Version 1973 – 2003 Edited and Arranged by: Janette Laggui-Icao and Ale Andre!

"# Icao $%illi&an 'ni(ersity )ollege o* La!+ ',dated by: -ondee .e/a0e 1ar2,s 2007 3 2 . 4 A . /5is !or0 is not intended *or sale or co&&erce# /5is !or0 is *ree!are# It &ay be *reely co,ied and distributed# It is ,ri&arily intended *or all t5ose !5o desire to 5a(e a dee,er understanding o* t5e issues touc5ed by t5e "5ili,,ine 1ar E a&inations and its trend# It is s,ecially intended *or la! students *ro& t5e ,ro(inces !5o6 (ery o*ten6 are reci,ients o* deliberately distorted notes *ro& ot5er unscru,ulous la! sc5ools and students# %5are to ot5ers t5is !or0 and you !ill be ric5ly re!arded by 7od in 5ea(en# It is also (ery good 0ar&a# 4e !ould li0e to see0 t5e indulgence o* t5e reader *or so&e 1ar 8uestions !5ic5 are i&,ro,erly classi*ied under a to,ic and *or so&e to,ics !5ic5 are i&,ro,erly or ignorantly ,5rased6 *or t5e aut5ors are 9ust 1ar .e(ie!ees !5o 5a(e ,re,ared t5is !or0 !5ile re(ie!ing *or t5e 1ar E a&s under ti&e constraints and !it5in t5eir li&ited 0no!ledge o* t5e la!# 4e !ould li0e to see0 t5e reader:s indulgence *or a lot o* ty,ogra,5ical errors in t5is !or0# /5e Aut5ors July 2;6 200< ',dated by= July 36 2007 '"L2A-E- 1> 1I12> )ri&inal La! 1ar E a&ination 8 ? A AB%4E.% /2 1A. ECADIBA/I2B 8'E%/I2B% IB ).IDIBAL LA4 A..AB7E- 1> /2"I) $199@ – 200;+ Version 1973 – 2003 Edited and Arranged by: Janette Laggui-Icao and Ale Andre! "# Icao $%illi&an 'ni(ersity )ollege o* La!+ ',dated by: -ondee .e/a0e 1ar2,s 2007 3ro& t5e AB%4E.% /2 1A. ECADIBA/I2B 8'E%/I2B% IB ).IDIBAL LA4 by t5e '" LA4 )2D"LEC and "EILI""IBE A%%2)IA/I2B 23 LA4 %)E22L% July 36 2007 )ri&inal La! 1ar E a&ination 8 ? A $199@-200;+ 2 o* A; 3 2 . 4 A . /5is !or0 is not intended *or sale or co&&erce# /5is !or0 is *ree!are# It &ay be *reely co,ied and distributed# It is ,ri&arily intended *or all t5ose !5o desire to 5a(e a dee,er understanding o* t5e issues touc5ed by t5e "5ili,,ine 1ar E a&inations and its trend# It is s,ecially intended *or la! students *ro& t5e ,ro(inces !5o6 (ery o*ten6 are reci,ients o* deliberately distorted notes *ro& ot5er unscru,ulous la! sc5ools and students# %5are to ot5ers t5is !or0 and you !ill be ric5ly re!arded by 7od in 5ea(en# It is also (ery good 0ar&a# 4e !ould li0e to see0 t5e indulgence o* t5e reader *or so&e 1ar 8uestions !5ic5 are i&,ro,erly classi*ied under a to,ic and *or so&e to,ics !5ic5 are i&,ro,erly or ignorantly ,5rased6 *or t5e aut5ors are 9ust 1ar .e(ie!ees !5o 5a(e ,re,ared t5is !or0 !5ile re(ie!ing *or t5e 1ar E a&s under ti&e constraints and !it5in $199@-200;+ 1 o* A;

t5eir li&ited 0no!ledge o* t5e la!# 4e !ould li0e to see0 t5e reader:s indulgence *or a lot o* ty,ogra,5ical errors in t5is !or0# /5e Aut5ors July 2;6 200< ',dated by= July 36 2007 )ri&inal La! 1ar E a&ination 8 ? A $199@-200;+ 3 o* A; /able o* )ontents 7EBE.AL ".IB)I"LE%######################################################################## #######################################10 7eneral "rinci,les= %c5ools o* t5oug5t in )ri&inal La! $199;+ ################################################################################## ##########10 7eneral "rinci,les= /erritoriality $199@+ ################################################################################## ###########################################10 7eneral "rinci,les= /erritoriality= Jurisdiction o(er Vessel $2000+ ################################################################################## #######10 'se o* Aliases= 45en Allo!ed $200;+ ################################################################################## #############################################10 3EL2BIE%########################################################################## ##############################################################10 )ons,iracy $1997+ ################################################################################## ########################################################################10 )ons,iracy= A(oidance o* 7reater E(il $200@+############################################################################ ########################################11 )ons,iracy= )o-)ons,irator $199A+ ################################################################################## ################################################11 )ons,iracy= )o&&on 3elonious "ur,ose $199@+ ################################################################################## #############################11 )ons,iracy= )o&,le )ri&e !it5 .a,e $199;+############################################################################ #######################################11 )ons,iracy= 3lig5t to E(ade A,,re5ension $2003+############################################################################ ##################################12 )ons,iracy= 3lig5t to E(ade A,,re5ension $2003+############################################################################ ##################################12 )ons,iracy= I&,lied )ons,iracy $199A+############################################################################ #################################################13 )ons,iracy= I&,lied )ons,iracy= E**ects $2003+ ################################################################################## ###############################13 )ri&inal Liability: -estructi(e Arson $2000+ ################################################################################## #####################################13 )ri&inal Liability: 3elonious Act o* %caring $199;+############################################################################ ##################################13 )ri&inal Liability: 3elonious Act= "ro i&ate )ause $199;+############################################################################ #######################13 )ri&inal Liability: I&,ossible )ri&es $2000+ ################################################################################## ####################################1@ )ri&inal Liability= 3elonious Act o* %caring $2001+############################################################################ ##################################1@ )ri&inal Liability= 3elonious Act o* %caring $200<+############################################################################ ##################################1@ )ri&inal Liability= 3elonious Act= I&&ediate

)ause $2003+ ################################################################################## ################1@ )ri&inal Liability= 3elonious Act= "ro i&ate )ause $199@+############################################################################ #######################1< )ri&inal Liability= 3elonious Act= "ro i&ate )ause $1997+############################################################################ #######################1< )ri&inal Liability= 3elonious Act= "ro i&ate )ause $1999+############################################################################ #######################1< )ri&inal Liability= 3elonious Act= "ro i&ate )ause $2001+############################################################################ #######################1< )ri&inal Liability= 3elonious Act= "ro i&ate )ause $200@+############################################################################ #######################1; )ri&inal Liability= I&,ossible )ri&e $200@+ ################################################################################## ######################################1; )ri&inal Liability= I&,ossible )ri&es $199@+ ################################################################################## ####################################1; )ri&inal Liability= I&,ossible )ri&es= Fidna,,ing $2000+ ################################################################################## ##################17 Dala in %e (s# Dala "ro5ibita $1997+ ################################################################################## ##############################################17 Dala in %e (s# Dala "ro5ibita $1999+ ################################################################################## ##############################################17 Dala in %e (s# Dala "ro5ibita $2001+ ################################################################################## ##############################################17 Dala in %e (s# Dala "ro5ibita $2003+ ################################################################################## ##############################################17 Dala "ro5ibita= Actual In9ury .eGuired $2000+ ################################################################################## ##################################1A Dalu& in %e (s# Dalu& "ro5ibitu& $200<+ ################################################################################## ######################################1A Doti(e (s# Intent $199;+ ################################################################################## #################################################################1A Doti(e (s# Intent $1999+ ################################################################################## #################################################################1A Doti(e (s# Intent $200@+ ################################################################################## #################################################################19 Doti(e= "roo* t5ereo*= Bot Essential= )on(iction $200;+ ################################################################################## ####################19 J'%/I3>IB7 ? ECED"/IB7 )I.)'D%/AB)E% ###################################################################19 E e&,ting )ircu&stances= )o(erage $2000+############################################################################ #########################################19 E e&,ting )ircu&stances= Dinority $199A+############################################################################ ############################################19 E e&,ting= Dinority= 11 yrs 2ld= Absence o* -iscern&ent $2000+ ################################################################################## ######19 Justi*ying (s# E e&,ting )ircu&stances $200@+

################################################################################## ###############################20 Justi*ying= -e*ense o* Eonor= .eGuisites $2002+############################################################################ #####################################20 Justi*ying= -e*ense o* %tranger $2002+ ################################################################################## ############################################20 Justi*ying= 3ul*ill&ent o* -uty= .eGuisites $2000+ ################################################################################## ##############################20 Justi*ying= %-= -e*ense o* Eonor= .eGuisites $199A+ ################################################################################## ########################21 Justi*ying= -e*ense o* Eonor= Ele&ents $2000+ ################################################################################## ################################21 Justi*ying= %-= -e*ense o* "ro,erty= .eGuisites $199;+ ################################################################################## #####################21 Justi*ying= %-= -e*ense o* "ro,erty= .eGuisites $2003+ ################################################################################## #####################21 )ri&inal La! 1ar E a&ination 8 ? A $199@-200;+ @ o* A; 8uali*ying= Ele&ents o* a )ri&e $2003+############################################################################ #################################################22 DI/I7A/IB7 )I.)'D%/AB)E%##################################################################### ###########################22 Ditigating= Bon-Into ication $2000+ ################################################################################## #################################################22 Ditigating= "lea o* 7uilty $1999+############################################################################ ############################################################22 Ditigating= "lea o* 7uilty= .eGuisites $1999+############################################################################ ###########################################22 Ditigating= "lea o* 7uilty= Voluntary %urrender $1997+############################################################################ #############################22 Ditigating= Voluntary %urrender $199;+############################################################################ ##################################################23 Ditigating= Voluntary %urrender= Ele&ents $1999+ ################################################################################## ############################23 A77.AVA/IB7 )I.)'D%/AB)E% ################################################################################## #######23 Aggra(ating )ircu&stances $199;+############################################################################ #######################################################23 Aggra(ating )ircu&stances= 7eneris (s# 8uali*ying $1999+ ################################################################################## ###############2@ Aggra(ating )ircu&stances= Finds ? "enalties $1999+############################################################################ ############################2@ Aggra(ating= )ruelty= .elations5i, $199@+ ################################################################################## #######################################2@ Aggra(ating= Dust be alleged in t5e in*or&ation $2000+############################################################################ ###########################2@ Aggra(ating= Big5tti&e= 1and $199@+

################################################################################## ##############################################2@ Aggra(ating= .ecidi(is& $2001+############################################################################ ############################################################2@ Aggra(ating= .ecidi(is& (s# 8uasi-.ecidi(is& $199A+ ################################################################################## ######################2< Aggra(ating= /reac5ery ? 'nla!*ul Entry $1997+############################################################################ ####################################2< AL/E.BA/IVE )I.)'D%/AB)E% ################################################################################## #########2< Alternati(e )ircu&stances= Into ication $2002+############################################################################ #######################################2< "E.%2B% ).IDIBALL> LIA1LE 32. 3EL2BIE%################################################################2< Anti-3encing La!= 3encing $199;+ ################################################################################## ##################################################2< Anti-3encing La!= 3encing (s# /5e*t or .obbery $199<+############################################################################ ##########################2; Anti-3encing La!= 3encing= Ele&ents $199<+############################################################################ #########################################2; )ri&inal Liability= Accessories ? 3ence $199A+############################################################################ #######################################2; )ri&inal Liability= Bon-E e&,tion as Accessory $200@+ ################################################################################## ####################2; )ri&inal Liability= "rinci,al by -irect "artici,ation= )o"rinci,al by Indis,ensable )oo,eration $2000+#####################################27 )ri&inal Liability= "rinci,al by Induce&ent $2002+ ################################################################################## ############################27 )ri&inal Liability= "rinci,al= Induce&ent ? "artici,ation $199@+ ################################################################################## ##########27 -estructi(e Arson $199@+ ################################################################################## ###############################################################27 "EBAL/IE% ################################################################################## ###################################################27 )o&,le )ri&e (s# )o&,ound )ri&e $200@+############################################################################ #########################################27 )o&,le )ri&e (s# %,ecial )o&,le )ri&e (s# -elito )ontinuado $200<+ ############################################################################2A )o&,le )ri&e= Aberratio ictus (s# error in ,ersonae $199@+############################################################################ ###################2A )o&,le )ri&e= Aberratio Ictus6 Error In "ersonae ? "raeter Intentione& $1999+ #################################################################2A )o&,le )ri&e= Aberratio Ictus= Atte&,ted Durder !it5 Eo&icide $2000+ ############################################################################2A )o&,le )ri&e= -octrine o* Aberratio Ictus= Bot A,,licable $199;+ ##################################################################################

####29 )o&,le )ri&es= )ou, d:etat ? rebellion ? sedition $2003+############################################################################ #####################29 )o&,le )ri&es= -eter&ination o* t5e )ri&e $1999+############################################################################ ##############################29 )o&,le )ri&es= Bature ? "enalty In(ol(ed $1999+ ################################################################################## #########################30 )o&,le )ri&es= 2rdinary )o&,le )ri&e (s# %,ecial )o&,le )ri&e $2003+ #####################################################################30 )ontinuing 2**ense (s# -elito )ontinuado $199@+ ################################################################################## #############################30 -eat5 "enalty $200@+ ################################################################################## ####################################################################30 -eat5 "enalty= 8uali*ied .a,e= .eGuisites $200@+############################################################################ ##################################31 Eabitual -elinGuency ? .ecidi(is& $2001+ ################################################################################## ######################################31 Indeter&inate %entence La! $199@+ ################################################################################## ###############################################31 Indeter&inate %entence La! $1999+ ################################################################################## ###############################################32 Indeter&inate %entence La! $1999+ ################################################################################## ###############################################32 Indeter&inate %entence La! $2002+ ################################################################################## ###############################################32 Indeter&inate %entence La! $200<+ ################################################################################## ###############################################32 Indeter&inate %entence La!= E ce,tions $1999+ ################################################################################## #############################32 Indeter&inate %entence La!= E ce,tions $2003+ ################################################################################## #############################33 )ri&inal La! 1ar E a&ination 8 ? A $199@-200;+ < o* A; "enalties: 3ine or I&,rison&ent (s# %ubsidiary I&,rison&ent $200<+############################################################################ #######33 "enalties: "ecuniary "enalties (s# "ecuniary Liabilities $200<+ ################################################################################## ##########33 "enalties= )o&,le )ri&e o* Esta*a $1997+ ################################################################################## #####################################33 "enalties= 3actors to )onsider $1991+ ################################################################################## #############################################33 "enalties= Eo&icide !H Dodi*ying )ircu&stance $199<+ ################################################################################## ####################3@ "enalties= Ditigating )ircu&stances !Hout Aggra(ating )ircu&stance $1997+ #######################################################################3@ "enalties= "arricide !H Ditigating )ircu&stance $1997+############################################################################ ###########################3@ "enalties= "re(enti(e I&,rison&ent $199@+ ################################################################################## #####################################3@ "enalties= .eclusion "er,etua $.A+ Bo#

79<9 $200<+ ################################################################################## #######################3< "enalties= .eclusion "er,etua (s# Li*e I&,rison&ent $199@+ ################################################################################## #############3< "enalties= .eclusion "er,etua (s# Li*e I&,rison&ent $2001+ ################################################################################## #############3< "robation La!: "ro,er "eriod $200<+ ################################################################################## ##############################################3< "robation La!= 1arred by A,,eal $199@+############################################################################ ###############################################3< "robation La!= 1arred by A,,eal $2001+############################################################################ ###############################################3; "robation La!= Da i&u& /er& (s# /otal /er& $1997+############################################################################ ############################3; "robation La!= 2rder -enying "robation= Bot A,,ealable $2002+ ################################################################################## ######3; "robation La!= "eriod )o(ered $200@+ ################################################################################## ###########################################3; "robation La!= .ig5t= 1arred by A,,eal $199<+ ################################################################################## ###############################3; "robation La!= .ig5t= 1arred by A,,eal $2003+ ################################################################################## ###############################37 %us,ension o* %entence= AdultsHDinors $200;+############################################################################ ######################################37 %us,ension o* %entence= Dinors $2003+############################################################################ ################################################37 %us,ension o* %entence= >out5*ul 2**ender $199<+ ################################################################################## ##########################3A EC/IB)/I2B 23 ).IDIBAL LIA1ILI/>######################################################################### ###########3A A&nesty (s# "- 11;0 $200;+ ################################################################################## #########################################################3A A&nesty= )ri&es )o(ered $200;+############################################################################ #########################################################3A E tinction= )ri&inal ? )i(il Liabilities= E**ects= -eat5 o* accused ,ending a,,eal $200@+ ########################################################3A E tinction= )ri&inal ? )i(il Liabilities= E**ects= -eat5 o* 2**ended "arty $2000+######################################################################3A "ardon (s# A&nesty $200;+############################################################################ ##################################################################39 "ardon= E**ect= )i(il Interdiction $200@+ ################################################################################## ###########################################39 "ardon= E**ect= .einstate&ent $199@+ ################################################################################## #############################################39 "rescri,tion o* )ri&es= 1iga&y $199<+ ################################################################################## ############################################@0 "rescri,tion o* )ri&es=

)o&&ence&ent $2000+ ################################################################################## ###############################@0 "rescri,tion o* )ri&es= )o&&ence&ent $200@+ ################################################################################## ###############################@0 "rescri,tion o* )ri&es= )oncubinage $2001+############################################################################ ##########################################@0 "rescri,tion o* )ri&es= 3alse /esti&ony $199@+ ################################################################################## ###############################@1 "rescri,tion o* )ri&es= %i&,le %lander $1997+############################################################################ #######################################@1 )IVIL LIA1ILI/> ################################################################################## ###########################################@1 )i(il liability= E**ect o* AcGuittal $2000+############################################################################ ###################################################@1 )i(il liability= E**ect o* AcGuittal $2000+############################################################################ ###################################################@1 )i(il Liability= %ubsidiary= E&,loyers $199A+############################################################################ ###########################################@2 )i(il Liability= 45en Dandatory= )ri&inal Liability $200<+############################################################################ #########################@2 -a&ages= Eo&icide= /e&,erate -a&ages $200;+ ################################################################################## ###########################@2 ).IDE% A7AIB%/ BA/I2BAL %E)'.I/> AB- /EE LA4 23 BA/I2B%#######################@2 "iracy in t5e Eig5 %eas ? 8uali*ied "iracy $200;+ ################################################################################## ###########################@2 ).IDE% A7AIB%/ /EE 3'B-ADEB/AL LA4 23 /EE %/A/E########################################@3 Violation o* -o&icile (s# /res,ass to -!elling $2002+ ################################################################################## #######################@3 ).IDE% A7AIB%/ "'1LI) 2.-E. ################################################################################## #######@3 Art 13@= .ebellion= "olitically Doti(ated= )o&&itted by B"A De&bers $199A+ ######################################################################@3 Art 13@A: )ou, d: etat ? .a,e= 3rustrated $200<+ ################################################################################## ###########################@@ Art 13@-A= )ou, d:etat $2002+ ################################################################################## ########################################################@@ Art 13@-A= )ou, d:etat= Be! 3irear&s La! $199A+############################################################################ ##################################@@ Art 13;= )ons,iracy to )o&&it .ebellion $199@+############################################################################ ####################################@@ )ri&inal La! 1ar E a&ination 8 ? A $199@-200;+ ; o* A; Art 1@A= -irect Assault (s# .esistance ? -isobedience $2001+ ################################################################################## ##########@@ Art 1@A= -irect Assault= /eac5ers ? "ro*essors $2002+ ##################################################################################

#####################@< Art 1@A= "ersons in Aut5orityHAgents o* "ersons in Aut5ority $2000+############################################################################ #########@< Art 1<;= -eli(ery o* "risoners *ro& Jail $2002+ ################################################################################## #################################@< Art 1<7= E(asion o* %er(ice o* %entence $199A+ ################################################################################## ###############################@; Art# 13@= .ebellion (s# )ou, dIetat $200@+ ################################################################################## ######################################@; )o&,le )ri&e= -irect Assault !it5 &urder $2000+ ################################################################################## ##########################@; ).IDE% A7AIB%/ "'1LI) IB/E.E%/########################################################################## ##########@7 3alse Botes= Illegal "ossession $1999+ ################################################################################## ###########################################@7 3alse /esti&ony $199@+############################################################################ #######################################################################@7 3alsi*ication= "resu&,tion o* 3alsi*ication $1999+############################################################################ ####################################@7 3orgery ? 3alsi*ication $1999+ ################################################################################## ########################################################@7 7ra(e %candal $199;+ ################################################################################## ###################################################################@A "er9ury $199;+ ################################################################################## ##############################################################################@A "er9ury $1997+ ################################################################################## ##############################################################################@A "er9ury $200<+ ################################################################################## ##############################################################################@9 ).IDE% )2DDI//E- 1> "'1LI) 233I)E.%#######################################################################@9 1ribery ? )orru,tion o* "ublic 2**icial $2001+ ################################################################################## ###################################@9 -irect 1ribery: In*idelity in t5e )ustody o* -ocu&ents $200<+ ################################################################################## ############@9 Jurisdiction= I&,eac5able "ublic 2**icers $200;+ ################################################################################## ##############################<0 Dal(ersation $199@+ ################################################################################## ######################################################################<0 Dal(ersation $1999+ ################################################################################## ######################################################################<0 Dal(ersation $1999+ ################################################################################## ######################################################################<0 Dal(ersation $2001+ ################################################################################## ######################################################################<0

Dal(ersation $200;+ ################################################################################## ######################################################################<1 Dal(ersation (s# Esta*a $1999+ ################################################################################## #######################################################<1 Dal(ersation= "ro,erties= )ustodia Legis $2001+ ################################################################################## ##############################<2 Dal(ersation= /ec5nical Dal(ersation $199;+ ################################################################################## ###################################<2 "ublic 2**icers= de*inition $1999+############################################################################ ###########################################################<2 "ublic 2**icers= In*idelity in )ustody o* "risoners $199;+ ################################################################################## ###################<2 "ublic 2**icers= In*idelity in )ustody o* "risoners $1997+ ################################################################################## ###################<3 ).IDE% A7AIB%/ "E.%2B% ################################################################################## ##################<3 )o&,le )ri&e= Eo&icide !H Assault-Aut5ority $199<+ ################################################################################## #####################<3 )o&,le )ri&e= "arricide !H unintentional abortion $199@+ ################################################################################## ###############<3 )ri&inal Liabilities= .a,e= Eo&icide ? /5e*t $199A Bo+ ################################################################################## #####################<3 )ri&inal Liability= /u&ultous A**ray $1997+############################################################################ #############################################<@ )ri&inal Liability= /u&ultuous A**ray $2003+############################################################################ ###########################################<@ -eat5 under E ce,tional )ircu&stances $2001+############################################################################ #####################################<@ -eat5 under E ce,tional )ircu&stances $200<+############################################################################ #####################################<@ Eo&icide= 3raustrated= "5ysical In9uries $199@+ ################################################################################## ###############################<< In*anticide $200;+############################################################################ ################################################################################<< Durder ? %ec# 2<6 .#A# Bo# 91;< $200<+ ################################################################################## #########################################<< Durder $1999+ ################################################################################## ##############################################################################<< Durder= -e*inition ? Ele&ents $1999+ ################################################################################## #############################################<; Durder= E(ident "re&editation $199;+############################################################################ ###################################################<; Durder= Eo&icide= In*anticide= "arricide $1999+############################################################################ ######################################<; Durder= .ec0les I&,rudence $2001+############################################################################ #####################################################<; Durder= /reac5ery

$199<+############################################################################ ####################################################################<7 Durder= 'se o* Illegal 3irear&s $200@+ ################################################################################## ############################################<7 "arricide $1999+############################################################################ ################################################################################## <7 "arricide $1999+############################################################################ ################################################################################## <7 "arricide= Dulti,le "arricide= Eo&icide $1997+############################################################################ ########################################<7 .a,e $199<+############################################################################ ################################################################################## #####<A .a,e= Absence o* 3orce ? Inti&idation $199<+############################################################################ #######################################<A .a,e= Anti-.a,e La! o* 1997 $2002+ ################################################################################## ##############################################<A )ri&inal La! 1ar E a&ination 8 ? A $199@-200;+ 7 o* A; .a,e= Anti-.a,e La! o* 1997 $2002+ ################################################################################## ##############################################<A .a,e= )onsented Abduction $2002+ ################################################################################## ################################################<9 .a,e= E**ect= A**ida(it o* -esistance $1993+############################################################################ ###########################################<9 .a,e= Dale Victi& $2002+ ################################################################################## ##############################################################<9 .a,e= Dulti,le .a,es= 3orcible Abduction $2000+############################################################################ ###################################<9 .a,e= "ro,er "arty $1993+############################################################################ ###################################################################<9 .a,e= %tatutory .a,e= Dental .etardate Victi& $199;+############################################################################ ###########################;0 ).IDE% A7AIB%/ "E.%2BAL LI1E./> AB- %E)'.I/> ################################################;0 Arbitrary -etention= Ele&ents= 7rounds $200;+############################################################################ ######################################;0 7ra(e )oercion $199A+############################################################################ ########################################################################;0 7ra(e )oercion (s# Daltreat&ent o* "risoner $1999+ ################################################################################## ########################;1 Illegal -etention (s# 7ra(e )oercion $1999+############################################################################ ###########################################;1 Fidna,,ing $2002+ ################################################################################## ########################################################################;1 Fidna,,ing $200;+ ################################################################################## ########################################################################;1 Fidna,,ing !H Eo&icide $200<+############################################################################

############################################################;2 Fidna,,ing= E**ects= Voluntary .elease $200@+ ################################################################################## ################################;2 Fidna,,ing= Illegal -etention= Dinority $200;+ ################################################################################## ##################################;2 Fidna,,ing= "ro,osal to Fidna, $199;+ ################################################################################## ###########################################;3 Fidna,,ing= %erious Illegal -etention $1997+ ################################################################################## ###################################;3 /res,ass to -!elling= "ri(ate "ersons $200;+############################################################################ ########################################;3 /ress,ass to -!elling= .ule o* Absor,tion $199@+ ################################################################################## ############################;@ 'n9ust Ve ation (s Acts o* Lasci(iousness $199@+############################################################################ ##################################;@ ).IDE% A7AIB%/ ".2"E./>########################################################################## ########################;@ Arson= -estructi(e Arson $199@+############################################################################ ###########################################################;@ Arson= -estructi(e Arson $2000+############################################################################ ###########################################################;@ Arson= Be! Arson La! $200@+############################################################################ ##############################################################;@ 1" 22= De&orandu& )5ec0 $199@+############################################################################ ######################################################;< 1" 22= De&orandu& )5ec0 $199<+############################################################################ ######################################################;< 1" 22= "resu&,tion o* Fno!ledge $2002+ ################################################################################## #######################################;< Esta*a ? /rust .ecei,t La! $199<+ ################################################################################## #################################################;< Esta*a $1999+ ################################################################################## ###############################################################################;; Esta*a (s# 1" 22 $199;+############################################################################ #######################################################################;; Esta*a (s# 1" 22 $2003+############################################################################ #######################################################################;; Esta*a (s# Doney Dar0et "lace&ent $199;+############################################################################ ###########################################;7 Esta*a (s# /5e*t $200<+ ################################################################################## ##################################################################;7 Esta*a= Ele&ents $200<+ ################################################################################## ################################################################;7 Esta*a= 3alsi*ication o* )o&&ercial -ocu&ent $2000+############################################################################ #############################;7 Esta*a= 3alsi*ication o* )o&&ercial -ocu&ents

$1997+ ################################################################################## #####################;A Esta*a= %!indling $199A+############################################################################ ######################################################################;A .obbery $199;+ ################################################################################## ############################################################################;A .obbery under .") $2000+ ################################################################################## ###########################################################;A .obbery under .") $2001+ ################################################################################## ###########################################################;A .obbery (s# Eig5!ay .obbery $2000+############################################################################ ###################################################;9 .obbery !H *orce u,on t5ings $2000+ ################################################################################## ##############################################;9 .obbery !H Eo&icide - .#A# Bo# 7;<9 $200<+ ################################################################################## ##################################;9 .obbery !H Eo&icide $199;+############################################################################ ################################################################70 .obbery !H Eo&icide $199A+############################################################################ ################################################################70 .obbery !H Eo&icide $2003+############################################################################ ################################################################71 .obbery !H Eo&icide= %,ecial )o&,le )ri&e $199<+ ################################################################################## ######################71 .obbery !H Inti&idation (s# /5e*t $2002+ ################################################################################## #########################################71 .obbery !H .a,e $1999+ ################################################################################## ###############################################################71 .obbery !H .a,e= )ons,iracy $200@+ ################################################################################## #############################################71 .obbery= Eo&icide= Arson $199<+############################################################################ #########################################################72 .obbery= .a,e $1997+############################################################################ #########################################################################72 /5e*t $199A+ ################################################################################## #################################################################################7 2 /5e*t $2001+ ################################################################################## #################################################################################7 3 )ri&inal La! 1ar E a&ination 8 ? A $199@-200;+ A o* A; /5e*t= 8uali*ied /5e*t $2002+ ################################################################################## ##########################################################73 /5e*t= 8uali*ied /5e*t $2002+ ##################################################################################

##########################################################73 /5e*t= 8uali*ied /5e*t $200;+ ################################################################################## ##########################################################73 /5e*t= %tages o* E ecution $199A+ ################################################################################## ##################################################73 /5e*t= %tages o* E ecution $2000+ ################################################################################## ##################################################7@ 'sur,ation o* .eal .ig5ts $199;+############################################################################ ##########################################################7@ ).IDE% A7AIB%/ )EA%/I/>########################################################################## ##########################7@ Acts o* Lasci(iousness (s# 'n9ust Ve ation $199@+ ################################################################################## ###########################7@ Adultery $2002+############################################################################ ################################################################################## #7@ )oncubinage $199@+ ################################################################################## #####################################################################7@ )oncubinage $2002+ ################################################################################## #####################################################################7< 'n9ust Ve ation (s# Act o* Lasci(iousness $200;+############################################################################ ###################################7< ).IDE% A7AIB%/ /EE )IVIL %/A/'% 23 "E.%2B%########################################################7< 1iga&y $199@+############################################################################ ################################################################################## ##7< 1iga&y $199;+############################################################################ ################################################################################## ##7< 1iga&y $200@+############################################################################ ################################################################################## ##7< 1iga&y= "rescri,ti(e "eriod $199<+############################################################################ #######################################################7; %i&ulation o* 1irt5 ? )5ild /ra**ic0ing $2002+ ################################################################################## ###################################7; ).IDE% A7AIB%/ E2B2.############################################################################# ############################7; Libel $2002+############################################################################ ################################################################################## ######7; Libel $2003+############################################################################ ################################################################################## ######7; Libel $200<+############################################################################ ##################################################################################

######77 %lander $19AA+ ################################################################################## #############################################################################77 %lander $199;+ ################################################################################## #############################################################################77 %lander by -eed (s# Daltreat&ent $199@ +########################################################################### ##############################################77 %lander (s# )ri&inal )on(ersation $200@+ ################################################################################## #######################################77 DI%)ELLABE2'%##################################################################### ####################################################7A )or,us -elicti $2001+ ################################################################################## ####################################################################7A )or,us -elicti= -e*inition ? Ele&ents $2000+ ################################################################################## ###################################7A Entra,&ent (s# Instigation $199<+ ################################################################################## ###################################################7A Entra,&ent (s# Instigation $2003+ ################################################################################## ###################################################7A %"E)IAL "EBAL LA4%############################################################################## #################################79 Anti-)arna,,ing Act= )arna,,ing !H Eo&icide $199A+ ################################################################################## ######################79 Anti-7ra*t ? )orru,t "ractices - .A 3019 $1997+ ################################################################################## ##############################79 Anti-EaJing la! – .A A0@9 $2002+############################################################################ ########################################################A0 )EIL- A1'%E= .A 7;10 $200@+ ################################################################################## ####################################################A0 )5ild Abuse= .A 7;10 $200;+############################################################################ ###############################################################A0 -angerous -rug Act: "lea-1argaining $200<+ ################################################################################## ##################################A0 -angerous -rugs Act $199A+############################################################################ ################################################################A0 -angerous -rugs Act $200;+############################################################################ ################################################################A1 -angerous -rugs Act $;@2<+= Dar0ed Doney $2000+############################################################################ ##############################A1 -angerous -rugs Act $;@2<+= "lea 1argaining $199A+ ################################################################################## ######################A1 -angerous -rugs Act= )onsu&&ation o* %ale $199;+############################################################################ #############################A2 -angerous -rugs Act= )ri&inal Intent to "osses $2002+############################################################################ ##########################A2 -angerous -rugs Act= "lea-1argaining

