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K thut sc k lng li c chia thnh 2 nhm, l: + Sc k lng p su t th!ng "sc k c# i$n%, & + Sc k lng hi'u su t ca( ")*+,% .

./(ng )*+,, t01 th2( 34n ch t c5a 67a t/8nh sc k c5a pha t9nh "S*% t/(ng c:t tch m ng!i ta chia thnh: ;- Sc k ph<n 3= "*a/titi(n ,h/(mat(g/aph1: *,%2- Sc k h p ph>, c 2 l(i: + *ha th!ng "?(/mal phas2: ?*@)*+,%, + *ha ngc ha1 pha 4( "A2&2/s2 phas2: A*@ )*+,%, B- Sc k t/a( #i i(n "CD@)*+,% & cEp i(n "C*@)*+,%, F- Sc k /<1 ph<n tG "HI@)*+,% ./(ng F l(i n1, l(i thJ F l chK $ tch cc ch t c ph<n tG lng lLn hMn ;NNN &-,- O:t cch t#ng 6ut ch7ng ta c th$ PQ ngu1Rn tc: S$ thTc hi'n sc k ph4i: + , c:t tch c S*+ Pan np ch t mUu *h<n tVch &(+ *ha :ng, & 3Mm O* $ /Ga gi4i ch t+ W: phn pht hi'n ch t *h<n tVch "X2t2ct(/%+ W: phn ghi sc Y tch;-2- SEc i$m c5a mZi l(i Sc k h p ph> *ha th!ng "?*@)*+,% a-% SEc i$m + *ha t9nh: )t /n, [=p, *h<n cTc, i nLc+ *ha :ng: \ung m]i kh]ng ha1 Vt ph<n cTc, k^ nLc+ ,M ch_ tch: ST h p ph> c5a S*+ W^ 4nh h`ng nhiQu 3`i : am, nRn : lEp li kbm3-% *hm &i Jng X>ng + .ch c *h<n tVch cc ch t it & kh]ng ph<n cTc+ ,h5 1_u l cc ch t hdu cM Sc k h p ph> *ha ngc "A*@)*+,% a-% SEc i$m + *ha t9nh: )t /n, [=p, Kh]ng ha1 / t Vt ph<n cTc, + *ha :ng: \ung m]i ph<n cTc, & nLc,

+ ,M ch_ tch: ST h p ph> c5a S*, + S: #n ^nh & lEp li ca(3-% *hm &i Jng X>ng + .ch c *h<n tVch c4 ch t kh]ng ph<n cTc & ph<n cTc+ ,c ch t &] cM & hdu cM, amin, amin(a[it, ),WP.PSc k ph<n 3= "*@)*+,% ha1 chi_t a-% SEc i$m + *ha t9nh: ,h t lng, Kh]ng ha1 / t Vt ph<n cTc, + *ha :ng: \ung m]i kh]ng & Vt ph<n cTc, + ,M ch_ tch: ST ph<n 3= "sT chi_t%, + S: #n ^nh & lEp li kbm3-% *hm &i Jng X>ng + .ch c *h<n tVch c4 ch t kh]ng ph<n cTc & ph<n cTc, + ,c ch t P] cM & hdu cM Sc k t/a( #i i(n "CD@)*+,% a-% SEc i$m + *ha t9nh: , u t( i(n, & 3Q mEt ph<n cTc, + *ha :ng: \ung X^ch nLc, 'm p), ch t t( phJc,--+ ,M ch_ tch: ST t/a( #i i(n ",ati(n c eni(n%, + S: #n ^nh & lEp li t=t3-% *hm &i Jng X>ng + .ch c *h<n tVch cc ch t Xng i(n, ha1 ph<n li thnh i(n, + ,c ch t P] cM & hdu cM Sc k t/a( #i Xng cEp i(n "C*D@)*+,% a-% SEc i$m + *ha t9nh: \0ng l(i A*@)*+,, + *ha :ng: \ung X^ch nLc, 'm p), ch t t( phJc,--*h4i c ch t t( cEp "&V X> S\S%+ ,M ch_ tch: ST t/a( #i ki$u cEp i(n, + S: #n ^nh & lEp li kh]ng ca(3-% *hm &i Jng X>ng + .ch c *h<n tVch cc Xng i(n, ha1 ph<n li thnh i(n+ ,c ch t &] cM & hdu cMSc k /<1 ph<n tG "I2l@)*+, ha1 H@)*+,% a-% SEc i$m + *ha t9nh: , u t( l(i ?*@ & A*@)*+,-

