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A. TM TT L THUYT
1. nh ngha, phn lo !" #anh ph$p %
a& nh ngha %
' An()h* la nhng hp cht hu c ma phn t co nhom CHO lin kt trc tip vi nguyn t cacbon hoc nguyn t H
VD : H-CHO, CH
3
CHO
' +)*on la nhng hp cht hu c ma phn t co nhom ~CO lin kt trc tip vi 2 nguyn t cacbon
VD :
,-. */0c nh12 cac3on4l% ~CO
Nguyn t C mang lin kt di o trang thai lai hoa sp. Lin kt di CO gm 1 lin kt o bn va mt lin kt a kem bn.
Goc gia cac lin kt o nhom ~CO ging vi goc gia cac lin kt ~CC tuc la - 120. Trong khi lin kt CC hu nhu
khng phn cc, thi lin kt ~CO bi phn cc manh: nguyn t O mang mt phn din tich m, o

, nguyn t C mang mt
phn din tich dung, o

.
.
Chinh vi vy cac phan ung cua nhom ~CO co nhng dim ging va nhng dim khac bit so vi
nhom ~CC.
3& 5hn lo %
- Da theo gc hidrocacbon : no, khng no, thm
- Da theo s nhom chuc : dn chuc, da chuc
c& 6anh ph$p %
7 An()h* : - Tn thay th tn h.c theo mach chinh al
- Tn thuong : Mt s andehit dn gian duc goi theo tn thng thuong co ngun gc lich s
VD :
An()h* T8n *ha4 *h9 T8n *h:ng *h;<ng
HCHO Metanal Fomandehit ( andehit Iomic)
CH
3
CHO Etanal Axetandehit (andehit axetic)
CH
3
CH
2
CHO Propanal Propionandehit ( andehit propionic)
(CH
3
)
2
CHCH
2
CHO 3-metylbutanal Isovalerandehit ( andehit isovaleric)
CH
3
CHCHCHO But-2-en-1-al Crotonandehit ( andhit crotonic)
7 +)*on : - Tn thay th Tn h.c tung ung vi tri nhom chuc on
- Tn gc chuc tn gc h.c xeton
VD :
+)*on T8n *ha4 *h9 T8n g=c ch>c
CH
3
-C-CH
3
P
O
Propan-2-on Dimetyl xeton
CH
3
- C-CH
2
-CH
3
P
O
But-2-on Etyl metyl xeton
CH
3
- C-CHCH
2
P
O
But-3-en-2-on Metyl vinyl xeton
2. T?nh ch-* h1a hc %
a. 5h@n >ng cAng % c1 *hB C)2 l8n D9* ,EF nh; ,E,
- Cng H
2
( phan ung kh) : Andehit H
2

0
, t Ni

Ancol bc 1
Xeton H
2

0
, t Ni

Ancol bc 2
~Andehit dong vai tro la cht kh
- Cng H
2
O, HCN (hidro xianua):
) CO H
2
O

sp khng bn
VD: H
2
CO H
2
O

H
2
C(OH)
2
(khng bn)
) CO HCN

sp: xianohidrin bn
VD:
,
3 3 3 3
, ,,
CN
CH C CH H CN CH C CH
O OH
+ (xianohidrin)
3. 5h@n >ng oC h1a
- Tac dung vi Br
2
va dd KMnO
4
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VD: R-CHO Br
2
H
2
O

R-COOH HBr
* Xeton khng lam mt mau 2 dd trn vi no khng bi oxi hoa
- Tac dung vi AgNO
3
/NH
3
( phan ung trang bac)
AgNO
3
3NH
3
H
2
O

|Ag(NH
3
)
2
|OH (phuc tan)
R-CHO 2|Ag(NH
3
)
2
|OH

RCOONH
4
2Ag 3NH
3
H
2
O
~Andehit dong vai tro la cht oxi hoa

6Gng (B nhHn 39* an()h*


TQ: R(CHO)
z
2z AgNO
3
3z NH
3
z H
2
O

R(COONH
4
)
z
2z NH
4
NO
3
2z Ag
Ring andehit Iomic : HCHO 4AgNO
3
6NH
3
2H
2
O

(NH
4
)
2
CO
3
4NH
4
NO
3
4Ag
- Tac dung vi Cu(OH)
2
trong mi truong kim

Cu
2
O do gach
R(CHO)
z
2zCu(OH)
2
zNaOH

R(COONa)
z
z Cu
2
O 3z H
2
O
Ring andehit Iomic: HCHO 4Cu(OH)
2
2NaOH

Na
2
CO
3
2Cu
2
O 6H
2
O
T/ong 2A* I= 3" *o$n c1 *hB !9*
R-CHO Ag
2
O

o
t , ddNH
3
R-COOH 2Ag
R-CHO 2Cu(OH)
2

o
t
R-COOH Cu
2
O2H
2
O
Nu R l Hydro, Ag
2
O d, Cu(OH)
2
d:
H-CHO 2Ag
2
O

o
t , ddNH
3
H
2
O CO
2
4Ag
H-CHO 4Cu(OH)
2

o
t
5H
2
O CO
2
2Cu
2
O
Cc cht: H-COOH, mui c! !"it #omic, $%t$ c! !"it #omic c&'g cho ()c *h+' ,'g tr'g g-'g.
HCOOH Ag
2
O