$200@+############################################################################ #######################################A2 Eig5!ay .obbery $2001+ ################################################################################## ###############################################################A2 Illegal 3is5ing - "- 70@ $199;+ ################################################################################## #######################################################A2 Illegal "ossession o* 3irear&s – .A A29@ $199A+ ################################################################################## #############################A3 Illegal "ossession o* 3irear&s ? A&&unitions $2000+ ################################################################################## ######################A3 "- @; ? .A ;713 ? Indirect 1ribery $200;+ ################################################################################## #####################################A3 "- @; $199@+############################################################################ ################################################################################## ####A3 "- @; $1997+############################################################################ ################################################################################## ####A@ )ri&inal La! 1ar E a&ination 8 ? A $199@-200;+ 9 o* A; "lunder under .A 70A0= "rescri,ti(e "eriod $1993+############################################################################ ################################A@ .#A# Bo# 91;0 Anti-Doney Laundering Act $200<+ ################################################################################## ############################A@ .a 3019= "re(enti(e %us,ension $1999+ ################################################################################## #########################################A@ .A 3019= "re(enti(e %us,ension $2000+############################################################################ ###############################################A@ .A 3019= "ublic 2**icer $2003+############################################################################ #############################################################A< .a ;713= )o(erage $2001+ ################################################################################## ############################################################A< .A 7@3A-Econo&ic %abotage= Illegal .ecruit&ent $200@+ ################################################################################## #################A< .A 7;10 – )5ild E ,loitation $200;+ ################################################################################## ###############################################A; )ri&inal La! 1ar E a&ination 8 ? A $199@-200;+ 7EBE.AL ".IB)I"LE% 7eneral "rinci,les= %c5ools o* t5oug5t in )ri&inal La! $199;+ 1K 45at are t5e di**erent sc5ools o* t5oug5t or t5eories in )ri&inal La! and describe eac5 brie*ly# 2+ /o !5at t5eory does our .e(ised "enal )ode belongL %'77E%/E- AB%4E.: 1 /5ere are t!o sc5ools o* t5oug5t in )ri&inal La!6 and t5ese are $a+ t5e )LA%%I)AL /EE2.>6 !5ic5 si&,ly &eans t5at t5e basis o* cri&inal liabilities is 5u&an *ree !ill6 and t5e ,ur,ose o* t5e ,enalty is retribution !5ic5 &ust be ,ro,ortional to t5e gra(ity o* t5e o**ense= and $b+ t5e "2%I/IVI%/ /EE2.>6 !5ic5 considers &an as a social being and 5is acts are attributable not 9ust to 5is !ill but to ot5er *orces o* society# As suc56 ,unis5&ent is not t5e solution6 as 5e is not entirely to be bla&ed= la! and 9uris,rudence s5ould not be t5e yardstic0 in t5e i&,osition o* sanction6 instead t5e underlying reasons !ould be inGuired into# 2 4e *ollo! t5e classical sc5ool o* t5oug5t alt5oug5 so&e ,ro(isions o*

e&inently ,ositi(ist in tendencies6 li0e ,unis5&ent o* i&,ossible cri&e6 Ju(enile circu&stances6 are incor,orated in our )ode# 7eneral "rinci,les= /erritoriality $199@+ Abe6 &arried to LiJa6 contracted anot5er &arriage !it5 )onnie in %inga,ore# /5erea*ter6 Abe and )onnie returned to t5e "5ili,,ines and li(ed as 5usband and !i*e in t5e 5o&eto!n o* Abe in )ala&ba6 Laguna# 1+ )an Abe be ,rosecuted *or biga&yL %'77E%/E- AB%4E.: 1+ Bo6 Abe &ay not be ,rosecuted *or biga&y since t5e biga&ous &arriage !as contracted or sole&niJed in %inga,ore6 5ence suc5 (iolation is not one o* t5ose !5ere t5e .e(ised "enal )ode6 under Art# 2 t5ereo*6 &ay be a,,lied e traterritorially# /5e general rule on territoriality o* cri&inal la! go(erns t5e situation# 7eneral "rinci,les= /erritoriality= Jurisdiction o(er Vessel $2000+ A*ter drin0ing one $1+ case o* %an Diguel beer and ta0ing t!o ,lates o* M,ulutanM6 1inoy6 a 3ili,ino sea&an6 stabbed to deat5 %io Dy6 a %inga,orean sea&an6 aboard DHV M"rincess o* t5e "aci*icM6 an o(erseas (essel !5ic5 !as sailing in t5e %out5 )5ina %ea# /5e (essel6 alt5oug5 "ana&anian registered6 is o!ned by Lucio %y6 a ric5 3ili,ino business&an# 45en DHV M"rincess o* t5e "aci*icM reac5ed a "5ili,,ine "ort at )ebu )ity6 t5e )a,tain o* t5e (essel turned o(er t5e assailant 1inoy to t5e "5ili,,ine aut5orities# An in*or&ation *or 5o&icide !as *iled against 1inoy in t5e .egional /rial )ourt o* )ebu )ity# Ee &o(ed to Guas5 t5e in*or&ation *or lac0 o* 9urisdiction# I* you !ere t5e Judge6 !ill you grant t5e &otionL 45yL $<N+ %'77E%/E- AB%4E.: 10 o* A; >es6 t5e Dotion to 8uas5 t5e In*or&ation s5ould be granted# /5e "5ili,,ine court 5as no 9urisdiction o(er t5e cri&e co&&itted since it !as co&&itted on t5e 5ig5 seas or outside o* "5ili,,ine territory and on board a (essel not registered or licensed in t5e "5ili,,ines $'% (s# 3o!ler6 1 "5il ;1@+ It is t5e registration o* t5e (essel in accordance !it5 t5e la!s o* t5e "5ili,,ines6 not t5e citiJens5i, o* 5er o!ner6 !5ic5 &a0es it a "5ili,,ine s5i,# /5e (essel being registered in "ana&a6 t5e la!s o* "ana&a go(ern !5ile it is in t5e 5ig5 seas# 'se o* Aliases= 45en Allo!ed $200;+ 45en can a 3ili,ino citiJen residing in t5is country use an alias legallyL 7i(e 3 instances# $2#<N+ %'77E%/E- AB%4E.: 1 "seudony& *or literary ,ur,oses# 2 'se o* aliases in cine&a and tele(ision entertain&ent# 3 In at5letics and s,orts acti(ities $.A# ;0A<+# @ 'nder t5e !itness ,rotection ,rogra& a ,erson &ay ado,t a di**erent identity $.A# ;9A1+# < 45en 5e 5as been ba,tiJed or custo&arily 0no!n by suc5 alias# ; 45en aut5oriJed by a co&,etent court $)A# Bo# 1@26 as a&ended by .A# ;0A<+# 7 45en ,ro,erly indicated in a )erti*icate o* )andidacy $2&nibus Election )ode+# 3EL2BIE% )ons,iracy $1997+ A 5ad a grudge against 3# -eciding to 0ill 36 A and 5is *riends6 16 )6 and -6 ar&ed t5e&sel(es !it5 0ni(es and ,roceeded to t5e 5ouse o* 36 ta0ing a ta icab *or t5e ,ur,ose# About 20 &eters *ro& t5eir destination6 t5e grou, alig5ted and a*ter instructing E6 t5e dri(er6 to !ait6 tra(eled on *oot to t5e 5ouse o* 3# 1 ,ositioned 5i&sel* at a distance as t5e grou,Is loo0out# ) and - stood guard outside t5e 5ouse# 1e*ore A could enter t5e 5ouse6 - le*t t5e scene !it5out t5e 0no!ledge o* t5e ot5ers# A stealt5ily entered t5e 5ouse and stabbed 3# 3 ran to t5e street but !as bloc0ed by )6 *orcing 5i& to *lee to!ards anot5er direction#

I&&ediately a*ter A 5ad stabbed 36 A also stabbed 7 !5o !as (isiting 3# /5erea*ter6 A e iled *ro& t5e 5ouse and6 toget5er !it5 1 and )6 returned to t5e !aiting ta icab and &otored a!ay# 7 died# 3 sur(i(ed# 45o are liable *or t5e deat5 o* 7 and t5e ,5ysical in9uries o* 3L %'77E%/E- AB%4E.: A alone s5ould be 5eld liable *or t5e deat5 o* 7# /5e ob9ect o* t5e cons,iracy o* A# 16 )6 and - !as to 0ill 3 only# %ince 16 )6 and - did not 0no! o* t5e stabbing o* 7 by A6 t5ey cannot be 5eld cri&inally t5ere*or# E6 t5e dri(er6 cannot be also 5eld liable *or t5e deat5 o* 7 since t5e *or&er !as co&,letely una!are o* said 0illing# )ri&inal La! 1ar E a&ination 8 ? A $199@-200;+ 3or t5e ,5ysical in9uries o* 36 A6 1 and )# s5ould be 5eld liable t5ere*ore# E(en i* it !as only A !5o actually stabbed and caused ,5ysical in9uries to 76 1 and ) are nonet5eless liable *or cons,iring !it5 A and *or contributing ,ositi(e acts !5ic5 led to t5e realiJation o* a co&&on cri&inal intent# 1 ,ositioned 5i&sel* as a loo0out6 !5ile ) bloc0ed 3Is esca,e# -6 5o!e(er6 alt5oug5 ,art o* t5e cons,iracy6 cannot be 5eld liable because 5e le*t t5e scene be*ore A could enter t5e 5ouse !5ere t5e stabbing occurred# Alt5oug5 5e !as earlier ,art o* t5e cons,iracy6 5e did not ,ersonally ,artici,ate in t5e e ecution o* t5e cri&e by acts !5ic5 directly tended to!ard t5e sa&e end $"eo,le (s# /o&oro6 et al @@ "5il# 3A+6 In t5e sa&e breat56 E6 t5e dri(er6 cannot be also 5eld liable *or t5e in*liction o* ,5ysical in9uries u,on 3 because t5ere is no s5o!ing t5at 5e 5ad 0no!ledge o* t5e ,lan to 0ill 3# )ons,iracy= A(oidance o* 7reater E(il $200@+ 11 and ))6 bot5 ar&ed !it5 0ni(es6 attac0ed 3/# /5e (icti&Is son6 %/6 u,on seeing t5e attac06 dre! 5is gun but !as ,re(ented *ro& s5ooting t5e attac0ers by AA6 !5o gra,,led !it5 5i& *or ,ossession o* t5e gun# 3/ died *ro& 0ni*e !ounds# AA6 11 and )) !ere c5arged !it5 &urder# In 5is de*ense6 AA in(o0ed t5e 9usti*ying circu&stance o* a(oidance o* greater e(il or in9ury6 contending t5at by ,re(enting %/ *ro& s5ooting 11 and ))6 5e &erely a(oided a greater e(il# 4ill AAIs de*ense ,ros,erL .eason brie*ly# $<N+ %'77E%/E- AB%4E.: Bo6 AAIs de*ense !ill not ,ros,er because ob(iously t5ere !as a cons,iracy a&ong 116 )) and AA6 suc5 t5at t5e ,rinci,le t5at !5en t5ere is a cons,iracy6 t5e act o* one is t5e act o* all6 s5all go(ern# /5e act o* %/6 t5e (icti&Is son6 a,,ears to be a legiti&ate de*ense o* relati(es= 5ence6 9usti*ied as a de*ense o* 5is *at5er against t5e unla!*ul aggression by 11 and ))# %/Is act to de*end 5is *at5erIs li*e6 cannot be regarded as an e(il inas&uc5 as it is6 in t5e eyes o* t5e la!6 a la!*ul act# 45at AA did !as to sto, a la!*ul de*ense6 not greater e(il6 to allo! 11 and )) ac5ie(e t5eir cri&inal ob9ecti(e o* stabbing 3/# )ons,iracy= )o-)ons,irator $199A+ Juan and Arturo de(ised a ,lan to &urder Joel# In a narro! alley near JoelIs 5ouse6 Juan !ill 5ide be5ind t5e big la&,,ost and s5oot Joel !5en t5e latter ,asses t5roug5 on 5is !ay to !or0# Arturo !ill co&e *ro& t5e ot5er end o* t5e alley and si&ultaneously s5oot Joel *ro& be5ind# 2n t5e a,,ointed day6 Arturo !as a,,re5ended by t5e aut5orities be*ore reac5ing t5e alley# 45en Juan s5ot Joel as ,lanned6 5e !as una!are t5at Arturo !as arrested earlier# -iscuss t5e cri&inal liability o* Arturo6 i* any# O<NP %'77E%/E- AB%4E.: 11 o* A; Arturo6 being one o* t5e t!o !5o de(ised t5e ,lan to &urder Joel6 t5ereby beco&es a co-,rinci,al by direct cons,iracy# 45at is needed only is an o(ert act and bot5 !ill incur cri&inal liability# ArturoIs liability as a cons,irator arose *ro& 5is ,artici,ation in 9ointly de(ising t5e cri&inal ,lan !it5 Juan6 to 0ill Jose# And it !as ,ursuant to t5at cons,iracy t5at Juan 0illed Joel# /5e cons,iracy 5ere is actual6 not by in*erence only# /5e o(ert act !as done ,ursuant to t5at cons,iracy

!5ereo* Arturo is co-cons,irator# /5ere being a cons,iracy6 t5e act o* one is t5e act o* all# Arturo6 t5ere*ore6 s5ould be liable as a co-cons,irator but t5e ,enalty on 5i& &ay be t5at o* an acco&,lice only $"eo,le (s# Bierra6 9; %).A 1= "eo,le us# Dedrano6 11@ %).A 33<+ because 5e !as not able to actually ,artici,ate in t5e s5ooting o* Joel6 5a(ing been a,,re5ended be*ore reac5ing t5e ,lace !5ere t5e cri&e !as co&&itted# AL/E.BA/IVE AB%4E.: Arturo is not liable because 5e !as not able to ,artici,ate in t5e 0illing o* Joel# )ons,iracy itsel* is not ,unis5able unless e ,ressly ,ro(ided by la! and t5is is not true in t5e case o* Durder# A co-cons,irator &ust ,er*or& an o(ert act ,ursuant to t5e cons,iracy# )ons,iracy= )o&&on 3elonious "ur,ose $199@+ At about 9:30 in t5e e(ening6 !5ile -ino and .a**y !ere !al0ing along "adre 3aura %treet6 Danila# Jo5nny 5it t5e& !it5 a roc0 in9uring -ino at t5e bac0# .a**y a,,roac5ed -ino6 but suddenly6 1obby6 %te(e6 -anny and Bonoy surrounded t5e duo# /5en 1obby stabbed -ino# %te(e6 -anny6 Bonoy and Jo5nny 0e,t on 5itting -ino and .a**y !it5 roc0s# As a result# -ino died6 1obby6 %te(e6 -anny6 Bonoy and Jo5nny !ere c5arged !it5 5o&icide# Is t5ere cons,iracy in t5is caseL %'77E%/E- AB%4E.: >es6 t5ere is cons,iracy a&ong t5e o**enders6 as &ani*ested by t5eir concerted actions against t5e (icti&s6 de&onstrating a co&&on *elonious ,ur,ose o* assaulting t5e (icti&s# /5e e istence o* t5e cons,iracy can be in*erred or deduced *ro& t5e &anner t5e o**enders acted in co&&only attac0ing -ino and .a**y !it5 roc0s6 t5ereby de&onstrating a unity o* cri&inal design to in*lict 5ar& on t5eir (icti&s# )ons,iracy= )o&,le )ri&e !it5 .a,e $199;+ Jose6 -o&ingo6 Danolo6 and 3ernando6 ar&ed !it5 bolos6 at about one oIcloc0 in t5e &orning6 robbed a 5ouse at a desolate ,lace !5ere -anilo6 5is !i*e6 and t5ree daug5ters !ere li(ing# 45ile t5e *our !ere in t5e ,rocess o* ransac0ing -aniloIs 5ouse6 3ernando6 noticing t5at one o* -aniloIs daug5ters !as trying to get a!ay6 ran a*ter 5er and *inally caug5t u, !it5 5er in a t5ic0et so&e!5at distant *ro& t5e 5ouse# 3ernando6 be*ore bringing bac0 t5e daug5ter to t5e 5ouse6 ra,ed 5er *irst# /5erea*ter6 t5e *our carted a!ay t5e belongings o* -anilo and 5is *a&ily# a+ 45at cri&e did Jose6 -o&ingo6 Danolo and 3ernando co&&itL E ,lain# )ri&inal La! 1ar E a&ination 8 ? A $199@-200;+ b+ %u,,ose6 a*ter t5e robbery6 t5e *our too0 turns in ra,ing t5e t5ree daug5ters o* -anilo inside t5e latterIs 5ouse6 but be*ore t5ey le*t6 t5ey 0illed t5e !5ole *a&ily to ,re(ent identi*ication6 !5at cri&e did t5e *our co&&itL E ,lain# %'77E%/E- AB%4E.: $a+ Jose6 -o&ingo6 and Danolo co&&itted .obbery6 !5ile 3ernando co&&itted co&,le cri&e o* .obbery !it5 .a,e6 )ons,iracy can be in*erred *ro& t5e &anner t5e o**enders co&&itted t5e robbery but t5e ra,e !as co&&itted by 3ernando at a ,lace Mdistant *ro& t5e 5ouseM !5ere t5e robbery !as co&&itted6 not in t5e ,resence o* t5e ot5er cons,irators# Eence6 3ernando alone s5ould ans!er *or t5e ra,e6 rendering 5i& liable *or t5e s,ecial co&,le cri&e# $"eo,le (s# )anturia et# al6 7#.# 10A@906 22 June 199<K b+ /5e cri&e !ould be .obbery !it5 Eo&icide ### $i&,lied: t5ere is still cons,iracy+ )ons,iracy= 3lig5t to E(ade A,,re5ension $2003+ A and 16 bot5 store 9anitors6 ,lanned to 0ill t5eir e&,loyer ) at &idnig5t and ta0e t5e &oney 0e,t in t5e cas5 register# A and 1 toget5er dre! t5e s0etc5 o* t5e store6 !5ere t5ey 0ne! ) !ould be slee,ing6 and ,lanned t5e seGuence o* t5eir attac0# %5ortly be*ore &idnig5t6 A and 1 !ere ready to carry out t5e ,lan# 45en A !as about to li*t )Is &osGuito net to t5rust 5is dagger6 a ,olice car !it5 sirens blaring ,assed by# %cared6 1 ran out o* t5e store and *led6 !5ile A !ent on to stab ) to deat56 ,ut t5e &oney in t5e bag6 and ran outside to loo0 *or 1# /5e

latter !as no!5ere in sig5t# 'n0no!n to 5i&6 1 5ad already le*t t5e ,lace# 45at !as t5e ,artici,ation and corres,onding cri&inal liability o* eac56 i* anyL .easons# AN %'77E%/E- AB%4E.: /5ere !as an e ,ressed cons,iracy bet!een A and 1 to 0ill ) and ta0e t5e latterIs &oney# /5e ,lanned 0illing and ta0ing o* t5e &oney a,,ears to be inti&ately related as co&,onent cri&es6 5ence a s,ecial co&,le cri&e o* robbery !it5 5o&icide# /5e cons,iracy being e ,ressed6 not 9ust i&,lied6 A and 1 are bound as co-cons,irators a*ter t5ey 5a(e ,lanned and agreed on t5e seGuence o* t5eir attac0 e(en be*ore t5ey co&&itted t5e cri&e# /5ere*ore6 t5e ,rinci,le in la! t5at !5en t5ere is a cons,iracy6 t5e act o* one is t5e act o* all6 already go(erns t5e&# In *act6 A and 1 !ere already in t5e store to carry out t5eir cri&inal ,lan# /5at 1 ran out o* t5e store and *led u,on 5earing t5e sirens o* t5e ,olice car6 is not s,ontaneous desistance but *lig5t to e(ade a,,re5ension# It !ould be di**erent i* 1 t5en tried to sto, A *ro& continuing !it5 t5e co&&ission o* t5e cri&e= 5e did not# %o t5e act o* A in ,ursuing t5e co&&ission o* t5e cri&e !5ic5 bot5 5e and 1 designed6 ,lanned6 and co&&enced to co&&it6 !ould also be t5e act o* 1 because o* t5eir e ,ressed cons,iracy# 1ot5 are liable *or t5e co&,osite cri&e o* robbery !it5 5o&icide# AL/E.BA/IVE AB%4E.: 12 o* A; A s5all incur *ull cri&inal liability *or t5e cri&e o* robbery !it5 5o&icide6 but 1 s5all not incur cri&inal liability because 5e desisted# 1Is s,ontaneous desistance6 &ade be*ore all acts o* e ecution are ,er*or&ed6 is e cul,atory# )ons,iracy to rob and 0ill is not ,er se ,unis5able# /5e desistance need not be actuated by re&orse or good &oti(e# It is enoug5 t5at t5e discontinuance co&es *ro& t5e ,erson !5o 5as begun t5e co&&ission o* t5e cri&e but be*ore all acts o* e ecution are ,er*or&ed# A ,erson !5o 5as began t5e co&&ission o* a cri&e but desisted6 is absol(ed *ro& cri&inal liability as a re!ard to one6 !5o 5a(ing set *oot on t5e (erge o* cri&e6 5eeds t5e call o* 5is conscience and returns to t5e ,at5 o* rig5teousness# )ons,iracy= 3lig5t to E(ade A,,re5ension $2003+ A and 16 bot5 store 9anitors6 ,lanned to 0ill t5eir e&,loyer ) at &idnig5t and ta0e t5e &oney 0e,t in t5e cas5 register# A and 1 toget5er dre! t5e s0etc5 o* t5e store6 !5ere t5ey 0ne! ) !ould be slee,ing6 and ,lanned t5e seGuence o* t5eir attac0# %5ortly be*ore &idnig5t6 A and 1 !ere ready to carry out t5e ,lan# 45en A !as about to li*t )Is &osGuito net to t5rust 5is dagger6 a ,olice car !it5 sirens blaring ,assed by# %cared6 1 ran out o* t5e store and *led6 !5ile A !ent on to stab ) to deat56 ,ut t5e &oney in t5e bag6 and ran outside to loo0 *or 1# /5e latter !as no!5ere in sig5t# 'n0no!n to 5i&6 1 5ad already le*t t5e ,lace# 45at !as t5e ,artici,ation and corres,onding cri&inal liability o* eac56 i* anyL .easons# AN %'77E%/E- AB%4E.: /5ere !as an e ,ressed cons,iracy bet!een A and 1 to 0ill ) and ta0e t5e latterIs &oney# /5e ,lanned 0illing and ta0ing o* t5e &oney a,,ears to be inti&ately related as co&,onent cri&es6 5ence a s,ecial co&,le cri&e o* robbery !it5 5o&icide# /5e cons,iracy being e ,ressed6 not 9ust i&,lied6 A and 1 are bound as co-cons,irators a*ter t5ey 5a(e ,lanned and agreed on t5e seGuence o* t5eir attac0 e(en be*ore t5ey co&&itted t5e cri&e# /5ere*ore6 t5e ,rinci,le in la! t5at !5en t5ere is a cons,iracy6 t5e act o* one is t5e act o* all6 already go(erns t5e&# In *act6 A and 1 !ere already in t5e store to carry out t5eir cri&inal ,lan# /5at 1 ran out o* t5e store and *led u,on 5earing t5e sirens o* t5e ,olice car6 is not s,ontaneous desistance but *lig5t to e(ade a,,re5ension# It !ould be di**erent i* 1 t5en tried to sto, A *ro& continuing !it5 t5e co&&ission o* t5e cri&e= 5e did not# %o t5e act o* A in ,ursuing t5e co&&ission o* t5e cri&e !5ic5 bot5 5e and 1 designed6 ,lanned6 and co&&enced to co&&it6 !ould also be t5e act o* 1 because o* t5eir e ,ressed cons,iracy# 1ot5 are liable *or t5e co&,osite cri&e o* robbery !it5 5o&icide#

AL/E.BA/IVE AB%4E.: A s5all incur *ull cri&inal liability *or t5e cri&e o* robbery !it5 5o&icide6 but 1 s5all not incur cri&inal liability because 5e desisted# 1Is s,ontaneous desistance6 &ade be*ore all acts o* e ecution are ,er*or&ed6 is )ri&inal La! 1ar E a&ination 8 ? A $199@-200;+ e cul,atory# )ons,iracy to rob and 0ill is not ,er se ,unis5able# /5e desistance need not be actuated by re&orse or good &oti(e# It is enoug5 t5at t5e discontinuance co&es *ro& t5e ,erson !5o 5as begun t5e co&&ission o* t5e cri&e but be*ore all acts o* e ecution are ,er*or&ed# A ,erson !5o 5as began t5e co&&ission o* a cri&e but desisted6 is absol(ed *ro& cri&inal liability as a re!ard to one6 !5o 5a(ing set *oot on t5e (erge o* cri&e6 5eeds t5e call o* 5is conscience and returns to t5e ,at5 o* rig5teousness# )ons,iracy= I&,lied )ons,iracy $199A+ 45at is t5e doctrine o* i&,lied cons,iracyL O3NP %'77E%/E- AB%4E.: /5e doctrine o* i&,lied cons,iracy 5olds t!o or &ore ,ersons ,artici,ating in t5e co&&ission o* a cri&e collecti(ely res,onsible and liable as co-cons,irators alt5oug5 absent any agree&ent to t5at e**ect6 !5en t5ey act in concert6 de&onstrating unity o* cri&inal intent and a co&&on ,ur,ose or ob9ecti(e# /5e e istence o* a cons,iracy s5all be in*erred or deduced *ro& t5eir cri&inal ,artici,ation in ,ursuing t5e cri&e and t5us t5e act o* one s5all be dee&ed t5e act o* all# )ons,iracy= I&,lied )ons,iracy= E**ects $2003+ %tate t5e conce,t o* Mi&,lied cons,iracyM and gi(e its legal e**ects# @N %'77E%/E- AB%4E.: An MID"LIE- )2B%"I.A)>M is one !5ic5 is only in*erred or deduced *ro& t5e &anner t5e ,artici,ants in t5e co&&ission o* cri&e carried out its e ecution# 45ere t5e o**enders acted in concert in t5e co&&ission o* t5e cri&e6 &eaning t5at t5eir acts are coordinated or sync5roniJed in a !ay indicati(e t5at t5ey are ,ursuing a co&&on cri&inal ob9ecti(e6 t5ey s5all be dee&ed to be acting in cons,iracy and t5eir cri&inal liability s5all be collecti(e6 not indi(idual# /5e legal e**ects o* an Mi&,lied cons,iracyM are: a+ Bot all t5ose !5o are ,resent at t5e scene o* t5e cri&e !ill be considered cons,irators= b+ 2nly t5ose !5o ,artici,ated by cri&inal acts in t5e co&&ission o* t5e cri&e !ill be considered as coQ cons,irators= and c+ Dere acGuiescence to or a,,ro(al o* t5e co&&ission o* t5e cri&e6 !it5out any act o* cri&inal ,artici,ation6 s5all not render one cri&inally liable as co-cons,irator# )ri&inal Liability: -estructi(e Arson $2000+ A6 16 ) and -6 all ar&ed !it5 ar&alites6 ,roceeded to t5e 5ouse o* C# >6 a neig5bor o* C6 !5o 5a,,ened to be ,assing by6 ,ointed to t5e *our cul,rits t5e roo& t5at C occu,ied# /5e *our cul,rits ,e,,ered t5e roo& !it5 bullets# 'nsatis*ied6 A e(en t5re! a 5and grenade t5at totally destroyed CIs roo&# Eo!e(er6 un0no!n to t5e *our cul,rits6 C !as not inside t5e roo& and nobody !as 5it or in9ured during t5e Incident# Are A6 16 ) and - liable *or any cri&eL E ,lain# $3N+ 13 o* A; %'77E%/E- AB%4E.: >es# A6 1# ) and - are liable *or destructi(e arson because o* t5e destruction o* t5e roo& o* C !it5 t5e use o* an e ,losi(e6 t5e 5and grenade# Liability *or an i&,ossible cri&e is to be i&,osed only i* t5e act co&&itted !ould not constitute any ot5er cri&e under t5e .e(ised "enal )ode# Alt5oug5 t5e *acts in(ol(ed are ,arallel to t5e case o* Intod (s# )ourt o* A,,eals $21< %).A <2+6 !5ere it !as ruled t5at t5e liability o* t5e o**ender !as *or an i&,ossible cri&e6 no 5and grenade !as used in said case6 !5ic5 constitutes a &ore serious cri&e t5oug5 di**erent *ro& !5at !as intended6

)ri&inal Liability: 3elonious Act o* %caring $199;+ Ale ander6 an esca,ed con(ict6 ran a&uc0 on board a %u,erlines 1us bound *or Danila *ro& 1icol and 0illed ten $10+ ,ersons# /erri*ied by t5e incident6 )arol and 1en9a&in !5o are ,assengers o* t5e bus6 9u&,ed out o* t5e !indo! and !5ile lying unconscious a*ter 5itting t5e ,a(e&ent o* t5e road6 !ere ran o(er and crus5ed to deat5 by a *ast &o(ing -esert 3o bus tailing t5e %u,erlines 1us# )an Ale ander be 5eld liable *or t5e deat5 o* )arol and 1en9a&in alt5oug5 5e !as co&,letely una!are t5at t5e t!o 9u&,ed out o* t5e busL E ,lain# %'77E%/E- AB%4E.: >es6 Ale ander can be 5eld liable *or t5e deat5 o* )arol and 1en9a&in because o* *elonious act o* running !as t5e ,ro i&ate cause o* t5e (icti&Is deat5# /5e rule is t5at !5en a ,erson6 by a *elonious act6 generates in t5e &ind o* anot5er a sense o* i&&inent danger6 ,ro&,ting t5e latter to esca,e *ro& or a(oid suc5 danger and in t5e ,rocess6 sustains in9uries or dies6 t5e ,erson co&&itting t5e *elonious act is res,onsible *or suc5 in9uries or deat5# $'% (s# ValdeJ6 @1 "5il6 1@97= "eo,le (s# A,ra6 27 %).A 1037#+ )ri&inal Liability: 3elonious Act= "ro i&ate )ause $199;+ Vicente 5ac0ed Anacleto !it5 a bolo but t5e latter !as able to ,arry it !it5 5is 5and6 causing u,on 5i& a t!o-inc5 !ound on 5is rig5t ,al&# Vicente !as not able to 5ac0 Anacleto *urt5er because t5ree ,olice&en arri(ed and t5reatened to s5oot Vicente i* 5e did not dro, 5is bolo# Vicente !as accordingly c5arged by t5e ,olice at t5e ,rosecutorIs o**ice *or atte&,ted 5o&icide# /!enty-*i(e days later6 !5ile t5e ,reli&inary in(estigation !as in ,rogress6 Anacleto !as rus5ed to t5e 5os,ital because o* sy&,to&s o* tetanus in*ection on t5e t!o-inc5 !ound in*licted by Vicente# Anacleto died t5e *ollo!ing day# )an Vicente be e(entually c5arged !it5 5o&icide *or t5e deat5 o* AnacletoL E ,lain# %'77E%/E- AB%4E.: >es6 Vicente &ay be c5arged o* 5o&icide *or t5e deat5 o* Anacleto6 unless t5e tetanus in*ection !5ic5 de(elo,ed t!enty *i(e days later6 !as broug5t about by an e**icient su,er(ening cause# VicenteIs *elonious act o* causing a t!o-inc5 !ound on AnacletoIs rig5t ,al& &ay still be regarded as t5e ,ro i&ate cause o* t5e latterIs deat5 because !it5out suc5 !ound6 no tetanus in*ection could de(elo, *ro& t5e (icti&Is rig5t ,al&6 and !it5out )ri&inal La! 1ar E a&ination 8 ? A $199@-200;+ suc5 tetanus in*ection t5e (icti& !ould not 5a(e died !it5 it# )ri&inal Liability: I&,ossible )ri&es $2000+ 45at is an i&,ossible cri&eL $2N+ Is an i&,ossible cri&e really a cri&eL $2N+ %'77E%/E- AB%4E.: 1 An i&,ossible cri&e is an act !5ic5 !ould be an o**ense against ,erson or ,ro,erty6 !ere i* not *or t5e in5erent i&,ossibility o* its acco&,lis5&ent or on account o* t5e e&,loy&ent o* inadeGuate or ine**ectual &eans $Art# @6 ,ar# 26 .")+ 2 Bo6 an i&,ossible cri&e is not really a cri&e# It is only so-called because t5e act gi(es rise to cri&inal liability# 1ut actually6 no *elony is co&&itted# /5e accused is to be ,unis5ed *or 5is cri&inal tendency or ,ro,ensity alt5oug5 no cri&e !as co&&itted# )ri&inal Liability= 3elonious Act o* %caring $2001+ Dary9ane 5ad t!o suitors - 3eli,e and )esar# %5e did not o,enly s5o! 5er ,re*erence but on t!o occasions6 acce,ted )esarIs in(itation to concerts by .egine and "o,s# 3eli,e !as a !or0ing student and could only as0 Dary to see a &o(ie !5ic5 !as declined# 3eli,e *elt insulted and &ade ,lans to get e(en !it5 )esar by scaring 5i& o** so&e5o!# 2ne day6 5e entered )esarIs roo& in t5eir boarding 5ouse and ,laced a rubber sna0e !5ic5 a,,eared to be real in )esarIs bac0,ac0# 1ecause )esar 5ad a !ea0 5eart6 5e su**ered a 5eart attac0 u,on o,ening 5is bac0,ac0 and seeing t5e sna0e# )esar died !it5out regaining consciousness# /5e ,olice

in(estigation resulted in ,in,ointing 3eli,e as t5e cul,rit and 5e !as c5arged !it5 Eo&icide *or )esarIs deat5# In 5is de*ense6 3eli,e clai&ed t5at 5e did not 0no! about )esarIs !ea0 5eart and t5at 5e only intended to ,lay a ,ractical 9o0e on )esar# Is 3eli,e liable *or t5e deat5 o* )esar or !ill 5is de*ense ,ros,erL 45yL $<NK %'77E%/E- AB%4E.: >es6 3eli,e is liable *or t5e deat5 o* )esar but 5e s5all be gi(en t5e bene*it o* t5e &itigating circu&stance t5at 5e did not intend to co&&it so gra(e a !rong as t5at !5ic5 !as co&&itted $Art# 136 ,ar# 36 .")+# 45en 3eli,e intruded into )esarIs roo& !it5out t5e latterIs consent and too0 liberty !it5 t5e letterIs bac0,ac0 !5ere 5e ,laced t5e rubber sna0e# 3eli,e !as already co&&itting a *elony# And any act done by 5i& !5ile co&&itting a *elony is no less !rong*ul6 considering t5at t5ey !ere ,art o* M,lans to get e(en !it5 )esarM# 3eli,eIs clai& t5at 5e intended only Mto ,lay a ,ractical 9o0e on )esarM does not ,ersuade6 considering t5at t5ey are not *riends but in *act ri(als in courting Dary9ane# /5is case is ,arallel to t5e case o* "eo,le (s# "ugay6 et al# AL/E.BA/IVE AB%4E.: Bo6 3eli,e is not liable because t5e act o* *rig5tening anot5er is not a cri&e# 45at 5e did &ay be !rong6 but not all !rongs a&ount to a cri&e# 1ecause t5e act !5ic5 1@ o* A; caused t5e deat5 o* )esar is not a cri&e6 no cri&inal liability &ay arise t5ere*ro&# )ri&inal Liability= 3elonious Act o* %caring $200<+ 1elle sa! 7aston stealing t5e ,riJed coc0 o* a neig5bor and re,orted 5i& to t5e ,olice# /5erea*ter6 7aston6 !5ile dri(ing a car sa! 1elle crossing t5e street# Incensed t5at 1elle 5ad re,orted 5i&6 7aston decided to scare 5er by trying to &a0e it a,,ear t5at 5e !as about to run 5er o(er# Ee re((ed t5e engine o* 5is car and dro(e to!ards 5er but 5e a,,lied t5e bra0es# %ince t5e road !as sli,,ery at t5at ti&e6 t5e (e5icle s0idded and 5it 1elle causing 5er deat5# 4as gaston cri&inally liableL 45at is t5e liability o* 7astonL 45yL $@N+ %'77E%/E- AB%4E.: >es6 7aston is liable *or 1elleIs deat5 because e(en t5oug5 7aston 5as no intent to 0ill 1elle rat5er 9ust to scare 1elle# M/o scareM does not indicate intent to 0ill# Eo!e(er6 under Art# @ o* t5e .e(ised "enal )ode6 ,ro(ides in ,art t5at cri&inal liability s5all be incurred by any ,erson co&&itting a *elony alt5oug5 t5e !rong*ul act done be di**erent *ro& t5at !5ic5 5e intended# In ot5er !ords6 t5e rule is t5at !5en a ,erson6 by a *elonious act6 generates in t5e &ind o* anot5er a sense o* i&&inent danger6 ,ro&,ting t5e latter to esca,e *ro& or a(oid suc5 danger and in t5e ,rocess6 sustains in9uries or dies6 t5e ,erson co&&itting t5e *elonious act is res,onsible *or suc5 in9uries or deat5# $'% (s# ValdeJ6 @1 "5il6 1@97= "eo,le (s# A,ra6 27 %).A 1037#+ AL/E.BA/IVE AB%4E.: >es6 7aston is liable *or 1elleIs deat5 because by 5is acts o* re((ing t5e engine o* 5is car and dri(ing to!ards 1elle is *elonious6 and suc5 *elonious act !as t5e ,ro i&ate cause o* t5e (e5icle to s0id and 5it 1elle6 resulting in t5e latterIs deat5# %tated ot5er!ise6 t5e deat5 o* 1elle !as t5e direct6 natural and logical conseGuence o* 7astonIs *elonious act# $"eo,le (# Ar,a6 27 %).A 1037+# )ri&inal Liability= 3elonious Act= I&&ediate )ause $2003+ /5e conduct o* !i*e A aroused t5e ire o* 5er 5usband 1# Incensed !it5 anger al&ost beyond 5is control6 1 could not 5el, but in*lict ,5ysical in9uries on A# Do&ents a*ter 1 started 5itting A !it5 5is *ists6 A suddenly co&,lained o* se(ere c5est ,ains# 16 realiJing t5at A !as indeed in serious trouble6 i&&ediately broug5t 5er to t5e 5os,ital# -es,ite e**orts to alle(iate AIs ,ains6 s5e died o* 5eart attac0# It turned out t5at s5e 5ad been su**ering *ro& a lingering 5eart ail&ent# 45at cri&e6 i* any6 could 1 be 5eld guilty o*L AN %'77E%/E- AB%4E.:

1 could be 5eld liable *or ,arricide because 5is act o* 5itting 5is !i*e !it5 *ist blo!s and t5ere!it5 in*licting ,5ysical in9uries on 5er6 is *elonious# A ,erson co&&itting a *elonious act incurs cri&inal liability alt5oug5 t5e !rong*ul conseGuence is di**erent *ro& !5at 5e intended $Art# @6 ,ar# 16 .e(ised "enal )ode+# )ri&inal La! 1ar E a&ination 8 ? A $199@-200;+ Alt5oug5 A died o* 5eart attac06 t5e said attac0 !as generated by 1Is *elonious act o* 5itting 5er !it5 5is *ists# %uc5 *elonious act !as t5e i&&ediate cause o* t5e 5eart attac06 5a(ing &aterially contributed to and 5astened AIs deat5# E(en t5oug5 1 &ay 5a(e acted !it5out intent to 0ill 5is !i*e6 lac0 o* suc5 intent is o* no &o&ent !5en t5e (icti& dies# Eo!e(er6 1 &ay be gi(en t5e &itigating circu&stance o* 5a(ing acted !it5out intention to co&&it so gra(e a !rong as t5at co&&itted $Art# 136 ,ar# 36 .e(ised "enal )ode+# )ri&inal Liability= 3elonious Act= "ro i&ate )ause $199@+ 15ey elo,ed !it5 %cott# 45ereu,on6 15eyIs *at5er6 .obin6 and brot5er6 .usto&6 !ent to %cottIs 5ouse# ',on reac5ing t5e 5ouse6 .usto& inGuired *ro& %cott about 5is sisterIs !5ereabouts6 !5ile .obin s5outed and t5reatened to 0ill %cott# /5e latter t5en !ent do!nstairs but .usto& 5eld 5is $%cottIs+ !aist# Dean!5ile 2li(e6 t5e elder sister o* %cott6 carrying 5er t!o-&ont5 old c5ild6 a,,roac5ed .usto& and %cott to ,aci*y t5e&# 2li(e atte&,ted to re&o(e .usto&Is 5and *ro& %cottIs !aist# 1ut .usto& ,ulled 2li(eIs 5and causing 5er to *all o(er 5er baby# /5e baby t5en died &o&ents later# Is .usto& cri&inally liable *or t5e deat5 o* t5e c5ildL %'77E%/E- AB%4E.: >es6 .usto& is cri&inally liable *or t5e deat5 o* t5e c5ild because 5is *elonious act !as t5e ,ro i&ate cause o* suc5 deat5# It !as .usto&Is act o* ,ulling 2li(eIs 5and !5ic5 caused t5e latter to *all on 5er baby# Ead It not been *or said act o* .usto&6 !5ic5 is undoubtedly *elonious $at least slig5t coercion+ t5ere !as no cause *or 2li(e to *all o(er 5er baby# In s5ort6 .usto&Is *elonious act is t5e cause o* t5e e(il caused# Any ,erson ,er*or&ing a *elonious act is cri&inally liable *or t5e direct6 natural and logical conseGuence t5ereo* alt5oug5 di**erent *ro& !5at 5e intended $Art# @6 ,ar# 16 .3)= "eo,le (s6 "ugay6 et al6 7. Bo# 7@32@6 Bo(# 1A6 19AA+# )ri&inal Liability= 3elonious Act= "ro i&ate )ause $1997+ 45ile t5e cre! o* a stea&er ,re,ared to raise anc5or at t5e "asig .i(er6 A6 e(idently i&,atient !it5 t5e ,rogress o* !or06 began to use abusi(e language against t5e &en# 16 one o* t5e &e&bers o* t5e cre!6 re&onstrated saying t5at t5ey could !or0 best i* t5ey !ere not insulted# A too0 1Is attitude as a dis,lay o* insubordination and6 rising in a rage6 &o(ed to!ards 1 !ielding a big 0ni*e and t5reatening to stab 1# At t5e instant !5en A !as only a *e! *eet *ro& 16 t5e latter6 a,,arently belie(ing 5i&sel* to be in great and i&&ediate ,eril6 t5re! 5i&sel* into t5e !ater6 disa,,eared beneat5 t5e sur*ace6 and dro!ned# Day A be 5eld cri&inally liable *or t5e deat5 o* 1L %'77E%/E- AB%4E.: >es# A can be 5eld cri&inally liable *or t5e deat5 o* 16 Article @ o* t5e .e(ised "enal )ode ,ro(ides in ,art t5at cri&inal liability s5all be incurred by any ,erson co&&itting a *elony alt5oug5 t5e !rong*ul act done be di**erent *ro& t5at !5ic5 5e intended# In '#%# (s# ValdeJ @1 "5il# @97# !5ere t5e (icti& !5o !as t5reatened by t5e accused !it5 a 0ni*e6 9u&,ed into t5e ri(er but because 1< o* A; o* t5e strong current or because 5e did not 0no! 5o! to s!i&6 5e dro!ned6 t5e %u,re&e )ourt a**ir&ed t5e con(iction *or 5o&icide o* t5e accused because6 i* a ,erson against !5o& a cri&inal assault is directed belie(es 5i&sel* to be in danger o* deat5 or great bodily 5ar& and in order to esca,e 9u&,s into t5e !ater6 i&,elled by t5e instinct o* sel*-,reser(ation6 t5e assailant is res,onsible *or t5e 5o&icide in case deat5 results by dro!ning# )ri&inal Liability= 3elonious Act= "ro i&ate )ause $1999+ -uring t5e robbery in a d!elling 5ouse6 one o* t5e cul,rits 5a,,ened to *ire 5is gun u,!ard in t5e ceiling !it5out &eaning to 0ill anyone# /5e o!ner o* t5e 5ouse

!5o !as 5iding t5ereat !as 5it and 0illed as a result# /5e de*ense t5eoriJed t5at t5e 0illing !as a &ere accident and !as not ,er,etrated in connection !it56 or *or ,ur,oses o*6 t5e robbery# 4ill you sustain t5e de*enseL 45yL $@N+ %'77E%/E- AB%4E.: Bo6 I !ill not sustain t5e de*ense# /5e act being *elonious and t5e ,ro i&ate cause o* t5e (icti&Is deat56 t5e o**ender is liable t5ere*ore alt5oug5 it &ay not be intended or di**erent *ro& !5at 5e intended# /5e o**ender s5all be ,rosecuted *or t5e co&,osite cri&e o* robbery !it5 5o&icide6 !5et5er t5e 0illing !as intentional or accidental6 as long as t5e 0illing !as on occasion o* t5e robbery# )ri&inal Liability= 3elonious Act= "ro i&ate )ause $2001+ Luis )ruJ !as dee,ly 5urt !5en 5is o**er o* lo(e !as re9ected by 5is girl*riend Dari(ella one a*ternoon !5en 5e (isited 5er# 45en 5e le*t 5er 5ouse6 5e !al0ed as i* 5e !as slee,!al0ing so &uc5 so t5at a teenage snatc5er !as able to grab 5is cell ,5one and *lee !it5out being c5ased by Luis# At t5e ne t L./ station6 5e boarded one o* t5e coac5es bound *or 1aclaran# 45ile seated6 5e 5a,,ened to read a ne!s,a,er le*t on t5e seat and noticed t5at t5e 5eadlines !ere about t5e sin0ing o* t5e %u,er 3erry !5ile on its !ay to )ebu# Ee !ent o(er t5e list o* &issing ,assengers !5o !ere ,resu&ed dead and ca&e across t5e na&e o* 5is grand*at5er !5o 5ad raised 5i& *ro& c5ild5ood a*ter 5e !as or,5aned# Ee !as s5oc0ed and 5is &ind !ent blan0 *or a *e! &inutes6 a*ter !5ic5 5e ran a&uc0 and6 using 5is balisong6 started stabbing at t5e ,assengers !5o t5en sca&,ered a!ay6 !it5 t5ree o* t5e& Ju&,ing out o* t5e train and landing on t5e road belo!# All t5e t5ree ,assengers died later o* t5eir in9uries at t5e 5os,ital# Is Luis liable *or t5e deat5 o* t5e t5ree ,assengers !5o 9u&,ed out o* t5e &o(ing trainL %tate your reasons# $<N+ %'77E%/E- AB%4E.: >es6 Luis is liable *or t5eir deat5s because 5e !as co&&itting a *elony !5en 5e started stabbing at t5e ,assengers and suc5 !rong*ul act !as t5e ,ro i&ate cause o* said ,assengersI 9u&,ing out o* t5e train= 5ence t5eir deat5s# )ri&inal La! 1ar E a&ination 8 ? A $199@-200;+ 'nder Article @6 .e(ised "enal )ode6 any ,erson co&&itting a *elony s5all incur cri&inal liability alt5oug5 t5e !rong*ul act done be di**erent *ro& t5at !5ic5 5e intended# In t5is case6 t5e deat5 o* t5e t5ree ,assengers !as t5e direct6 natural and logical conseGuence o* LuisI *elonious act !5ic5 created an i&&ediate sense o* danger in t5e &inds o* said ,assengers !5o tried to a(oid or esca,e *ro& it by 9u&,ing out o* t5e train# $"eo,le (s# Ar,a6 27 %).A 1237= '#%# (s# ValdeJ6 @1 "5il# @97K )ri&inal Liability= 3elonious Act= "ro i&ate )ause $200@+ 2n 5is !ay 5o&e *ro& o**ice6 RR rode in a 9ee,ney# %ubseGuently6 CC boarded t5e sa&e 9ee,ney# ',on reac5ing a secluded s,ot in 8)6 CC ,ulled out a grenade *ro& 5is bag and announced a 5old-u,# Ee told RR to surrender 5is !atc56 !allet and cell,5one# 3earing *or 5is li*e6 RR 9u&,ed out o* t5e (e5icle# 1ut as 5e *ell6 5is 5ead 5it t5e ,a(e&ent6 causing 5is instant deat5 # Is CC liable *or RRIs deat5L E ,lain brie*ly# $<N+ %'77E%/E- AB%4E.: >es6 CC is liable *or RRIs deat5 because 5is acts o* ,ulling out a grenade and announcing a 5old-u,6 cou,led !it5 a de&and *or t5e !atc56 !allet and cell,5one o* RR is *elonious6 and suc5 *elonious act !as t5e ,ro i&ate cause o* RRIs 9u&,ing out o* t5e 9ee,ney6 resulting in t5e latterIs deat5# %tated ot5er!ise6 t5e deat5 o* RR !as t5e direct6 natural and logical conseGuence o* CCIs *elonious act !5ic5 created an i&&ediate sense o* danger in t5e &ind o* RR !5o tried to a(oid suc5 danger by 9u&,ing out o* t5e 9ee,ney $"eo,le (# Ar,a6 27 %).A 1037+# )ri&inal Liability= I&,ossible )ri&e $200@+ 2R and >2 !ere bot5 courting t5eir co-e&,loyee6 %'E# 1ecause o* t5eir bitter ri(alry6 2R decided to get rid o* >2 by ,oisoning 5i&# 2R ,oured a substance into >2Is co**ee t5in0ing it !as arsenic# It turned out t5at t5e substance !as !5ite sugar substitute 0no!n as EGual# Bot5ing 5a,,ened to >2 a*ter 5e dran0 t5e co**ee# 45at cri&inal liability did 2R incur6 i* anyL E ,lain brie*ly# $<N+

%'77E%/E- AB%4E.: 2R incurred cri&inal liability *or an i&,ossible cri&e o* &urder# )ri&inal liability s5all be incurred by any ,erson ,er*or&ing an act !5ic5 !ould be an o**ense against ,ersons or ,ro,erty6 !ere it not *or t5e in5erent i&,ossibility o* its acco&,lis5&ent or on account o* t5e e&,loy&ent o* inadeGuate or ine**ectual &eans $Art# @6 ,ar# 26 .3)+# In t5e ,roble& gi(en6 t5e i&,ossibility o* acco&,lis5ing t5e cri&e o* &urder6 a cri&e against ,ersons6 !as due to t5e e&,loy&ent o* ine**ectual &eans !5ic5 2R t5oug5t !as ,oison# /5e la! i&,utes cri&inal liability to t5e o**ender alt5oug5 no cri&e resulted6 only to su,,ress 5is cri&inal ,ro,ensity because sub9ecti(ely6 5e is a cri&inal t5oug5 ob9ecti(ely6 no cri&e !as co&&itted# )ri&inal Liability= I&,ossible )ri&es $199@+ 1; o* A; J"6 Aries and .andal ,lanned to 0ill Elsa6 a resident o* 1arangay "ula6 Laurel6 1atangas# /5ey as0ed t5e assistance o* Ella6 !5o is *a&iliar !it5 t5e ,lace# 2n A,ril 36 19926 at about 10:00 in t5e e(ening6 J"6 Aries and .andal6 all ar&ed !it5 auto&atic !ea,ons6 !ent to 1arangay "ula# Ella6 being t5e guide6 directed 5er co&,anions to t5e roo& in t5e 5ouse o* Elsa# 45ereu,on6 J"6 Aries and .andal *ired t5eir guns at 5er roo&# 3ortunately6 Elsa !as not around as s5e attended a ,rayer &eeting t5at e(ening in anot5er barangay in Laurel# J"6 et al6 !ere c5arged and con(icted o* atte&,ted &urder by t5e .egional /rial )ourt at /anauan6 1atangas# 2n a,,eal to t5e )ourt o* A,,eals6 all t5e accused ascribed to t5e trial court t5e sole error o* *inding t5e& guilty o* atte&,ted &urder# I* you !ere t5e ,onente6 5o! !ill you decide t5e a,,ealL %'77E%/E- AB%4E.: I* I !ere t5e ,onente6 I !ill set aside t5e 9udg&ent con(icting t5e accused o* atte&,ted &urder and instead *ind t5e& guilty o* i&,ossible cri&e under Art# @6 ,ar# 26 .")6 in relation to Art# <96 .")# Liability *or i&,ossible cri&e arises not only !5en t5e i&,ossibility is legal6 but li0e!ise !5en it is *actual or ,5ysical i&,ossibility6 as in t5e case at bar# ElsaIs absence *ro& t5e 5ouse is a ,5ysical i&,ossibility !5ic5 renders t5e cri&e intended In5erently inca,able o* acco&,lis5&ent# /o con(ict t5e accused o* atte&,ted &urder !ould &a0e Art# @6 ,ar# 2 ,ractically useless as all circu&stances !5ic5 ,re(ented t5e consu&&ation o* t5e o**ense !ill be treated as an incident inde,endent o* t5e actorIs !ill !5ic5 is an ele&ent o* atte&,ted or *rustrated *elony $Intod (s# )A6 21< %).A <2+# )ri&inal Liability: I&,ossible )ri&es $199A+ 1uddy al!ays resented 5is class&ate6 Jun# 2ne day# 1uddy ,lanned to 0ill Jun by &i ing ,oison in 5is lunc5# Bot 0no!ing !5ere 5e can get ,oison6 5e a,,roac5ed anot5er class&ate6 Jerry to !5o& 5e disclosed 5is e(il ,lan# 1ecause 5e 5i&sel* 5arbored resent&ent to!ards Jun6 Jerry ga(e 1uddy a ,oison6 !5ic5 1uddy ,laced on JunIs *ood# Eo!e(er6 Jun did not die because6 un0no!n to bot5 1uddy and Jerry6 t5e ,oison !as actually ,o!dered &il0# 16 45at cri&e or cri&es6 i* any6 did Jerry and 1uddy co&&itL O3NP 2# %u,,ose t5at6 because o* 5is se(ere allergy to ,o!dered &il06 Jun 5ad to be 5os,italiJed *or 10 days *or ingesting it# 4ould your ans!er to t5e *irst Guestion be t5e sa&eL O2NP %'77E%/E- AB%4E.: 1# Jerry and 1uddy are liable *or t5e so-called Mi&,ossible cri&eM because6 !it5 intent to 0ill6 t5ey tried to ,oison Jun and t5us ,er,etrate Durder6 a cri&e against ,ersons# Jun !as not ,oisoned only because t5e !ould-be 0illers !ere una!are t5at !5at t5ey &i ed !it5 t5e *ood o* Jun )ri&inal La! 1ar E a&ination 8 ? A $199@-200;+ !as ,o!dered &il06 not ,oison# In s5ort6 t5e act done !it5 cri&inal intent by Jerry and 1uddy6 !ould 5a(e constituted a cri&e against ,ersons !ere it not *or t5e in5erent ine**icacy o* t5e &eans e&,loyed# )ri&inal liability is incurred by t5e& alt5oug5 no cri&e resulted6 because t5eir act o* trying to ,oison Jun is cri&inal#

2# Bo6 t5e ans!er !ould not be t5e sa&e as abo(e# Jerry and 1uddy !ould be liable instead *or less serious ,5ysical in9uries *or causing t5e 5os,italiJation and &edical attendance *or 10 days to Jun# /5eir act o* &i ing !it5 t5e *ood eaten by Jun t5e &atter !5ic5 reGuired suc5 &edical attendance6 co&&itted !it5 cri&inal intent6 renders t5e& liable *or t5e resulting in9ury# )ri&inal Liability= I&,ossible )ri&es= Fidna,,ing $2000+ )arla6 @ years old6 !as 0idna,,ed by EnriGue6 t5e tricycle dri(er ,aid by 5er ,arents to bring and *etc5 5er to and *ro& sc5ool# EnriGue !rote a ranso& note de&anding "<006000#00 *ro& )arlaIs ,arents in e c5ange *or )arlaIs *reedo&# EnriGue sent t5e ranso& note by &ail# Eo!e(er6 be*ore t5e ranso& note !as recei(ed by )arlaIs ,arents6 EnriGueIs 5ideout !as disco(ered by t5e ,olice# )arla !as rescued !5ile EnriGue !as arrested and incarcerated# )onsidering t5at t5e ranso& note !as not recei(ed by )arlaIs ,arents6 t5e in(estigating ,rosecutor &erely *iled a case o* MI&,ossible )ri&e to )o&&it Fidna,,ingM against EnriGue# Is t5e ,rosecutor correctL 45yL $3N+ %'77E%/E- AB%4E.: Bo6 t5e ,rosecutor is not correct in *iling a case *or Mi&,ossible cri&e to co&&it 0idna,,ingM against EnriGue# I&,ossible cri&es are li&ited only to acts !5ic5 !5en ,er*or&ed !ould be a cri&e against ,ersons or ,ro,erty# As 0idna,,ing is a cri&e against ,ersonal security and not against ,ersons or ,ro,erty6 EnriGue could not 5a(e incurred an Mi&,ossible cri&eM to co&&it 0idna,,ing# /5ere is t5us no i&,ossible cri&e o* 0idna,,ing# Dala in %e (s# Dala "ro5ibita $1997+ 1 -istinguis5 bet!een cri&es &ala in se and cri&es &ala ,ro5ibita# 2 Day an act be &alu& in se and be6 at t5e sa&e ti&e6 &alu& ,ro5ibitu&L %'77E%/E- AB%4E.: )ri&es &ala in se are *elonious acts co&&itted by dolo or cul,a as de*ined in t5e .e(ised "enal )ode# Lac0 o* cri&inal intent is a (alid de*ense6 e ce,t !5en t5e cri&e results *ro& cri&inal negligence# 2n t5e ot5er 5and6 cri&es &ala ,ro5ibita are t5ose considered !rong only because t5ey are ,ro5ibited by statute# /5ey constitute (iolations o* &ere rules o* con(enience designed to secure a &ore orderly regulation o* t5e a**airs o* society# %'77E%/E- AB%4E.: >es6 an act &ay be &alu& in se and &alu& ,ro5ibitu& at t5e sa&e ti&e# In "eo,le (# %unico6 et aL# $)A <0 27 <AA0+ it !as 5eld t5at t5e o&ission or *ailure o* election ins,ectors and ,oll cler0s to include a (oterIs na&e in t5e 17 o* A; registry list o* (oters is !rong ,er se because it disen*ranc5ises a (oter o* 5is rig5t to (ote# In t5is regard it is considered as &alu& in se# %ince it is ,unis5ed under a s,ecial la! $%ec# 101 and 1036 .e(ised Election )ode+6 it is considered &alu& ,ro5ibitu&# Dala in %e (s# Dala "ro5ibita $1999+ -istinguis5 M &ala in seM *ro& M &ala ,ro5ibitaM$3N+ %'77E%/E- AB%4E.: In M&ala in seM6 t5e acts constituting t5e cri&es are in5erently e(il6 bad or !rong6 and 5ence in(ol(es t5e &oral traits o* t5e o**ender= !5ile in M&ala ,ro5ibitaM6 t5e acts constituting t5e cri&es are not in5erently bad6 e(il or !rong but ,ro5ibited and &ade ,unis5able only *or ,ublic good# And because t5e &oral trait o* t5e o**ender is In(ol(ed in M&ala in seM# Dodi*ying circu&stances6 t5e o**enderIs e tent o* ,artici,ation in t5e cri&e6 and t5e degree o* acco&,lis5&ent o* t5e cri&e are ta0en into account in i&,osing t5e ,enalty: t5ese are not so in M&ala ,ro5ibitaM !5ere cri&inal liability arises only !5en t5e acts are consu&&ated# Dala in %e (s# Dala "ro5ibita $2001+ 1rie*ly state !5at essentially distinguis5es a cri&e &ala ,ro5ibita *ro& a cri&e &ala in se# $2N+ %'77E%/E- AB%4E.:

In cri&es &ala ,ro5ibita6 t5e acts are not by nature !rong6 e(il or bad# /5ey are ,unis5ed only because t5ere is a la! ,ro5ibiting t5e& *or ,ublic good6 and t5us good *ait5 or lac0 o* cri&inal intent in doing t5e ,ro5ibited act is not a de*ense# In cri&es &ala in se6 t5e acts are by nature !rong6 e(il or bad6 and so generally conde&ned# /5e &oral trait o* t5e o**ender is in(ol(ed= t5us6 good *ait5 or lac0 o* cri&inal Intent on t5e ,art o* t5e o**ender is a de*ense6 unless t5e cri&e is t5e result o* cri&inal negligence# )orres,ondingly6 &odi*ying circu&stances are considered in ,unis5ing t5e o**ender# Dala in %e (s# Dala "ro5ibita $2003+ -istinguis56 in t5eir res,ecti(e conce,ts and legal i&,lications6 bet!een cri&es &ala in se and cri&es &ala ,ro5ibits# @N %'77E%/E- AB%4E.: In conce,t: )ri&es &ala in se are t5ose !5ere t5e acts or o&issions ,enaliJed are in5erently bad6 e(il6 or !rong t5at t5ey are al&ost uni(ersally conde&ned# )ri&es &ala ,ro5ibita are t5ose !5ere t5e acts ,enaliJed are not in5erently bad6 e(il6 or !rong but ,ro5ibited by la! *or ,ublic good6 ,ublic !el*are or interest and !5oe(er (iolates t5e ,ro5ibition are ,enaliJed# In legal i&,lications: In cri&es &ala in se6 good *ait5 or lac0 o* cri&inal intentH negligence is a de*ense6 !5ile in cri&es &ala ,ro5ibita6 good *ait5 or lac0 o* cri&inal intent or &alice is not a de*ense= it is enoug5 t5at t5e ,ro5ibition !as (oluntarily (iolated# )ri&inal La! 1ar E a&ination 8 ? A $199@-200;+ Also6 cri&inal liability is generally incurred in cri&es &ala in se e(en !5en t5e cri&e is only atte&,ted or *rustrated6 !5ile in cri&es &ala ,ro5ibita6 cri&inal liability is generally incurred only !5en t5e cri&e is consu&&ated# Also in cri&es &ala in se6 &itigating and aggra(ating circu&stances are a,,reciated in i&,osing t5e ,enalties6 !5ile in cri&es &ala ,ro5ibita6 suc5 circu&stances are not a,,reciated unless t5e s,ecial la! 5as ado,ted t5e sc5e&e or scale o* ,enalties under t5e .e(ised "enal )ode# Dala "ro5ibita= Actual In9ury .eGuired $2000+ Dr# )arlos 7abisi6 a custo&s guard6 and Dr# .ico >to6 a ,ri(ate Indi(idual6 !ent to t5e o**ice o* Dr# -iet5er 2cuarto6 a custo&s bro0er6 and re,resented t5e&sel(es as agents o* Doonglo! )o&&ercial /rading6 an I&,orter o* c5ildrenIs clot5es and toys# Dr# 7abisi and Dr# >to engaged Dr# 2cuarto to ,re,are and *ile !it5 t5e 1ureau o* )usto&s t5e necessary I&,ort Entry and Internal .e(enue -eclaration co(ering Doonglo!Is s5i,&ent# Dr# 7abisi and Dr# >to sub&itted to Dr# 2cuarto a ,ac0ing list6 a co&&ercial in(oice6 a bill o* lading and a %!orn I&,ort -uty -eclaration !5ic5 declared t5e s5i,&ent as c5ildrenIs toys6 t5e ta es and duties o* !5ic5 !ere co&,uted at ";06000#00# Dr# 2cuarto *iled t5e a*ore&entioned docu&ents !it5 t5e Danila International )ontainer "ort# Eo!e(er6 be*ore t5e s5i,&ent !as released6 a s,ot c5ec0 !as conducted by )usto&s %enior Agent Ja&es 1andido6 !5o disco(ered t5at t5e contents o* t5e (an $s5i,&ent+ !ere not c5ildrenIs toys as declared in t5e s5i,,ing docu&ents but 16000 units o* (ideo cassette recorders !it5 ta es and duties co&,uted at ";006000#00# A 5old order and !arrant o* seiJure and detention !ere t5en issued by t5e -istrict )ollector o* )usto&s# 3urt5er in(estigation s5o!ed t5at Doonglo! is non-e istent# )onseGuently6 Dr# 7abisi and Dr# >to !ere c5arged !it5 and con(icted *or (iolation o* %ection 3$e+ o* .#A# 3019 !5ic5 &a0es it unla!*ul a&ong ot5ers6 *or ,ublic o**icers to cause any undue In9ury to any ,arty6 including t5e 7o(ern&ent# In t5e disc5arge o* o**icial *unctions t5roug5 &ani*est ,artiality6 e(ident bad *ait5 or gross ine cusable negligence# In t5eir &otion *or reconsideration6 t5e accused alleged t5at t5e decision !as erroneous because t5e cri&e !as not consu&&ated but !as only at an atte&,ted stage6 and t5at in *act t5e 7o(ern&ent did not su**er any undue in9ury# a+ Is t5e contention o* bot5 accused correctL E ,lain# $3N+ b+ Assu&ing t5at t5e atte&,ted or *rustrated stage o* t5e (iolation c5arged is not ,unis5able6 &ay t5e accused be ne(ert5eless con(icted *or an o**ense ,unis5ed by t5e .e(ised "enal )ode under t5e *acts o* t5e caseL E ,lain# $3N+

%'77E%/E- AB%4E.: >es6 t5e contention o* t5e accused t5at t5e cri&e !as not consu&&ated is correct6 .A# 3019 is a s,ecial la! ,unis5ing acts &ala ,ro5ibita# As a rule6 atte&,ted 1A o* A; (iolation o* a s,ecial la! is not ,unis5ed# Actual in9ury is reGuired# >es6 bot5 are liable *or atte&,ted esta*a t5ru *alsi*ication o* co&&ercial docu&ents6 a co&,le cri&e# ### Dalu& in %e (s# Dalu& "ro5ibitu& $200<+ -istinguis5 &alu& in se *ro& &alu& ,ro5ibitu&# $2N+ %'77E%/E- AB%4E.: In cri&es &alu& in se6 an act is by nature !rong6 e(il or bad6 and so generally conde&ned# /5e &oral trait o* t5e o**ender is in(ol(ed= t5us6 good *ait5 or lac0 o* cri&inal Intent on t5e ,art o* t5e o**ender is a de*ense6 unless t5e cri&e is t5e result o* cri&inal negligence# )orres,ondingly6 &odi*ying circu&stances are considered in ,unis5ing t5e o**ender# In cri&es &ala ,ro5ibitu&6 an act is not by nature !rong6 e(il or bad# >et6 it is ,unis5ed because t5ere is a la! ,ro5ibiting t5e& *or ,ublic good6 and t5us good *ait5 or lac0 o* cri&inal intent in doing t5e ,ro5ibited act is not a de*ense# Doti(e (s# Intent $199;+ 1 -istinguis5 intent *ro& &oti(e in )ri&inal La!# 2 Day cri&e be co&&itted !it5out cri&inal intentL %'77E%/E- AB%4E.: 1 Doti(e is t5e &o(ing ,o!er !5ic5 i&,els one to action *or a de*inite result= !5ereas intent is t5e ,ur,ose to use a ,articular &eans to e**ect suc5 results# Doti(e is not an essential ele&ent o* a *elony and need not be ,ro(ed *or ,ur,ose o* con(iction6 !5ile intent is an essential ele&ent o* *elonies by dolo# 2 >es6 a cri&e &ay be co&&itted !it5out cri&inal intent i* suc5 is a cul,able *elony6 !5erein Intent is substituted by negligence or i&,rudence6 and also in a &alu& ,ro5ibitu& or i* an act is ,unis5able by s,ecial la!# Doti(e (s# Intent $1999+ 1 -istinguis5 M&oti(eM *ro& MintentM# 2 45en is &oti(e rele(ant to ,ro(e a caseL 45en is it not necessary to be establis5edL E ,lain# $3N+ %'77E%/E- AB%4E.: 1 MDoti(e M is t5e &o(ing ,o!er !5ic5 i&,els a ,erson to do an act *or a de*inite result= !5ile MintentM is t5e ,ur,ose *or using a ,articular &eans to bring about a desired result# Doti(e is not an ele&ent o* a cri&e but intent is an ele&ent o* intentional cri&es# Doti(e6 i* attending a cri&e6 al!ays ,recede t5e intent# 2 Doti(e is rele(ant to ,ro(e a case !5en t5ere is doubt as to t5e identity o* t5e o**ender or !5en t5e act co&&itted gi(es rise to (ariant cri&es and t5ere is t5e need to deter&ine t5e ,ro,er cri&e to be i&,uted to t5e o**ender# )ri&inal La! 1ar E a&ination 8 ? A $199@-200;+ It is not necessary to ,ro(e &oti(e !5en t5e o**ender is ,ositi(ely identi*ied or t5e cri&inal act did not gi(e rise to (ariant cri&es# Doti(e (s# Intent $200@+ -istinguis5 clearly but brie*ly bet!een intent and &oti(e in t5e co&&ission o* an o**ense# %'77E%/E- AB%4E.: Intent is t5e ,ur,ose *or using a ,articular &eans to ac5ie(e t5e desired result= !5ile &oti(e is t5e &o(ing ,o!er !5ic5 i&,els a ,erson to act *or a de*inite result# Intent is an ingredient o* dolo or &alice and t5us an ele&ent o* deliberate *elonies= !5ile &oti(e is not an ele&ent o* a cri&e but only considered !5en t5e identity o* t5e o**ender is in doubt#

Doti(e= "roo* t5ereo*= Bot Essential= )on(iction $200;+ Doti(e is essential in t5e deter&ination o* t5e co&&isQsion o* a cri&e and t5e liabilities o* t5e ,er,etrators# 45at are t5e instances !5ere ,roo* o* &oti(e is not essential or reGuired to 9usti*y con(iction o* an accusedL 7i(e at least 3 instances# $<N+ %'77E%/E- AB%4E.: 1 45en t5ere is an eye!itness or ,ositi(e identi*ication o* t5e accused# 2 45en t5e accused ad&itted or con*essed to t5e co&&ission o* t5e cri&e# 3 In cri&es &ala ,ro5ibita# @ In direct assault6 !5en t5e (icti&6 !5o is a ,erson in aut5ority or agent o* a ,erson in aut5ority !as attac0ed in t5e actual ,er*or&ance o* 5is duty $Art# 1@A6 .e(ised "enal )ode+# < In cri&es co&&itted t5roug5 rec0less i&,rudence# J'%/I3>IB7 ? ECED"/IB7 )I.)'D%/AB)E% E e&,ting )ircu&stances= )o(erage $2000+ A6 brot5er o* 16 !it5 t5e intention o* 5a(ing a nig5t out !it5 5is *riends6 too0 t5e coconut s5ell !5ic5 is being used by 1 as a ban0 *or coins *ro& inside t5eir loc0ed cabinet using t5eir co&&on 0ey# 3ort5!it56 A bro0e t5e coconut s5ell outside o* t5eir 5o&e in t5e ,resence o* 5is *riends# 45at is t5e cri&inal liability o* A6 i* anyL E ,lain# $3N+ Is A e e&,ted *ro& cri&inal liability under Article 332 o* t5e .e(ised "enal )ode *or being a brot5er o* 1L E ,lain# $2N+ %'77E%/E- AB%4E.: a+ A is cri&inally liable *or .obbery !it5 *orce u,on t5ings##### b+ Bo6 A is not e e&,t *ro& cri&inal liability under Art# 332 because said Article a,,lies only to t5e*t6 s!indling or &alicious &isc5ie*# Eere6 t5e cri&e co&&itted is robbery# 19 o* A; E e&,ting )ircu&stances= Dinority $199A+ Jo5n6 an eig5t-year old boy6 is *ond o* !atc5ing t5e tele(ision ,rogra& MReo .angers#M 2ne e(ening !5ile 5e !as engrossed !atc5ing 5is *a(orite tele(ision s5o!6 "etra6 a &aid c5anged t5e c5annel to enable 5er to !atc5 MEo&e Along t5e .iles#M /5is enraged Jo5n !5o got 5is *at5erIs re(ol(er6 and !it5out !arning6 s5ot "etra at t5e bac0 o* 5er 5ead causing 5er instantaneous deat5# Is Jo5n cri&inally liableL O2NP %'77E%/E- AB%4E.: Bo6 Jo5n is not cri&inally liable *or 0illing "etra because 5e is only A years old !5en 5e co&&itted t5e 0illing# A &inor belo! nine $9+ years old is absolutely e e&,t *ro& cri&inal liability alt5oug5 not *ro& ci(il liability# $Art# 126 ,ar# 26 .")+# E e&,ting= Dinority= 11 yrs 2ld= Absence o* -iscern&ent $2000+ 45ile t5ey !ere standing in line a!aiting t5eir (accination at t5e sc5ool clinic6 "o&,ing re,eatedly ,ulled t5e ,onytail o* Fatreena6 5is 11 years6 2 &ont5s and 13 days old class&ate in 7rade < at t5e %a&,aloc Ele&entary %c5ool# Irritated6 Fatreena turned around and s!ung at "o&,ing !it5 a ball ,en# /5e to, o* t5e ball ,en 5it t5e rig5t eye o* "o&,ing !5ic5 bled ,ro*usely# .ealiJing !5at s5e 5ad caused# Fatreena i&&ediately 5el,ed "o&,ing# 45en in(estigated6 s5e *reely ad&itted to t5e sc5ool ,rinci,al t5at s5e !as res,onsible *or t5e in9ury to "o&,ingIs eye# A*ter t5e incident6 s5e e ecuted a state&ent ad&itting 5er cul,ability# -ue to t5e in9ury# "o&,ing lost 5is rig5t eye# a+ Is Fatreena cri&inally liableL 45yL $3N+ b+ -iscuss t5e attendant circu&stances and e**ects t5ereo*# $2N+ %'77E%/E- AB%4E.: a+ Bo6 Fatreena is not cri&inally liable alt5oug5 s5e is ci(illy liable# 1eing a &inor less t5an *i*teen $1<+ years old alt5oug5 o(er nine $9+ years o* age6 s5e is generally e e&,t *ro& cri&inal liability# /5e e ce,tion is !5ere t5e ,rosecution