+ *ha :ng: \ung m]i hdu cM+ ,M ch_ tch: ST /<1 "ha1 lfc% th2( : lLn ph<n tG3-% *hm &i Jng X>ng + .ch c *h<n tVch cc ch t ph<n tG lLn "g;NNN &-,%+ ./(ng l9nh &Tc *(lim2*ha :ng "O*% l g8 h + + h' Xung m]i $ ch1 sc k, + AGa gi4i cc ch t *. /a kh#i c:t+ O* c th$ l: ;- ,hK ; Xung m]i Mn, P\: )2i, O2i), e,?, .)H, -2- )Zn hp 2 ha1 B Xung m]i &Li tj l' thVch hp, P\: + )Zn hp: "O2i)k)2i : lmkFm%, ch( h' A*+ )Zn hp: "O2i)k e,?k)2i : Fmk2mkBN %, ch( A*+ )Zn hp: "n@)2[anke,? : nmk2m%, ch( h' ?*+ \ung X^ch: "?)Fec ;Ok),l N,;O :nmk2m%, h' CD[)*+,+ P<n &<n oRu cpu c5a pha :ng "O*% + ./(ng su=t c Yng nh t + )( tan t=t ch t mUu & cc ch t ph<n tVch+ Kh]ng lm hng *ha t9nh & ch t ph<n tVch+ Kh]ng tMng tc &Li ch t *h<n tVch sinh s4n pham ph> khc+ *h4i 3Qn &dng & kh]ng tha1 #i t/(ng 6u t/8nh ch1 sc k+ *h0 hp ch( \2t2ct(/ chfn $ pht hi'n ch t ph<n tVch+ .Vnh kinh t_ "kh]ng 3t 3u:c%m-B- ,c l(i *ha :ng m-B-;- ,h( h' ?*@)*+, + + cc pha :ng "O*% kh]ng ha1 Vt ph<n cTc+ K^ nLc, kh]ng tan t/(ng nLc+ + cc Xung m]i hdu cM ha1 hZn hp c5a ch7ng+ P\: n@)2[an, ,),lB, ,,lF, W2nq2n, Dt1l@ec2tat, &-&m-B-2- ,h( h' A*@)*+, + + cc O* ph<n cTc+ ra nLc, tan t/(ng nLc t=t+ ?Lc l ; Xung m]i c5a pha :ng "O*%