o
t , ddNH
3
H
2
O CO
2
2Ag
HCOONa Ag
2
O

o
t , ddNH
3
NaHCO
3
2Ag
H-COOR Ag
2
O

o
t , ddNH
3
ROH CO
2
2Ag
A'($hit /0! (1'g /!i tr2 cht 3h4, /0! (1'g /!i tr2 cht o"i h1!:
Cht kh: Khi phan ung vi O
2
, Ag
2
O/NH
3
, Cu(OH)
2
(t
o
)
Cht oxi hoa khi tac dung vi H
2
(Ni, t
o
)
c. 5h@n >ng J g=c h.c % Nguyn t H o bn canh nhom cacbonyl d tham gia phan ung th
VD : CH
3
-C-CH
3
Br
2

3
CH COOH

CH
3
-C-CH
2
Br HBr
P P
O O
K. L. ch9%
- Phung phap chung d diu ch andehit va xeton la oxi hoa nhe ancol bc 1 va bc 2
7 Fomandehit duc diu ch trong cng nghip bng cach oxi hoa metanol nho co oxi khng khi o 600-700
0
C vi xuc tac
Cu hoc Ag
2CH
3
-OH O
2

0
,600 Ag C

2HCHO 2H
2
O
- Tu hidrocacbon:
* Oxi hoa khng hoan toan metan la pp mi sx Iomandhit: CH
4
O
2

0
,600 800 NO C

HCHO H
2
O
* Oxi hoa etilen la pp hin dai sx axetan dehit: 2CH
2
CH
2
O
2

2 2
, 5dCl CuCl

2CH
3
CHO
* Oxi hoa cumen ri ch hoa vi axit H
2
SO
4
thu duc axeton cung vi phenol
(CH
3
)
2
CH-C
6
H
5

2
1)O

tiu phn trung gian


2 4
2) 20 H 6O

CH
3
-CO-CH
3
C
6
H
5
-OH
* Axetandehit con co thm pp: CH CH H
2
O
0
4
,80 Hg6O C

CH
3
-CHO
MMT NO ,HP Q RHS TSUS TFVW
1. Andhit no, dn chuc, mach ho co CTTQ la C
n
H
2n 1
CHO hay C
m
H
2m
O
2. Axetilen va ankin co lin kt du mach hoc h.c co lin kt du mach tac dung vi AgNO
3
/NH
3
cho kt tua vang
con andehit cho Ag
K. 6;Xa !aY phaZn ;[ng */a[ng g;\ng :
andehyt. chc nhom so la x
n
n
anehyt
Ag
= " 2
1mol andehit dn chuc (R-CHO) cho 2mol Ag
Truong hp dc bit : H-CH O phan ung Ag
2
O tao 4mol Ag va O 53,33
Th[ #.X 1% Cht huu c X thanh phn g m C, H, O trong do O: 53,3 khi lung. Khi thu c hin phan u ng trang gung, tu
1 mol X 4 mol Ag. CTPT X la :
A. HCHO B. (CHO)
2
C. CH
2
(CHO)
2
D. C
2
H
4
(CHO)
2
Th[ #.X 2% Cho hn hp HCHO va H
2
di ua ng dung b t Ni nung nong. Dn toan b hn hp thu duu sau phan ung vao
binh nuc lanh d ngung tu hi cht long va hoa tan cac ch t co th tan duc , thy khi lung binh tng 11,8g.
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Ly dd trong binh cho tac dung v i dd AgNO
3
/NH
3
thu duc 21,6g Ag. Khi lung CH
3
OH tao ra trong phan u ng hp H
2
cu a HCHO la :
A. 8,3g B. ,3g C. 10,3g D. 1,03g
6uy lu78': H-CHO H
2

