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Lecture (1) Irrigation and Drainage Engineering

C louds C louds

Hydrologic Cycle:
P = Precipitation E = Evaporation T = Transpiration ET = Evapotranspiration GW= Groundwater I = Infiltration
R P GW Moisture ET

P
T

ET

T T

E
R I I I

E W ater Table

E
R

U nsaturated Saturated

G roundw ater (G W )

Water Cycle for the Earth :


Land 30 % Oceans = 70 % Land ET P 72 cm/yr. 41 cm runoff to oceans 31 cm Oceans 112 cm/yr + 31
0.3 = 125 cm (E) 0.7

270 x 1012 m3/yr * Lakes and rivers Egypt share 55 x 109 0.02% of the world fresh water

Irrigation : It is an artificial mean of water application to soil to ensure


enough moisture essential for plant life

Drainage:

It is an artificial mean of removal of excess groundwater from the root zone

Water Budget:
P ET
ET P

P + RI + GI = ET + Ro + Go. +Sm + Sg P = ET + R + G + Sm + Sg

Ro
River

Sm GI Sg Go

Rainfed Versus Irrigated Agriculture:


Regions Humid Semi-Humid Semi-Arid Arid Desert P (mm/yr) 1500-2000 1000-1500 500-1000 250-500 Less than 250 Irrigation Forrests Rainfed Supplementary Irrigation Irrigation Drainage -----May be May be May be May be

Cultivated Versus Irrigated Areas:


Country Egypt China France Japan USA Cultivated Area (106 fed.) 8.1 275.0 77.0 14.5 300.0 Irrigated 7.8 13.0 6.0 8.0 30.0 % 96 47 8 55 10

Total Irrigation area in the world 500 x 106 feddans

Irrigation Process

Water

Delivery System

Field Irrigation Method

Irrigation Application

Source Traditional Surface Water Ground Water Non-Traditional Agr. Drainage Reuse Treated Wastewater Reuse Desalinization Fog Collection Cloud Seeding

Quality Fresh Saline

Canals Irrigation Str. Pump Stations

Surface Sprinkle

Drip

Amount (Depth) Frequency (Soil Inf. Rate and ET)