,ro(ed t5at t5e act !as co&&itted !it5 discern&ent# /5e burden is u,on t5e ,rosecution to ,ro(e t5at t5e accused acted !it5 discern&ent# /5e ,resu&,tion is t5at suc5 &inor acted !it5out discern&ent6 and t5is is strengt5ened by t5e *act t5at Fatreena only reacted !it5 a ball,en !5ic5 s5e &ust be using in class at t5e ti&e6 and only to sto, "o&,ingIs (e atious act o* re,eatedly ,ulling 5er ,onytail# In ot5er !ords6 t5e in9ury !as accidental# b+ /5e attendant circu&stances !5ic5 &ay be considered are: 1 Dinority o* t5e accused as an e e&,ting circu&stance under Article 12# ,aragra,5 36 .e(# "enal )ode6 !5ere s5e s5all be e e&,t *ro& cri&inal liability6 unless it !as ,ro(ed t5at s5e acted !it5 discern&ent# %5e is 5o!e(er ci(illy liable= 2 I* *ound cri&inally liable6 t5e &inority o* t5e accused as a ,ri(ileged &itigating circu&stance# A discretionary ,enalty lo!er by at least t!o $2+ )ri&inal La! 1ar E a&ination 8 ? A $199@-200;+ degrees t5an t5at ,rescribed *or t5e cri&e co&&itted s5all be i&,osed in accordance !it5 Article ;A# ,aragra,5 16 .e(# "enal )ode# /5e sentence6 5o!e(er6 s5ould auto&atically be sus,ended in accordance !it5 %ection <$a+ o* .e,# Act Bo# A3;9 ot5er!ise 0no!n as t5e M3a&ily )ourts Act o* 1997M= 1 Also i* *ound cri&inally liable6 t5e ordinary &itigating circu&stance o* not Intending to co&&it so gra(e a !rong as t5at co&&itted6 under Article 136 ,aragra,5 36 .e(# "enal )ode= and 2 /5e ordinary &itigating circu&stance o* su**icient ,ro(ocation on t5e ,art o* t5e o**ended ,arty i&&ediately ,receded t5e act# Justi*ying (s# E e&,ting )ircu&stances $200@+ -istinguis5 clearly but brie*ly: 1et!een 9usti*ying and e e&,ting circu&stances in cri&inal la!# %'77E%/E- AB%4E.: Justi*ying circu&stance a**ects t5e act6 not t5e actor= !5ile e e&,ting circu&stance a**ects t5e actor6 not t5e act# In 9usti*ying circu&stance6 no cri&inal and6 generally6 no ci(il liability is incurred= !5ile in e e&,ting circu&stance6 ci(il liability is generally incurred alt5oug5 t5ere is no cri&inal liability# Justi*ying (s# E e&,ting )ircu&stances $199A+ -istinguis5 bet!een 9usti*ying and e e&,ting circu&stances# O3NP %'77E%/E- AB%4E.: 1# In Justi*ying )ircu&stances: /5e circu&stance a**ects t5e act6 not t5e actor= /5e act is done !it5in legal bounds6 5ence considered as not a cri&e= %ince t5e act is not a cri&e6 t5ere is no cri&inal= /5ere being no cri&e nor cri&inal6 t5ere is no cri&inal nor ci(il liability# 45ereas6 in an E e&,ting )ircu&stances: /5e circu&stance a**ects t5e actor6 not t5e act= /5e act is *elonious and 5ence a cri&e but t5e actor acted !it5out (oluntariness= Alt5oug5 t5ere is a cri&e6 t5ere is no cri&inal because t5e actor is regarded only as an instru&ent o* t5e cri&e= /5ere being a !rong done but no cri&inal# Justi*ying= -e*ense o* Eonor= .eGuisites $2002+ 45en A arri(ed 5o&e6 5e *ound 1 ra,ing 5is daug5ter# ',on seeing A6 1 ran a!ay# A too0 5is gun and s5ot 16 0illing 5i&# )5arged !it5 5o&icide6 A clai&ed 5e acted in de*ense o* 5is daug5terIs 5onor# Is A correctL I* not6 can A clai& t5e bene*it o* any &itigating circu&stance or circu&stancesL $3N+ %'77E%/E- AB%4E.: Bo6 A cannot (alidly in(o0e de*ense o* 5is daug5terIs 5onor in 5a(ing 0illed 1

since t5e ra,e !as already consu&&ated= &oreo(er6 1 already ran a!ay6 5ence6 t5ere !as no aggression to de*end against and no de*ense to s,ea0 o*# 20 o* A; A &ay6 5o!e(er6 in(o0e t5e bene*it o* t5e &itigating circu&stance o* 5a(ing acted in i&&ediate (indication o* a gra(e o**ense to a descendant6 5is daug5ter6 under ,ar# <6 Article 13 o* t5e .e(ised "enal )ode6 as a&ended# Justi*ying= -e*ense o* %tranger $2002+ A c5anced u,on t5ree &en !5o !ere attac0ing 1 !it5 *ist blo!s# )6 one o* t5e &en6 !as about to stab 1 !it5 a 0ni*e# Bot 0no!ing t5at 1 !as actually t5e aggressor because 5e 5ad earlier c5allenged t5e t5ree &en to a *ig5t6 A s5ot ) as t5e latter !as about to stab 1# Day A in(o0e t5e de*ense o* a stranger as a 9usti*ying circu&stance in 5is *a(orL 45yL $2N+ %'77E%/E- AB%4E.: >es# A &ay in(o0e t5e 9usti*ying circu&stance o* de*ense o* stranger since 5e !as not in(ol(ed in t5e *ig5t and 5e s5ot ) !5en t5e latter !as about to stab 1# /5ere being no indication t5at A !as induced by re(enge6 resent&ent or any ot5er e(il &oti(e in s5ooting )6 5is act is 9usti*ied under ,ar 36 Article 11 o* t5e .e(ised "enal )ode6 as a&ended# Justi*ying= 3ul*ill&ent o* -uty= .eGuisites $2000+ Lucresia6 a store o!ner6 !as robbed o* 5er bracelet in 5er 5o&e# /5e *ollo!ing day6 at about < oIcloc0 in t5e a*ternoon6 a neig5bor6 22-year old Jun-Jun6 !5o 5ad an unsa(ory re,utation6 ca&e to 5er store to buy bottles o* beer# Lucresia noticed 5er bracelet !ound around t5e rig5t ar& o* Jun-Jun# As soon as t5e latter le*t6 Lucresia !ent to a nearby ,olice station and soug5t t5e 5el, o* a ,olice&an on duty6 "at# 4illie .eyes# Ee !ent !it5 Lucresia to t5e 5ouse o* Jun-Jun to con*ront t5e latter# "at# .eyes introduced 5i&sel* as a ,olice&an and tried to get 5old o* Jun-Jun !5o resisted and ran a!ay# "at# .eyes c5ased 5i& and *ired t!o !arning s5ots in t5e air# Jun-Jun continued to run and !5en 5e !as about 7 &eters a!ay6 "at6 .eyes s5ot 5i& in t5e rig5t leg# Jun-Jun !as 5it and 5e *ell do!n but 5e cra!led to!ards a *ence6 intending to ,ass t5roug5 an o,ening underneat5# 45en "at# .eyes !as about < &eters a!ay6 5e *ired anot5er s5ot at Jun-Jun 5itting 5i& at t5e rig5t lo!er 5i,# "at# .eyes broug5t Jun-Jun to t5e 5os,ital6 but because o* ,ro*use bleeding6 5e e(entually died# "at .eyes !as subseGuently c5arged !it5 5o&icide# -uring t5e trial6 "at .eyes raised t5e de*ense6 by !ay o* e oneration6 t5at 5e acted in t5e *ul*ill&ent o* a duty# Is t5e de*ense tenableL E ,lain# $3N+ %'77E%/E- AB%4E.: Bo6 t5e de*ense o* "at# .eyes is not tenable# /5e de*ense o* 5a(ing acted in t5e *ul*ill&ent o* a duty reGuires as a condition6 inter alia6 t5at t5e in9ury or o**ense co&&itted be t5e una(oidable or necessary conseGuence o* t5e due ,er*or&ance o* t5e duty $"eo,le (s# 2anis6 et#al#6 7@ "5il# 2<7+# It is not enoug5 t5at t5e accused acted in *ul*ill&ent o* a duty# A*ter Jun-Jun !as s5ot in t5e rig5t leg and !as already cra!ling6 t5ere !as no need *or "at6 .eyes to s5oot 5i& *urt5er# )learly6 "at# .eyes acted beyond t5e call o* duty !5ic5 broug5t about t5e cause o* deat5 o* t5e (icti&# )ri&inal La! 1ar E a&ination 8 ? A $199@-200;+ 21 o* A; Justi*ying= %-= -e*ense o* Eonor= .eGuisites $199A+ 2ne nig5t6 'na6 a young &arried !o&an6 !as sound aslee, in 5er bedroo& !5en s5e *elt a &an on to, o* 5er# /5in0ing it !as 5er 5usband /ito6 !5o ca&e 5o&e a day early *ro& 5is business tri,6 'na let 5i& 5a(e se !it5 5er# A*ter t5e act6 t5e &an said6 MI 5o,e you en9oyed it as &uc5 as I did#M Bot recogniJing t5e (oice6 it da!ned u,on Lina t5at t5e &an !as not /ito6 5er 5usband# 3urious6 'na too0 out /itoIs gun and s5ot t5e &an# )5arged !it5 5o&icide 'na denies cul,ability on t5e ground o* de*ense o* 5onor# Is 5er clai& tenableL O<NP %'77E%/E- AB%4E.: Bo6 'naIs clai& t5at s5e acted in de*ense o* 5onor6 is not tenable because t5e unla!*ul aggression on 5er 5onor 5ad already ceased# -e*ense o* 5onor as included in sel*-de*ense6 &ust 5a(e been done to ,re(ent or re,el an unla!*ul aggression# /5ere is no de*ense to s,ea0 o* !5ere t5e unla!*ul aggression no longer e ists#

Justi*ying= -e*ense o* Eonor= Ele&ents $2000+ 2sang6 a &arried !o&an in 5er early t!enties6 !as slee,ing on a banig on t5e *loor o* t5eir ni,a 5ut beside t5e seas5ore !5en s5e !as a!a0ened by t5e act o* a &an &ounting 5er# /5in0ing t5at it !as 5er 5usband6 7ardo6!5o 5ad returned *ro& *is5ing in t5e sea6 2sang continued 5er slee, but allo!ed t5e &an6 !5o !as actually t5eir neig5bor6 Julio6 to 5a(e se ual intercourse !it5 5er# A*ter Julio satis*ied 5i&sel*6 5e said M%ala&at 2sangM as 5e turned to lea(e# 2nly t5en did 2sang realiJe t5at t5e &an !as not 5er 5usband# Enraged6 2sang grabbed a balisong *ro& t5e !all and stabbed Julio to deat5# 45en tried *or 5o&icide6 2sang clai&ed de*ense o* 5onor# %5ould t5e clai& be sustainedL 45yL $<N+ %'77E%/E- AB%4E.: Bo6 2sangMs clai& o* de*ense o* 5onor s5ould not be sustained because t5e aggression on 5er 5onor 5ad ceased !5en s5e stabbed t5e aggressor# In de*ense o* rig5ts under ,aragra,5 16 Art# 11 o* t5e .")6 It is reGuired inter alia t5at t5ere be $1+ unla!*ul aggression6 and $2+ reasonable necessity o* t5e &eans e&,loyed to ,re(ent or re,el it# /5e unla!*ul aggression &ust be continuing !5en t5e aggressor !as in9ured or disabled by t5e ,erson &a0ing a de*ense# 1ut i* t5e aggression t5at !as begun by t5e in9ured or disabled ,arty already ceased to e ist !5en t5e accused attac0ed 5i&6 as in t5e case at bar6 t5e attac0 &ade is a retaliation6 and not a de*ense# "aragra,5 16 Article 11 o* t5e )ode does not go(ern# Eence6 2sangIs act o* stabbing Julio to deat5 a*ter t5e se ual intercourse !as *inis5ed6 is not de*ense o* 5onor but an i&&ediate (indication o* a gra(e o**ense co&&itted against 5er6 !5ic5 is only &itigating# Justi*ying= %-= -e*ense o* "ro,erty= .eGuisites $199;+ A security guard6 u,on seeing a &an scale t5e !all o* a *actory co&,ound !5ic5 5e !as guarding6 s5ot and 0illed t5e latter# ',on in(estigation by t5e ,olice !5o t5erea*ter arri(ed at t5e scene o* t5e s5ooting6 it !as disco(ered t5at t5e (icti& !as unar&ed# 45en ,rosecuted *or 5o&icide6 t5e security guard clai&ed t5at 5e &erely acted in sel*de*ense o* ,ro,erty and in t5e ,er*or&ance o* 5is duty as a security guard# I* you !ere t5e 9udge6 !ould you con(ict 5i& o* 5o&icideL E ,lain# %'77E%/E- AB%4E.: >es# I !ould con(ict t5e security guard *or Eo&icide i* I !ere t5e Judge6 because 5is clai& o* 5a(ing acted in de*ense o* ,ro,erty and in ,er*or&ance o* a duty cannot *ully be 9usti*ied# E(en assu&ing t5at t5e (icti& !as scaling t5e !all o* t5e *actory co&,ound to co&&it a cri&e inside t5e sa&e6 s5ooting 5i& is ne(er 9usti*iable6 e(en ad&itting t5at suc5 act is considered unla!*ul aggression on ,ro,erty rig5ts# In "eo,le (s# Bar(aes6 121 %).A 3296 a ,erson is 9usti*ied to de*end 5is ,ro,erty rig5ts6 but all t5e ele&ents o* sel*-de*ense under Art# 116 &ust be ,resent# In t5e instant case6 9ust li0e in Bar(aes6 t5e second ele&ent $reasonable necessity o* t5e &eans e&,loyed+ is absent# Eence6 5e s5ould be con(icted o* 5o&icide but entitled to inco&,lete sel*-de*ense# Justi*ying= %-= -e*ense o* "ro,erty= .eGuisites $2003+ /5e accused li(ed !it5 5is *a&ily in a neig5bor5ood t5at o*ten !as t5e scene o* *reGuent robberies# At one ti&e6 ,ast &idnig5t6 t5e accused !ent do!nstairs !it5 a loaded gun to in(estigate !5at 5e t5oug5t !ere *ootste,s o* an unin(ited guest# A*ter seeing !5at a,,eared to 5i& an ar&ed stranger loo0ing around and out to rob t5e 5ouse6 5e *ired 5is gun seriously in9uring t5e &an# 45en t5e lig5ts !ere turned on6 t5e un*ortunate (icti& turned out to be a brot5er-in-la! on 5is !ay to t5e 0itc5en to get so&e lig5t snac0s# /5e accused !as indicted *or serious ,5ysical in9uries# %5ould t5e accused6 gi(en t5e circu&stances6 be con(icted or acGuittedL 45yL @N %'77E%/E- AB%4E.: /5e accused s5ould be con(icted because6 e(en assu&ing t5e *acts to be true in 5is belie*6 5is act o* s5ooting a burglar !5en t5ere is no unla!*ul aggression on 5is ,erson is not 9usti*ied# -e*ense o* ,ro,erty or ,ro,erty rig5t does not 9usti*y t5e act o* *iring a gun at a burglar unless t5e li*e and li&b o* t5e accused is

already in i&&inent and i&&ediate danger# Alt5oug5 t5e accused acted out o* a &isa,,re5ension o* t5e *acts6 5e is not absol(ed *ro& cri&inal liability# AL/E.BA/IVE AB%4E.: )onsidering t5e gi(en circu&stances6 na&ely= t5e *reGuent robberies in t5e neig5bor5ood6 t5e ti&e !as ,ast &idnig5t6 and t5e (icti& a,,eared to be an ar&ed burglar in t5e dar0 and inside 5is 5ouse6 t5e accused could 5a(e entertained an 5onest belie* t5at 5is li*e and li&b or t5ose o* 5is *a&ily are already in i&&ediate and i&&inent danger# Eence6 it &ay be reasonable to acce,t t5at 5e acted out o* an 5onest &ista0e o* *act and t5ere*ore !it5out cri&inal intent# An 5onest &ista0e o* *act negati(es cri&inal intent and t5us absol(es t5e accused *ro& cri&inal liability# )ri&inal La! 1ar E a&ination 8 ? A $199@-200;+ 8uali*ying= Ele&ents o* a )ri&e $2003+ 45en !ould Guali*ying circu&stances be dee&ed6 i* at all6 ele&ents o* a cri&eL @N %'77E%/E- AB%4E.: A Guali*ying circu&stance !ould be dee&ed an ele&ent o* a cri&e !5en it c5anges t5e nature o* t5e cri&e6 bringing about a &ore serious cri&e and a 5ea(ier ,enalty= it is essential to t5e cri&e in(ol(ed6 ot5er!ise so&e ot5er cri&e is co&&itted= and it is s,eci*ically alleged in t5e In*or&ation and ,ro(en during t5e trial# AL/E.BA/IVE AB%4E.: A Guali*ying circu&stance is dee&ed an ele&ent o* a cri&e !5en it is s,eci*ically stated by la! as included in t5e de*inition o* a cri&e6 li0e treac5ery in t5e cri&e o* &urder# DI/I7A/IB7 )I.)'D%/AB)E% Ditigating= Bon-Into ication $2000+ -es,ite t5e &assi(e ad(ertising ca&,aign in &edia against *irecrac0ers and gun*iring during t5e Be! >earIs celebrations6 Jonas and Ja9a boug5t ten bo es o* su,er lolo and ,la-,la in 1ocaue6 1ulacan# 1e*ore &idnig5t o* -ece&ber 316 19996 Jonas and Ja9a started t5eir celebration by 5a(ing a drin0ing s,ree at JonaIs ,lace by e ,loding t5eir 5ig5-,o!ered *irecrac0ers in t5eir neig5bor5ood# In t5e course o* t5eir con(ersation6 Jonas con*ided to Ja9a t5at 5e 5as been 0ee,ing a long-ti&e grudge against 5is neig5bor Je,oy in (ie! o* t5e latterIs re*usal to lend 5i& so&e &oney# 45ile under t5e in*luence o* liGuor6 Jonas started t5ro!ing lig5ted su,er lolos inside Je,oyIs *ence to irritate 5i& and t5e sa&e e ,loded inside t5e latterIs yard# ',on 0no!ing t5at t5e t5ro!ing o* t5e su,er lolo !as deliberate6 Je,oy beca&e *urious and sternly !arned Jonas to sto, 5is &alicious act or 5e !ould get !5at 5e !anted# A 5eated argu&ent bet!een Jonas and Je,oy ensued but Ja9a tried to cal& do!n 5is *riend# At &idnig5t6 Jonas con(inced Ja9a to lend 5i& 5is #@< caliber ,istol so t5at 5e could use it to 0noc0 do!n Je,oy and to end 5is arrogance# Jonas t5oug5t t5at a*ter all6 e ,losions !ere e(ery!5ere and nobody !ould 0no! !5o s5ot Je,oy# A*ter Ja9a lent 5is *irear& to Jonas6 t5e latter again started started t5ro!ing lig5ted su,er lolos and ,la-,las at Je,oyIs yard in order to ,ro(o0e 5i& so t5at 5e !ould co&e out o* 5is 5ouse# 45en Je,oy ca&e out6 Jonas i&&ediately s5ot 5i& !it5 Ja9aIs #@< caliber gun but &issed 5is target# Instead6 t5e bullet 5it Je,oyIs *i(e year old son !5o !as *ollo!ing be5ind 5i&6 0illing t5e boy instantaneously6 a+ 45at cri&e or cri&es can Jonas and Ja9a be c5arged !it5L E ,lain# $2N+ b+ I* you !ere JonasI and Ja9aIs la!yer6 !5at ,ossible de*enses !ould you set u, in *a(or o* your clientsL E ,lain# $2N+ c+ I* you !ere t5e Judge6 5o! !ould you decide t5e caseL E ,lain# $1N+ %'77E%/E- AB%4E.: 22 o* A; a+ Jonas and Ja9a6 can be c5arged !it5 t5e co&,le cri&e o* atte&,ted &urder !it5 5o&icide because a single act caused a less gra(e and a gra(e *elony $Art# @A# .")+#### b+ I* I !ere JonasI and Ja9aIs la!yer6 I !ill use t5e *ollo!ing de*enses:

/5at t5e accused 5ad no intention to co&&it so gra(e a !rong as t5at co&&itted as t5ey &erely intended to *rig5ten Je,oy= /5at Jonas co&&itted t5e cri&e in a state o* into ication t5ereby i&,airing 5is !ill ,o!er or ca,acity to understand t5e !rong*ulness o* 5is act# Bonintentional into ication is a &itigating circu&stance $"eo,le us# 3ortic56 2A1 %).A ;00 $1997+= Art# 1<6 .")#+# Ditigating= "lea o* 7uilty $1999+ An accused c5arged !it5 t5e cri&e o* 5o&icide ,leaded Mnot guiltyM during t5e ,reli&inary in(estigation be*ore t5e Dunici,al )ourt# ',on t5e ele(ation o* t5e case to t5e .egional /rial )ourt t5e )ourt o* co&,etent 9urisdiction6 5e ,leaded guilty *reely and (oluntarily u,on arraign&ent# )an 5is ,lea o* guilty be*ore t5e ./) be considered s,ontaneous and t5us entitle 5i& to t5e &itigating circu&stance o* s,ontaneous ,lea o* guilty under Art# 13$7+6 .")L $3N+ %'77E%/E- AB%4E.: >es6 5is ,lea o* guilty be*ore t5e .egional /rial )ourt can be considered s,ontaneous6 *or !5ic5 5e is entitled to t5e &itigating circu&stance o* ,lea o* guilty# Eis ,lea o* not guilty be*ore t5e Dunici,al )ourt is i&&aterial as it !as &ade during ,reli&inary in(estigation only and be*ore a court not co&,etent to render 9udg&ent# Ditigating= "lea o* 7uilty= .eGuisites $1999+ In order t5at t5e ,lea o* guilty &ay be &itigating6 !5at reGuisites &ust be co&,lied !it5L $2N+ %'77E%/E- AB%4E.: 3or ,lea o* guilty to be &itigating6 t5e reGuisites are: /5at t5e accused s,ontaneously ,leaded guilty to t5e cri&e c5arged= /5at suc5 ,lea !as &ade be*ore t5e court co&,etent to try t5e case and render 9udg&ent= and /5at suc5 ,lea !as &ade ,rior to t5e ,resentation o* e(idence *or t5e ,rosecution# Ditigating= "lea o* 7uilty= Voluntary %urrender $1997+ A*ter 0illing t5e (icti&6 t5e accused absconded# Ee succeeded in eluding t5e ,olice until 5e sur*aced and surrendered to t5e aut5orities about t!o years later# )5arged !it5 &urder6 5e ,leaded not guilty but6 a*ter t5e ,rosecution 5ad ,resented t!o !itnesses i&,licating 5i& to t5e cri&e6 5e c5anged 5is ,lea to t5at o* guilty# %5ould t5e &itigating circu&stances o* (oluntary surrender and ,lea o* guilty be considered in *a(or o* t5e accusedL %'77E%/E- AB%4E.: Voluntary surrender s5ould be considered as a &itigating circu&stance# A*ter t!o years6 t5e ,olice !ere still una!are o* t5e !5ereabouts o* t5e accused and t5e latter )ri&inal La! 1ar E a&ination 8 ? A $199@-200;+ could 5a(e continued to elude arrest# Accordingly6 t5e surrender o* t5e accused s5ould be considered &itigating because it !as done s,ontaneously6 indicati(e o* t5e re&orse or re,entance on t5e ,art o* said accused and t5ere*ore6 by 5is surrender6 t5e accused sa(ed t5e 7o(ern&ent e ,enses6 e**orts6 and ti&e# AL/E.BA/IVE AB%4E.: Voluntary surrender &ay not be a,,reciated in *a(or o* t5e accused# /!o years is too long a ti&e to consider t5e surrender as s,ontaneous $"eo,le us# Ablao6 1A3 %).A ;<A+# 3or sure t5e go(ern&ent 5ad already incurred considerable e**orts and e ,enses in loo0ing *or t5e accused# "lea o* guilty can no longer be a,,reciated as a &itigating circu&stance because t5e ,rosecution 5ad already started !it5 t5e ,resentation o* its e(idence $Art# 136 ,ar# 7# .e(ised "enal )ode+# Ditigating= Voluntary %urrender $199;+ Eilario6 u,on seeing 5is son engaged in a scu**le !it5 .ene6 stabbed and 0illed t5e latter# A*ter t5e stabbing6 5e broug5t 5is son 5o&e# /5e )5ie* o* "olice o*

t5e to!n6 acco&,anied by se(eral ,olice&en6 !ent to EilarioIs 5ouse6 Eilario6 u,on seeing t5e a,,roac5ing ,olice&en6 ca&e do!n *ro& 5is 5ouse to &eet t5e& and (oluntarily !ent !it5 t5e& to t5e "olice %tation to be in(estigated in connection !it5 t5e 0illing# 45en e(entually c5arged !it5 and con(icted o* 5o&icide6 Eilario6 on a,,eal6 *aulted t5e trial court *or not a,,reciating in 5is *a(or t5e &itigating circu&stance o* (oluntary surrender# Is 5e entitled to suc5 a &itigating circu&stanceL E ,lain# %'77E%/E- AB%4E.: >es6 Eilario is entitled to t5e &itigating circu&stance o* (oluntary surrender# /5e cru o* t5e issue is !5et5er t5e *act t5at Eilario !ent 5o&e a*ter t5e incident6 but ca&e do!n and &et t5e ,olice o**icers and !ent !it5 t5e& is considered MVoluntary surrender6M /5e (oluntariness o* surrender is tested i* t5e sa&e is s,ontaneous s5o!ing t5e intent o* t5e accused to sub&it 5i&sel* unconditionally to t5e aut5orities# /5is &ust be eit5er $a+ because 5e ac0no!ledges 5is guilt6 or $b+ because 5e !is5es to sa(e t5e& t5e trouble and e ,enses necessarily incurred in 5is searc5 and ca,ture# $.eyesI )o&&entaries6 ,# 303+# /5us6 t5e act o* t5e accused in 5iding a*ter co&&ission o* t5e cri&e6 but (oluntarily !ent !it5 t5e ,olice&en !5o 5ad gone to 5is 5iding ,lace to in(estigate6 !as 5eld to be &itigating circu&stance#$"eo,le (s# -ayrit6 cited in .eyesI )o&&entaries6 ,# 299+ Ditigating= Voluntary %urrender= Ele&ents $1999+ 45en is surrender by an accused considered (oluntary6 and constituti(e o* t5e &itigating circu&stance o* (oluntary surrenderL $3N+ %'77E%/E- AB%4E.: A surrender by an o**ender is considered (oluntary !5en it is s,ontaneous6 indicati(e o* an intent to sub&it unconditionally to t5e aut5orities# /o be &itigating6 t5e surrender &ust be: 23 o* A; s,ontaneous6 i#e#6 indicati(e o* ac0no!ledg&ent o* guilt and not *or con(enience nor conditional= &ade be*ore t5e go(ern&ent incurs e ,enses6 ti&e and e**ort in trac0ing do!n t5e o**enderIs !5ereabouts= and &ade to a ,erson in aut5ority or t5e latterIs agents# A77.AVA/IB7 )I.)'D%/AB)E% Aggra(ating )ircu&stances $199;+ Jose6 -o&ingo6 Danolo6 and 3ernando6 ar&ed !it5 bolos6 at about one oIcloc0 in t5e &orning6 robbed a 5ouse at a desolate ,lace !5ere -anilo6 5is !i*e6 and t5ree daug5ters !ere li(ing# 45ile t5e *our !ere in t5e ,rocess o* ransac0ing -aniloIs 5ouse6 3ernando6 noticing t5at one o* -aniloIs daug5ters !as trying to get a!ay6 ran a*ter 5er and *inally caug5t u, !it5 5er in a t5ic0et so&e!5at distant *ro& t5e 5ouse# 3ernando6 be*ore bringing bac0 t5e daug5ter to t5e 5ouse6 ra,ed 5er *irst# /5erea*ter6 t5e *our carted a!ay t5e belongings o* -anilo and 5is *a&ily# 45at cri&e did Jose6 -o&ingo6 Danolo and 3ernando co&&itL E ,lain# %u,,ose6 a*ter t5e robbery6 t5e *our too0 turns in ra,ing t5e t5ree daug5ters o* -anilo inside t5e latterIs 5ouse6 but be*ore t5ey le*t6 t5ey 0illed t5e !5ole *a&ily to ,re(ent identi*ication6 !5at cri&e did t5e *our co&&itL E ,lain# 'nder t5e *acts o* t5e case6 !5at aggra(ating circu&stances &ay be a,,reciated against t5e *ourL E ,lain# %'77E%/E- AB%4E.: a+ Jose6 -o&ingo6 and Danolo co&&itted .obbery6 !5ile 3ernando co&&itted co&,le cri&e o* .obbery !it5 .a,e### b+ /5e cri&e !ould be .obbery !it5 Eo&icide because t5e 0illings !ere by reason $to ,re(ent identi*ication+ and on t5e occasion o* t5e robbery# /5e &ulti,le ra,es co&&itted and t5e *act t5at se(eral ,ersons !ere 0illed O5o&icide+6 !ould be considered as aggra(ating circu&stances# /5e ra,es are synony&ous !it5 Igno&iny

and t5e additional 0illing synony&ous !it5 cruelty6 $"eo,le (s# %olis6 1A2 %).A= "eo,le (s# "laga6 202 %).A <31+ c+ /5e aggra(ating circu&stances !5ic5 &ay be considered in t5e ,re&ises are: 1 1and because all t5e *our o**enders are ar&ed= 2 Boctu&ity because e(idently t5e o**enders too0 ad(antage o* nig5tti&e= 3 d!elling= and @ 'nin5abited ,lace because t5e 5ouse !5ere t5e cri&es !ere co&&itted !as Mat a desolate ,laceM and ob(iously t5e o**enders too0 ad(antage o* t5is circu&stance in co&&itting t5e cri&e# )ri&inal La! 1ar E a&ination 8 ? A $199@-200;+ Aggra(ating )ircu&stances= 7eneris (s# 8uali*ying $1999+ -istinguis5 generic aggra(ating circu&stance *ro& Guali*ying aggra(ating circu&stance# %'77E%/E- AB%4E.: 7eneric Aggra(ating )ircu&stances: a**ects only t5e i&,osition o* t5e ,enalty ,rescribed6 but not t5e nature o* t5e cri&e co&&itted= can be o**set by ordinary &itigating circu&stances= need not be alleged in t5e In*or&ation as long as ,ro(en during t5e trial6 t5e sa&e s5all be considered in i&,osing t5e sentence# 8uali*ying Aggra(ating )ircu&stances: &ust be alleged in t5e In*or&ation and ,ro(en during trial= cannot be o**set by &itigating circu&stances= a**ects t5e nature o* t5e cri&e or brings about a ,enalty 5ig5er in degree t5an t5at ordinarily ,rescribed# Aggra(ating )ircu&stances= Finds ? "enalties $1999+ Ba&e t5e *our $@+ 0inds o* aggra(ating circu&stances and state t5eir e**ect on t5e ,enalty o* cri&es and nature t5ereo*# $3N+ %'77E%/E- AB%4E.: /5e *our $@+ 0inds o* aggra(ating circu&stances are: 1+ 7EBE.I) A77.AVA/IB7 or t5ose t5at can generally a,,ly to all cri&es6 and can be o**set by &itigating circu&stances6 but i* not o**set6 !ould a**ect only t5e &a i&u& o* t5e ,enalty ,rescribed by la!= 2+ %"E)I3I) A77.AVA/IB7 or t5ose t5at a,,ly only to ,articular cri&es and cannot be o**set by &itigating circu&stances: 3+ 8'ALI3>IB7 )I.)'D%/AB)E% or t5ose t5at c5ange t5e nature o* t5e cri&e to a gra(er one6 or brings about a ,enalty ne t 5ig5er in degree6 and cannot be o**set by &itigating circu&stances= @+ IBEE.EB/ A77.AVA/IB7 or t5ose t5at essentially acco&,any t5e co&&ission o* t5e cri&e and does not a**ect t5e ,enalty !5atsoe(er# Aggra(ating= )ruelty= .elations5i, $199@+ 1en6 a !ido!er6 dri(en by bestial desire6 ,o0ed a gun on 5is daug5ter Reny6 *orcibly undressed 5er and tied 5er legs to t5e bed# Ee also burned 5er *ace !it5 a lig5ted cigarrete# Li0e a &ad&an6 5e laug5ed !5ile ra,ing 5er# 45at aggra(ating circu&stances are ,resent in t5is caseL %'77E%/E- AB%4E.: a+ )ruelty6 *or burning t5e (icti&Is *ace !it5 a lig5ted cigarrete6 t5ereby deliberately aug&enting t5e (icti&Is su**ering by acts clearly unnecessary to t5e ra,e6 !5ile t5e o**ender delig5ted and en9oyed seeing t5e (icti& su**er in ,ain $"eo,le (s# Lucas6 1A1 %).A 31;+# b+ .elations5i,6 because t5e o**ended ,arty is a descendant $daug5ter+ o* t5e o**ender and considering t5at t5e cri&e is one against c5astity# 2@ o* A; Aggra(ating= Dust be alleged in t5e in*or&ation $2000+ .ico6 a &e&ber o* t5e Al,5a .5o *raternity6 !as 0illed by "oc5olo6 a &e&ber o* t5e

ri(al grou,6 %ig&a "5i 2&ega# "oc5olo !as ,rosecuted *or 5o&icide be*ore t5e .egional /rial )ourt in 1inan6 Laguna# -uring t5e trial6 t5e ,rosecution !as able to ,ro(e t5at t5e 0illing !as co&&itted by &eans o* ,oison in consideration o* a ,ro&ise or re!ard and !it5 cruelty# I* you !ere t5e Judge6 !it5 !5at cri&e !ill you con(ict "oc5oloL E ,lain# $2N+ %'77E%/E- AB%4E.: "oc5olo s5ould be con(icted o* t5e cri&e o* 5o&icide only because t5e aggra(ating circu&stances !5ic5 s5ould Guali*y t5e cri&e to &urder !ere not alleged in t5e In*or&ation# /5e circu&stances o* using ,oison6 in consideration o* a ,ro&ise or re!ard6 and cruelty !5ic5 attended t5e 0illing o* .ico could only be a,,reciated as generic aggra(ating circu&stances since none o* t5e& 5a(e been alleged in t5e in*or&ation to Guali*y t5e 0illing to &urder# A Guali*ying circu&stance &ust be alleged in t5e In*or&ation and ,ro(en beyond reasonable doubt during t5e trial to be a,,reciated as suc5# Aggra(ating= Big5tti&e= 1and $199@+ At about 9:30 in t5e e(ening6 !5ile -ino and .a**y !ere !al0ing along "adre 3aura %treet6 Danila# Jo5nny 5it t5e& !it5 a roc0 in9uring -ino at t5e bac0# .a**y a,,roac5ed -ino6 but suddenly6 1obby6 %te(e6 -anny and Bonoy surrounded t5e duo# /5en 1obby stabbed -ino# %te(e6 -anny6 Bonoy and Jo5nny 0e,t on 5itting -ino and .a**y !it5 roc0s# As a result# -ino died6 1obby6 %te(e6 -anny6 Bonoy and Jo5nny !ere c5arged !it5 5o&icide# )an t5e court a,,reciate t5e aggra(ating circu&stances o* nig5tti&e and bandL %'77E%/E- AB%4E.: Bo6 nig5tti&e cannot be a,,reciated as an aggra(ating circu&stance because t5ere is no indication t5at t5e o**enders deliberately soug5t t5e co(er o* dar0ness to *acilitate t5e co&&ission o* t5e cri&e or t5at t5ey too0 ad(antage o* nig5tti&e $"eo,le (s# -e los .eyes6 203 %).A 707+# 1esides6 9udicial notice can be ta0en o* t5e *act t5at "adre 3aura %treet is !ell-lig5ted# Eo!e(er6 band s5ould be considered as t5e cri&e !as co&&itted by &ore t5an t5ree ar&ed &ale*actors= in a recent %u,re&e )ourt decision6 stones or roc0s are considered deadly !ea,ons# Aggra(ating= .ecidi(is& $2001+ Juan de )astro already 5ad t5ree $3+ ,re(ious con(ictions by *inal 9udg&ent *or t5e*t !5en 5e !as *ound guilty o* .obbery !it5 Eo&icide# In t5e last case6 t5e trial Judge considered against t5e accused bot5 recidi(is& and 5abitual delinGuency# /5e accused a,,ealed and contended t5at in 5is last con(iction6 t5e trial court cannot consider against 5i& a *inding o* recidi(is& and6 )ri&inal La! 1ar E a&ination 8 ? A $199@-200;+ again6 o* 5abitual delinGuency# Is t5e a,,eal &eritoriousL E ,lain# $<N+ %'77E%/E- AB%4E.: Bo6 t5e a,,eal is not &eritorious# .ecidi(is& and 5abitual delinGuency are correctly considered in t5is case because t5e basis o* recidi(is& is di**erent *ro& t5at o* 5abitual delinGuency# Juan is a recidi(ist because 5e 5ad been ,re(iously con(icted by *inal 9udg&ent *or t5e*t and again *ound guilty *or .obbery !it5 Eo&icide6 !5ic5 are bot5 cri&es against ,ro,erty6 e&braced under t5e sa&e /itle $/itle /en6 1oo0 /!oP o* t5e .e(ised "enal )ode# /5e i&,lication is t5at 5e is s,ecialiJing in t5e co&&ission o* cri&es against ,ro,erty6 5ence aggra(ating in t5e con(iction *or .obbery !it5 Eo&icide# Eabitual delinGuency6 !5ic5 brings about an additional ,enalty !5en an o**ender is con(icted a t5ird ti&e or &ore *or s,eci*ied cri&es6 is correctly considered ### Aggra(ating= .ecidi(is& (s# 8uasi-.ecidi(is& $199A+ -istinguis5 bet!een recidi(is& and Guasi-recidi(is&# O2NP %'77E%/E- AB%4E.: In recidi(is& 1 /5e con(ictions o* t5e o**ender are *or cri&es e&braced in t5e sa&e /itle o* t5e .e(ised "enal )ode= and