0
Ni
t
CH
3
OH
(
3
CH OH HCHO
m m +
) chua phan u ng la 11,8g.
HCHO 2Ag
2
O
3
NH

CO
2
H
2
O 4 Ag

1 1 21, 6
0, 05
4 4 108
HCHO Ag
' ' mol = = = .
M
HCHO
0,05.30 1,5g
3
11,8 1,5 10,3
CH OH
m g = =
4. W9. c1 h]n h^p ha an()h* *ha2 ga ph@n >ng */$ng g;\ng 2" cho 2 4
Ag
!'d$hit
'
'
< < => 1 trong hai andehit la HCHO
hoc andehit 2 chuc va andhit con lai la dn chuc
_. 6;Xa */8n phaZn ;[ng (:[* cha[4 an()h* no, (\n ch;[c cho s mol CO
2
s mol H
2
O.
1 nhom andehit (- CH O) co 1 lin kt di C O andehit no dn chuc ch co 1 lin kt

nn khi dt chay
2 2
CO O H
n n =
(va nguc lai)
andehit A co 2 lin kt

co 2 kha nng : andehit no 2 chuc ( 2

o C O) hoc andehit khng no co 1 lin kt di ( 1


trong C O, 1

trong C C).
Andehit
2
, H "t +

Ancol
0
2
, O t +

cung cho s mol CO


2
bng s mol CO
2
khi d t andehit con s mol H
2
O cu a ruu thi
nhiu hn. S mol H
2
O tri hn bng s mol H
2
da cng vao anddeehit.
Th[ #.X : t chay hn hp 2 andehit no, dn chuc thu duc 0,4 mol CO
2
. Hidro hoa hoan toan 2 andehit nay cn 0,2 mol
H
2
thu duc hn hp 2 ruu no, dn chu c. t chay hoan toan hn hp 2 ruu thi s mol H
2
O thu duc la :
A. 0,4 mol B. 0,6mol C. 0,8 mol D. 0,3 mol
6uy lu78': t chay hn hp 2 andehit duc 0,4 mol CO
2
thi cung duc 0,4 mol H
2
O. Hidro hoa andehit da nhn thm 0,2
mol H
2
thi s mol cua ruu tri hn cua andehit la 0,2 mol. Vy s mol H
2
O tao ra khi d t chay ruu la 0,4 0,2 0,6 mol.
`. '
andehyt chc nhom so la
n
n
andehyt
O Cu
2
" " =
'
andehyt chc nhom so la
n
ng phan n
andehyt
Cu!OH"
2
" " =2
'
C" C " o#$! %et l$e#n so andehyt chc nhom so ! la x
n
ng phan n
2
H
= + = "
!'d$hyt
abS Tc5 AWdHST e +dTFW
,. 1% Fomalin hay Iomon duc dung d ngm xac dng vt, thuc da, ty u, dit trung, Fomalin la
A. dung dich rt long cua andehit Iomic.
B. dung dich axetandehit khoang 40.
C. dung dich 37 40 Iomandehit trong nuc.
D. tn goi cua HCHO.
,. 2% Phat biu nao sau dy la khng dung
A. Trong phn t andehit, cac nguyn t ch lin kt vi nhau bng lin kt o.
B. Hp cht RCHO co th diu ch duc tu RCH
2
OH.
C. Hp cht hu c co nhom CHO lin kt vi H la andehit.
D. Andehit co ca tinh kh va tinh oxi hoa.
,. K% S dng phn xeton ung vi cng thuc phn t C
5
H
10
O la
A. 5. B. 6. C. 3. D. 4.
,. 4% Trong cng nghip, axeton diu ch tu
A. xiclopropan. B. propan1ol. C. propan2ol. D. cumen.
,. _% Thu t giam dn nhit d si cua cac cht CH
3
CHO, C
2
H
5
OH, H
2
O la
A. H
2
O, CH
3
CHO, C
2
H
5
OH. B. H
2
O, C
2
H
5
OH, CH
3
CHO.
C. CH
3
CHO, H
2
O, C
2
H
5
OH. D. CH
3
CHO, C
2
H
5
OH, H
2
O.
,h0 f% - Ancol co tu C
1
dn C
3
co t
s
t
s
cua H
2
O
- Ancol tu C
4
tro di co co t
s
~ t
s
cua H
2
O
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,. `% Cho s d: C
6
H
5
CH
3