+ + cc Xung m]i hdu cM ph<n cTc & hZn hp c5a ch7ng+ )Zn hp c5a nLc & Xung m]i hdu cM+ P\: )2i, O2i), e[2t(n, e,?, .)H, &-&m-B-B- ,h( h' CD[@)*+, @ \ung X^ch 'm p), c ch t t( phJc, thu=c thG hdu cM, @ \ung X^ch e[it ha1 KiQm l(sng@ + cc Xung X^ch nLc c5a mu=i Kim l(i kiQm@ PV X>: + \-X- ?)Fec N,Nm O, p)tm, ch( tch kim l(i KiQm+ \-X- )?iB 2,m O, ch( tch cc Kim l(i nEng+ \-X- "D\.e + ?)Fec, p)tF,m%, tch cc ng-t= S t hi_m+ \-X- K,l N,; O, p)tn, ch( tch cc kim l(i KiQm th#m-B-F- ,h( h' C*D[@)*+, + ?h h' CD[@)*+,, + ?hng c thRm ch t t( cEp i]n "PV X>- S\S,--% m-B-m- ,h( h' ID+@)*+, @ + cc Xung m]i hdu cM h( tan ch t *h<n tVch@ P\: ,l2,)2, .(lu2n, ,1cl(h2[[an, W2nq2n,&-&?gu1!n tc phng php phun tLch sc k *hng php phun tLch sc k l mt phng php phun tLch h7a l, 6u t/vnh tch ch 1u Xa t/!n lc tng tc gia cht phun tLch &i pha tnh & pha ng@ *ha tnh: + pha kh>ng Xi chu1n thng np 1 t/(ng ct sc k,c7 tc Xng lu gi cht phun tLch @ *ha ng: ,7 nhim & chu1n cht phun tLch Xc th2( ct sc k &i tc thLch hp,ht phun tLch 3 lu gi t/!n pha tnh ph thuc i lc ca chwng*hng php phun tLch sc k l mt phng php tch mt hn hp cht lng ha1 cht khL Xa t/!n s phun 3 chwng gia hai pha, mt pha ng 1!n gi pha tnh, mt pha Xi chu1n gi pha ng-\( i lc hp thu & gi hp khc nhau ca cc hp phn c7 t/(ng mu phun tLch &i pha tnh & pha ng m chwng Xi chu1n Xc th2( pha tnh "th2( ct sc k% tc khc nhau, n!n ln lt i /a khi ct.

xu t/vnh sc k l 6wa t/vnh cun 3ng ng c thit l p li!n tc t! u ct sc k n cui ct, hp phn c7 i lc hp thu mnh "1 hp phn c7 i lc hp thu 1u, Xn chwng tch /a khi nhau,c 1u t nh h#ng &ic lu gi cht phun tLch: - .hnh phn & tLnh cht ca pha ng +(i & tLnh cht pha tnh +c tng tc gia cc cu t$ phun tLch &i pha ng & pha tnh

@ ?hit ct sc k ,c l(i ct t/(ng sc k khL: Ct mao qun: @ *(l1Xim2th1lsil([an2 "silic(n2% l pha tnh kh>ng phun c c @ +u gi tt & tch cht phun tLch kh>ng phun cc @ ,t ma( 6un l ng silica: Xc N,;@ N-mB mm Xy ; m + t ;m @;NNm, s a l thu1t n &i t/m ngn @ ?g(i /a czn c7 cc l(i ct: + ,t ma( 6un t"m pha tnh lng t/!n cht mang t/ "Supp(/t c(at2X (p2n tu3ula/ S,i.% + ,t ma( 6un lp [p "*(/(u/ la12/ (p2n tu3ula/ *+i.% @ ,c l(i pha tnh thng s$ Xng: Ct nhi: @ ,hi%u Xi ;@;Nm @ &ng kLnh N,2@N,lcm @ S a ;NNNkm @ ,t lm 3ng th1 tinh ha1 th:p kh>ng /' @ ,t c nh(i cht mang c7 kLch thc 2m, \in tLch 3%) m*t N,m@mm2kg