2 /5is circu&stance is generic aggra(ating and t5ere*ore can be e**ect by an ordinary &itigating circu&stance# 45ereas in Guasi-recidi(ls& 1 /5e con(ictions are not *or cri&es e&braced in t5e sa&e /itle o* t5e .e(ised "enal )ode6 ,ro(ided t5at it is a *elony t5at !as co&&itted by t5e o**ender be*ore ser(ing sentence by *inal 9udg&ent *or anot5er cri&e or !5ile ser(ing sentence *or anot5er cri&e= and 2 /5is circu&stance is a s,ecial aggra(ating circu&stance !5ic5 cannot be o**set by any &itigating circu&stance# Aggra(ating= /reac5ery ? 'nla!*ul Entry $1997+ /5e accused and t5e (icti& occu,ied ad9acent a,art&ents6 eac5 being a se,arate d!elling unit o* one big 5ouse# /5e accused sus,ected 5is !i*e o* 5a(ing an illicit relation !it5 t5e (icti&# 2ne a*ternoon6 5e sa! t5e (icti& and 5is !i*e toget5er on board a (e5icle# In t5e e(ening o* t5at day6 t5e accused !ent to bed early and tried to slee,6 but being so annoyed o(er t5e sus,ected relation bet!een 5is !i*e and t5e (icti&6 5e could not slee,# Later in t5e nig5t6 5e resol(ed to 0ill (icti&# Ee rose *ro& bed and too0 5old o* a 0ni*e# Ee entered t5e a,art&ent o* t5e (icti& t5roug5 an unloc0ed !indo!# Inside6 5e sa! t5e (icti& soundly aslee,# Ee t5ereu,on stabbed t5e (icti&6 in*licting se(eral !ounds6 !5ic5 caused 5is deat5 !it5in a *e! 5ours# 2< o* A; 4ould you say t5at t5e 0illing !as attended by t5e Guali*ying or aggra(ating circu&stances o* e(ident ,re&editation6 treac5ery6 nig5tti&e and unla!*ul entryL %'77E%/E- AB%4E.: 1# E(ident ,re&editation cannot be considered against t5e accused because 5e resol(ed to 0ill t5e (icti& Mlater in t5e nig5tM and t5ere !as no su**icient la,se o* ti&e bet!een t5e deter&ination and e ecution6 to allo! 5is conscience to o(erco&e t5e resolution o* 5is !ill# 2# /.EA)EE.> &ay be ,resent because t5e accused stabbed t5e (icti& !5ile t5e latter !as sound aslee,# Accordingly6 5e e&,loyed &eans and &et5ods !5ic5 directly and s,ecially insured t5e e ecution o* t5e act !it5out ris0 5i&sel* arising *ro& t5e de*ense !5ic5 t5e (icti& &ig5t 5a(e &ade $"eo,le (s# -eGuina# ;0 "5il# 279 "eo,le (s# Diranda6 et at# 90 "5il# 91+# 3# Big5tti&e deliberately Intention to (s "ardo# 79 cannot be a,,reciated because t5ere is no s5o!ing t5at t5e accused soug5t or a(ailed o* nig5tti&e to insure t5e success o* 5is act# /5e co&&it t5e cri&e !as concei(ed s5ortly be*ore its co&&ission $"eo,le "5il6 <;A+# Doreo(er6 nig5tti&e is absorbed in treac5ery#

@# 'BLA43'L EB/.> &ay be a,,reciated as an aggra(ating circu&stance6 inas&uc5 as t5e accused entered t5e roo& o* t5e (icti& t5roug5 t5e !indo!6 !5ic5 is not t5e ,ro,er ,lace *or entrance into t5e 5ouse $Art# 1@# ,ar# 1A# .e(ised "enal )ode6 "eo,le (s# 1aruga ;1 "5il# 31A+# AL/E.BA/IVE )I.)'D%/AB)E% Alternati(e )ircu&stances= Into ication $2002+ A !as in(ited to a drin0ing s,ree by *riends# A*ter 5a(ing 5ad a drin0 too &any6 A and 1 5ad a 5eated argu&ent6 during !5ic5 A stabbed 1# As a result6 1 su**ered serious ,5ysical in9uries# Day t5e into ication o* A be considered aggra(ating or &itigatingL $<N+ %'77E%/E- AB%4E.: /5e into ication o* A &ay be ,ri&a *acie considered &itigating since it !as &erely incidental to t5e co&&ission o* t5e cri&e# It &ay not be considered aggra(ating as t5ere is no clear indication *ro& t5e *acts o* t5e case t5at it !as 5abitual or

intentional on t5e ,art o* A# Aggra(ating circu&stances are not to be ,resu&ed= t5ey s5ould be ,ro(ed beyond reasonable doubt "E.%2B% )ri&inally Liable *or 3EL2BIE% Anti-3encing La!= 3encing $199;+ 3lora6 !5o !as engaged in t5e ,urc5ase and sale o* 9e!elry6 !as ,rosecuted *or t5e (iolation o* "#-# 1;126 ot5er!ise 0no!n as t5e Anti-3encing La!6 *or 5a(ing been *ound to be in ,ossession o* recently stolen Je!elry (alued at "1006000#00 at 5er 9e!elry s5o, at Ra,ote )ri&inal La! 1ar E a&ination 8 ? A $199@-200;+ .oad6 Las "inas6 Detro Danila# %5e testi*ied during t5e trial t5at s5e &erely boug5t t5e sa&e *ro& one na&ed )ecilino and e(en ,roduced a recei,t co(ering t5e sale# )ecilino6 in t5e ,ast6 used to deli(er to 5er 9e!elries *or sale but is ,resently no!5ere to be *ound# )on(icted by t5e trial court *or (iolation o* t5e Anti-3encing La!6 s5e argued $or 5er acGuittal on a,,eal6 contending t5at t5e ,rosecution *ailed to ,ro(e t5at s5e 0ne! or s5ould 5a(e 0no!n t5at t5e Je!elries reco(ered *ro& 5er !ere t5e ,roceeds o* t5e cri&e o* robbery or t5e*t# %'77E%/E- AB%4E.: Bo6 3loraIs de*ense is not !ell-ta0en because &ere ,ossession o* any article o* (alue !5ic5 5as been t5e sub9ect o* t5e*t or robbery s5all be ,ri&a *acie e(idence o* *encing $"#-#Bo# 1;12+# /5e burden is u,on t5e accused to ,ro(e t5at s5e acGuired t5e 9e!elry legiti&ately# Eer de*ense o* 5a(ing boug5t t5e Je!elry *ro& so&eone !5ose !5ereabouts is un0no!n6 does not o(erco&e t5e ,resu&,tion o* *encing against 5er $"a&intuan (s "eo,le6 7#. 111@2;6 11 July 199@+# 1uying ,ersonal ,ro,erty ,uts t5e buyer on ca(eat because o* t5e ,5rases t5at 5e s5ould 5a(e 0no!n or oug5t to 0no! t5at it is t5e ,roceed *ro& robbery or t5e*t# 1esides6 s5e s5ould 5a(e *ollo!ed t5e ad&inistrati(e ,rocedure under t5e decree t5at o* getting a clearance *ro& t5e aut5orities in case t5e dealer is unlicensed in order to esca,e liability# Anti-3encing La!= 3encing (s# /5e*t or .obbery $199<+ 45at is t5e di**erence bet!een a *ence and an accessory to t5e*t or robberyL E ,lain# Is t5ere any si&ilarity bet!een t5e&L %'77E%/E- AB%4E.: 2ne di**erence bet!een a *ence and an accessory to t5e*t or robbery is t5e ,enalty in(ol(ed= a *ence is ,unis5ed as a ,rinci,al under "#-# Bo# 1;12 and t5e ,enalty is 5ig5er6 !5ereas an accessory to robbery or t5e*t under t5e .e(ised "enal )ode is ,unis5ed t!o degrees lo!er t5an t5e ,rinci,al6 unless 5e boug5t or ,ro*ited *ro& t5e ,roceeds o* t5e*t or robbery arising *ro& robbery in "5ili,,ine 5ig5!ays under "#-# Bo# <32 !5ere 5e is ,unis5ed as an acco&,lice6 5ence t5e ,enalty is one degree lo!er# Also6 *encing is a &alu& ,ro5ibitu& and t5ere*ore t5ere is no need to ,ro(e cri&inal intent o* t5e accused= t5is is not so in (iolations o* .e(ised "enal )ode# %'77E%/E- AB%4E.: >es6 t5ere is a si&ilarity in t5e sense t5at all t5e acts o* one !5o is an accessory to t5e cri&es o* robbery or t5e*t are included in t5e acts de*ined as *encing# In *act6 t5e accessory in t5e cri&es o* robbery or t5e*t could be ,rosecuted as suc5 under t5e .e(ised "enal )ode or as a *ence under "#-# Bo# 1;12# $-iJon-"a&intuan (s# "eo,le6 23@ %).A ;3P Anti-3encing La!= 3encing= Ele&ents $199<+ 45at are t5e ele&ents o* *encingL %'77E%/E- AB%4E.: /5e ele&ents o* *encing are: a# a cri&e o* robbery or t5e*t 5as been co&&itted= 2; o* A; accused6 !5o is not a ,rinci,al or acco&,lice in t5e cri&e6 buys6 recei(es6 ,ossesses6 0ee,s6 acGuires6 conceals6 or dis,oses6 or buys and sells6 or in any &anner deals in any article6 ite& 6 ob9ect or anyt5ing o* (alue6 !5ic5 5as been deri(ed *ro& t5e ,roceeds o* said cri&e=

t5e accused anyt5ing o* (alue robbery or t5e*t= t5ere is on anot5er#

0no!s or s5ould 5a(e 0no!n t5at said article6 ite&6 ob9ect or 5as been deri(ed *ro& t5e *ro& t5e ,roceeds o* t5e cri&e o* and t5e ,art o* t5e accused6 intent to gain *or 5i&sel* or *or

)ri&inal Liability= Accessories ? 3ence $199A+ Fing !ent to t5e 5ouse o* Laura !5o !as alone# Laura o**ered 5i& a drin0 and a*ter consu&ing t5ree bottles o* beer# Fing &ade ad(ances to 5er and !it5 *orce and (iolence6 ra(is5ed 5er# /5en Fing 0illed Laura and too0 5er 9e!elry# -o&ing6 FingIs ado,ted brot5er6 learned about t5e incident# Ee !ent to LauraIs 5ouse6 5id 5er body6 cleaned e(eryt5ing and !as5ed t5e bloodstains inside t5e roo&# Later6 Fing ga(e Jose6 5is legiti&ate brot5er6 one ,iece o* 9e!elry belonging to Laura# Jose 0ne! t5at t5e 9e!elry !as ta0en *ro& Laura but nonet5eless 5e sold it *or "26000# 45at cri&e or cri&es did Fing6 -o&ing and Jose co&&itL -iscuss t5eir cri&inal liabilities# O10NP %'77E%/E- AB%4E.: Fing co&&itted t5e co&,osite cri&e o* .a,e !it5 5o&icide as a single indi(isible o**ense6 not a co&,le cri&e6 and /5e*t# ### -o&ingIs acts6 5a(ing been done !it5 0no!ledge o* t5e co&&ission o* t5e cri&e and ob(iously to conceal t5e body o* t5e cri&e to ,re(ent its disco(ery6 &a0es 5i& an accessory to t5e cri&e o* ra,e !it5 5o&icide under Art# 196 ,ar# 2 o* t5e .e(# "enal )ode6 but 5e is e e&,t *ro& cri&inal liability t5ere*or under Article 20 o* t5e )ode6 being an ado,ted brot5er o* t5e ,rinci,al# Jose incurs cri&inal liability eit5er as an accessory to t5e cri&e o* t5e*t co&&itted by Fing6 or as *ence# Alt5oug5 5e is a legiti&ate brot5er o* Fing6 t5e e e&,tion under Article 20 does not include t5e ,artici,ation 5e did6 because 5e ,ro*ited *ro& t5e e**ects o* suc5 t5e*t by selling t5e 9e!elry 0no!ing t5at t5e sa&e !as ta0en *ro& Laura# 2r Jose &ay be ,rosecuted *or *encing under t5e Anti3encing La! o* 1979 $"- Bo# 1;12+ since t5e 9e!elry !as t5e ,roceeds o* t5e*t and !it5 intent to gain6 5e recei(ed it *ro& Fing and sold it# )ri&inal Liability= Bon-E e&,tion as Accessory $200@+ -)16 t5e daug5ter o* D)16 stole t5e earrings o* C>R6 a stranger# D)1 ,a!ned t5e earrings !it5 /1I "a!ns5o, as a ,ledge *or "<00 loan# -uring t5e trial6 D)1 raised t5e de*ense t5at being t5e &ot5er o* -)16 s5e cannot be )ri&inal La! 1ar E a&ination 8 ? A $199@-200;+ 5eld liable as an accessory# 4ill D)1Is de*ense ,ros,erL .eason brie*ly# $<N+ %'77E%/E- AB%4E.: Bo6 D)1Is de*ense !ill not ,ros,er because t5e e e&,tion *ro& cri&inal liability o* an accessory by (irtue o* relations5i, !it5 t5e ,rinci,al does not co(er accessories !5o t5e&sel(es ,ro*ited *ro& or assisted t5e o**ender to ,ro*it by t5e e**ects or ,roceeds o* t5e cri&e# /5is non-e e&,tion o* an accessory6 t5oug5 related to t5e ,rinci,al o* t5e cri&e6 is e ,ressly ,ro(ided in Art# 20 o* t5e .e(ised "enal )ode# )ri&inal Liability= "rinci,al by -irect "artici,ation= )o-"rinci,al by Indis,ensable )oo,eration $2000+ -es,ite t5e &assi(e ad(ertising ca&,aign in &edia against *irecrac0ers and gun*iring during t5e Be! >earIs celebrations6 Jonas and Ja9a boug5t ten bo es o* su,er lolo and ,la-,la in 1ocaue6 1ulacan# 1e*ore &idnig5t o* -ece&ber 316 19996 Jonas and Ja9a started t5eir celebration by 5a(ing a drin0ing s,ree at JonaIs ,lace by e ,loding t5eir 5ig5-,o!ered *irecrac0ers in t5eir neig5bor5ood# In t5e course o* t5eir con(ersation6 Jonas con*ided to Ja9a t5at 5e 5as been 0ee,ing a long-ti&e grudge against 5is neig5bor Je,oy in (ie! o* t5e latterIs re*usal to lend 5i& so&e &oney# 45ile under t5e in*luence o* liGuor6 Jonas started t5ro!ing lig5ted su,er lolos inside Je,oyIs *ence to irritate 5i& and t5e sa&e e ,loded inside t5e latterIs yard# ',on 0no!ing t5at t5e t5ro!ing o* t5e su,er lolo !as

deliberate6 Je,oy beca&e *urious and sternly !arned Jonas to sto, 5is &alicious act or 5e !ould get !5at 5e !anted# A 5eated argu&ent bet!een Jonas and Je,oy ensued but Ja9a tried to cal& do!n 5is *riend# At &idnig5t6 Jonas con(inced Ja9a to lend 5i& 5is #@< caliber ,istol so t5at 5e could use it to 0noc0 do!n Je,oy and to end 5is arrogance# Jonas t5oug5t t5at a*ter all6 e ,losions !ere e(ery!5ere and nobody !ould 0no! !5o s5ot Je,oy# A*ter Ja9a lent 5is *irear& to Jonas6 t5e latter again started started t5ro!ing lig5ted su,er lolos and ,la-,las at Je,oyIs yard in order to ,ro(o0e 5i& so t5at 5e !ould co&e out o* 5is 5ouse# 45en Je,oy ca&e out6 Jonas i&&ediately s5ot 5i& !it5 Ja9aIs #@< caliber gun but &issed 5is target# Instead6 t5e bullet 5it Je,oyIs *i(e year old son !5o !as *ollo!ing be5ind 5i&6 0illing t5e boy instantaneously6 I* you !ere t5e Judge6 5o! !ould you decide t5e caseL E ,lain# $1N+ %'77E%/E- AB%4E.: I !ould con(ict Jonas as ,rinci,al by direct ,artici,ation and Ja9a as co,rinci,al by Indis,ensable coo,eration *or t5e co&,le cri&e o* &urder !it5 5o&icide# Ja9a s5ould be 5eld liable as co-,rinci,al and not only as an acco&,lice because 5e 0ne! o* JonasI cri&inal design e(en be*ore 5e lent 5is *irear& to Jonas and still 5e concurred in t5at cri&inal design by ,ro(iding t5e *irear&# )ri&inal Liability= "rinci,al by Induce&ent $2002+ A as0ed 1 to 0ill ) because o* a gra(e in9ustice done to A by )# A ,ro&ised 1 a re!ard# 1 !as !illing to 0ill )6 not so &uc5 because o* t5e re!ard ,ro&ised to 5i& but 27 o* A; because 5e also 5ad 5is o!n long-standing grudge against )6 !5o 5ad !ronged 5i& in t5e ,ast# I* ) is 0illed by 16 !ould A be liable as a ,rinci,al by induce&entL $<N+ %'77E%/E- AB%4E.: Bo# A !ould not be liable as a ,rinci,al by induce&ent because t5e re!ard 5e ,ro&ised 1 is not t5e sole i&,elling reason !5ic5 &ade 1 to 0ill )# /o bring about cri&inal liability o* a co-,rinci,al6 t5e induce&ent &ade by t5e inducer &ust be t5e sole consideration !5ic5 caused t5e ,erson induced to co&&it t5e cri&e and !it5out !5ic5 t5e cri&e !ould not 5a(e been co&&itted# /5e *acts o* t5e case indicate t5at 16 t5e 0iller su,,osedly induced by A6 5ad 5is o!n reason to 0ill ) out o* a long standing grudge# )ri&inal Liability= "rinci,al= Induce&ent ? "artici,ation $199@+ /ata o!ns a t5ree-storey building located at Bo# 3 Eerran %treet# "aco6 Danila# %5e !anted to construct a ne! building but 5ad no &oney to *inance t5e construction# %o6 s5e insured t5e building *or "360006000#00# %5e t5en urged >oboy and >ongsi6 *or &onetary consideration6 to burn 5er building so s5e could collect t5e insurance ,roceeds# >oboy and >ongsi burned t5e said building resulting to its total loss# 45at is t5eir res,ecti(e cri&inal liabilityL %'77E%/E- AB%4E.: /ata is a ,rinci,al by induce&ent because s5e directly induced >oboy and >ongsi6 *or a ,rice or &onetary consideration6 to co&&it arson !5ic5 t5e latter !ould not 5a(e co&&itted !ere it not *or suc5 reason# >oboy and >ongsi are ,rinci,als by direct ,artici,ation $Art# 176 ,ars# 21 and 36 .")+# -estructi(e Arson $199@+ /ata o!ns a t5ree-storey building located at Bo# 3 Eerran %treet# "aco6 Danila# %5e !anted to construct a ne! building but 5ad no &oney to *inance t5e construction# %o6 s5e insured t5e building *or "360006000#00# %5e t5en urged >oboy and >ongsi6 *or &onetary consideration6 to burn 5er building so s5e could collect t5e insurance ,roceeds# >oboy and >ongsi burned t5e said building resulting to its total loss# 45at cri&e did /ata6 >oboy and >ongsi co&&itL %'77E%/E- AB%4E.: /ata6 >oboy and >ongsi co&&itted t5e cri&e o* destructi(e arson because t5ey collecti(ely caused t5e destruction o* ,ro,erty by &eans o* *ire under t5e circu&stances !5ic5 e ,osed to danger t5e li*e or ,ro,erty o* ot5ers $Art6 3206 ,ar# <6 .")# as a&ended by .A Bo# 7;<9+#

"EBAL/IE% )o&,le )ri&e (s# )o&,ound )ri&e $200@+ -istinguis5 clearly but brie*ly: 1et!een co&,ound and co&,le cri&es as conce,ts in t5e "enal )ode# %'77E%/E- AB%4E.: )2D"2'B- ).IDE% result !5en t5e o**ender co&&itted only a single *elonious act *ro& !5ic5 t!o or )ri&inal La! 1ar E a&ination 8 ? A $199@-200;+ &ore cri&es resulted# /5is is ,ro(ided *or in &odi*ied *or& in t5e *irst ,art o* Article @A6 .e(ised "enal )ode6 li&iting t5e resulting cri&es to only gra(e andHor less gra(e *elonies# Eence6 lig5t *elonies are e cluded e(en t5oug5 resulting *ro& t5e sa&e single act# )2D"LEC ).IDE% result !5en t5e o**ender 5as to co&&it an o**ense as a necessary &eans *or co&&itting anot5er o**ense# 2nly one in*or&ation s5all be *iled and i* ,ro(en6 t5e ,enalty *or t5e &ore serious cri&e s5all be i&,osed# )o&,le )ri&e (s# %,ecial )o&,le )ri&e (s# -elito )ontinuado $200<+ -istinguis5 t5e *ollo!ing *ro& eac5 ot5er: %'77E%/E- AB%4E.: An 2.-IBA.> )2D"LEC ).IDE is &ade u, o* t!o or &ore cri&es being ,unis5ed in distinct ,ro(isions o* t5e .e(ised "enal )ode but alleged in one in*or&ation eit5er because t5ey !ere broug5t about by a single *elonious act or because one o**ense is a necessary &eans *or co&&itting t5e ot5er o**ense or o**enses# /5ey are alleged in one in*or&ation so t5at only one ,enalty s5all be i&,osed# As to ,enalties6 ordinary co&,le cri&e6 t5e ,enalty *or t5e &ost serious cri&e s5all be i&,osed and in its &a i&u& ,eriod A %"E)IAL )2D"LEC ).IDE6 on t5e ot5er 5and6 is &ade u, o* t!o or &ore cri&es !5ic5 are considered only as co&,onents o* a single indi(isible o**ense being ,unis5ed in one ,ro(ision o* t5e .e(ised "enal )ode# As to ,enalties6 s,ecial co&,le cri&e6 only one ,enalty is s,eci*ically ,rescribed *or all t5e co&,onent cri&es !5ic5 are regarded as one indi(isible o**ense# /5e co&,onent cri&es are not regarded as distinct cri&es and so t5e ,enalty *or t5e &ost serious cri&e is not t5e ,enalty to be i&,osed nor in its &a i&u& ,eriod# It is t5e ,enalty s,eci*ically ,ro(ided *or t5e s,ecial co&,le cri&e t5at s5all be a,,lied according to t5e rules on i&,osition o* t5e ,enalty# -ELI/2 )2B/IB'A-26 or )2B/IB'2'% ).IDE6 is a ter& used to denote as only one cri&e a series o* *elonious acts arising *ro& a single cri&inal resolution6 not susce,tible o* di(ision6 !5ic5 are carried out in t5e sa&e ,lace and at about t5e sa&e ti&e6 and (iolating one and t5e sa&e ,enal ,ro(ision# /5e acts done &ust be i&,elled by one cri&inal intent or ,ur,ose6 suc5 t5at eac5 act &erely constitutes a ,artial e ecution o* a ,articular cri&e6 (iolating one and t5e sa&e ,enal ,ro(ision# It in(ol(es a concurrence o* *elonious acts (iolating a co&&on rig5t6 a co&&on ,enal ,ro(ision6 and I&,elled by a single cri&inal i&,ulse $"eo,le (s# Ledes&a6 73 %).A 77+# )o&,le )ri&e= Aberratio ictus (s# error in ,ersonae $199@+ -istinguis5 aberratio ictus *ro& error in ,ersonae# %'77E%/E- AB%4E.: 2A o* A; Aberratio ictus or &ista0e in t5e blo! occurs !5en a *elonious act &issed t5e ,erson against !5o& it !as directed and 5it instead so&ebody !5o !as not t5e intended (icti&# Error in ,ersonae6 or &ista0e in identity occurs !5en t5e *elonious act !as directed at t5e ,erson intended6 but !5o turned out to be so&ebody else# Aberratio ictus brings about at least t!o $2+ *elonious conseGuence6 ie# t5e atte&,ted *elony on t5e intended (icti& !5o !as not 5it and t5e *elony on t5e unintended (icti& !5o !as 5it# A co&,le cri&e o* t5e *irst *or& under Art# @A6 .") generally result# In error in ,ersonae only one cri&e is co&&itted )o&,le )ri&e= Aberratio Ictus6 Error In "ersonae ? "raeter Intentione& $1999+ 45at do you understand by aberratio ictus: error in ,ersonae= and ,raeter

intentione&L -o t5ey alter t5e cri&inal liability o* an accusedL E ,lain# $@N+ %'77E%/E- AB%4E.: A1E..A/I2 I)/'% or &ista0e in t5e blo! occurs !5en t5e o**ender deli(ered t5e blo! at 5is intended (icti& but &issed6 and instead suc5 blo! landed on an unintended (icti&# /5e situation generally brings about co&,le cri&es !5ere *ro& a single act6 t!o or &ore gra(e or less gra(e *elonies resulted6 na&ely t5e atte&,t against t5e intended (icti& and t5e conseGuence on t5e unintended (icti&# As co&,le cri&es6 t5e ,enalty *or t5e &ore serious cri&e s5all be t5e one i&,osed and in t5e &a i&u& ,eriod# It is only !5en t5e resulting *elonies are only lig5t t5at co&,le cri&es do not result and t5e ,enalties are to be i&,osed distinctly *or eac5 resulting cri&e# E..2. IB "E.%2BAE or &ista0e in identity occurs !5en t5e o**ender actually 5it t5e ,erson to !5o& t5e blo! !as directed but turned out to be di**erent *ro& and not t5e (icti& intended# /5e cri&inal liability o* t5e o**ender is not a**ected6 unless t5e &ista0e in identity resulted to a cri&e di**erent *ro& !5at t5e o**ender intended to co&&it6 in !5ic5 case t5e lesser ,enalty bet!een t5e cri&e intended and t5e cri&e co&&itted s5all be i&,osed but in t5e &a i&u& ,eriod $Art# @96 .3)+# ".AE/E. IB/EB/I2BED or !5ere t5e conseGuence !ent beyond t5at intended or e ,ected# /5is is a &itigating circu&stance $Art# 13# ,ar# 36 .")+ !5en t5ere is a notorious dis,arity bet!een t5e act or &eans e&,loyed by t5e o**ender and t5e resulting *elony6 i6e#6 t5e resulting *elony could not be reasonably antici,ated or *oreseen by t5e o* *ender *ro& t5e act or &eans e&,loyed by 5i&# )o&,le )ri&e= Aberratio Ictus= Atte&,ted Durder !it5 Eo&icide $2000+ -es,ite t5e &assi(e ad(ertising ca&,aign in &edia against *irecrac0ers and gun*iring during t5e Be! >earIs celebrations6 Jonas and Ja9a boug5t ten bo es o* su,er lolo and ,la-,la in 1ocaue6 1ulacan# 1e*ore &idnig5t o* -ece&ber 316 19996 Jonas and Ja9a started t5eir )ri&inal La! 1ar E a&ination 8 ? A $199@-200;+ celebration by 5a(ing a drin0ing s,ree at JonaIs ,lace by e ,loding t5eir 5ig5,o!ered *irecrac0ers in t5eir neig5bor5ood# In t5e course o* t5eir con(ersation6 Jonas con*ided to Ja9a t5at 5e 5as been 0ee,ing a long-ti&e grudge against 5is neig5bor Je,oy in (ie! o* t5e latterIs re*usal to lend 5i& so&e &oney# 45ile under t5e in*luence o* liGuor6 Jonas started t5ro!ing lig5ted su,er lolos inside Je,oyIs *ence to irritate 5i& and t5e sa&e e ,loded inside t5e latterIs yard# ',on 0no!ing t5at t5e t5ro!ing o* t5e su,er lolo !as deliberate6 Je,oy beca&e *urious and sternly !arned Jonas to sto, 5is &alicious act or 5e !ould get !5at 5e !anted# A 5eated argu&ent bet!een Jonas and Je,oy ensued but Ja9a tried to cal& do!n 5is *riend# At &idnig5t6 Jonas con(inced Ja9a to lend 5i& 5is #@< caliber ,istol so t5at 5e could use it to 0noc0 do!n Je,oy and to end 5is arrogance# Jonas t5oug5t t5at a*ter all6 e ,losions !ere e(ery!5ere and nobody !ould 0no! !5o s5ot Je,oy# A*ter Ja9a lent 5is *irear& to Jonas6 t5e latter again started t5ro!ing lig5ted su,er lolos and ,la-,las at Je,oyIs yard in order to ,ro(o0e 5i& so t5at 5e !ould co&e out o* 5is 5ouse# 45en Je,oy ca&e out6 Jonas i&&ediately s5ot 5i& !it5 Ja9aIs #@< caliber gun but &issed 5is target# Instead6 t5e bullet 5it Je,oyIs *i(e year old son !5o !as *ollo!ing be5ind 5i&6 0illing t5e boy instantaneously6 a+ 45at cri&e or cri&es can Jonas and Ja9a be c5arged !it5L E ,lain# $2N+ %'77E%/E- AB%4E.: Jonas and Ja9a6 can be c5arged !it5 t5e co&,le cri&e o* atte&,ted &urder !it5 5o&icide because a single act caused a less gra(e and a gra(e *elony $Art# @A# .")+# Atte&,ted &urder is a less gra(e *elony6 !5ile consu&&ated 5o&icide is a gra(e *elony: bot5 are ,unis5able by a**licti(e ,enalties# )o&,le )ri&e= -octrine o* Aberratio Ictus= Bot A,,licable $199;+ At t5e 5eig5t o* an altercation6 "edrito s5ot "aulo but &issed6 5itting /iburcio instead6 resulting in t5e deat5 o* t5e latter# "edrito6 in(o0ing t5e doctrine o* aberratio ictus6 clai&s e e&,tion *ro& cri&inal liability# I* you !ere t5e 9udge6 5o! !ould you decide t5e caseL

%'77E%/E- AB%4E.: I* I !ere t5e Judge6 I !ill con(ict "edrito and *ind 5i& guilty o* t5e co&,le cri&e o* Eo&icide !it5 Atte&,ted Eo&icide# /5e single act o* *iring at "aulo resulted in t5e co&&ission o* t!o *elonies6 one gra(e $5o&icide+ and t5e ot5er less gra(e $atte&,ted 5o&icide+ t5us *alling sGuarely under Art# @A6 .")= 5ence6 t5e ,enalty !ould be *or t5e &ore serious cri&e $5o&icideK in its &a i&u& ,eriod $17 years @ &ont5s and 1 day to 20 years+# Aberratio ictus $&ista0e in t5e blo!+ could not be used as a de*ense as it is not an e e&,ting circu&stance# "edrito is liable under t5e ,rinci,le o* Art# @6 .")6 !5ic5 &a0es a ,erson cri&inally liable *or all t5e natural and logical conseGuences o* 5is *elonious act 29 o* A; )o&,le )ri&es= )ou, d:etat ? rebellion ? sedition $2003+ 1+ )an t5ere be a co&,le cri&e o* cou, dIetat !it5 rebellionL 2N 2+ )an t5ere be a co&,le cri&e o* cou, dIetat !it5 seditionL 2N %'77E%/E- AB%4E.: 1+ >es6 i* t5ere !as cons,iracy bet!een t5e o**enderH o**enders co&&itting t5e cou, dIetat and t5e o**enders co&&itting t5e rebellion# 1y cons,iracy6 t5e cri&e o* one !ould be t5e cri&e o* t5e ot5er and (ice (ersa# /5is is ,ossible because t5e o**ender in cou, dIetat &ay be any ,erson or ,ersons belonging to t5e &ilitary or t5e national ,olice or a ,ublic o**icer6 !5ereas rebellion does not so reGuire# Doreo(er6 t5e cri&e o* cou, dIetat &ay be co&&itted singly6 !5ereas rebellion reGuires a ,ublic u,rising and ta0ing u, ar&s to o(ert5ro! t5e duly constituted go(ern&ent# %ince t5e t!o cri&es are essentially di**erent and ,unis5ed !it5 distinct ,enalties6 t5ere is no legal i&,edi&ent to t5e a,,lication o* Art# @A o* t5e .e(ised "enal )ode# 2+ >es6 cou, dIetat can be co&,le ed !it5 sedition because t5e t!o cri&es are essentially di**erent and distinctly ,unis5ed under t5e .e(ised "enal )ode# %edition &ay not be directed against t5e 7o(ern&ent or non-,olitical in ob9ecti(e6 !5ereas cou, dIetat is al!ays ,olitical in ob9ecti(e as it is directed against t5e 7o(ern&ent and led by ,ersons or ,ublic o**icer 5olding ,ublic o**ice belonging to t5e &ilitary or national ,olice# Art# @A o* t5e )ode &ay a,,ly under t5e conditions t5erein ,ro(ided# AL/E.BA/IVE AB%4E.: /5e cri&e o* cou, dIetat cannot be co&,le ed !it5 t5e cri&e o* rebellion because bot5 cri&es are directed against t5e 7o(ern&ent or *or ,olitical ,ur,oses6 alt5oug5 t5e ,rinci,al o**enders are di**erent# /5e essence &ay be t5e sa&e and t5us constitute only one cri&e# In t5is situation6 t5e t!o cri&es are not distinct and t5ere*ore6 &ay not be ,ro,er to a,,ly Article @A o* t5e )ode# )o&,le )ri&es= -eter&ination o* t5e )ri&e $1999+ A6 actuated by &alice and !it5 t5e use o* a *ully auto&atic D-1@ sub-&ac5ine gun6 s5ot a grou, o* ,ersons !5o !ere seated in a coc0,it !it5 one burst o* successi(e6 continuous6 auto&atic *ire# 3our $@+ ,ersons !ere 0illed t5ereby6 eac5 5a(ing 5it by di**erent bullets co&ing *ro& t5e sub-&ac5ine gun o* A# 3our $@+ cases o* &urder !ere *iled against A# /5e trial court ruled t5at t5ere !as only one cri&e co&&itted by A *or t5e reason t5at6 since A ,er*or&ed only one act6 5e 5a(ing ,ressed t5e trigger o* 5is gun only once6 t5e cri&e co&&itted !as &urder# )onseGuently6 t5e trial 9udge sentenced A to 9ust one ,enalty o* reclusion ,er,etua# 4as t5e decision o* t5e trial 9udge correctL E ,lain# $@N+ %'77E%/E- AB%4E.: )ri&inal La! 1ar E a&ination 8 ? A $199@-200;+ /5e decision o* t5e trial 9udge is not correct# 45en t5e o**ender &ade use o* an auto&atic *irear&6 t5e acts co&&itted are deter&ined by t5e nu&ber o* bullets disc5arged inas&uc5 as t5e *irear& being auto&atic6 t5e o**ender need only ,ress t5e trigger once and it !ould *ire continually# 3or eac5 deat5 caused by a distinct and se,arate bullet6 t5e accused incurs distinct cri&inal liability# Eence6 it is not t5e act o* ,ressing t5e trigger !5ic5 s5ould be considered as ,roducing t5e se(eral *elonies6 but t5e nu&ber o* bullets !5ic5 actually ,roduced

