disagree?
‘Employees

should have jobs that give them autonomy and diversity’. Build u an argument in favor of this statement. Also build an argument against the statement.
Find

out from your School Teachers or Jr. or Sr. College Faculty (at least 25) what they believe are the two most important rewards. Sum up their responses and find out whether it is consistent with Hackman and Oldham’s Job Characteristics Model.
For

the past one year, Jaydeep a manager at an engineering company comes home from work depressed and angry. He just finds that in spite of his best efforts he can’t motivate his workers to improve their performance. Over the last year, Jaydeep sent each worker for special training, purchased new equipment and transferred employees who lacked the ability to do their jobs. Despite those interventions, his department’s performance is a t the same level it was two years ago. This has Jaydeep worried coz he fears being fired. Jaydeep thought that a boost in morale would improve performance so he gave each worker a 10% rise. In spite of morale increasing, workers complained even louder than before. Jaydeep also held a departmental meeting in which he requested everyone to work hard and improve their performance levels. His department was enthusiastic for a fortnight but productivity level did not change. Where has Jaydeep gone wrong and what advice would you offer him to motivate his employees? 2. JOB ANALYSIS, JOB DESIGN & JOB EVALUATION RAHEJA COLLEGE - SEM. V – ACADEMIC YEAR 2009-2010 9

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JOB EVALUATION
Learning Objectives
• • • • • What is job evaluation? Distinguish between job evaluation and performance appraisal Process of job evaluation Methods of job evaluation Limitations of job evaluation

Overview
Job evaluation is a systematic way of determining the value/worth of a job in relation to other jobs in an organization. It tries to make a systematic comparison between jobs to assess their relative worth for the purpose of establishing a rational pay structure.

Job Evaluation (JE) Vs Performance Appraisal (PA)
PA

is the systematic description of an employee’s job-related strengths and weaknesses. The basic purpose of PA is to find out how well the employee is doing the job and establish a plan for improvement. The aim of job evaluation is to find the relative value/worth of a job and determine what a fair wage for such a job should be. Characteristic Define Aim Job Evaluation Find the relative worth of a job Determine wage rates for different jobs Performance Appraisal Find the worth of a job holder Determine incentives and rewards for superior performance How well an individual is doing an assigned work?

Shows

How much a job is worth?

Process of Job Evaluation
Gaining

acceptance: Before undertaking job evaluation, top management must explain the aims and uses of the program to employees and unions Job evaluation committee: A single person cannot evaluate all the key jobs in an organization Jobs to be evaluated: All jobs need not be evaluated as it can lead to high costs and can become too taxing Analyzing and preparing job description Selecting the method of evaluation: The most important method evaluating the jobs must be identified keeping the job factors and organizational demands in mind 2. JOB ANALYSIS, JOB DESIGN & JOB EVALUATION 10 RAHEJA COLLEGE - SEM. V – ACADEMIC YEAR 2009-2010

HUMAN RESOURCE MANAGEMENT (HRM)
Classifying

jobs: The jobs should be arranged in order of importance using criteria such as skill requirements, experience needed, under what conditions are jobs performed, responsibilities, etc. Installing the program: Once the evaluation process is over and a plan of action is ready, management must explain it to its employees and put it into operation Reviewing periodically: Traditional clerical jobs of the past have undergone a sea change due to technological developments - hence a periodic review is a must.

Job Evaluation Methods
Ranking

Method: Jobs are arranged from highest to the lowest, in order of their merit or value to the organization.
Classification

Method: A pre-determined number of job groups or classes are created and jobs are assigned according to these classifications, for e.g. Class - I: Executives Class - II: Skilled workers Class - III: Semiskilled workers Class - IV: Unskilled workers.
Factor

Comparison Method: A most complex method but is consistent. Under this method, instead of ranking complete jobs, each job is ranked according to a series of factors. These factors include mental effort, physical effort, skill needed, responsibility, supervisory responsibility, working conditions and other such factors.
Point

method: is currently widely used. Jobs are expressed in terms of key factors. Points are assigned to each factor after prioritizing each factor in order of importance. The points are summed up to determine the wage rate for the job

Questions for Practice
Considering If

all the methods why is point method the most widely used for job evaluation?

payment is done predominantly for jobs rather than people, how can the truly exceptional performing employee be rewarded? - Source: Human Resource Management – V S P Rao Compiled by Faculty: L. A. D’Costa for Raheja College TYBMS Sem. V Students (2009-10) - Cell: +91 98193 77556 E-mail:dcosta.l.a@gmail.com

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