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Assignment 1: Annotated Bibliographies of Ten Articles Leila Liberman OMDE 608 September 2013

Leila Liberman OMDE 608 Section: 9040 September 2013 Assignment 1: Annotated Bibliographies Berge, Z. L. (1995). The role of the online instructor/facilitator. E-Moderators.com. Retrieved from http://www.emoderators.com/moderators/teach_online.html In this article, the author outlines roles and functions needed of an educator in a computer mediated communication (CMC) arena. The author lists four areas that are necessary for the CMC educator: pedagogical (keeping the students focused on the discussion in areas of concepts, principles and skills), social (human relationships), managerial (organization and administrative), and technical (making technology transparent to the learner). The author supports the four areas with specific recommendations stating objectives and how to achieve those objectives. The author states there are two types of interaction in a CMC learning environment: interaction with the content and interaction between people. The author concludes with saying that CMC education is a possibility, if instructional objectives concentrate on the right questions to ask the students rather than focusing on the right answer. For any online educator, reading this article will be extremely useful as the practical tips offered will encourage success in the CMC arena.

Blaschke, L.M. (2004). Sustaining online collaboration: Seven lessons for application in the Volkswagen AutoUni. In U. Bernath & A. Szcs (Eds.), Proceedings of the Third EDEN Research Workshop Oldenburg, March 4-6, 2004 (pp. 388-394). Oldenburg: Bibliotheksund Informationssystem der Universitt Oldenburg. In this conference paper, Blaschke investigates research and best practices associated with collaboration of e-learning and online learning. Blaschke recommends seven lessons for nourishing collaborative efforts in the online classroom. The seven lessons are: promote a
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Leila Liberman OMDE 608 Section: 9040 September 2013 Assignment 1: Annotated Bibliographies learning culture where knowledge generation and sharing is openly desired, cultivate and capitalize on learning champions (positive, motivated people), build trust and relationships in teams (positive correlation between trust and communication and cooperation), make use of organizational and knowledge management tools and methodology to keep communication flowing (preparation, organization and management), use face-to-face and online interactions appropriately (face-to-face important at the start of a project), provide the necessary infrastructure and technology to sustain online collaboration (positive relationship between the IT department and the training department), be flexible to adapt to change. Each of the listed lessons is clearly outlined in the article and are able to be applied to the real world. Blaschke concludes her article by stating how important trust and organizational orderliness is to online teams and that this concept must be nurtured over time. The author states that the seven lessons noted should be used as guidelines for success for online collaboration. This article would be of value to a reader who is planning a blended or strictly online educational course.

Brindley, J. E. (1995). Learner services: Theory and practice. Distansutbildning i itveckling, Rapport nr. 11 (pp. 23-34). Umea, Sweden: University of Umea. This paper discusses issues pertaining to the construction of theoretical framework with learner services in open and distance learning (ODL). Brindley identifies the major change factors are clearly identified as growth and development of ODL, technological advances, and the ups and downs of the economy. The author defines learner service with these terms; tutoring/teaching, information provision, student advising, library services, and administrative services. Brindley addresses seven pertinent lessons associated with ODL when reviewing theoretical framework
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Leila Liberman OMDE 608 Section: 9040 September 2013 Assignment 1: Annotated Bibliographies and goals. The first lesson focuses on congruency between learner services and the institutional mission and culture. The second lesson surrounds fiscal restraint and resource allocation. The third lesson describes centralization v. decentralization (control, authority, consistency in service). The fourth lesson centers on recruitment and marketing v. learner advocacy. The fifth lesson considers universality of service. The sixth lesson involves reinvestment: staff development, research and evaluation. The final and seventh lesson examines external pressures: access demands, use of technology, and competition. Each of the lessons are clearly discussed relating to realistic issues and suggestions on ways to apply them to the real world. The author concludes the paper with a strong argument relating to maintaining a high values system within an institution correlated to student services. This article will be beneficial to the student or educator when reviewing the theoretical background associated with ODL.