@ ,t c7 ng kLnh 2mm c nh(i cht mang c7 kLch thc ;2m @ ;F{m @ ,t c7 ng kLnh Fmm thv cht nh(i ct c7 kLch thc ;FN @ ;nnm m- *ha :ng t/(ng )*+, m-;- *ha :ng "O*% l g8 h + + h' Xung m]i $ ch1 sc k, + AGa gi4i cc ch t *. /a kh#i c:t+ O* c th$ l: ;- ,hK ; Xung m]i Mn, P\: )2i, O2i), e,?, .)H, -2- )Zn hp 2 ha1 B Xung m]i &Li tj l' thVch hp, P\: + )Zn hp: "O2i)k)2i : lmkFm%, ch( h' A*+ )Zn hp: "O2i)k e,?k)2i : Fmk2mkBN %, ch( A*m-2- oRu cpu c5a pha :ng "O*% + ./(ng su=t c Yng nh t + )( tan t=t ch t mUu & cc ch t ph<n tVch+ Kh]ng lm hng *ha t9nh & ch t ph<n tVch+ Kh]ng tMng tc &Li ch t *h<n tVch sinh s4n pham ph> khc+ *h4i 3Qn &dng & kh]ng tha1 #i t/(ng 6u t/8nh ch1 sc k+ *h0 hp ch( \2t2ct(/ chfn $ pht hi'n ch t ph<n tVch+ .Vnh kinh t_ "kh]ng 3t 3u:c%m-B- ,c l(i *ha :ng m-B-;- ,h( h' ?*@)*+, + + cc pha :ng "O*% kh]ng ha1 Vt ph<n cTc+ K^ nLc, kh]ng tan t/(ng nLc+ + cc Xung m]i hdu cM ha1 hZn hp c5a ch7ng+ P\: n@)2[an, ,),lB, ,,lF, W2nq2n, Dt1l@ec2tat, &-&+ )Zn hp: "n@)2[anke,? : nmk2m%, ch( h' ?*+ \ung X^ch: "?)Fec ;Ok),l N,;O :nmk2m%, h' CD[)*+,+ P<n &<n m-B-2- ,h( h' A*@)*+, + + cc O* ph<n cTc+ ra nLc, tan t/(ng nLc t=t+ ?Lc l ; Xung m]i c5a pha :ng "O*%

+ + cc Xung m]i hdu cM ph<n cTc & hZn hp c5a ch7ng+ )Zn hp c5a nLc & Xung m]i hdu cM+ P\: )2i, O2i), e[2t(n, e,?, .)H, &-&m-B-B- ,h( h' CD[@)*+, @ \ung X^ch 'm p), c ch t t( phJc, thu=c thG hdu cM, @ \ung X^ch e[it ha1 KiQm l(sng@ + cc Xung X^ch nLc c5a mu=i Kim l(i kiQm@ PV X>: + \-X- ?)Fec N,Nm O, p)tm, ch( tch kim l(i KiQm+ \-X- )?iB 2,m O, ch( tch cc Kim l(i nEng+ \-X- "D\.e + ?)Fec, p)tF,m%, tch cc ng-t= S t hi_m+ \-X- K,l N,; O, p)tn, ch( tch cc kim l(i KiQm th#CD[@)*+,, + ?hng c thRm ch t t( cEp i]n "PV X>- S\S,--% m-B-m- ,h( h' ID+@)*+, @ + cc Xung m]i hdu cM h( tan ch t *h<n tVch@ P\: ,l2,)2, .(lu2n, ,1cl(h2[[an, W2nq2n,&-&m-B-l- .c X>ng & 4nh h`ng c5a pha :ng "O*% ,c h8nh 2l, 2n, 2|, sau <1 l m:t s= &V X> &Q 4nh h`ng c5a pha :ng t/(ng )*+,Nguyn tc phng php sc k kh: Phng php sc k kh ch yu ng dng tch v phn tch cc hp cht c kh n ng !"y h# $ %&t nh#t '& nht '(nh v kh)ng !( phn hy t*+ng ,u t*-nh !"y h#. /0# !& phn cht h1u c d2 !"y h#3 n4n phng php sc k kh ch yu s5 dng t*+ng phn tch cc cht h1u c h"y d6n 7ut c" ch8ng. Qu trnh tch trong phng php sc k kh: 9 K ln cht phun tLch 3 lu gi t/!n pha tnh mnh 9 ,c 1u nh h#ng n gi t/ K: : ?hit : 9 +p sut hi tng cTng &i nhit 9 K gim khi tng nhit 9 .ng nhit gim thi gian lu gi : ,ht tan tng tc &i pha tnh:

.ng tc mnh t/(ng pha tnh Xn n tng thi gian lu gi

Pha ng trong phng php sc k kh: Pha ng cc cht kh tr nh: )2 e/ ?2 ?2i )2

@ Yu cu kh mang: + &m 3( tLnh khu1ch tn cn thit + & tinh khit ca( {{,{{} ha1 {{,{{{} + ./ &i pha tnh c,ng nh cht phun tLch + Kh nng hp ph 3#i pha tnh cng Lt cng tt + \- s$ Xng + ,7 tLnh kinh t