o
4 2
KMnO ,H O,t

X
3
H O
+
. Cng thuc cu tao cua X, ln lut la
A. C
6
H
5
CHO, C
6
H
5
COOH. B. C
6
H
5
CH
2
OK, C
6
H
5
CHO.
C. C
6
H
5
CH
2
OH, C
6
H
5
CHO. D. C
6
H
5
COOK, C
6
H
5
COOH.
,. g% Co th dung mt cht nao trong cac cht dui dy d nhn bit duc cac cht: ancol etylic, glixerol, andehit axetic
dng trong ba lo mt nhn
A. Cu(OH)
2
/OH
-
. B. Qu tim. C. Kim loai Na. D. dd AgNO
3
/NH
3
.
,. h% Bng 3 phung trinh phan ung co th diu ch duc cao su buna tu
A. HOCH
2
CH
2
OH. B. CH
3
[CH
2
]
2
CHO. C. CH
3
COOH. D. OCH[CH
2
]
2
CHO.
,. i% Mt andehit no X mach ho, khng phn nhanh, co cng thuc thc nghim la (C
2
H
3
O)
n
. Cng thuc cu tao cua X la
A. OCHCH
2
CH
2
CHO. B. OCHCH
2
CH
2
CH
2
CHO.
C. OCHCH(CH
3
)CH
2
CHO. D. OCHCH(CH
3
)CHO.
,. 1j% Cho cac cht sau: CH
3
CH
2
CHO (1), CH
2
CHCHO (2), (CH
3
)
2
CHCHO (3), CH
2
CHCH
2
OH (4). Nhng cht
phan ung hoan toan vi lung du H
2
(Ni, t) cung tao ra mt san phm la
A. 2, 3, 4. B. 1, 2, 4. C. 1, 2, 3. D. 1, 3, 4.
,. 11% Cho cac s d phan ung sau:
A
o
2 4
H SO ,170 C

B C B 2H
2

o
Ni, t

ancol isobutylic.
A CuO
o
t

D E C D 4AgNO
3
NH
3

o
t

F G 4Ag
A co cng thuc cu tao la
A. (CH
3
)
2
C(OH)CHO. B. HOCH
2
CH(CH
3
)CHO.
C. OHCCH(CH
3
)CHO. D. CH
3
CH(OH)CH
2
CHO.
,. 12% t chay hoan toan a mol mt andehit X mach ho tao ra b mol CO
2
va c mol H
2
O (bit b a c). Trong phan ung
trang gung, mt phn t X ch cho 2 electron. X thuc dy dng dng andehit
A. no, dn chuc. B. khng no co hai ni di, dn chuc.
C. khng no co mt ni di, dn chuc. D. no, hai chuc.
,. 1K% Ba cht hu c mach ho X, , co cung cng thuc phn t C
3
H
6
O va co cac tinh cht: X, du phan ung vi
nuc brom X, , du phan ung vi H
2
nhung ch co khng bi thay di nhom chuc cht ch tac dung vi brom khi co
mt CH
3
COOH. X, , ln lut la
A. C
2
H
5
CHO, CH
2
CHOCH
3
, (CH
3
)
2
CO.
B. (CH
3
)
2
CO, C
2
H
5
CHO, CH
2
CHCH
2
OH.
C. C
2
H
5
CHO, (CH
3
)
2
CO, CH
2
CHCH
2
OH.
D. CH
2
CHCH
2
OH, C
2
H
5
CHO, (CH
3
)
2
CO.
,. 14% Cho 2, gam mt andehit X phan ung hoan toan vi lung du AgNO
3
trong dung dich NH
3
thu duc 21,6 gam Ag.
Cng thuc cu tao thu gon cua X la
A. HCHO. B. CH
2
CHCHO. C. OCHCHO. D. CH
3
CHO.
,. 1_% Cho m gam hn hp X gm hai ancol no, dn chuc, k tip nhau trong dy dng dng tac dung vi CuO du nung
nong, thu duc mt hn hp rn va mt hn hp hi co t khi hi so vi H
2
la 13,75. Cho toan b phan ung vi mt
lung du dung dich AgNO
3
trong NH
3
dun nong, sinh ra 64,8 gam Ag. Gia tri cua m la
A. 7,8. B. 8,8. C. 7,4. D. ,2.