Brindley, J.E., Walti, C., & Zawacki-Richter, O. (2004). The current context of learner support in open, distance and online learning: An introduction. In J. E. Brindley, C. Walti, & O. Zawacki-Richter (Eds.), Learner support in open, distance and online learning environments (pp. 9-27). Oldenburg: Bibliotheks- und Informationssystem der Universitt Oldenburg. This chapter reviews the concept of learner support in open and distance learning (ODL). The thrust of this section is fourfold: visions and retrospectives, insights on history and future of student/learner support, closely examines practice today whereby reviewing different types of student/ learner support activities, planning and management of learner support, and three keynote addresses from the Third European Distance and E-Learning Network Research Workshop on Supporting the Learner in Distance Education and E-Learning. The authors
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Leila Liberman OMDE 608 Section: 9040 September 2013 Assignment 1: Annotated Bibliographies definitions of learner support: These are tutoring and teaching, counseling and advising, study skills assistance, academic advising, personal counseling, and administrative activities which includes admission and registration, and library and information systems. There are three concepts pertaining to functional taxonomy of learner support provided by Tait (2000); cognitive, affective and systemic. Keegans evolving definition of learner support is strongly discussed, in Brindley, Walti and Zawacki-Richter yet other authors definitions. The authors discuss how pedagogical approaches are necessary to develop the autonomous, highly individualized and self-directed learners to be successful in self-directed learning opportunities. In the conclusion of the article the authors summarize many articles/chapters of specific readings associated with learner support and how that specific author has impacted the world of distance education. Readers will find this in-depth article as a synopsis and a compilation of learner support as a valuable tool in preparation of entering the ODL educational world.

Johnson, M. (2004). Enhancing study skills: Developing self-help materials for distance learners. In J. E. Brindley, C. Walti, & O. Zawacki-Richter (Eds.), Learner support in open, distance and online learning environments (pp. 117-124). Oldenburg: Bibliotheks- und Informationssystem der Universitt Oldenburg. In this chapter Johnson expresses the need to offer study skills materials to distance education students prior to course registration. The author suggests developing three-tiered materials: preparation for study, on course skills and end of course skills. The author supports the concept that the materials need to be offered in a dual mode, paper and electronic resources. A case study, wherein a Toolkit was developed for students, is discussed in detail. In this case study, it
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Leila Liberman OMDE 608 Section: 9040 September 2013 Assignment 1: Annotated Bibliographies was determined that it is more costly to develop a web based toolkit verses a paper toolkit, due to the greater human and technological resources required. This type of toolkit will increase the likelihood of success for student and the institution. The author concludes that once a support system is in place, the learners can access it at will, and use the areas specific to their needs. This article is very positive for a reader who is in the marketing aspect of distance education. It gives insight on a beneficial support system to accomplish a higher course completion rate.

LaPadula, M. (2003). A comprehensive look at online student support services. American Journal of Distance Education, 17(2), 119-128. LaPadulas addresses, the concept of learner support and recommends that online students have the same learner support assistance with which on-campus students are provided, though she reports that there is not enough research done on this topic. The author references a study by the United States Department of Education's Fund for the Improvement of Postsecondary Education. The results of this study state that financial aid, admissions and registration are services available for on-line learners. In contrast, tutoring, academic advisement, personal and career counseling, and library services are services not always available for on-line learners. LaPadula reports the findings of her study. The survey results faired positively with the online services presently offered to the learner. Social support areas needed or desired according to the study results are: student newspaper, book clubs, chat rooms for current events, and seminars for career advancement. The results showed students interest in the following academic support areas: on-line tutoring, degree guidance, and Internet research. Self help support areas of interest reported in the study are : parenting, time
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Leila Liberman OMDE 608 Section: 9040 September 2013 Assignment 1: Annotated Bibliographies management and having a psychologist who can be accessed online. LaPadula concludes that online students should have the same access to on -campus student services, and that these services should be flexible enough to work into the life of an online learner. The reader must look into what exactly distance education is, and to whom the users of this type of educational resource are. This article would be an excellent article when one is reviewing goals of successful support and what is actually attainable in learner support for the online degree track student.

Naidu, S. (2004). Supporting learning with creative instructional designs. In J. E. Brindley, C. Walti, & O. Zawacki-Richter (Eds.), Learner support in open, distance and online learning environments (pp. 109-116). Oldenburg: Bibliotheks- und Informationssystem der Universitt Oldenburg. This chapter discusses the importance of using cognitive learning skills to enable course designers through a scaffolding method to engage learners, tutors and teachers to create a positive supportive learning environment. The author lists five methods of learning which are needed: story-centered learning (to reflect real life situations), problem based learning (collaborative project based on a specific situation), critical incident-based learning (reflecting in and on an issue), design-based learning (team building based on expertise), and role play-based learning (learners take on characters of a story/subject/project). The author believes that by following these five learning bases the instructor will create a proactive student supported learning environment. Consequently, a well developed student will be engaged in meaningful, authentic and motivating activities resulting in a learning environment which provides a
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Leila Liberman OMDE 608 Section: 9040 September 2013 Assignment 1: Annotated Bibliographies supportive and educational experience for students. Readers in search of learning based theories will find this article helpful. A reader will be able to place themselves in each of the five learning bases and comprehend the theory behind their use.