t5e&# )o&,le )ri&es= Bature ? "enalty In(ol(ed $1999+ 45at constitutes a co&,le cri&eL Eo! &any cri&es &aybe in(ol(ed in a co&,le cri&eL 45at is t5e ,enalty t5ere*orL $@N+ %'77E%/E- AB%4E.: A co&,le cri&e is constituted !5en a single act caused t!o or &ore gra(e or less gra(e *elonies or !5en an o**ense is co&&itted as a necessary &eans to co&&it anot5er o**ense $Art# @A6 .")+# At least t!o $2+ cri&es are in(ol(ed in a co&,le cri&e= eit5er t!o or &ore gra(e or less gra(e *elonies resulted *ro& a single act6 or an o**ense is co&&itted as a necessary &eans *or co&&itting anot5er# /5e ,enalty *or t5e &ore serious cri&e s5all be i&,osed and in its &a i&u& ,eriod# $Art# @A6 .")+ )o&,le )ri&es= 2rdinary )o&,le )ri&e (s# %,ecial )o&,le )ri&e $2003+ -istinguis5 bet!een an ordinary co&,le cri&e and a s,ecial co&,le cri&e as to t5eir conce,ts and as to t5e i&,osition o* ,enalties# 2N %'77E%/E- AB%4E.: IB )2B)E"/ An 2.-IBA.> )2D"LEC ).IDE is &ade u, o* t!o or &ore cri&es being ,unis5ed in distinct ,ro(isions o* t5e .e(ised "enal )ode but alleged in one In*or&ation eit5er because t5ey !ere broug5t about by a single *elonious act or because one o**ense is a necessary &eans *or co&&itting t5e ot5er o**ense or o**enses# /5ey are alleged in one In*or&ation so t5at only one ,enalty s5all be i&,osed# A %"E)IAL )2D"LEC ).IDE6 on t5e ot5er 5and6 is &ade u, o* t!o or &ore cri&es !5ic5 are considered only as co&,onents o* a single indi(isible o**ense being ,unis5ed in one ,ro(ision o* t5e .e(ised "enal )ode# A% /2 "EBAL/IE% -In 2.-IBA.> )2D"LEC ).IDE6 t5e ,enalty *or t5e &ost serious cri&e s5all be i&,osed and in its &a i&u& ,eriod# In %"E)IAL )2D"LEC ).IDE6 only one ,enalty is s,eci*ically ,rescribed *or all t5e co&,onent cri&es !5ic5 are regarded as one indi(isible o**ense# /5e co&,onent cri&es are not regarded as distinct cri&es and so t5e ,enalty *or t5e &ost serious cri&e is not t5e ,enalty to be i&,osed nor in its &a i&u& ,eriod# It is 30 o* A; t5e ,enalty s,eci*ically ,ro(ided *or t5e s,ecial co&,le cri&e t5at s5all be a,,lied according to t5e rules on i&,osition o* t5e ,enalty# )ontinuing 2**ense (s# -elito )ontinuado $199@+ -i**erentiate delito continuado *ro& a continuing o**ense# %'77E%/E- AB%4E.: -ELI/2 )2B/IB'A-26 or )2B/IB'2'% ).IDE6 is a ter& used to denote as only one cri&e a series o* *elonious acts arising *ro& a single cri&inal resolution6 not susce,tible o* di(ision6 !5ic5 are carried out in t5e sa&e ,lace and at about t5e sa&e ti&e6 and (iolating one and t5e sa&e ,enal ,ro(ision# /5e acts done &ust be i&,elled by one cri&inal intent or ,ur,ose6 suc5 t5at eac5 act &erely constitutes a ,artial e ecution o* a ,articular cri&e6 (iolating one and t5e sa&e ,enal ,ro(ision# It in(ol(es a concurrence o* *elonious acts (iolating a co&&on rig5t6 a co&&on ,enal ,ro(ision6 and i&,elled by a single cri&inal i&,ulse $"eo,le (s# LeQdes&a6 73 %).A 77+# 2n t5e ot5er 5and6 a )2B/IB'IB7 233EB%E is one !5ose essential ingredients too0 ,lace in &ore t5an one &unici,ality or city6 so &uc5 so t5at t5e cri&inal ,rosecution &ay be instituted and t5e case tried in t5e co&,etent court o* any one o* suc5 &unici,ality or city# /5e ter& M)2B/IB'E- ).IDEM or delito continuado &andates t5at only one in*or&ation s5ould be *iled against t5e o**ender alt5oug5 a series o* *elonious acts !ere ,er*or&ed= t5e ter& Mcontinuing cri&eM is &ore ,ertinently used !it5 re*erence to t5e (enue !5ere t5e cri&inal action &ay be instituted# -eat5 "enalty $200@+ A# /5e deat5 ,enalty cannot be in*licted under !5ic5 o* t5e *ollo!ing circu&stances: 1+ 45en t5e guilty ,erson is at least 1A years o* age at t5e ti&e o* t5e co&&ission o* t5e cri&e# 2+ 45en t5e guilty ,erson is &ore t5an 70

years o* age# 3+ 45en6 u,on a,,eal to or auto&atic re(ie! by t5e %u,re&e )ourt6 t5e reGuired &a9ority *or t5e i&,osition o* t5e deat5 ,enalty is not obtained# @+ 45en t5e ,erson is con(icted o* a ca,ital cri&e but be*ore e ecution beco&es insane# <+ 45en t5e accused is a !o&an !5ile s5e is ,regnant or !it5in one year a*ter deli(ery# E ,lain your ans!er or c5oice brie*ly# $<N+ %'77E%/E- AB%4E.: A# 'nderstanding t5e !ord Min*lictedM to &ean t5e i&,osition o* t5e deat5 ,enalty6 not its e ecution6 t5e circu&stance in !5ic5 t5e deat5 ,enalty cannot be in*licted is no# 2: M!5en t5e guilty ,erson is &ore t5an 70 years o* ageM $Art# @76 .e(ised "enal )ode+# Instead6 t5e ,enalty s5all be co&&uted to reclusion ,er,etua6 !it5 t5e accessory ,enalties ,ro(ided in Article @06 .3)# In circu&stance no# 1 !5en t5e guilty ,erson is at least 1A years o* age at t5e ti&e o* t5e co&&ission o* t5e )ri&inal La! 1ar E a&ination 8 ? A $199@-200;+ cri&e6 t5e deat5 ,enalty can be i&,osed since t5e o**ender is already o* legal age !5en 5e co&&itted t5e cri&e# )ircu&stance no# 3 no longer o,erates6 considering t5e decision o* t5e %u,re&e )ourt in "eo,le (s# E*ren Dateo $7#.# 1@7;7A-A76 July 76 200@+ ,ro(iding an inter&ediate re(ie! *or suc5 cases !5ere t5e ,enalty i&,osed is deat56 reclusion ,er,etua or li*e i&,rison&ent be*ore t5ey are ele(ated to t5e %u,re&e )ourt# In circu&tances nos# @ ? <6 t5e deat5 ,enalty can be i&,osed i* ,rescribed by t5e la! (iolated alt5oug5 its e ecution s5all be sus,ended !5en t5e con(ict beco&es insane be*ore it could be e ecuted and !5ile 5e is insane# Li0e!ise6 t5e deat5 ,enalty can be i&,osed u,on a !o&an but its e ecution s5all be sus,ended during 5er ,regnancy and *or one year a*ter 5er deli(ery# AL/E.BA/IVE AB%4E.: /5e !ord MIB3LI)/E-M is *ound only in Art# A3 to t5e e**ect t5at t5e deat5 ,enalty &ay not be MIB3LI)/E-M u,on a ,regnant !o&an6 suc5 ,enalty is to be sus,ended# I* MIB3LI)/E-M is to be construed as MECE)'/I2BM6 t5en Bo# < is t5e c5oice# -eat5 "enalty= 8uali*ied .a,e= .eGuisites $200@+ 7V !as con(icted o* ra,ing /)6 5is niece6 and 5e !as sentenced to deat5# It !as alleged in t5e in*or&ation t5at t5e (icti& !as a &inor belo! se(en years old6 and 5er &ot5er testi*ied t5at s5e !as only si years and ten &ont5s old6 !5ic5 5er aunt corroborated on t5e !itness stand# /5e in*or&ation also alleged t5at t5e accused !as t5e (icti&Is uncle6 a *act ,ro(ed by t5e ,rosecution# 2n auto&atic re(ie! be*ore t5e %u,re&e )ourt6 accused-a,,ellant contends t5at ca,ital ,unis5&ent could not be i&,osed on 5i& because o* t5e inadeGuacy o* t5e c5arges and t5e insu**iciency o* t5e e(idence to ,ro(e all t5e ele&ents o* t5e 5einous cri&e o* ra,e beyond reasonable doubt# Is a,,ellantIs contention correctL .eason brie*ly# $<N+ %'77E%/E- AB%4E.: >es6 a,,ellantIs contention is correct inso*ar as t5e age o* t5e (icti& is concerned# /5e age o* t5e (icti& ra,ed 5as not been ,ro(ed beyond reasonable doubt to constitute t5e cri&e as Guali*ied ra,e and deser(ing o* t5e deat5 ,enalty# /5e guidelines in a,,reciating age as a Guali*ying circu&stance in ra,e cases 5a(e not been &et6 to !it: 1+ /5e ,ri&ary e(idence o* t5e age o* t5e (icti& is 5er birt5 certi*icate= 2+ In t5e absence o* t5e birt5 certi*icate6 age o* t5e (icti& &aybe ,ro(en by aut5entic docu&ent6 suc5 as ba,tis&al certi*icate and sc5ool records= 3+ I* t5e a*oresaid docu&ents are s5o!n to 5a(e been lost or destroyed or ot5er!ise una(ailable6 t5e testi&ony6 i* clear and credible o* t5e (icti&Is &ot5er or any &e&ber o* t5e *a&ily6 by consanguinity or a**inity6 !5o is Guali*ied to testi*y on &atters res,ecting ,edigree suc5 as t5e e act age 31 o* A; or date o* birt5 o* t5e o**ended ,arty ,ursuant to %ection @06 .ule 130 o* t5e .ules on E(idence s5all be su**icient but only under t5e *ollo!ing circu&stances:

$a+ I* t5e (icti& is alleged to be belo! 3 years o* age and !5at is soug5t to be ,ro(ed is t5at s5e is less t5an 7 years old= $b+ I* t5e (icti& is alleged to be belo! 7 years o* age and !5at is soug5t to be ,ro(ed is t5at s5e is less t5an 12 years old= $c+ I* t5e (icti& is alleged to be belo! 12 years o* age and !5at is soug5t to be ,ro(ed is t5at s5e is less t5an 1A years old# @+ In t5e absence o* a certi*icate o* li(e birt56 aut5entic docu&ent6 or t5e testi&ony o* t5e (icti&Is &ot5er or relati(es concerning t5e (icti&Is age under t5e circu&stances abo(e-stated6 co&,lainantIs sole testi&ony can su**ice6 ,ro(ided t5at it is e ,ressly and clearly ad&itted by t5e accused $"eo,le us# "runa6 390 %).A <77 O2002P+# Eabitual -elinGuency ? .ecidi(is& $2001+ Juan de )astro already 5ad t5ree $3+ ,re(ious con(ictions by *inal 9udg&ent *or t5e*t !5en 5e !as *ound guilty o* .obbery !it5 Eo&icide# In t5e last case6 t5e trial Judge considered against t5e accused bot5 recidi(is& and 5abitual delinGuency# /5e accused a,,ealed and contended t5at in 5is last con(iction6 t5e trial court cannot consider against 5i& a *inding o* recidi(is& and6 again6 o* 5abitual delinGuency# Is t5e a,,eal &eritoriousL E ,lain# $<N+ %'77E%/E- AB%4E.: Bo6 t5e a,,eal is not &eritorious# .ecidi(is& and 5abitual delinGuency are correctly considered in t5is case because t5e basis o* recidi(is& is di**erent *ro& t5at o* 5abitual delinGuency# Juan is a recidi(ist ### Eabitual delinGuency6 !5ic5 brings about an additional ,enalty !5en an o**ender is con(icted a t5ird ti&e or &ore *or s,eci*ied cri&es6 is correctly considered because Juan 5ad already t5ree $3+ ,re(ious con(ictions by *inal 9udg&ent *or t5e*t and again con(icted *or .obbery 4it5 Eo&icide# And t5e cri&es s,eci*ied as basis *or 5abitual delinGuency includes6 inter alia6 t5e*t and robbery# Indeter&inate %entence La! $199@+ Itos !as con(icted o* an o**ense ,enaliJed by a s,ecial la!# /5e ,enalty ,rescribed is not less t5an si years but not &ore t5an t!el(e years# Bo &odi*ying circu&stance attended t5e co&&ission o* t5e cri&e# I* you !ere t5e 9udge6 !ill you a,,ly t5e Indeter&inate %entence La!L I* so6 5o! !ill you a,,ly itL %'77E%/E- AB%4E.: I* I !ere t5e 9udge6 I !ill a,,ly t5e ,ro(isions o* t5e Indeter&inate %entence La!6 as t5e last sentence o* %ection 1 Act @1036 s,eci*ically ,ro(ides t5e a,,lication t5ereo* *or (iolations o* s,ecial la!s# 'nder t5e sa&e ,ro(ision6 t5e &ini&u& &ust not be less t5an t5e &ini&u& ,ro(ided t5erein $si years and one day+ and t5e &a i&u& s5all not be &ore t5an t5e )ri&inal La! 1ar E a&ination 8 ? A $199@-200;+ &a i&u& ,ro(ided t5erein6 i#e# t!el(e years# $"eo,le (s# .osalina .eyes6 1A; %).A 1A@+ Indeter&inate %entence La! $1999+ Andres is c5arged !it5 an o**ense de*ined by a s,ecial la!# /5e ,enalty ,rescribed *or t5e o**ense is i&,rison&ent o* not less t5an *i(e $<+ years but not &ore t5an ten O10+ years# ',on arraign&ent6 5e entered a ,lea o* guilty# In t5e i&,osition o* t5e ,ro,er ,enalty6 s5ould t5e Indeter&inate %entence La! be a,,liedL I* you !ere t5e Judge trying t5e case6 !5at ,enalty !ould you i&,ose on AndresL $@N+ %'77E%/E- AB%4E.: >es6 t5e Indeter&inate %entence La! s5ould be a,,lied because t5e &ini&u& i&,rison&ent is &ore t5an one $1+ year# I* I !ere t5e Judge6 I !ill i&,ose an indeter&inate sentence6 t5e &a i&u& o* !5ic5 s5all not e ceed t5e &a i&u& *i ed by la! and t5e &ini&u& s5all not be less t5an t5e &ini&u& ,enalty ,rescribed by t5e sa&e# I 5a(e t5e discretion to i&,ose t5e ,enalty !it5in t5e said &ini&u& and &a i&u&# Indeter&inate %entence La! $1999+ A !as con(icted o* illegal ,ossession o* grease guns and t!o /5o&,son sub-&ac5ine guns ,unis5able under t5e old la! O.A Bo6@P !it5 i&,rison&ent o* *ro& *i(e $<+ to ten $10+ years# /5e trial court sentenced t5e accused to su**er i&,rison&ent o* *i(e $<+ years and one $1+ day# Is t5e ,enalty t5us i&,osed correctL E ,lain#

$3N+ %'77E%/E- AB%4E.: Indeter&inate %entence La! does not a,,ly to: /5e ,enalty i&,osed6 being only a straig5t ,enalty6 is not correct because it does not co&,ly !it5 t5e Indeter&inate %entence La! !5ic5 a,,lies to t5is case# %aid la! reGuires t5at i* t5e o**ense is ,unis5ed by any la! ot5er t5an t5e .e(ised "enal )ode6 t5e court s5all sentence t5e accused to an indeter&inate sentence6 t5e &a i&u& ter& o* !5ic5 s5all not e ceed t5e &a i&u& ,enalty *i ed by t5e la! and t5e &ini&u& s5all not be less t5an t5e &ini&u& ,enalty ,rescribed by t5e sa&e# Indeter&inate %entence La! $2002+ Eo! are t5e &a i&u& and t5e &ini&u& ter&s o* t5e indeter&inate sentence *or o**enses ,unis5able under t5e .e(ised "enal )ode deter&inedL $3N+ %'77E%/E- AB%4E.: 3or cri&es ,unis5ed under t5e .e(ised "enal )ode6 t5e &a i&u& ter& o* t5e Indeter&inate sentence s5all be t5e ,enalty ,ro,erly i&,osable under t5e sa&e )ode a*ter considering t5e attending &itigating andHor aggra(ating circu&stances according to Art6 ;@ o* said )ode# /5e &ini&u& ter& o* t5e sa&e sentence s5all be *i ed !it5in t5e range o* t5e ,enalty ne t lo!er in degree to t5at ,rescribed *or t5e cri&e under t5e said )ode# 'nder t5e la!6 !5at is t5e ,ur,ose *or *i ing t5e &a i&u& and t5e &ini&u& ter&s o* t5e indeter&inate sentenceL $2N+ %'77E%/E- AB%4E.: 32 o* A; /5e ,ur,ose o* t5e la! in *i ing t5e &ini&u& ter& o* t5e sentence is to set t5e grace ,eriod at !5ic5 t5e con(ict &ay be released on ,arole *ro& i&,rison&ent6 unless by 5is conduct 5e is not deser(ing o* ,arole and t5us 5e s5all continue ser(ing 5is ,rison ter& in Jail but in no case to go beyond t5e &a i&u& ter& *i ed in t5e sentence# Indeter&inate %entence La! $200<+ Earold !as con(icted o* a cri&e de*ined and ,enaliJed by a s,ecial ,enal la! !5ere t5e i&,osable ,enalty is *ro& ; &ont5s6 as &ini&u&6 to 3 years6 as &a i&u&# %tate !it5 reasons !5et5er t5e court &ay correctly i&,ose t5e *ollo!ing ,enalties: a+ a straig5t ,enalty o* 10 &ont5s= %'77E%/E- AB%4E.: >es6 because t5e ,enalty is less t5an one year6 a straig5t ,enalty &ay be i&,osed# $"eo,le (# Arellano6 7#.# Bo6 @;<016 2ctober <6 1939+ AL/E.BA/IVE AB%4E.: 'nder t5e Indeter&inate %entence La!6 t5e &ini&u& i&,osable ,enalty s5all be i&,osed but t5e &a i&u& s5all not e ceed t5e &a i&u& i&,osable by la!# b+ ; &ont5s6 as &ini&u&6 to 11 &ont5s6 as &a i&u&= %'77E%/E- AB%4E.: Bo6 because Indeter&inate %entence La! does not a,,ly !5en t5e ,enalty i&,osed is less t5an one year $%ec# 26 Art# @1036 as a&ended+# c+ a straig5t ,enalty o* 2 years# $<N+ %'77E%/E- AB%4E.: Bo6 because t5e Indeter&inate %entence La! !ill a,,ly !5en t5e &ini&u& o* t5e ,enalty e ceeds one year# AL/E.BA/IVE AB%4E.# I* t5e i&,osition o* straig5t ,enalty !5ic5 consists o* t5e &ini&u& ,eriod o* t5e ,enalty ,rescribed by la!6 t5en it &ay be allo!ed because it *a(ors t5e accused# Indeter&inate %entence La!= E ce,tions $1999+ 'nder !5at circu&stances is t5e Indeter&inate %entence La! not a,,licableL $2N+ %'77E%/E- AB%4E.: 1+ "ersons con(icted o* o**enses ,unis5ed !it5 deat5 ,enalty or li*e i&,rison&ent= 2+ /5ose con(icted o* treason6 cons,iracy or ,ro,osal to co&&it treason= 3+ /5ose con(icted o* &is,rision o* treason6 rebellion6 sedition or es,ionage= @+ /5ose con(icted o* ,iracy= <+ /5ose !5o are 5abitual

delinGuents= ;+ /5ose !5o s5all 5a(e esca,ed *ro& con*ine&ent or e(aded sentence= 7+ /5ose !5o (iolated t5e ter&s o* conditional ,ardon granted to t5e& by t5e )5ie* E ecuti(e= A+ /5ose !5ose &a i&u& ter& o* i&,rison&ent does not e ceed one year= )ri&inal La! 1ar E a&ination 8 ? A $199@-200;+ 9+ /5ose !5o6 u,on t5e a,,ro(al o* t5e la! $-ece&ber <6 1933+# 5ad been sentenced by *inal Judg&ent= 10+ /5ose sentenced to t5e ,enalty o* destierro or sus,ension# Indeter&inate %entence La!= E ce,tions $2003+ 45en !ould t5e Indeter&inate %entence La! be ina,,licableL @N %'77E%/E- AB%4E.: /5e Indeter&inate %entence La! is not a,,licable to: 1+ t5ose ,ersons con(icted o* o**enses ,unis5ed !it5 deat5 ,enalty or li*ei&,rison&ent or reclusion ,er,etua= 2+ t5ose con(icted o* treason6 cons,iracy or ,ro,osal to co&&it treason= 3+ t5ose con(icted o* &is,rision o* treason6 rebellion6 sedition or es,ionage= @+ t5ose con(icted o* ,iracy= <+ t5ose !5o are 5abitual delinGuents= ;+ t5ose !5o s5all 5a(e esca,ed *ro& con*ine&ent or e(aded sentence= 7+ t5ose !5o 5a(ing been granted conditional ,ardon by t5e )5ie* E ecuti(e s5all 5a(e (iolated t5e ter&s t5ereo*= A+ t5ose !5ose &a i&u& ter& o* i&,rison&ent does not e ceed one year= 9+ t5ose already sentenced by *inal 9udg&ent at t5e ti&e o* a,,ro(al o* t5is Act= and 10+ t5ose !5ose sentence i&,oses ,enalties !5ic5 do not in(ol(e i&,rison&ent6 li0e destierro# "enalties: 3ine or I&,rison&ent (s# %ubsidiary I&,rison&ent $200<+ E and D are con(icted o* a ,enal la! t5at i&,oses a ,enalty o* *ine or i&,rison&ent or bot5 *ine and i&,rison&ent# /5e 9udge sentenced t5e& to ,ay t5e *ine6 9ointly and se(erally6 !it5 subsidiary i&,rison&ent in case o* insol(ency# Is t5e ,enalty ,ro,erL E ,lain# %'77E%/E- AB%4E.: /5e ,enalty is not ,ro,er# /5e t!o accused &ust se,arately ,ay t5e *ine6 !5ic5 is t5eir ,enalty# %olidary liability a,,lies only to ci(il liabilities# AL/E.BA/IVE AB%4E.: B26 because in ,enal la! !5en t5ere are se(eral o**enders6 t5e court in t5e e ercise o* its discretion s5all deter&ine !5at s5all be t5e s5are o* eac5 o**ender de,ending u,on t5e degree o* ,artici,ation – as ,rinci,al6 acco&,lice or accessory# I* !it5in eac5 class o* o**ender6 t5ere are &ore o* t5e&6 suc5 as &ore t5an one ,rinci,al or &ore t5an one acco&,lice or accessory6 t5e liability in eac5 class o* o**ender s5all be subsidiary# Anyone o* t5e &ay be reGuired to ,ay t5e ci(il liability ,ertaining to suc5 o**ender !it5out ,re9udice to reco(ery *ro& t5ose !5ose s5are 5a(e been ,aid by anot5er# Day t5e 9udge i&,ose an alternati(e ,enalty o* *ine or i&,rison&entL E ,lain# $@N+ %'77E%/E- AB%4E.: 33 o* A; Bo# A *ine6 !5et5er i&,osed as a single or as an alternati(e ,enalty6 s5ould not and cannot be reduced or con(erted into a ,rison ter&# /5ere is no rule *or trans&utation o* t5e a&ount o* a *ine into a ter& o* i&,rison&ent# $"eo,le (# -acuycuy6 7#.# Bo# L-@<127 Day <6 19A9+ "enalties: "ecuniary "enalties (s# "ecuniary Liabilities $200<+ -istinguis5 ,ecuniary ,enalties *ro& ,ecuniary liabilities# $2N+ %'77E%/E- AB%4E.: "ecuniary liabilities do not include restitution6 but include re,aration o* da&ages caused6 t5e inde&ni*ication *or conseGuential da&ages6 as !ell as *ines and cost o* t5e ,roceedings# "ecuniary ,enalties include *ines and cost o* t5e ,roceedings# "enalties= )o&,le )ri&e o* Esta*a $1997+

A !as con(icted o* t5e co&,le cri&e o* esta*a t5roug5 *alsi*ication o* ,ublic docu&ent# %ince t5e a&ount In(ol(ed did not e ceed "200#006 t5e ,enalty ,rescribed by la! *or esta*a is arresto &ayor in its &ediu& and &a i&u& ,eriods# /5e ,enalty ,rescribed by la! *or *alsi*ication o* ,ublic docu&ent is ,rision &ayor ,lus *ine not to e ceed "<6000#00# I&,ose t5e ,ro,er ,rison ,enalty# %'77E%/E- AB%4E.: /5e ,ro,er ,enalty is AB> .AB7E 4I/EIB ,rision correccional $si $;+ &ont5s and one $1+ day to si $;+ years+ as DIBID'D6 to AB> .AB7E !it5in ,rision &ayor &a i&u& $ten $10+ years and one $1+ day to t!el(e $12+ years+ as DACID'D# /5is is in accordance !it5 "eo,le us6 7onJales6 73 "5il6 <@96 !5ere It !as ruled t5at *or t5e ,ur,ose o* deter&ining t5e ,enalty ne t lo!er in degree6 t5e ,enalty t5at s5ould be considered as a starting ,oint is t5e !5ole o* ,rision &ayor6 it being t5e ,enalty ,rescribed by la!6 and not ,rision &ayor in its &a i&u& ,eriod6 !5ic5 is only t5e ,enalty actually a,,lied because o* Article @A o* t5e .e(ised "enal )ode# /5e ,enalty ne t lo!er in degree t5ere*or is ,rision correccional and it is !it5in t5e range o* t5is ,enalty t5at t5e &ini&u& s5ould be ta0en# "enalties= 3actors to )onsider $1991+ I&agine t5at you are a Judge trying a case6 and based on t5e e(idence ,resented and t5e a,,licable la!6 you 5a(e decided on t5e guilt o* t!o $2+ accused# Indicate t5e *i(e $<+ ste,s you !ould *ollo! to deter&ine t5e e act ,enalty to be i&,osed# %tated di**erently6 !5at are t5e *actors you &ust consider to arri(e at t5e correct ,enaltyL %'77E%/E- AB%4E.: 1 t5e cri&e co&&itted= 2 %tage o* e ecution and degree o* ,artici,ation= 3 -eter&ine t5e ,enalty= @ )onsider t5e &odi*ying circu&stances= < -eter&ine !5et5er Indeter&inate %entence La! is a,,licable or not# )ri&inal La! 1ar E a&ination 8 ? A $199@-200;+ 3@ o* A; "enalties= Eo&icide !H Dodi*ying )ircu&stance $199<+ Eo&er !as con(icted o* 5o&icide# /5e trial court a,,reciated t5e *ollo!ing &odi*ying circu&stances: t5e aggra(ating circu&stance o* nocturnity6 and t5e &itigating circu&stances o* ,assion and ob*uscation6 no intent to co&&it so gra(e a !rong6 illiteracy and (oluntary surrender# /5e i&,osable ,enalty *or 5o&icide is reclusion te&,oral t5e range o* !5ic5 is t!el(e $12+ years and one $1+ day to t!enty $20+ years# /a0ing into account t5e attendant aggra(ating and &itigating circu&stances6 and a,,lying t5e Indeter&inate %entence La!6 deter&ine t5e ,ro,er ,enalty to be i&,osed on t5e accused# %'77E%/E- AB%4E.: It a,,ears t5at t5ere is one aggra(ating circu&stance $nocturnity+6 and *our &itigating circu&stances $,assion and ob*uscation6 no intent to co&&it so gra(e a !rong as t5at co&&itted and (oluntary surrender+# "ar# @6 Art# ;@ s5ould be a,,lied# Eence t5ere !ill be o**-setting o* &odi*ying circu&stances6 !5ic5 !ill no! result in t5e e cess o* t5ree &itigating circu&stances# /5is !ill t5ere*ore 9usti*y in reducing t5e ,enalty to t5e &ini&u& ,eriod# /5e e istence o* an aggra(ating circu&stance6 albeit t5ere are *our aggra(ating6 !ill not 9usti*y t5e lo!ering o* t5e ,enalty to t5e ne t lo!er degree under ,aragra,5 < o* said Article6 as t5is is a,,licable only i* /EE.E I% B2 A77.AVA/IB7 )I.)'D%/AB)E ,resent# %ince t5e cri&e co&&itted is Eo&icide and t5e ,enalty t5ere*or is reclusion te&,oral6 t5e DACID'D sentence under t5e Indeter&inate %entence La! s5ould be t5e &ini&u& o* t5e ,enalty6 !5ic5 is 12 years and 1 day to 1@ years and A &ont5s# /5e DIBID'D ,enalty !ill t5us be t5e ,enalty ne t lo!er in degree6 !5ic5 is ,rision &ayor in its *ull e tent $; years and 1 day to 12 years+# Ergo6 t5e ,ro,er ,enalty !ould be ; years and 1 day6 as &ini&u&6 to 12 years and 1 day6 as &a i&u&# I belie(e t5at because o* t5e re&aining &itigating circu&stances a*ter t5e o**-setting it !ould be (ery logical to i&,ose t5e &ini&u& o* t5e

DIBID'D sentence under t5e I%L and t5e &ini&u& o* t5e DACID'D sentence# "enalties= Ditigating )ircu&stances !Hout Aggra(ating )ircu&stance $1997+ Assu&e in t5e ,receding ,roble& t5at t5ere !ere t!o &itigating circu&stances and no aggra(ating circu&stance# I&,ose t5e ,ro,er ,rison ,enalty# %'77E%/E- AB%4E.: /5ere being t!o $2+ &itigating circu&stances !it5out any aggra(ating circu&stance6 t5e ,ro,er ,rison ,enalty is arresto &ayor $in any o* its ,eriods6 ie# ranging *ro& one $1+ &ont5 and one $1+ day to si $;+ &ont5s+ as DIBID'D to ,rision correccional in its &a i&u& ,eriod *our $@+ years6 t!o $2+ &ont5s6 and one $1+ day to si $;+ years as DACID'D# 'nder Art# ;@6 ,ar# < o* t5e .e(ised "enal )ode6 !5en a ,enalty contains t5ree ,eriods6 eac5 one o* !5ic5 *or&s a ,eriod in accordance !it5 Article 7; and 77 o* t5e sa&e )ode6 and t5ere are t!o or &ore &itigating circu&stances and no aggra(ating circu&stances6 t5e ,enalty ne t lo!er in degree s5ould be i&,osed# 3or ,ur,oses o* t5e Indeter&inate %entence La!6 t5e ,enalty ne t lo!er in degree s5ould be deter&ined !it5out regard as to !5et5er t5e basic ,enalty ,ro(ided by t5e .e(ised "enal )ode s5ould be a,,lied in its &a i&u& or &ini&u& ,eriod as circu&stances &odi*ying liability &ay reGuire# /5e ,enalty ne t lo!er in degree to ,rision correccional# /5ere*ore6 as ,re(iously stated6 t5e &ini&u& s5ould be !it5in t5e range o* arresto &ayor and t5e &a i&u& is !it5in t5e range o* ,rision correctional in its &a i&u& ,eriod# "enalties= "arricide !H Ditigating )ircu&stance $1997+ A and 1 ,leaded guilty to t5e cri&e o* ,arricide# /5e court *ound t5ree &itigating circu&stances6 na&ely6 ,lea o* guilty6 lac0 o* Instruction and lac0 o* intent to co&&it so gra(e a !rong as t5at co&&itted# /5e ,rescribed ,enalty *or ,arricide is reclusion ,er,etua to deat5# I&,ose t5e ,ro,er ,rinci,al ,enalty# %'77E%/E- AB%4E.: /5e ,ro,er ,enalty is reclusion ,er,etua# E(en i* t5ere are t!o or &ore &itigating circu&stances6 a court cannot lo!er t5e ,enalty by one degree $Art# ;3# ,ar# 36 .e(ised "enal )ode= "eo,le (s# 3or&igones6 A7 "5il# ;A<+# In '#%# (s# .elador ;0 "5il# <936 !5ere t5e cri&e co&&itted !as ,arricide !it5 t5e t!o $2+ &itigating circu&stances o* illiteracy and lac0 o* intention to co&&it so gra(e a !rong6 and !it5 no aggra(ating circu&stance6 t5e %u,re&e )ourt 5eld t5at t5e ,ro,er6 ,enalty to be i&,osed is reclusion ,er,etua# "enalties= "re(enti(e I&,rison&ent $199@+ 1+ 45en is t5ere ,re(enti(e i&,rison&entL 2+ 45en is t5e accused credited !it5 t5e *ull ti&e o* 5is ,re(enti(e i&,rison&ent6 and !5en is 5e credited !it5 @H< t5ereo*L %'77E%/E- AB%4E.: 1+ /5ere is ,re(enti(e i&,rison&ent !5en Oa+ an o**ender is detained !5ile t5e cri&inal case against 5i& is being 5eard6 eit5er because t5e cri&e co&&itted is a ca,ital o**ense and not bailable6 or e(en i* t5e cri&e co&&itted !as bailable6 t5e o**ender could not ,ost t5e reGuired bail *or 5is ,ro(isional liberty# 2+ An accused is credited !it5 t5e *ull ti&e o* 5is ,re(enti(e i&,rison&ent i* 5e (oluntarily agreed in !riting to abide by t5e rules o* t5e institution i&,osed u,on its ,risoners6 ,ro(ided t5at: a+ t5e ,enalty i&,osed on 5i& *or t5e cri&e co&&itted consists o* a de,ri(ation o* liberty= b+ 5e is not disGuali*ied *ro& suc5 credit *or being a recidi(ist6 or *or 5a(ing been ,re(iously con(icted *or t!o or &ore ti&es o* any cri&e6 or *or 5a(ing *ailed to surrender (oluntarily *or t5e e ecution o* t5e sentence u,on being so su&&oned $Art# 296 .")+# )ri&inal La! 1ar E a&ination 8 ? A $199@-200;+ 45ere t5e accused 5o!e(er did not agree 5e !ould only be credited !it5 @H< o* t5e ti&e 5e 5ad undergone ,re(enti(e i&,rison&ent# "enalties= .eclusion "er,etua $.A+ Bo# 79<9 $200<+

'nder Article 27 o* t5e .e(ised "enal )ode6 as a&ended by .e,ublic Act $.A+ Bo# 79<96 reclusion ,er,etua s5all be *ro& 20 years and 1 day to @0 years# -oes t5is &ean t5at reclusion ,er,etua is no! a di(isible ,enaltyL E ,lain# $2N+ %'77E%/E- AB%4E.: Bo6 because t5e %u,re&e )ourt 5as re,eatedly called t5e attention o* t5e 1enc5 and t5e 1ar to t5e *act t5at t5e ,enalties o* reclusion ,er,etua and li*e i&,rison&ent are not synony&ous and s5ould be a,,lied correctly and as &ay be s,eci*ied by t5e a,,licable la!# .eclusion ,er,etua 5as a s,eci*ic duration o* 20 years and 1 day to @0 years $Art# 27+ and accessory ,enalties $Art# @1+6 !5ile li*e i&,rison&ent 5as no de*inite ter& or accessory ,enalties# Also6 li*e i&,rison&ent is i&,osable on cri&es ,unis5ed by s,ecial la!s6 and not on *elonies in t5e )ode $"eo,le (s# -e 7uJ&an6 7#.# Bos# <13A<-A;6 Jan# 226 1993= "eo,le (s# Estrella6 7#.# Bos# 92<0;-076 A,ril 2A6 1993= "eo,le (s# Al(ero6 7#.# Bo# 723196 June 3061993= "eo,le (s# La,iroso6 7#.# Bo# 122<076 3eb# 2<6 1999+#Osee )ri&inal La! )ons,ectus6 ,age 1<;P "enalties= .eclusion "er,etua (s# Li*e I&,rison&ent $199@+ -i**erentiate reclusion ,er,etua *ro& li*e i&,rison&ent# %'77E%/E- AB%4E.: .E)L'%I2B "E."E/'A is t5at ,enalty ,ro(ided *or in t5e .e(ised "enal )ode *or cri&es de*ined in and ,enaliJed t5erein e ce,t *or so&e cri&es de*ined by s,ecial la!s !5ic5 i&,ose reclusion ,er,etua6 suc5 as (iolations o* .e,ublic Act ;@2<6 as a&ended by .e,ublic Act 7;<9 or o* "- 1A;0= !5ile LI3E ID".I%2BDEB/ is a ,enalty usually ,ro(ided *or in s,ecial la!s# .eclusion ,er,etua 5as a duration o* t!enty $20+ years and one $1+ day to *orty O@0P years under .e,ublic Act 7;<96 !5ile li*e i&,rison&ent 5as no duration= reclusion ,er,etua &ay be reduced by one or t!o degrees= reclusion ,er,etuates accessory ,enalties !5ile li*e i&,rison&ent does not 5a(e any accessory ,enalties $"eo,le (s# 1aguio6 19; %).A @<96 "eo,le (s# "anellos6 20< %).A <@;+# "enalties= .eclusion "er,etua (s# Li*e I&,rison&ent $2001+ A*ter trial6 Judge Juan Laya o* t5e Danila ./) *ound 1en9a&in 7arcia guilty o* Durder6 t5e (icti& 5a(ing sustained se(eral bullet !ounds in 5is body so t5at 5e died des,ite &edical assistance gi(en in t5e 2s,ital ng Danila# 1ecause t5e !ea,on used by 1en9a&in !as unlicensed and t5e Guali*ying circu&stance o* treac5ery !as *ound to be ,resent# Judge Laya rendered 5is decision con(icting 1en9a&in and sentencing 5i& to Mreclusion ,er,etua or li*e i&,rison&entM# Are Mreclusion ,er,etuaM and li*e i&,rison&ent t5e sa&e and can be i&,osed interc5angeably as in t5e *oregoing sentenceL 2r are t5ey totally di**erentL %tate your reasons# $3N+ 3< o* A; %'77E%/E- AB%4E.: /5e ,enalty o* reclusion ,er,etua and t5e ,enalty o* li*e I&,rison&ent are totally di**erent *ro& eac5 ot5er and t5ere*ore6 s5ould not be used interc5angeably# .eclusion ,er,etua is a ,enalty ,rescribed by t5e .e(ised "enal )ode6 !it5 a *i ed duration o* i&,rison&ent *ro& 20 years and 1 day to @0 years6 and carries it !it5 accessory ,enalties# Li*e i&,rison&ent6 on t5e ot5er 5and6 is a ,enalty ,rescribed by s,ecial la!s6 !it5 no *i ed duration o* i&,rison&ent and !it5out any accessory ,enalty# "robation La!: "ro,er "eriod $200<+ Daganda !as c5arged !it5 (iolation o* t5e 1ouncing )5ec0s La! $1" 22+ ,unis5able by i&,rison&ent o* not less t5an 30 days but not &ore t5an 1 year or a *ine o* not less t5an but not &ore t5an double t5e a&ount o* t5e c5ec06 !5ic5 *ine s5all not e ceed "2006000#006 or bot5# /5e court con(icted 5er o* t5e cri&e and sentenced 5er to ,ay a *ine o* "<06000#00 !it5 subsidiary i&,rison&ent in case o* insol(ency6 and to ,ay t5e ,ri(ate co&,lainant t5e a&ount o* t5e c5ec0# Daganda !as unable to ,ay t5e *ine but *iled a ,etition *or ,robation# /5e court granted t5e ,etition sub9ect to t5e condition6 a&ong ot5ers6 t5at s5e s5ould not c5ange 5er residence !it5out t5e court:s ,rior a,,ro(al# a+ 45at is t5e ,ro,er ,eriod o* ,robationL