,. 1`% Hn hp X gm hai ancol no, dn chuc, mach ho, k tip nhau trong dy dng dng. Oxi hoa hoan toan 0,2 mol
hn hp X co khi lung m gam bng CuO dun nong thu duc hn hp san phm hu c . Cho tac dung vi mt lung
du dung dich AgNO
3
trong NH
3
, thu duc 54 gam Ag. Gia tri cua m la
A. 15,3. B. 13,5. C. 8,1. D. 8,5.
,. 1gkH Al2jjg& % Cho 6,6 gam mt andehit X dn chuc, mach ho phan ung vi lung du AgNO
3
(hoc Ag
2
O) trong
dung dich NH
3
, dun nong. Lung Ag sinh ra cho phan ung ht vi axit HNO
3
long, thoat ra 2,24 lit khi NO(san phm kh
duy nht, do o dktc). Cng thuc cu tao thu gon cua X la (cho H 1, C 12, O 16)
A. CH
3
CHO. a. HCHO. ,. CH
3
CH
2
CHO. 6. CH
2
CHCHO
,. 1hkH Al2jjg& % Cho 0,1 mol andehit X tac dung vi lung du AgNO3 (hoc Ag2O) trong dung dich NH3,
dun nong thu duc 43,2 gam Ag. Hidro hoa X thu duc , bit 0,1 mol phan ung vua du vi 4,6 gam Na. Cng thuc cu
tao thu gon cua X la (cho Na 23, Ag 108)
A. HCHO. a. CH
3
CHO. ,. OHC-CHO. 6. CH
3
CH(OH)CHO
,. 1ikH Al2jjg& % Dy gm cac cht du tac dung vi AgNO
3
(hoc Ag
2
O) trong dung dich NH
3
, la:
A. andehit axetic, butin-1, etilen. a. andehit axetic, axetilen, butin-2.
,. axit Iomic, vinylaxetilen, propin. 6. andehit Iomic, axetilen, etilen.
,. 2jkH Al2jjg& % Cho cac cht: HCN, H
2
, dung dich KMnO
4
, dung dich Br
2
. S cht phan ung duc vi
(CH
3
)
2
CO la
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A. 2. a. 4. ,. 1. 6. 3.
,. 21kH al2jjg& % t chay hoan toan a mol mt andehit X (mach ho) tao ra b mol CO
2
va c mol H
2
O (bit b a
c).Trong phan ung trang gung, mt phn t X ch cho 2 electron. X thuc dy dng dng andehit
A. khng no co mt ni di, dn chuc. a. no, dn chuc.
,. khng no co hai ni di, dn chuc. 6. no, hai chuc.
,. 22kH al2jjg& % Khi oxi hoa hoan toan 2,2 gam mt andehit dn chuc thu duc 3 gam axit tung ung. Cngthuc cua
andehit la (cho H 1, C 12, O 16)
A. C
2
H
5
CHO. a. CH
3
CHO ,. HCHO. 6. C
2
H
3
CHO
,. 2KkH al2jjg& % Oxi hoa 4,48 lit C
2
H
4
(o dktc) bng O
2
(xuc tac PdCl
2
, CuCl
2
), thu duc cht X dn chuc.
Toan b lung cht X trn cho tac dung vi HCN (du) thi duc 7,1 gam CH
3
CH(CN)OH (xianohidrin). Hiu sut ua trinh
tao CH
3
CH(CN)OH tu C
2
H
4
la (cho H 1, C 12, N 14, O 16)
A. 50. a. 60. ,. 70. 6. 80.
,. 24kH Al2jjh& % Cho 3,6 gam andehit dn chuc X phan ung hoan toan vi mt lung du Ag
2
O (hoc AgNO
3
)trong
dung dich NH
3
dun nong, thu duc m gam Ag. Hoa tan hoan toan m gam Ag bng dung dich
HNO
3
dc, sinh ra 2,24 lit NO
2
(san phm kh duy nht, o dktc). Cng thuc cua X la
A. C
3
H
7
CHO. a. C
4
H