Rekkedal, T. (2004). Internet based e-learning, pedagogy and support systems. In J. E. Brindley, C. Walti, & O. Zawacki-Richter (Eds.), Learner support in open, distance and online learning environments (pp. 71-93). Oldenburg: Bibliotheks- und Informationssystem der Universitt Oldenburg. The authors focus in this chapter is based on need for student/learner support in an e-learning environment. There are three theories Rekkedal reviews: independence and autonomy, tutor guided didactic conversation, and industrialization of teaching. Rekkedal cites two distance education leaders, Tinto and Paulsen, and supports their theories within the world of open and distance learning (ODL): Tinto represents attrition with the online learner and Paulsen represents cooperative freedom. Rekkedal reports that the present model of ODL centers on intercommunication with student learning, and that support is designed to promote and guide this type of learning. The author states when a model of Internet-based learning is designed it must support a vast array of students and accommodate their needs. This chapter is scholarly written and should be recommend as it allows students to speculate about the future of ODL based on a review of the historical background and theoretical models. The chapter was clearly written allowing the reader to clearly understand two distance education leaders.

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Leila Liberman OMDE 608 Section: 9040 September 2013 Assignment 1: Annotated Bibliographies Simpson, O. (2004). Retention and course choice in distance learning. In U. Bernath & A. Szcs (Eds.), Proceedings of the Third EDEN Research Workshop Oldenburg, March 4-6, 2004 (pp. 381-387). Oldenburg: Bibliotheks- und Informationssystem der Universitt Oldenburg. This paper addresses student retention in distance education courses, relating to enrolling in courses in a proper sequence. The author discusses five topics: course titles and descriptions, availability of guidance for course selection, students comments on courses, course preview materials, and diagnostic materials. The author reports some standards for helping to choose a title and description of a course that include: length of the title, vocabulary in the course summary, emphasizing the accessibility of the course no matter the cost, and stating what requirements and prior knowledge the student must have. Course guidance, with the use of an advisor, the author states, is a struggle due to the enormous number of students and low number of advisers on staff. Student comments on specific courses can be both positive and negative for enrolling students. According to the author, course preview tester packs have been in use since the 1980s. Test packs were used, due to low cost development, as the information was derived from the actual course. The author relates that there are limitations to preview material of a course, not telling if the student has the correct background needed to excel in the course. Simpson concludes, despite the use of diagnostic materials in distance education for an extended period of time, there is not enough research on this topic. Learners entering an online curriculum will benefit from the authors thorough discussion on how course titles are developed, and how to decipher the pros and cons of previous students comments on a course.

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Leila Liberman OMDE 608 Section: 9040 September 2013 Assignment 1: Annotated Bibliographies Tesch, P.C. (2004). Ethics in distance education. In U. Bernath & A. Szcs (Eds.), Proceedings of the Third EDEN Research Workshop Oldenburg, March 4-6, 2004.Oldenburg: Bibliotheks- und Informationssystem der Universitt Oldenburg. In this chapter the author, Philip Tesch, addresses the concept of ethics. He states that ethics are ingrained, starting at birth and continuing through the early school years which are taught by parents and teachers. Tesch states that this is not the same for the generation growing up on the 21st century. This generation is growing up in the digital era in which there is no right or wrong digital conduct. The author states that the common denominator between the online classroom and the face-to-face classroom is the student, using his/her own original work and giving credit where it is needed. Tesch speaks to participant integrity and the unknowing if the actual student is producing the work. Respect and civility are attributes required for honoring the learning participant, stated by Tesch. On the other hand he unfortunately states that consumerism had brought students to lower their respect for the professor. A reader, in all aspects of the education arena, would find this article useful. Educators in early childhood development and elementary education will find this article of particular value. In another fifteen to twenty years; however, this article will be obsolete due to the digital generations presence in the work field.

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