%'77E%/E- AB%4E.: /5e ,eriod s5all not be less t5an t!ice t5e total nu&ber o* days o* subsidiary i&,rison&ent# 'nder Act Bo# 17326 subsidiary i&,rison&ent *or (iolations o* s,ecial la!s s5all not e ceed ; &ont5s at t5e rate o* one day o* i&,rison&ent *or e(ery 32#<0# Eence6 t5e ,ro,er ,eriod o* ,robation s5ould not be less t5an $; &ont5s nor &ore t5an 12 &ont5s# %ince "<06000#00 *ine is &ore t5an t5e &a i&u& subsidiary i&,rison&ent o* ; &ont5s at "2#<0 a day# b+ %u,,osing be*ore t5e 2rder o* -isc5arge !as issued by t5e court but a*ter t5e la,se o* t5e ,eriod o* ,robation6 Daganda trans*erred residence !it5out ,rior a,,ro(al o* t5e court# Day t5e court re(o0e t5e 2rder o* "robation and order 5er to ser(e t5e subsidiary i&,rison&entL E ,lain# %'77E%/E- AB%4E.: >es# /5e )ourt &ay re(o0e 5er ,robation# "robation is not coter&inous !it5 its ,eriod# /5ere &ust *irst be issued by t5e court an order o* *inal disc5arge based on t5e re,ort and reco&&endation o* t5e ,robation o**icer# 2nly t5en can t5e case o* t5e ,robationer be ter&inated# $1ala (# DartineJ6 7#.# Bo# ;73016 January 296 19906 citing %ec# 1; o* "#-# Bo# 9;A+ "robation La!= 1arred by A,,eal $199@+ 2n 3ebruary 36 19A;6 .oberto !as con(icted o* arson t5roug5 rec0less i&,rudence and sentenced to ,ay a *ine o* "1<6000#006 !it5 subsidiary i&,rison&ent in case o* insol(ency by t5e .egional /rial )ourt o* 8ueJon )ity# )ri&inal La! 1ar E a&ination 8 ? A $199@-200;+ 2n 3ebruary 106 19A;6 5e a,,ealed to t5e )ourt o* A,,eals# %e(eral &ont5s later6 5e *iled a &otion to !it5dra! t5e a,,eal on t5e ground t5at 5e is a,,lying *or ,robation# 2n Day 76 19A76 t5e )ourt o* A,,eals granted t5e &otion and considered t5e a,,eal !it5dra!n# 2n June 106 19A76 t5e records o* t5e case !ere re&anded to t5e trial court# .oberto *iled a MDotion *or "robationM ,raying t5at e ecution o* 5is sentence be sus,ended6 and t5at a ,robation o**icer be ordered to conduct an In(estigation and to sub&it a re,ort on 5is ,robation# /5e 9udge denied t5e &otion on t5e ground t5at ,ursuant to "residential -ecree Bo# 19906 !5ic5 too0 e**ect on July 1;619A;6 no a,,lication *or ,robation s5all be entertained or granted i* t5e de*endant 5as ,er*ected an a,,eal *ro& t5e 9udg&ent o* con(iction# Is t5e denial o* .obertoIs &otion correctL %'77E%/E- AB%4E.: >es# E(en i* at t5e ti&e o* 5is con(iction .oberto !as Guali*ied *or ,robation but t5at at t5e ti&e o* 5is a,,lication *or ,robation6 5e is no longer Guali*ied6 5e is not entitled to ,robation# /5e Guali*ication *or ,robation &ust be deter&ined as o* t5e ti&e t5e a,,lication is *iled in )ourt $1ernardo (s# Judge6 etal# 7.Bo# LA;<;16Bo(6 10# 1992= Ed!in de la )ruJ (s# Judge )alle9o# et al6 %"-19;<<6 A,ril 1A6 19906 citing Lla&ado (s# )A6 et al6 7. Bo# A@A<96 June 2A6 19A9= 1ernardo us# Judge 1alagot6 etal6 7. A;<;16 Bo(# 106 1992+# "robation La!= 1arred by A,,eal $2001+ A6 a subdi(ision de(elo,er6 !as con(icted by t5e ./) o* Da0ati *or *ailure to issue t5e subdi(ision title to a lot buyer des,ite *ull ,ay&ent o* t5e lot6 and sentenced to su**er one year I&,rison&ent# A a,,ealed t5e decision o* t5e ./) to t5e )ourt o* A,,eals but 5is a,,eal !as dis&issed# Day A still a,,ly *or ,robationL E ,lain# $<N+ %'77E%/E- AB%4E.: Bo6 A is no longer Guali*ied to a,,ly *or ,robation a*ter 5e a,,ealed *ro& t5e 9udg&ent o* con(iction by t5e ./)# /5e ,robation la! $"- 9;A6 as a&ended by "-1990+ no! ,ro(ides t5at no a,,lication *or ,robation s5all be entertained or granted i* t5e accused 5as ,er*ected an a,,eal *ro& t5e 9udg&ent o* con(iction $%ec# @6 "- 9;A+# "robation La!= Da i&u& /er& (s# /otal /er& $1997+ /5e accused !as *ound guilty o* gra(e oral de*a&ation in si teen $1;+ in*or&ations !5ic5 !ere tried 9ointly and !as sentenced in one decision to su**er in eac5 case

a ,rison ter& o* one $1+ year and one $1+ day to one $1+ year and eig5t $A+ &ont5s o* ,rision correccional# 4it5in t5e ,eriod to a,,eal6 5e *iled an a,,lication *or ,robation under t5e "robation La! o* 197;6 as a&ended# )ould 5e ,ossibly Guali*y *or ,robationL %'77E%/E- AB%4E.: >es# In 3rancisco (s# )ourt o* A,,eals6 2@3 %).A 3A@6 t5e %u,re&e )ourt 5eld t5at in case o* one decision i&,osing &ulti,le ,rison ter&s6 t5e totality o* t5e ,rison ter&s s5ould not be ta0en into account *or t5e ,ur,oses o* deter&ining t5e eligibility o* t5e accused *or t5e 3; o* A; ,robation# /5e la! uses t5e !ord M&a i&u& ter&M6 and not total ter&# It is enoug5 t5at eac5 o* t5e ,rison ter&s does not e ceed si years# /5e nu&ber o* o**enses is i&&aterial *or as long as t5e ,enalties i&,osed6 !5en ta0en indi(idually and se,arately6 are !it5in t5e ,robationable ,eriod# "robation La!= 2rder -enying "robation= Bot A,,ealable $2002+ A !as c5arged !it5 5o&icide# A*ter trial6 5e !as *ound guilty and sentenced to si $;+ years and one $1+ day in ,rision &ayor6 as &ini&u&6 to t!el(e $12+ years and one $1+ day o* reclusion te&,oral6 as &a i&u&# "rior to 5is con(iction6 5e 5ad been *ound guilty o* (agrancy and i&,risoned *or ten $10+ days o* arresto &anor and *ined *i*ty ,esos $"<0#00+# Is 5e eligible *or ,robationL 45yL $3N+ %'77E%/E- AB%4E.: Bo6 5e is not entitled to t5e bene*its o* t5e "robation La! $"- 9;A6 as a&ended+ does not e tend to t5ose sentenced to ser(e a &a i&u& ter& o* i&,rison&ent o* &ore t5an si years $%ec# 9a+# It is o* no &o&ent t5at in 5is ,re(ious con(iction A !as gi(en a ,enalty o* only ten $10+ days o* arresto &ayor and a *ine o* "<0#00# 1# Day a ,robationer a,,eal *ro& t5e decision re(o0ing t5e grant o* ,robation or &odi*ying t5e ter&s and conditions t5ereo*L $2N+ %'77E%/E- AB%4E.: Bo# 'nder %ection @ o* t5e "robation La!6 as a&ended6 an order granting or denying ,robation is not a,,ealable# "robation La!= "eriod )o(ered $200@+ "C !as con(icted and sentenced to i&,rison&ent o* t5irty days and a *ine o* one 5undred ,esos# "re(iously6 "C !as con(icted o* anot5er cri&e *or !5ic5 t5e ,enalty i&,osed on 5i& !as t5irty days only# Is "C entitled to ,robationL E ,lain brie*ly# $<N+ %'77E%/E- AB%4E.: >es6 "C &ay a,,ly *or ,robation# Eis ,re(ious con(iction *or anot5er cri&e !it5 a ,enalty o* t5irty days i&,rison&ent or not e ceeding one $1+ &ont5 does not disGuali*y 5i& *ro& a,,lying *or ,robation= t5e ,enalty *or 5is ,resent con(iction does not disGuali*y 5i& eit5er *ro& a,,lying *or ,robation6 since t5e i&,rison&ent does not e ceed si $;+ years $%ec# 96 "res# -ecree Bo# 9;A+# "robation La!= .ig5t= 1arred by A,,eal $199<+ In a case *or (iolation o* %ec# A6 .A ;@2<6 ot5er!ise 0no!n as t5e -angerous -rugs Act6 accused Vincent !as gi(en t5e bene*it o* t5e &itigating circu&stances o* (oluntary ,lea o* guilt and drun0enness not ot5er!ise 5abitual# Ee !as sentenced to su**er a ,enalty o* si $;+ years and one $1+ day and to ,ay a *ine o* ";6000#00 !it5 t5e accessory ,enalties ,ro(ided by la!6 ,lus costs# Vincent a,,lied *or ,robation# /5e ,robation o**icer *a(orably reco&&ended 5is a,,lication# )ri&inal La! 1ar E a&ination 8 ? A $199@-200;+ 1 I* you !ere t5e Judge6 !5at action !ill you ta0e on t5e a,,licationL -iscuss *ully# 2 %u,,ose t5at Vincent !as con(icted o* a cri&e *or !5ic5 5e !as sentenced to a &a i&u& ,enalty o* ten $10+ years# 'nder t5e la!6 5e is not eligible *or ,robation# Ee seasonably a,,ealed 5is con(iction# 45ile a**ir&ing t5e 9udg&ent o* con(iction6 t5e a,,ellate court reduced t5e ,enalty to a &a i&u& o* *our $@+ years

and *our $@+ &ont5s ta0ing into consideration certain &odi*ying circu&stances# Vincent no! a,,lies *or ,robation# Eo! !ill you rule on 5is a,,licationL -iscuss *ully# %'77E%/E- AB%4E.: 1# I* I !ere t5e 9udge6 I !ill deny t5e a,,lication *or ,robation# /5e accused is not entitled to ,robation as %ec# 9 o* t5e "robation La!6 "- B2# 9;A6 as a&ended6 s,eci*ically &entions t5at t5ose !5o Mare sentenced to ser(e a &a i&u& ter& o* i&,rison&ent o* &ore t5an si yearsM are not entitled to t5e bene*its o* t5e la!# 2# /5e la! and 9uris,rudence are to t5e e**ect t5at a,,eal by t5e accused *ro& a sentence o* con(iction *or*eits 5is rig5t to ,robation#$%ec# @6 "- Bo# 9;A# as a&ended by "- 1990= 1ernardo us# 1alagot= 3rancisco (s# )A: Lla&ado (s# )A= -e la )ruJ (s# Judge )alle9o6 )A case+# /5is is t5e second consecuti(e year t5at t5is Guestion !as as0ed# It is t5e sincere belie* o* t5e )o&&ittee t5at t5ere is a need to re-e a&ine t5e doctrine# 3irstly6 &uc5 as t5e accused !anted to a,,ly *or ,robation 5e is ,roscribed *ro& doing so as t5e &a i&u& ,enalty is B2/ ".21A/I2BA1LE# %econdly6 !5en t5e &a i&u& ,enalty !as reduced to one !5ic5 allo!s ,robation it is but *air and 9ust to grant 5i& t5at rig5t because it is a,,arent t5at t5e trial 9udge co&&itted an error and *or !5ic5 t5e accused s5ould not be &ade to su**er# Judicial tribunals in t5is 9urisdiction are not only courts o* la! but also o* eGuity# /5irdly6 t5e 9udg&ent o* t5e a,,ellate court s5ould be considered a ne! decision as t5e trial courtIs decision !as (acated= 5ence6 5e could ta0e ad(antage o* t5e la! !5en t5e decision is re&anded to t5e trial court *or e ecution $"lease see -issenting o,inion in 3rancisco (s# )A+# It is suggested6 t5ere*ore6 t5at an e a&inee ans!ering in t5is tenor s5ould be credited !it5 so&e ,oints# "robation La!= .ig5t= 1arred by A,,eal $2003+ Juan !as con(icted o* t5e .egional /rial )ourt o* a cri&e and sentenced to su**er t5e ,enalty o* i&,rison&ent *or a &ini&u& o* eig5t years# Ee a,,ealed bot5 5is con(iction and t5e ,enalty i&,osed u,on 5i& to t5e )ourt o* A,,eals# /5e a,,ellate court ulti&ately sustained JuanIs con(iction but reduced 5is sentence to a &a i&u& o* *our years and eig5t &ont5s i&,rison&ent# )ould Juan *ort5!it5 *ile an a,,lication *or ,robationL E ,lain# AN %'77E%/E- AB%4E.: Bo6 Juan can no longer a(ail o* t5e ,robation because 5e a,,ealed *ro& t5e 9udg&ent o* con(iction o* t5e trial court6 and t5ere*ore6 cannot a,,ly *or ,robation any&ore# %ection @ o* t5e "robation La!6 as a&ended6 37 o* A; &andates t5at no a,,lication *or ,robation s5all be entertained or granted i* t5e accused 5as ,er*ected an a,,eal *ro& t5e 9udg&ent o* con(iction# %us,ension o* %entence= AdultsHDinors $200;+ /5ere are at least 7 instances or situations in cri&inal cases !5erein t5e accused6 eit5er as an adult or as a &inor6 can a,,ly *or andHor be granted a sus,ended sentence# Enu&erate at least < o* t5e&# $<N+ %'77E%/E- AB%4E.: 1# %us,ension o* sentence o* &inor under "#-# ;03 as a&ended by .#A# 93@@#

2# %us,ension o* sentence o* &inor abo(e 1< but belo! 1A years o* age at t5e ti&e o* trial under .#A# 93@@# 3# %us,ension o* sentence o* &inor abo(e 1< but belo! 1A years o* age at t5e co&&ission o* t5e o**ense6 !5ile acting !it5 discern&ent# @# %us,ension o* sentence by reason o* insanity $Art# 796 .e(ised "enal )ode+#

<# %us,ension o* sentence *or *irst o**ense o* a &inor (iolating .JV# 91;<# $%ec# 32+

;#

%us,ension o* sentence under t5e ,robation la!#

$"#-# 9;A+ 7# %us,ension o* deat5 sentence o* a ,regnant !o&an# $Art# A36 .e(ised "enal )ode+ $B2/A 1EBE: .#A# 93@@ is outside t5e co(erage o* t5e e a&ination+ %us,ension o* %entence= Dinors $2003+ A !as 2 &ont5s belo! 1A years o* age !5en 5e co&&itted t5e cri&e# Ee !as c5arged !it5 t5e cri&e 3 &ont5s later# Ee !as 23 !5en 5e !as *inally con(icted and sentenced# Instead o* ,re,aring to ser(e a 9ail ter&6 5e soug5t a sus,ension o* t5e sentence on t5e ground t5at 5e !as a 9u(enile o**ender %5ould 5e be entitled to a sus,ension o* sentenceL .easons# @N %'77E%/E- AB%4E.: Bo6 A is not entitled to a sus,ension o* t5e sentence because 5e is no longer a &inor at t5e ti&e o* ,ro&ulgation o* t5e sentence# 3or ,ur,oses o* sus,ension o* sentence6 t5e o**enderIs age at t5e ti&e o* ,ro&ulgation o* t5e sentence is t5e one considered6 not 5is age !5en 5e co&&itted t5e cri&e# %o alt5oug5 A !as belo! 1A years old !5en 5e co&&itted t5e cri&e6 but 5e !as already 23 years old !5en sentenced6 5e is no longer eligible *or sus,ension o* t5e sentence# )an 9u(enile o**enders6 !5o are recidi(ists6 (alidly as0 *or sus,ension o* sentenceL E ,lain# @N %'77E%/E- AB%4E.: >es6 so long as t5e o**ender is still a &inor at t5e ti&e o* t5e ,ro&ulgation o* t5e sentence# /5e la! establis5ing 3a&ily )ourts6 .e,# Act A3;96 ,ro(ides to t5is e**ect: t5at i* t5e &inor is *ound guilty6 t5e court s5ould ,ro&ulgate t5e sentence and ascertain any ci(il liability !5ic5 t5e accused &ay 5a(e incurred# Eo!e(er6 t5e sentence s5all be sus,ended !it5out t5e need o* a,,lication ,ursuant to "- ;036 ot5er!ise 0no!n as t5e M)5ild and >out5 4el*are )odeM $.A A3;96 %ec# <a+6 It is under "- ;03 t5at an a,,lication *or sus,ension o* t5e )ri&inal La! 1ar E a&ination 8 ? A $199@-200;+ sentence is reGuired and t5ereunder it is one o* t5e conditions *or sus,ension o* sentence t5at t5e o**ender be a *irst ti&e con(ict: t5is 5as been dis,laced by .A A3;9# %us,ension o* %entence= >out5*ul 2**ender $199<+ Victor6 .ic0y6 .od and .onnie !ent to t5e store o* Dang "andoy# Victor and .ic0y entered t5e store !5ile .od and .onnie ,osted t5e&sel(es at t5e door# A*ter ordering beer .ic0y co&,lained t5at 5e !as s5ortc5anged alt5oug5 Dang "andoy (e5e&ently denied it# %uddenly .ic0y !5i,,ed out a 0ni*e as 5e announced MEold-u, itoSM and stabbed Dang "andoy to deat5# .od bo ed t5e storeIs salesgirl Lucy to ,re(ent 5er *ro& 5el,ing Dang "andoy# 45en Lucy ran out o* t5e store to see0 5el, *ro& ,eo,le ne t door s5e !as c5ased by .onnie# As soon as .ic0y 5ad stabbed Dang "andoy6 Victor scoo,ed u, t5e &oney *ro& t5e cas5 bo # /5en Victor and .ic0y das5ed to t5e street and s5outed6 M/u&a0bo na 0ayoSM .od !as 1@ and .onnie !as 17# /5e &oney and ot5er articles looted *ro& t5e store o* Dang "andoy !ere later *ound in t5e 5ouses o* Victor and .ic0y# 1 -iscuss *ully t5e cri&inal liability o* Victor6 .ic0y6 .od and .onnie# 2 Are t5e &inors .od and .onnie entitled to sus,ended sentence under /5e )5ild and >out5 4el*are )odeL E ,lain# %'77E%/E- AB%4E.: 1 # All are liable *or t5e s,ecial co&,le cri&e o* robbery !it5 5o&icide#### 2# Bo6 because t5e bene*its o* sus,ension o* sentence is not a(ailable !5ere t5e yout5*ul o**ender 5as been con(icted o* an o**ense ,unis5able by li*e i&,rison&ent or deat56 ,ursuant to "#-# Bo# ;036 Art# 1926 /5e co&,le cri&e o* robbery !it5 5o&icide is ,unis5able by reclusion ,er,etua to deat5 under Art# 29@ $1+6 .3)

O"eo,le (s# 7alit# 230 %).A @A;+# EC/IB)/I2B 23 ).IDIBAL LIA1ILI/> A&nesty (s# "- 11;0 $200;+ )an *or&er -%4- %ecretary -in0y %oli&an a,,ly *or a&nestyL Eo! about colu&nist .andy -a(idL $>ou are su,,osed to 0no! t5e cri&es or o**enses ascribed to t5e& as ,ublis5ed in al&ost all ne!s,a,ers *or t5e ,ast se(eral &ont5s#+ $2#<N+ %'77E%/E- AB%4E.: "rocla&ation 11;06 !5ic5 a&ended "rocla&ation 72@6 a,,lies only to o**enses co&&itted ,rior to 1999# /5us6 t5eir a,,lications s5all be ine**ectual and useless# 7eneral Li& and 7eneral 8uerubin o* t5e %cout .angers and "5ili,,ine Darines6 res,ecti(ely6 !ere c5anged !it5 conduct unbeco&ing an o**icer and a gentle&an under t5e Articles o* 4ar# )an t5ey a,,ly *or a&nestyL $2#<N+ %'77E%/E- AB%4E.: 3A o* A; "rocla&ation 11;06 !5ic5 a&ended "rocla&ation 72@6 a,,lies only to o**enses co&&itted ,rior to 1999# /5us6 t5eir a,,lications s5all be ine**ectual and useless# A&nesty= )ri&es )o(ered $200;+ 'nder "residential "rocla&ation Bo# 72@6 a&ending "residential "rocla&ation Bo# 3@76 certain cri&es are co(ered by t5e grant o* a&nesty# Ba&e at least < o* t5ese cri&es# $2#<N+ %'77E%/E- AB%4E.: )ri&es co(ered under "residential "rocla&ation Bo# 72@: 1# 2# 3# @# <# ;# 7# A# 9# 10# )ou, dIetat6 .ebellion or insurrection= -isloyalty o* ,ublic o**icers or e&,loyees= Inciting to rebellion or insurrection= )ons,iracy to co&&it rebellion or insurrection= "ro,osal to co&&it rebellion or insurrection= %edition= )ons,iracy to co&&it sedition= Inciting to sedition= Illegal Asse&bly=

11# Illegal Association= 12# 13# 1@# 1<# -irect Assault= Indirect Assault= .esistance and disobedience to a ,erson in aut5ority= /u&ults and ot5er disturbances=

1;# 'nla!*ul use o* &eans o* ,ublications and unla!*ul utterrances=

17# 1A#

Alar& and scandal= Illegal "ossession o* *irear&s#

E tinction= )ri&inal ? )i(il Liabilities= E**ects= -eat5 o* accused ,ending a,,eal $200@+ AC !as con(icted o* rec0less i&,rudence resulting in 5o&icide# /5e trial court sentenced 5i& to a ,rison ter& as !ell as to ,ay "1<06000 as ci(il inde&nity and da&ages# 45ile 5is a,,eal !as ,ending6 AC &et a *atal accident# Ee le*t a young !ido!6 2 c5ildren6 and a &illion-,eso estate# 45at is t5e e**ect6 i* any6 o* 5is deat5 on 5is cri&inal as !ell as ci(il liabilityL E ,lain brie*ly# $<N+ %'77E%/E- AB%4E.: /5e deat5 o* AC !5ile 5is a,,eal *ro& t5e 9udg&ent o* t5e trial court is ,ending6 e tinguis5es 5is cri&inal liability# /5e ci(il liability inso*ar as it arises *ro& t5e cri&e and reco(erable under t5e .e(ised "enal )ode is also e tinguis5ed= but inde&nity and da&ages &ay be reco(ered in a ci(il action i* ,redicated on a source o* obligation under Art# 11<76 )i(il )ode6 suc5 as la!6 contracts6 Guasicontracts and Guasi-delicts6 but not on t5e basis o* delicts# $"eo,le (# 1ayotas6 23; %).A 239 +# )i(il inde&nity and da&ages under t5e .e(ised "enal )ode are reco(erable only i* t5e accused 5ad been con(icted !it5 *inality be*ore 5e died# E tinction= )ri&inal ? )i(il Liabilities= E**ects= -eat5 o* 2**ended "arty $2000+ )ri&inal La! 1ar E a&ination 8 ? A $199@-200;+ 3or de*rauding Lorna6 Al&a !as c5arged be*ore t5e Dunici,al /rial )ourt o* Dalolos6 1ulacan# A*ter a ,rotracted trial6 Al&a !as con(icted# 45ile t5e case !as ,ending a,,eal in t5e .egional /rial )ourt o* t5e sa&e ,ro(ince6 Lorna !5o !as t5en su**ering *ro& breast cancer6 died# Al&a &ani*ested to t5e court t5at !it5 LornaIs deat56 5er $Al&aIs+ cri&inal and ci(il liabilities are no! e tinguis5ed# Is Al&aIs contention correctL 45at i* it !ere Al&a !5o died6 !ould it a**ect 5er cri&inal and ci(il liabilitiesL E ,lain# $3N+ %'77E%/E- AB%4E.: Bo# Al&aIs contention is not correct# /5e deat5 o* t5e o**ended ,arty does not e tinguis5 t5e cri&inal liability o* t5e o**ender6 because t5e o**ense is co&&itted against t5e %tate O"eo,le (s# Disola6 A7 "5il# A306 A33+# Eence6 it *ollo!s t5at t5e ci(il liability o* Al&a based on t5e o**ense co&&itted by 5er is not e tinguis5ed# /5e estate o* Lorna can continue t5e case# 2n t5e ot5er 5and6 i* it !ere Al&a !5o died ,ending a,,eal o* 5er con(iction6 5er cri&inal liability s5all be e tinguis5ed and t5ere!it5 t5e ci(il liability under t5e .e(ised "enal )ode $Art# A96 ,ar# 16 .")+# Eo!e(er6 t5e clai& *or ci(il inde&nity &ay be instituted under t5e )i(il )ode $Art# 11<7+ i* ,redicated on a source o* obligation ot5er t5an delict6 suc5 as la!6 contracts6 Guasi-contracts and Guasi-delicts $"eo,le (s# 1ayotas 23; %).A 2396 7#.# 1<20076 %e,te&ber 2# 199@+ "ardon (s# A&nesty $200;+ Enu&erate t5e di**erences bet!een ,ardon and a&nesty# $2#<N+ %'77E%/E- AB%4E.: a+ "A.-2B includes any cri&e and is e ercised indi(idually by t5e "resident6 !5ile ADBE%/> a,,lies to classes o* ,ersons or co&&unities !5o &ay be guilty o* ,olitical o**enses# b+ "A.-2B is e ercised !5en t5e ,erson is already con(icted6 !5ile ADBE%/> &ay be e ercised e(en be*ore trial or in(estigation# c+ "A.-2B loo0s *or!ard and relie(es t5e o**ender o* t5e ,enalty o* t5e o**ense *or !5ic5 5e 5as been con(icted= it does not !or0 *or t5e restoration o* t5e rig5ts to 5old ,ublic o**ice6 or t5e rig5t o* su**rage6 unless suc5 rig5ts are e ,ressly restored by &eans o* ,ardon6 !5ile ADBE%/> loo0s bac0!ard and abolis5es t5e o**ense and its e**ects6 as i* t5e ,erson 5ad co&&itted no o**ense# d+ "A.-2B does not alter t5e *act t5at t5e accused is cri&inally liable as it ,roduces only t5e e tinction o* t5e ,enalty6 !5ile ADBE%/> re&o(es t5e cri&inal

liability o* t5e o**ender because it obliterates e(ery (estige o* t5e cri&e# e+ "A.-2B being a ,ri(ate act by t5e "resident6 &ust be ,leaded and ,ro(ed by t5e ,erson ,ardoned6 !5ile ADBE%/> !5ic5 is a "rocla&ation o* t5e )5ie* E ecuti(e !it5 t5e concurrence o* )ongress is a ,ublic act o* !5ic5 t5e courts s5ould ta0e 9udicial notice# 39 o* A; "ardon= E**ect= )i(il Interdiction $200@+ /.> !as sentenced to deat5 by *inal 9udg&ent# 1ut subseGuently 5e !as granted ,ardon by t5e "resident# /5e ,ardon !as silent on t5e ,er,etual disGuali*ication o* /.> to 5old any ,ublic o**ice# A*ter 5is ,ardon6 /.> ran *or o**ice as Dayor o* A""6 5is 5o&eto!n# Eis o,,onent soug5t to disGuali*y 5i&# /.> contended 5e is not disGuali*ied because 5e !as already ,ardoned by t5e "resident unconditionally# Is /.>I% contention correctL .eason brie*ly# $<N+ %'77E%/E- AB%4E.: Bo6 /.>Is contention is not correct# Article @0 o* t5e .e(ised "enal )ode e ,ressly ,ro(ides t5at !5en t5e deat5 ,enalty is not e ecuted by reason o* co&&utation or ,ardon6 t5e accessory ,enalties o* ,er,etual absolute disGuali*ication and ci(il interdiction during t5irty $30+ years *ro& t5e date o* t5e sentence s5all re&ain as e**ects t5ereo*6 unless suc5 accessory ,enalties 5a(e been e ,ressly re&itted in t5e ,ardon# /5is is because ,ardon only e cuses t5e con(ict *ro& ser(ing t5e sentence but does not relie(e 5i& o* t5e e**ects o* t5e con(iction unless e ,ressly re&itted in t5e ,ardon# "ardon= E**ect= .einstate&ent $199@+ Linda !as con(icted by t5e %andiganbayan o* esta*a6 t5roug5 *alsi*ication o* ,ublic docu&ent# %5e !as sentenced accordingly and ordered to ,ay6 a&ong ot5ers6 "<6000#00 re,resenting t5e balance o* t5e a&ount de*rauded# /5e case reac5ed t5e %u,re&e )ourt !5ic5 a**ir&ed t5e 9udg&ent o* con(iction# -uring t5e ,endency o* LindaIs &otion *or reconsideration in t5e said )ourt6 t5e "resident e tended to 5er an absolute ,ardon !5ic5 s5e acce,ted# 1y reason o* suc5 ,ardon6 s5e !rote t5e -e,art&ent o* 3inance reGuesting t5at s5e be restored to 5er *or&er ,ost as assistant treasurer6 !5ic5 is still (acant# /5e -e,art&ent ruled t5at Linda &ay be reinstated to 5er *or&er ,osition !it5out t5e necessity o* a ne! a,,oint&ent and directed t5e )ity /reasurer to see to it t5at t5e su& o* "<6000#00 be satis*ied# )lai&ing t5at s5e s5ould not be &ade to ,ay "<6000#006 Linda a,,ealed to t5e 2**ice o* t5e "resident# /5e 2**ice o* t5e "resident dis&issed t5e a,,eal and 5eld t5at acGuittal6 not absolute ,ardon# Is t5e only ground *or reinstate&ent to oneIs *or&er ,osition and t5at t5e absolute ,ardon does not e e&,t t5e cul,rit *ro& ,ay&ent o* ci(il liability# Is Linda entitled to reinstate&entL %'77E%/E- AB%4E.: Bo6 Linda is not entitled to reinstate&ent to 5er *or&er ,osition inas&uc5 as 5er rig5t t5ereto 5ad been relinGuis5ed or *or*eited by reason o* 5er con(iction# /5e absolute ,ardon &erely e tinguis5ed 5er cri&inal liability6 re&o(ed 5er disGuali*ication6 and restored 5er eligibility *or a,,oint&ent to t5at o**ice# %5e 5as to re-a,,ly *or )ri&inal La! 1ar E a&ination 8 ? A $199@-200;+ suc5 ,osition and under t5e usual ,rocedure reGuired *or a ne! a,,oint&ent# Doreo(er6 t5e ,ardon does not e tinguis5 t5e ci(il liability arising *ro& t5e cri&e# $Donsanto (s#3actoran6 Jr#6 170 %).A 191+= see Art# 3;6 .")+ "rescri,tion o* )ri&es= 1iga&y $199<+ Joe and Darcy !ere &arried in 1atanes in 19<<# A*ter t!o years6 Joe le*t Darcy and settled in Dindanao !5ere 5e later &et and &arried Linda on 12 June 19;0# /5e second &arriage !as registered in t5e ci(il registry o* -a(ao )ity t5ree days a*ter its celebration# 2n 10 2ctober 197< Darcy !5o re&ained in 1atanes disco(ered t5e &arriage o* Joe to Linda# 2n 1 Darc5 197; Darcy *iled a co&,laint *or biga&y against Joe# /5e cri&e o* biga&y ,rescribed in *i*teen years co&,uted *ro& t5e day t5e cri&e is

disco(ered by t5e o**ended ,arty6 t5e aut5orities or t5eir agents# Joe raised t5e de*ense o* ,rescri,tion o* t5e cri&e6 &ore t5an *i*teen years 5a(ing ela,sed *ro& t5e celebration o* t5e biga&ous &arriage u, to t5e *iling o* DarcyIs co&,laint# Ee contended t5at t5e registration o* 5is second &arriage in t5e ci(il registry o* -a(ao )ity !as constructi(e notice to t5e !5ole !orld o* t5e celebration t5ereo* t5us binding u,on Darcy# Eas t5e cri&e o* biga&y c5arged against Joe already ,rescribedL -iscuss *ully6 %'77E%/E- AB%4E.: Bo# /5e ,rescri,ti(e ,eriod *or t5e cri&e o* biga&y is co&,uted *ro& t5e ti&e t5e cri&e !as disco(ered by t5e o**ended ,arty6 t5e aut5orities or t5eir agents# /5e ,rinci,le o* constructi(e notice !5ic5 ordinarily a,,lies to land or ,ro,erty dis,utes s5ould not be a,,lied to t5e cri&e o* biga&y6 as &arriage is not ,ro,erty# /5us !5en Darcy *iled a co&,laint *or biga&y on 7 Darc5 197;6 it !as !ell !it5in t5e regla&entary ,eriod as it !as barely a *e! &ont5s *ro& t5e ti&e o* disco(ery on 10 2ctober 197<# $%er&onia (s# )A6 233 %).A 1<<+ "rescri,tion o* )ri&es= )o&&ence&ent $2000+ 2ne *ate*ul nig5t in January 19906 !5ile <-year old Albert !as urinating at t5e bac0 o* t5eir 5ouse6 5e 5eard a strange noise co&ing *ro& t5e 0itc5en o* t5eir neig5bor and ,lay&ate6 Ara# 45en 5e ,ee,ed inside6 5e sa! Dina6 AraIs ste,&ot5er6 (ery angry and strangling t5e <-year old Ara to deat5# Albert sa! Dina carry t5e dead body o* Ara6 ,lace it inside t5e trun0 o* 5er car and dri(e a!ay# /5e dead body o* Ara !as ne(er *ound# Dina s,read t5e ne!s in t5e neig5bor5ood t5at Ara !ent to li(e !it5 5er grand,arents in 2r&oc )ity# 3or *ear o* 5is li*e6 Albert did not tell anyone6 e(en 5is ,arents and relati(es6 about !5at 5e !itnessed# /!enty and a 5al* $20 ? 1H2+ years a*ter t5e incident6 and rig5t a*ter 5is graduation in )ri&inology6 Albert re,orted t5e cri&e to B1I aut5orities# /5e cri&e o* 5o&icide ,rescribes in 20 years# )an t5e state still ,rosecute Dina *or t5e deat5 o* Ara des,ite t5e la,se o* 20 ? 1H2 yearsL E ,lain6 $<N+ %'77E%/E- AB%4E.: @0 o* A; >es6 t5e %tate can still ,rosecute Dina *or t5e deat5 o* Ara des,ite t5e la,se o* 20 ? 1H2 years# 'nder Article 916 .")6 t5e ,eriod o* ,rescri,tion co&&ences to run *ro& t5e day on !5ic5 t5e cri&e is disco(ered by t5e o**ended ,arty6 t5e aut5orities or t5eir agents# In t5e case at bar6 t5e co&&ission o* t5e cri&e !as 0no!n only to Albert6 !5o !as not t5e o**ended ,arty nor an aut5ority or an agent o* an aut5ority# It !as disco(ered by t5e B1I aut5orities only !5en Albert re(ealed to t5e& t5e co&&ission o* t5e cri&e# Eence6 t5e ,eriod o* ,rescri,tion o* 20 years *or 5o&icide co&&enced to run only *ro& t5e ti&e Albert re(ealed t5e sa&e to t5e B1I aut5orities# "rescri,tion o* )ri&es= )o&&ence&ent $200@+ 24 is a ,ri(ate ,erson engaged in cattle ranc5ing# 2ne nig5t6 5e sa! AD stab )V treac5erously6 t5en t5ro! t5e dead &anIs body into a ra(ine# 3or 2< years6 )Vs body !as ne(er seen nor *ound= and 24 told no one !5at 5e 5ad !itnessed# >esterday a*ter consulting t5e ,aris5 ,riest6 24 decided to tell t5e aut5orities !5at 5e !itnessed6 and re(ealed t5at AD 5ad 0illed )V 2< years ago# )an AD be ,rosecuted *or &urder des,ite t5e la,se o* 2< yearsL .eason brie*ly# $<N+ %'77E%/E- AB%4E.: >es6 AD can be ,rosecuted *or &urder des,ite t5e la,se o* 2< years6 because t5e cri&e 5as not yet ,rescribed and legally6 its ,rescri,ti(e ,eriod 5as not e(en co&&enced to run# /5e ,eriod o* ,rescri,tion o* a cri&e s5all co&&ence to run only *ro& t5e day on !5ic5 t5e cri&e 5as been disco(ered by t5e o**ended ,arty6 t5e aut5orities or t5eir agents $Art# 916 .e(ised "enal )ode+# 246 a ,ri(ate ,erson !5o sa! t5e 0illing but ne(er disclosed it6 is not t5e o**ended ,arty nor 5as t5e cri&e been disco(ered by t5e aut5orities or t5eir agents# "rescri,tion o* )ri&es= )oncubinage $2001+ 2n June 16 19AA6 a co&,laint *or concubinage co&&itted in 3ebruary 19A7 !as *iled against .oberto in t5e Dunici,al /rial )ourt o* /anJa6 )a(ite *or ,ur,oses o*