CHO. ,. HCHO. 6. C
2
H
5
CHO
,. 2_kH Al2jjh&% un nong V lit hi andehit X vi 3V lit khi H
2
(xuc tac Ni) dn khi phan ung xay ra hoan
toan ch thu duc mt hn hp khi co th tich 2V lit (cac th tich khi do o cung diu kin nhit d, ap sut). Ngung tu
thu duc cht cho tac dung vi Na sinh ra H
2
co s mol bng s mol d phan ung. Cht X la andehit
A. khng no (chua mt ni di CC), hai chuc. a. no, hai chuc.
,. khng no (chua mt ni di CC), dn chuc. 6. no, dn chuc.
,. 2`kHAl2jjh&% S dng phn xeton ung vi cng thuc phn t C
5
H
10
O la
A. 3. a. 5. ,. 6. 6. 4.
,. 2gk,l2jjh&% Cho hn hp gm 0,1 mol HCHO va 0,1 mol HCOOH tac dung vi lung du Ag
2
O (hoc AgNO
3
)
trong dung dich NH
3
, dun nong. Sau khi cac phan ung xay ra hoan toan, khi lung Ag tao thanh la
A. 21,6 gam. a. 10,8 gam. ,. 43,2 gam. 6. 64,8 gam.
,. 2h k,l2jjh&% t chay hoan toan andehit X, thu duc s mol CO
2
bng s mol H
2
O. Nu cho X tac dung vi mt
lung du AgNO
3
trong NH
3
, sinh ra s mol Ag gp 4 ln s mol X d phan ung. Cng thuc cua X la
A. HCHO. B. CH
3
CHO. C. (CHO)
2
. D. C
2
H
5
CHO.
,. 2ik,l2jjh&% Cho dy cac cht: HCHO, CH
3
COOH, CH
3
COOC
2
H
5
, HCOOH, C
2
H
5
OH, HCOOCH
3
. S cht trong
dy tham gia phan ung trang gung la
A. 6. a. 4. ,. 5. 6. 3.
,. Kjk,l2jjh&% Oxi hoa ancol dn chuc X bng CuO (dun nong), sinh ra mt san phm hu c duy nht la xeton
(t khi hi cua so vi khi hidro bng 2). Cng thuc cu tao cua X la
A. CH
3
-CHOH-CH
3
. a. CH
3
-CH
2
-CH
2
-OH.
,. CH
3
-CH
2
-CHOH-CH
3
. 6. CH
3
-CO-CH
3
.
,. K1kHal2jjh&% Ba cht hu c mach ho X, , co cung cng thuc phn t C
3
H
6
O va co cac tinh cht: X, du phan
ung vi nuc brom X, , du phan ung vi H
2
nhung ch co khng bi thay di nhom chuc cht ch tac dung vi
brom khi co mt CH
3
COOH. Cac cht X, , ln lut la:
A. C
2
H
5
CHO, (CH
3
)
2
CO, CH
2
CH-CH
2
OH. a. C
2
H
5
CHO, CH
2
CH-O-CH
3
, (CH
3
)
2
CO.
,. CH
2
CH-CH
2
OH, C
2
H
5
CHO, (CH
3
)
2
CO. 6. (CH
3
)
2
CO, C
2
H
5
CHO, CH
2
CH-CH
2
OH.
,. K2 kHal2jjh&% Oxi hoa 1,2 gam CH
3
OH bng CuO nung nong, sau mt thoi gian thu duc hn hp san phm X gm
HCHO, H
2
O va CH
3
OH du. Cho toan b X tac dung vi lung du dung dich AgNO
3
trong NH
3
, duc 12,6 gam Ag. Hiu
sut cua phan ung oxi hoa CH
3
OH la
A. 76,6. B. 80,0. C. 65,5. D. 70,4.
,. KKkHAl2jji&% Cho hn hp khi X gm HCHO va H
2
di ua ng su dng bt Ni nung nong. Sau khi phan ung xay
ra hoan toan, thu duc hn hp khi gm hai cht hu c. t chay ht thi thu duc 11,7 gam H
2
O va 7,84 lit khi CO
2
(o dktc). Phn trm theo th tich cua H2 trong X la
A. 46,15. a. 35,00. ,. 53,85. 6. 65,00.
,. K4kHAl2jji&% Dy gm cac cht du diu ch trc tip bng mt phan ung tao ra andehit axetic la
A. CH
3
COOH, C
2
H
2
, C
2
H
4
. B. C
2
H
5
OH, C
2
H
4
, C
2
H
2
.
C. C
2
H
5
OH, C
2
H
2
, CH
3
COOC
2
H
5
. D. HCOOC
2
H
3
, C
2
H
2
, CH
3
COOH.
,. K_kHAl2jji&% Cho 0,25 mol mt andehit mach ho X phan ung vi lung du dung dich AgNO
3
trong NH
3
, thu duc
54 gam Ag. Mt khac, khi cho X phan ung vi H
2
du (xuc tac Ni, t
o
) thi 0,125 mol X phan ung ht vi 0,25 mol H
2
. Cht X
co cng thuc ung vi cng thuc chung la
A. C
n
H
2n
(CHO)
2
(n 0). a. C
n
H
2n1
CHO (n 0).
Website n thi i hc Onthi24h.tK
Hc 24h
,. C
n
H
2n-1
CHO (n 2). 6. C
n
H
2n-3
CHO (n 2).
,. K`kHal2jji&% t chay hoan toan mt hp cht hu c X, thu duc 0,351 gam H
2
O va 0,4368 lit khi CO
2
o dktc.
Bit X co phan ung vi Cu(OH)
2
trong mi truong kim khi dun nong. Cht X la
A. OCHCHO. B. CH
2
CHCH
2
OH. C. CH
3
COCH
3
. D. C
2
H
5
CHO.
,. KgkHal2jji&% Hai hp cht hu c X va la dng dng k tip, du tac dung vi Na va co phan ung trang bac. Bit
phn trm khi lung oxi trong X, ln lut la 53,33 va 43,24. Cng thuc cu tao cua X va tung ung la
A. HOCH
2
CH
2
CHO va HOCH
2
CH
2
CH
2
CHO.
a. HOCH
2
CHO va HOCH
2
CH
2
CHO.
,. HCOOCH
3
va HCOOCH
2
CH
3
.
6. HOCH(CH
3
)CHO va HOOCCH
2
CHO.
,. KhkHal2jji&% Hidro hoa hoan toan m gam hn hp X gm hai andehit no, dn chuc, mach ho, k tip nhau trong
dy dng dng thu duc (m 1) gam hn hp hai ancol. Mt khac, khi dt chay hoan toan cng m gam X thi cn vua du
17,2 lit khi O
2
(o dktc). Gia tri cua m la
A. 17,8. B. 24,8. C. 10,5. D. 8,8.
,. KikHal2jji&% t chay hoan toan 1 mol hp cht hu c X, thu duc 4 mol CO
2
. Cht X tac dung duc vi Na,
tham gia phan ung trang bac va phan ung cng Br
2
theo t l mol 1 : 1. Cng thuc cu tao cua X la
A. HOOC-CHCH-COOH. a. HO-CH
2
-CH
2
-CH
2
-CHO.
,. HO-CH
2
-CHCH-CHO. 6. HO-CH
2
-CH
2
-CHCH-CHO.
,. 4j k,l2jji&% Cho 0,1 mol hn hp X gm hai andehit no, dn chuc, mach ho, k tip nhau trong dy dng dng tac
dung vi lung du dung dich AgNO
3
trong NH
3
, dun nong thu duc 32,4 gam Ag. Hai andehit trong X la
A. HCHO va C
2
H
5
CHO. B. HCHO va CH
3
CHO.
C. C
2
H
3
CHO va C
3
H
5
CHO. D. CH
3
CHO va C
2
H
5
CHO.
,. 41 k,l2jji&% Hidro hoa hoan toan hn hp M gm hai andehit X va no, dn chuc, mach ho, k tip nhau trong
dy dng dng (M
X
M

), thu duc hn hp hai ancol co khi lung ln hn khi lung M la 1 gam. t chay hoan toan
M thu duc 30,8 gam CO
2
. Cng thuc va phn trm khi lung cua X ln lut la
A. HCHO va 50,56. B. CH
3
CHO va 67,16.
C. CH
3
CHO va 4,44. D. HCHO va 32,44.
,. 42kHAl2j1j&% Axeton duc diu ch bng cach oxi hoa cumen nho oxi, sau do thu phn trong dung dich H
2
SO
4
long. thu duc 145 gam axeton thi lung cumen cn dung (gia s hiu sut ua trinh diu ch dat 75) la
A. 400 gam. a. 600 gam. ,. 300 gam. 6. 500 gam.
,. 4KkHAl2j1j&% Cho m gam hn hp etanal va propanal phan ung hoan toan vi lung du dung dich AgNO
3
trong
NH
3
, thu duc 43,2 gam kt tua va dung dich chua 17,5 gam mui amoni cua hai axit hu c. Gia tri cua m la
A. ,5. a. 10,. ,. 14,3. 6. 10,2
,. 44kHAl2j1j&% Hidro hoa cht hu c X thu duc (CH
3
)
2
CHCH(OH)CH
3
. Cht X co tn thay th la
A. metyl isopropyl xeton. a. 2-metylbutan-3-on.
,. 3-metylbutan-2-ol. 6. 3-metylbutan-2-on.
,. 4_kHal2j1j&% Cho hn hp M gm andehit X (no, dn chuc, mach ho) va hidrocacbon , co tng s mol la 0,2 (s
mol cua X nho hn cua ). t chay hoan toan M, thu duc 8,6 lit khi CO
2
(dktc) va 7,2 gam H
2
O. Hidrocacbon la
A. C
3
H
6
. a. C
2
H
4
. ,. CH
4
. 6. C
2
H
2
.
,. 4`kHal2j1j&% Cho phan ung: 2 C
6
H
5
-CHO KOH C
6
H
5
-COOK C
6
H
5
-CH
2
-OH
Phan ung nay chung to C
6
H
5
-CHO
A. ch th hin tinh oxi hoa.
a. khng th hin tinh kh va tinh oxi hoa.
,. vua th hin tinh oxi hoa, vua th hin tinh kh.
6. ch th hin tinh kh.
,. 4g k,l2j1j&% Oxi hoa khng hoan toan ancol isopropylic bng CuO nung nong, thu duc cht hu c X. Tn goi cua
X la
A. metyl phenyl xeton. a. metyl vinyl xeton. ,. dimetyl xeton. 6. propanal.
,. 4hkHAl2j11&% t chay hoan toan andehit X, thu duc th tich khi CO
2
bng th tich hi nuc (trong cung diu kin
nhit d, ap sut). Khi cho 0,01 mol X tac dung vi mt lung du dung dich AgNO
3
trong NH
3
thi thu duc 0,04 mol Ag. X
la
A. andehit Iomic. a. andehit axetic.
,. andehit khng no, mach ho, hai chuc. 6. andehit no, mach ho, hai chuc.
,. 4ikHAl2j11&% X, , la cac hp cht mach ho, bn co cung cng thuc phn t C
3
H
6
O. X tac dung duc vi Na va
khng co phan ung trang bac. khng tac dung duc vi Na nhung co phan ung trang bac. khng tac dung duc vi Na
va khng co phan ung trang bac. Cac cht X, , ln lut la:
A. CH
3
-CO- CH
3
, CH
3
- CH
2
-CHO, CH
2
CH- CH
2
-OH.
Website n thi i hc Onthi24h.tK
Hc 24h
a. CH
3
- CH
2
-CHO, CH
3
-CO- CH
3
, CH
2
CH- CH
2
-OH.
,. CH
2
CH- CH
2
-OH, CH
3
-CO- CH
3
, CH
3
- CH
2
-CHO.
6. CH
2
CH- CH
2
-OH, CH
3
- CH
2
-CHO, CH
3
-CO- CH
3
.
,. _jkHAl2j11&% Phat biu nao sau dy v andehit va xeton la Ia
A. Axeton khng phan ung duc vi nuc brom.
a. Andehit Iomic tac dung vi H
2
O tao thanh san phm khng bn.
,. Hidro xianua cng vao nhom cacbonyl tao thanh san phm khng bn.
6. Axetandehit phan ung duc vi nuc brom
,. _1kHal2j11&% Hn hp M gm mt andehit va mt ankin (co cung s nguyn t cacbon). t chay hoan toan x mol
hn hp M, thu duc 3x mol CO
2
va 1,8x mol H
2
O. Phn trm s mol cua andehit trong hn hp M la
A. 50. a. 40. ,. 30. 6. 20.
,. _2kHal2j11&% hidro hoa hoan toan 0,025 mol hn hp X gm hai andehit co khi lung 1,64 gam, cn 1,12 lit H
2
(dktc). Mt khac, khi cho cng lung X trn phan ung vi mt lung du dung dich AgNO
3
trong NH
3
thi thu duc 8,64
gam Ag. Cng thuc cu tao cua hai andehit trong X la
A. CH
2
C(CH
3
)-CHO va OHC-CHO. a. OHC-CH
2
-CHO va OHC-CHO.
,. CH
2
CH-CHO va OHC-CH
2
-CHO. 6. H-CHO va OHC-CH
2
-CHO.
,. _KkHal2j11&% Hn hp X gm hai andehit dn chuc va (bit phn t khi cua nho hn cua ). Cho 1,8 gam
X tac dung vi mt lung du dung dich AgNO
3
trong NH
3
, sau khi cac phan ung kt thuc, thu duc 18,36 gam Ag va dung
dich E. Cho toan b E tac dung vi dung dich HCl (du), thu duc 0,784 lit CO
2
(dktc). Tn cua la
A. andehit axetic. a. andehit acrylic. ,. andehit propionic. 6. andehit butiric
,. _4kHal2j11&% X la hn hp gm H
2
va hi cua hai andehit (no, dn chuc, mach ho, phn t du co s nguyn t C
nho hn 4), co t khi so vi heli la 4,7. un nong 2 mol X (xuc tac Ni), duc hn hp co t khi hi so vi heli la ,4.
Thu ly toan b cac ancol trong ri cho tac dung vi Na (du), duc V lit H
2
(dktc). Gia tri ln nht cua V la
A. 13,44. a. 5,6. ,. 11,2. 6. 22,4
,. __kHAl2j12&% Hidrat hoa 5,2 gam axetilen vi xuc tac HgSO
4
trong mi truong axit, dun nong. Cho toan b cac cht
hu c sau phan ung vao mt lung du dung dich AgNO
3
trong NH
3
thu duc 44,16 gam kt tua. Hiu sut phan ung hidrat
hoa axetilen la
A. 80. a. 70. ,. 2. 6. 60.
,. _`kHal2j12&% Cho 0,125 mol andehit mach ho X phan ung vi lung du dung dich AgNO
3
trong NH
3
thu duc 27
gam Ag. Mt khac, hidro hoa hoan toan 0,25 mol X cn vua du 0,5 mol H
2
. Dy dng dng cua X co cng thuc chung la
A. C
n
H
2n1
CHO (n 0). a. C
n
H
2n-1
CHO (n 2).
,. C
n
H
2n-3
CHO (n 2). 6. C
n
H
2n
(CHO)
2
(n 0).
,. _g kHal2j12&% Oxi hoa 0,08 mol mt ancol dn chuc, thu duc hn hp X gm mt axit cacboxylic, mt
andehit, ancol du va nuc. Ngung tu toan b X ri chia lam hai phn bng nhau. Phn mt cho tac dung ht vi Na
du, thu duc 0,504 lit khi H
2
(dktc). Phn hai cho phan ung trang bac hoan toan thu duc ,72 gam Ag. Phn trm khi
lung ancol bi oxi hoa la
A. 50,00. a. 62,50. ,. 31,25. 6. 40,00.