,reli&inary in(estigation# 3or (arious reasons6 it !as only on July 36 199A !5en t5e Judge o* said court decided t5e case by dis&issing it *or lac0 o* 9urisdiction since t5e cri&e !as co&&itted in Danila# /5e case !as subseGuently *iled !it5 t5e )ity 3iscal o* Danila but it !as dis&issed on t5e ground t5at t5e cri&e 5ad already ,rescribed# /5e la! ,ro(ides t5at t5e cri&e o* concubinage ,rescribes in ten $10+ years# 4as t5e dis&issal by t5e *iscal correctL E ,lain6 $<N+ %'77E%/E- AB%4E.: Bo6 t5e 3iscalIs dis&issal o* t5e case on alleged ,rescri,tion is not correct# /5e *iling o* t5e co&,laint !it5 t5e Dunici,al /rial )ourt6 alt5oug5 only *or ,reli&inary in(estigation6 interru,ted and sus,ended t5e ,eriod o* ,rescri,tion in as &uc5 as t5e 9urisdiction o* a court in a cri&inal case is deter&ined by t5e allegations in t5e co&,laint or in*or&ation6 not by t5e result o* ,roo*# $"eo,le (s# 7alano# 7< %).A 193+ )ri&inal La! 1ar E a&ination 8 ? A $199@-200;+ @1 o* A; "rescri,tion o* )ri&es= 3alse /esti&ony $199@+ "aolo !as c5arged !it5 5o&icide be*ore t5e .egional /rial )ourt o* Danila# Andre!6 a ,rosecution !itness6 testi*ied t5at 5e sa! "aolo s5oot Abby during t5eir 5eated argu&ent# 45ile t5e case is still ,ending6 t5e )ity Eall o* Danila burned do!n and t5e entire records o* t5e case !ere destroyed# Later6 t5e records !ere reconstituted# Andre! !as again called to t5e !itness stand# /5is ti&e 5e testi*ied t5at 5is *irst testi&ony !as *alse and t5e trut5 !as 5e !as abroad !5en t5e cri&e too0 ,lace# /5e 9udge i&&ediately ordered t5e ,rosecution o* Andre! *or gi(ing a *alse testi&ony *a(orable to t5e de*endant in a cri&inal case# 1 4ill t5e case against Andre! ,ros,erL 2 "aolo !as acGuitted# /5e decision beca&e *inal on January 106 19A7# 2n June 1A6 199@ a case o* gi(ing *alse testi&ony !as *iled against Andre!# As 5is la!yer6 !5at legal ste, !ill you ta0eL %'77E%/E- AB%4E.: 1+ >es# ### 2+ As la!yer o* Andre!6 I !ill *ile a &otion to Guas5 t5e In*or&ation on t5e ground o* ,rescri,tion# /5e cri&e o* *alse testi&ony under Art# 1A0 5as ,rescribed because "aolo6 t5e accused in t5e ,rinci,al case6 !as acGuitted on January 106 19A7 and t5ere*ore t5e ,enalty ,rescribed *or suc5 cri&e is arresto &ayor under Art# 1A06 ,ar# @6 .")# )ri&es ,unis5able by arresto &ayor ,rescribes in *i(e $<+ years $Art# 906 ,ar# 36 .")+# 1ut t5e case against Andre! !as *iled only on June 1A6 199@6 !5ereas t5e ,rinci,al cri&inal case !as decided !it5 *inality on January 106 19A7 and6 t5ence t5e ,rescri,ti(e ,eriod o* t5e cri&e co&&enced to run# 3ro& January 106 19A7 to June 1A6 199@ is &ore t5an *i(e $<+ years# "rescri,tion o* )ri&es= %i&,le %lander $1997+ A !as c5arged in an in*or&ation !it5 t5e cri&e o* gra(e oral de*a&ation but a*ter trial6 t5e court *ound 5i& guilty only o* t5e o**ense o* si&,le slander# Ee *iled a &otion *or reconsideration contending t5at6 under t5e la!6 t5e cri&e o* si&,le slander !ould 5a(e ,rescribed in t!o &ont5s *ro& co&&ission6 and since t5e in*or&ation against 5i& !as *iled &ore t5an *our &ont5s a*ter t5e alleged co&&ission o* t5e cri&e6 t5e sa&e 5ad already ,rescribed# /5e %olicitor 7eneral o,,osed t5e &otion on t!o grounds: *irst6 in deter&ining t5e ,rescri,ti(e ,eriod6 t5e nature o* t5e o**ense c5arged in t5e In*or&ation s5ould be considered6 not t5e cri&e ,ro(ed= second6 assu&ing t5at t5e o**ense 5ad already ,rescribed6 t5e de*ense !as !ai(ed by t5e *ailure o* A to raise it in a &otion to Guas5# .esol(e t5e &otion *or reconsideration# %'77E%/E- AB%4E.: /5e &otion *or reconsideration s5ould be granted#a+ /5e accused cannot be con(icted o* t5e o**ense o* si&,le slander alt5oug5 it is necessarily included in t5e o**ense o* gra(e slander c5arged in t5e in*or&ation6 because6 t5e lesser o**ense 5ad already ,rescribed at t5e ti&e t5e in*or&ation !as *iled $"eo,le us# .arang6 $)A+ ;2

2#7# ;@;A= 3rancisco (s# )A6 122 %).A <3A= Dagat (s# "eo,le# 201 %).A 21+ ot5er!ise ,rosecutors can easily circu&(ent t5e rule o* ,rescri,tion in lig5t o**enses by t5e si&,le e ,edi&ent o* *iling a gra(er o**ense !5ic5 includes suc5 lig5t o**ense# b+ 45ile t5e general rule is t5e *ailure o* an accused to *ile a &otion to Guas5 be*ore 5e ,leads to t5e co&,laint or in*or&ation6 s5all be dee&ed a !ai(er o* t5e grounds o* a &otion to Guas56 t5e e ce,tions to t5is are: $1+ no o**ense !as c5arged in t5e co&,laint or in*or&ation= $2+ lac0 o* Jurisdiction= $3+ e tinction o* t5e o**ense or ,enalty= and $@+ double 9eo,ardy# %ince t5e ground in(o0ed by t5e accused in 5is &otion *or reconsideration is e tinction o* t5e o**ense6 t5en it can be raised e(en a*ter ,lea# In *act6 it &ay e(en be in(o0ed on a,,eal $"eo,le (s# 1alagtas+ )IVIL LIA1ILI/> )i(il liability= E**ect o* AcGuittal $2000+ Ba&e at least t!o e ce,tions to t5e general rule t5at in case o* acGuittal o* t5e accused in a cri&inal case6 5is ci(il liability is li0e!ise e tinguis5ed# $2N+ %'77E%/E- AB%4E.: E ce,tions to t5e rule t5at acGuittal *ro& a cri&inal case e tinguis5es ci(il liability6 are: 1+ 45en t5e ci(il action is based on obligations not arising *ro& t5e act co&,lained o* as a *elony= 2+ 45en acGuittal is based on reasonable doubt or acGuittal is on t5e ground t5at guilt 5as not been ,ro(en beyond reasonable doubt $Art# 296 Be! )i(il )ode+= 3+ AcGuittal due to an e e&,ting circu&stance6 li0e Insanity= @+ 45ere t5e court states in its Judg&ent t5at t5e case &erely in(ol(es a ci(il obligation= <+ 45ere t5ere !as a ,ro,er reser(ation *or t5e *iling o* a se,arate ci(il action= ;+ In cases o* inde,endent ci(il actions ,ro(ided *or in Arts# 316 326 33 and 3@ o* t5e Be! )i(il )ode= 7+ 45en t5e 9udg&ent o* acGuittal includes a declaration t5at t5e *act *ro& !5ic5 t5e ci(il liability &ig5t arise did not e ist $%a,iera (s# )A6 31@ %).A 370+= A+ 45ere t5e ci(il liability is not deri(ed or based on t5e cri&inal act o* !5ic5 t5e accused is acGuitted $%a,iera (s# )A# 31@ %).A 370+# )i(il liability= E**ect o* AcGuittal $2000+ A !as a 17-year old !or0ing student !5o !as earning 5is 0ee, as a cigarette (endor# 1 !as dri(ing a car along busy Es,ana %treet at about 7:00 ,#&# 1eside 1 !as )# /5e car sto,,ed at an intersection because o* t5e red signal o* t5e tra**ic lig5t# 45ile !aiting *or t5e green signal6 ) bec0oned A to buy so&e cigarettes# A a,,roac5ed t5e )ri&inal La! 1ar E a&ination 8 ? A $199@-200;+ car and 5anded t!o stic0s o* cigarettes to )# 45ile t5e transaction !as ta0ing ,lace6 t5e tra**ic lig5t c5anged to green and t5e car i&&ediately s,ed o**# As t5e car continued to s,eed to!ards 8uia,o6 A clung to t5e !indo! o* t5e car but lost 5is gri, and *ell do!n on t5e ,a(e&ent# /5e car did not sto,# A su**ered serious in9uries !5ic5 e(entually caused 5is deat5# ) !as c5arged !it5 .211E.> !it5 E2DI)I-E# In t5e end6 t5e )ourt !as not con(inced !it5 &oral certainty t5at t5e guilt o* ) 5as been establis5ed beyond reasonable doubt and6 t5us6 acGuitted 5i& on t5e ground o* reasonable doubt# )an t5e *a&ily o* t5e (icti& still reco(er ci(il da&ages in (ie! o* t5e acGuittal o* )L E ,lain# $<N+ %'77E%/E- AB%4E.: >es6 as against )6 AIs *a&ily can still reco(er ci(il da&ages des,ite )Is acGuittal# 45en t5e accused in a cri&inal ,rosecution is acGuitted on t5e ground t5at 5is guilt 5as not been ,ro(ed beyond reasonable doubt6 a ci(il action *or da&ages *or t5e sa&e act or o&ission &ay be instituted# %uc5 action reGuires only a ,re,onderance o* e(idence TArt# 296 ))+# I* AIs *a&ily can ,ro(e t5e negligence o* 1 by ,re,onderance o* e(idence6 t5e ci(il action *or da&ages against 1 !ill ,ros,er based on Guasi-delict# 45oe(er by act or o&ission causes da&age to anot5er6 t5ere being *ault or negligence6 is

obliged to ,ay *or t5e da&age done# %uc5 *ault or negligence6 about ,re-e isting contractual relation bet!een t5e ,arties6 is called a Guasi-delict OArt# 217;6 ))+# /5is is entirely se,arate and distinct *ro& ci(il liability arising *ro& negligence under t5e "enal )ode OArts6 316 217;6 21776 ))K# )i(il Liability= %ubsidiary= E&,loyers $199A+ 7uy6 !5ile dri(ing a ,assenger 9ee,ney o!ned and o,erated by Da 6 bu&,ed -e&y6 a ,edestrian crossing t5e street# -e&y sustained in9uries !5ic5 reGuired &edical attendance *or t5ree &ont5s# 7uy !as c5arged !it5 rec0less i&,rudence resulting to ,5ysical in9uries# )on(icted by t5e Detro,olitan /rial )ourt# 7uy !as sentenced to su**er a straig5t ,enalty o* t5ree &ont5s o* arresto &ayor and ordered to inde&ni*y -e&y in t5e su& o* "<6000 and to ,ay "16000 as attorneyIs *ees# ',on *inality o* t5e decision6 a !rit o* e ecution !as ser(ed u,on 7uy6 but !as returned unsatis*ied due to 5is insol(ency# -e&y &o(ed *or a subsidiary !rit o* e ecution against Da # /5e latter o,,osed t5e &otion on-t5e ground t5at t5e decision &ade no &ention o* 5is subsidiary liability and t5at 5e !as not i&,leaded in t5e case# Eo! !ill you resol(e t5e &otionL O<NP %'77E%/E- AB%4E.: /5e &otion is to be granted# Da as an e&,loyer o* 7uy and engaged in an industry $trans,ortation business+ !5ere said e&,loyee is utiliJed6 is subsidiarily ci(illy liable under Article 103 o* t5e .e(ised "enal )ode# E(en t5oug5 t5e decision &ade no &ention o* 5is subsidiary liability6 t5e la! (iolated $.e(ised "enal )ode+ itsel* @2 o* A; &andates *or suc5 liability and Da is dee&ed to 0no! it because ignorance o* t5e la! is ne(er e cused# And since 5is liability is not ,ri&ary but only subsidiary in case 5is e&,loyee cannot ,ay= 5e need not be i&,leaded in t5e in t5e cri&inal case# It su**ices t5at 5e !as duly noti*ied o* t5e &otion *or issuance o* a subsidiary !rit o* e ecution and t5us gi(en t5e o,,ortunity to be 5eard# )i(il Liability= 45en Dandatory= )ri&inal Liability $200<+ /5e accused !as *ound guilty o* 10 counts o* ra,e *or 5a(ing carnal 0no!ledge !it5 t5e sa&e !o&an# In addition to t5e ,enalty o* i&,rison&ent6 5e !as ordered to ,ay inde&nity in t5e a&ount o* "<06000#00 *or eac5 count# 2n a,,eal6 t5e accused Guestions t5e a!ard o* ci(il inde&nity *or eac5 count6 considering t5at t5e (icti& is t5e sa&e !o&an# Eo! !ould you rule on t5e contention o* t5e accusedL E ,lain# $3N+ %'77E%/E- AB%4E.: /5e contention is un&eritorious# 'nder t5e la!6 e(ery ,erson cri&inally liable is ci(illy liable# $Art# 1006 .e(ised "enal )ode+ %ince eac5 count c5arges di**erent *elonious acts and oug5t to be ,unis5ed di**erently6 t5e conco&itant ci(il inde&nity e delicto *or e(ery cri&inal act s5ould be ad9udged# %aid ci(il inde&nity is &andatory u,on a *inding o* t5e *act o* ra,e= it is distinct *ro& and s5ould not be deno&inated as &oral da&ages !5ic5 are based on di**erent 9ural *oundations# $"eo,le (# Jalos9os6 7#.# Bos# 132A7<-7;6 Bo(e&ber 1;6 2001+ -a&ages= Eo&icide= /e&,erate -a&ages $200;+ In a cri&e o* 5o&icide6 t5e ,rosecution *ailed to ,resent any recei,t to substantiate t5e 5eirsI clai& *or an a!ard o* actual da&ages6 suc5 as e ,enses *or t5e !a0e and burial# 45at 0ind o* da&ages &ay t5e trial court a!ard to t5e& and 5o! &uc5L $<N+ %'77E%/E- AB%4E.: /5e court &ay a!ard te&,erate da&ages in t5e a&ount o* t!enty-*i(e $"2<6000#00+ t5ousand ,esos# 'nder 9uris,rudence6 te&,erate da&ages is a!arded in 5o&icide !5en no su**icient ,roo* o* actual da&ages is o**ered or i* t5e actual da&ages ,ro(en is less t5an t!enty-*i(e t5ousand $"2<6000+ $"eo,le (# %alona6 7#.# Bo# 1<12<16 Day 196 200@+# )ri&es Against Bational %ecurity and t5e La! o* Bations "iracy in t5e Eig5 %eas ? 8uali*ied "iracy $200;+ 45ile t5e %#%# Bagoya Daru !as negotiating t5e sea route *ro& Eong0ong to!ards Danila6 and !5ile still 300 &iles *ro& A,arri6 )agayan6 its engines &al*unctioned#

/5e )a,tain ordered t5e s5i, to sto, *or e&ergency re,airs lasting *or al&ost 1< 5ours# -ue to e 5austion6 t5e o**icers and cre! *ell aslee,# 45ile t5e s5i, !as anc5ored6 a &otorboat &anned by renegade >banags *ro& )la(eria6 )agayan6 ,assed by and too0 ad(antage o* t5e situation# /5ey cut t5e s5i,Is engines and too0 a!ay se(eral 5ea(y crates o* electrical eGui,&ent and loaded t5e& in t5eir &otorboat# /5en t5ey le*t 5urriedly )ri&inal La! 1ar E a&ination 8 ? A $199@-200;+ to!ards A,arri# At daybrea06 t5e cre! *ound t5at a robbery too0 ,lace# /5ey radioed t5e A,arri "ort Aut5orities resulting in t5e a,,re5ension o* t5e cul,rits# 45at cri&e !as co&&ittedL E ,lain# $2#<N+ %'77E%/E- AB%4E.: "iracy in t5e 5ig5 seas !as co&&itted by t5e renegade >banags# /5e cul,rits6 !5o are neit5er &e&bers o* t5e co&,le&ent nor ,assengers o* t5e s5i,6 seiJed ,art o* t5e eGui,&ent o* t5e (essel !5ile it !as t5ree 5undred &iles a!ay *ro& A,arri6 )agayan $Art# 1226 .e(ised "enal )ode+# %u,,osing t5at !5ile t5e robbery !as ta0ing ,lace6 t5e cul,rits stabbed a &e&ber o* t5e cre! !5ile slee,ing# 45at cri&e !as co&&ittedL E ,lain# $2#<N+ %'77E%/E- AB%4E.: /5e cri&e co&&itted is Guali*ied ,iracy6 because it !as acco&,anied by ,5ysical in9uriesH5o&icide# /5e cul,rits stabbed a &e&ber o* t5e cre! !5ile slee,ing $Art# 1236 .e(ised "enal )ode+# )ri&es Against t5e 3unda&ental La! o* t5e %tate Violation o* -o&icile (s# /res,ass to -!elling $2002+ 45at is t5e di**erence bet!een (iolation o* do&icile and tres,ass to d!ellingL $2N+ %'77E%/E- AB%4E.: /5e di**erences bet!een (iolation o* do&icile and tres,ass to d!elling are= 1+ /5e o**ender in (iolation o* do&icile is a ,ublic o**icer acting under color o* aut5ority= in tres,ass to d!elling6 t5e o**ender is a ,ri(ate ,erson or ,ublic o**icer acting in a ,ri(ate ca,acity# 2+ Violation o* do&icile is co&&itted in 3 di**erent !ays: $1+ by entering t5e d!elling o* anot5er against t5e !ill o* t5e latter= $2+ searc5ing ,a,ers and ot5er e**ects inside t5e d!elling !it5out t5e ,re(ious consent o* t5e o!ner= or $3+ re*using to lea(e t5e ,re&ises !5ic5 5e entered surre,titiously6 a*ter being reGuired to lea(e t5e ,re&ises# 3+ /res,ass to d!elling is co&&itted only in one !ay= t5at is6 by entering t5e d!elling o* anot5er against t5e e ,ress or i&,lied !ill o* t5e latter# )ri&es Against "ublic 2rder Art 13@= .ebellion= "olitically Doti(ated= )o&&itted by B"A De&bers $199A+ 2n Day <6 19926 at about ;:00 a#&#6 !5ile 7o(ernor Alegre o* Laguna !as on board 5is car tra(eling along t5e Bational Eig5!ay o* Laguna6 Joselito and Vicente s5ot 5i& on t5e 5ead resulting in 5is instant deat5# At t5at ti&e6 Joselito and Vicente !ere &e&bers o* t5e liGuidation sGuad o* t5e Be! "eo,leIs Ar&y and t5ey 0illed t5e go(ernor u,on orders o* t5eir senior o**icer# )o&&ander /iago# According to Joselito and Vicente6 @3 o* A; t5ey !ere ordered to 0ill 7o(ernor Alegre because o* 5is corru,t ,ractices# I* you !ere t5e ,rosecutor6 !5at cri&e !ill you c5arge Joselito and VicenteL O<NJ %'77E%/E- AB%4E.: I* I !ere t5e ,rosecutor6 I !ould c5arge Joselito and Vicente !it5 t5e cri&e o* rebellion6 considering t5at t5e 0illers !ere &e&bers o* t5e liGuidation sGuad o* t5e Be! "eo,leIs Ar&y and t5e 0illing !as u,on orders o* t5eir co&&ander= 5ence6 ,olitically-&oti(ated# /5is !as t5e ruling in "eo,le (s# A(ila6 207 %).A 1<;A in(ol(ing identical *acts !5ic5 is a &o(e&ent ta0en 9udicial notice o* as engaged in rebellion against t5e 7o(ern&ent# AL/E.BA/IVE AB%4E.: I* I !ere t5e ,rosecutor6 I !ould c5arge Joselito and Vicente *or t5e cri&e o*

&urder as t5e ,ur,ose o* t5e 0illing !as because o* 5is Mcorru,t ,ractices M6 !5ic5 does not a,,ear to be ,olitically &oti(ated# /5ere is no indication as to 5o! t5e 0illing !ould ,ro&ote or *urt5er t5e ob9ecti(e o* t5e Be! "eo,les Ar&y# /5e 0illing is &urder because it !as co&&itted !it5 treac5ery# AL/E.BA/IVE AB%4E.: /5e cri&e s5ould be rebellion !it5 &urder considering t5at Art# 13< o* t5e .e(ised "enal )ode 5as already been a&ended by .e,# Act Bo# ;9;A6 deleting *ro& said Article6 co&&on cri&es !5ic5 used to be ,unis5ed as ,art and ,arcel o* t5e cri&e o* rebellion# /5e ruling in "eo,le (s# EernandeJ6 99 "5il# <1< $199@+6 t5at rebellion &ay not be co&,leted !it5 co&&on cri&es co&&itted in *urt5erance t5ereo*6 !as because t5e co&&on cri&es !ere t5en ,enaliJed in Art# 13< toget5er !it5 t5e rebellion6 !it5 one ,enalty and Art# @A o* t5e .e(# "enal )ode cannot be a,,lied# Art# 13< o* said )ode re&ained e actly t5e sa&e !5en t5e case o* Enrile (s6 %alaJar6 1A; %).A 217 $1990+ !as resol(ed# "recisely *or t5e reason t5at Art# @A cannot a,,ly because t5e co&&on cri&es !ere ,unis5ed as ,art o* rebellion in Art# 13<6 t5at t5is Article !as a&ended6 deleting t5e co&&on cri&es t5ere*ro&# /5at t5e co&&on cri&es !ere deleted *ro& said Article6 de&onstrates a clear legislati(e intention to treat t5e co&&on cri&es as distinct *ro& rebellion and re&o(e t5e legal i&,edi&ent to t5e a,,lication o* Art# @A# It is note!ort5y t5at in Enrile (s# %alaJar $su,ra+ t5e %u,re&e )ourt said t5ese: M/5ere is an a,,arent need to restructure t5e la! on rebellion6 eit5er to raise t5e ,enalty t5ere*or or to clearly de*ine and deli&it t5e ot5er o**enses to be considered as absorbed t5ereby6 so t5at i* it cannot be con(eniently utiliJed as t5e u&brella *or e(ery sort o* illegal acti(ity underta0en in its na&e# /5e )ourt 5as no ,o!er to e**ect suc5 c5ange6 *or it can only inter,ret t5e la! as it stands at any gi(en ti&e6 and !5at is needed lies beyond inter,retation# Eo,e*ully6 )ongress !ill ,ercei(e t5e need *or ,ro&,tly seiJing t5e initiati(e in t5is &atter6 !5ic5 is ,urely !it5 in its ,ro(ince6M And signi*icantly t5e said a&end&ent to Art# 13< o* t5e .e(# "enal )ode !as &ade at around t5e ti&e t5e ruling in %alaJar !as 5andled do!n6 ob(iously to )ri&inal La! 1ar E a&ination 8 ? A $199@-200;+ neutraliJe t5e EernandeJ and t5e %alaJar rulings# /5e a&end&ent !as sort o* a rider to t5e cou, dIetat la!6 .e,# Act Bo ;9;A# Art 13@-A: )ou, d: etat ? .a,e= 3rustrated $200<+ /a0ing into account t5e nature and ele&ents o* t5e *elonies o* cou, d: etat and ra,e6 &ay one be cri&inally liable *or *rustrated cou, d: etat or *rustrated ra,eL E ,lain# $2N+ %'77E%/E- AB%4E.: Bo6 one cannot be cri&inally liable *or *rustrated cou, d: etat or *rustrated ra,e because in cou, d: etat t5e &ere attac0 directed against t5e duly constituted aut5orities o* t5e .e,ublic o* t5e "5ili,,ines6 or any &ilitary ca&, or installation6 co&&unication net!or0s6 ,ublic utilities or ot5er *acilities needed *or t5e e ercise and continued ,ossession o* ,o!er !ould consu&&ate t5e cri&e# /5e ob9ecti(e &ay not be to o(ert5ro! t5e go(ern&ent but only to destabiliJe or ,aralyJe t5e go(ern&ent t5roug5 t5e seiJure o* *acilities and utilities essential to t5e continued ,ossession and e ercise o* go(ern&ental ,o!ers# 2n t5e ot5er 5and6 in t5e cri&e o* ra,e t5ere is no *rustrated ra,e it is eit5er atte&,ted or consu&&ated ra,e# I* t5e accused !5o ,laced 5i&sel* on to, o* a !o&an6 raising 5er s0irt and unbuttoning 5is ,ants6 t5e endea(or to 5a(e se !it5 5er (ery a,,arent6 is guilty o* Atte&,ted ra,e# 2n t5e ot5er 5and6 entry on t5e labia or li,s o* t5e *e&ale organ by t5e ,enis6 e(en !it5out ru,ture o* t5e 5y&en or laceration o* t5e (agina6 consu&&ates t5e cri&e o* ra,e# Dore so6 it 5as long abandoned its UstrayV decision in "eo,le (s# Erina <0 "5il 99A !5ere t5e accused !as *ound guilty o* 3rustrated ra,e# Art 13@-A= )ou, d:etat $2002+ I* a grou, o* ,ersons belonging to t5e ar&ed *orces &a0es a s!i*t attac06 acco&,anied by (iolence6 inti&idation and t5reat against a (ital &ilitary

installation *or t5e ,ur,ose o* seiJing ,o!er and ta0ing o(er suc5 installation6 !5at cri&e or cri&es are t5ey guilty o*L $3N+ %'77E%/E- AB%4E.: /5e ,er,etrators6 being ,ersons belonging to t5e Ar&ed 3orces6 !ould be guilty o* t5e cri&e o* cou, dIetat6 under Article 13@-A o* t5e .e(ised "enal )ode6 as a&ended6 because t5eir attac0 !as against (ital &ilitary installations !5ic5 are essential to t5e continued ,ossession and e ercise o* go(ern&ental ,o!ers6 and t5eir ,ur,ose is to seiJe ,o!er by ta0ing o(er suc5 installations# 1# I* t5e attac0 is Guelled but t5e leader is un0no!n6 !5o s5all be dee&ed t5e leader t5ereo*L $2N+ %'77E%/E- AB%4E.: /5e leader being un0no!n6 any ,erson !5o in *act directed t5e ot5ers6 s,o0e *or t5e&6 signed recei,ts and ot5er docu&ents issued in t5eir na&e6 or ,er*or&ed si&ilar acts6 on be5al* o* t5e grou, s5all be dee&ed t5e leader o* said cou, dIetat $Art 13<6 .#"#)#+ @@ o* A; Art 13@-A= )ou, d:etat= Be! 3irear&s La! $199A+ 1# Eo! is t5e cri&e o* cou, dIetat co&&ittedL O3NP

2# %u,,osing a ,ublic sc5ool teac5er ,artici,ated in a cou, dIetat using an unlicensed *irear&# 45at cri&e or cri&es did 5e co&&itL O2NP %'77E%/E- AB%4E.: 1# /5e cri&e o* cou, dIetat is co&&itted by a s!i*t attac06 acco&,anied by (iolence6 inti&idation6 t5reat6 strategy or stealt5 against t5e duly constituted aut5orities o* t5e .e,ublic o* t5e "5ili,,ines6 &ilitary ca&,s and installations6 co&&unication net!or0s6 ,ublic utilities and *acilities needed *or t5e e ercise and continued ,ossession o* ,o!er6 carried out singly or si&ultaneously any!5ere in t5e "5ili,,ines by ,ersons belonging to t5e &ilitary or ,olice or 5olding ,ublic o**ice6 !it5 or !it5out ci(ilian su,,ort or ,artici,ation6 *or t5e ,ur,ose o* seiJing or di&inis5ing state ,o!er# $Art 13@-A6 .")+# 2# /5e ,ublic sc5ool teac5er co&&itted only cou, dIetat *or 5is ,artici,ation t5erein# Eis use o* an unlicensed *irear& is absorbed in t5e cou, dIetat under t5e ne! *irear&s la! $.e,# Act Bo# A29@+# Art 13;= )ons,iracy to )o&&it .ebellion $199@+ V)6 J7# 77 and J7 cons,ired to o(ert5ro! t5e "5ili,,ine 7o(ern&ent# V7 !as recogniJed as t5e titular 5ead o* t5e cons,iracy# %e(eral &eetings !ere 5eld and t5e ,lan !as *inaliJed# JJ6 bot5ered by 5is conscience6 con*essed to 3at5er Abra5a& t5at 5e6 V76 J7 and 77 5a(e cons,ired to o(ert5ro! t5e go(ern&ent# 3at5er Abra5a& did not re,ort t5is in*or&ation to t5e ,ro,er aut5orities# -id 3at5er Abra5a& co&&it a cri&eL I* so6 !5at cri&e !as co&&ittedL 45at is 5is cri&inal liabilityL %'77E%/E- AB%4E.: Bo6 3at5er Abra5a& did not co&&it a cri&e because t5e cons,iracy in(ol(ed is one to co&&it rebellion6 not a cons,iracy to co&&it treason !5ic5 &a0es a ,erson cri&inally liable under Art 11;6 .3)# And e(en assu&ing t5at it !ill *all as &is,rision o* treason6 3at5er Abra5a& is e e&,ted *ro& cri&inal liability under Art# 126 ,ar# 76 as 5is *ailure to re,ort can be considered as due to Minsu,erable causeM6 as t5is in(ol(es t5e sanctity and in(iolability o* a con*ession# )ons,iracy to co&&it rebellion results in cri&inal liability to t5e cocons,irators6 but not to a ,erson !5o learned o* suc5 and did not re,ort to t5e ,ro,er aut5orities $'% (s# Vergara6 3 "5il# @32= "eo,le (s# AtienJa# <; "5il# 3<3+# Art 1@A= -irect Assault (s# .esistance ? -isobedience $2001+

A6 a teac5er at Da,a Eig5 %c5ool6 5a(ing gotten &ad at C6 one o* 5is ,u,ils6 because o* t5e latterIs t5ro!ing ,a,er cli,s at 5is class&ates6 t!isted 5is rig5t ear# C !ent out o* t5e classroo& crying and ,roceeded 5o&e located at t5e bac0 o* t5e sc5ool# Ee re,orted to 5is ,arents > and R !5at A 5ad done to 5i&# > and R i&&ediately ,roceeded to t5e sc5ool building and because t5ey !ere running and tal0ing in loud (oices6 t5ey !ere seen by t5e )ri&inal La! 1ar E a&ination 8 ? A $199@-200;+ barangay c5air&an6 16 !5o *ollo!ed t5e& as 5e sus,ected t5at an unto!ard incident &ig5t 5a,,en# ',on seeing A inside t5e classroo&6 C ,ointed 5i& out to 5is *at5er6 >6 !5o ad&inistered a *ist blo! on A6 causing 5i& to *all do!n# 45en > !as about to 0ic0 A6 1 rus5ed to!ards > and ,inned bot5 o* t5e latterIs ar&s# %eeing 5is *at5er being 5eld by 16 C !ent near and ,unc5ed 1 on t5e *ace6 !5ic5 caused 5i& to lose 5is gri, on ># /5roug5out t5is incident6 R s5outed !ords o* encourage&ent at >6 5er 5usband6 and also t5reatened to sla, A# %o&e security guards o* t5e sc5ool arri(ed6 inter(ened and surrounded C6 > and R so t5at t5ey could be in(estigated in t5e ,rinci,alIs o**ice# 1e*ore lea(ing6 R ,assed near A and t5re! a s&all *lo!er ,ot at 5i& but it !as de*lected by 1# a+ 45at6 i* any6 are t5e res,ecti(e cri&inal liability o* C > and RL $;N+ b+ 4ould your ans!er be t5e sa&e i* 1 !ere a barangay tanod onlyL $@N+ %'77E%/E- AB%4E.: a+ C is liable *or -irect Assault only6 assu&ing t5e ,5ysical in9uries in*licted on 16 t5e 1arangay )5air&an6 to be only slig5t and 5ence6 !ould be absorbed in t5e direct assault# A 1arangay )5air&an is a ,erson in aut5ority $Art# 1<26 .")+ and in t5is case6 !as ,er*or&ing 5is duty o* &aintaining ,eace and order !5en attac0ed# > is liable *or t5e co&,le cri&es o* -irect Assault 4it5 Less %erious "5ysical In9uries *or t5e *ist blo! on A6 t5e teac5er6 !5ic5 caused t5e latter to *all do!n# 3or ,ur,oses o* t5e cri&es in Arts# 1@A and 1<1 o* t5e .e(ised "enal )ode6 a teac5er is considered a ,erson in aut5ority6 and 5a(ing been attac0ed by > by reason o* 5is ,er*or&ance o* o**icial duty6 direct assault is co&&itted !it5 t5e resulting less serious ,5ysical in9uries co&,leted# R6 t5e &ot5er o* C and !i*e o* > &ay only be liable as an acco&,lice to t5e co&,le cri&es o* direct assault !it5 less serious ,5ysical in9uries co&&itted by ># Eer ,artici,ation s5ould not be considered as t5at o* a coQ,rinci,al6 since 5er reactions !ere only incited by 5er relations5i, to C and ># as t5e &ot5er o* C and t5e !i*e o* ># b+ I* 1 !ere a 1arangay /anod only6 t5e act o* C o* laying 5and on 5i&6 being an agent o* a ,erson in aut5ority only6 !ould constitute t5e cri&e o* .esistance and -isobedience under Article 1<16 since C6 a 5ig5 sc5ool ,u,il6 could not be considered as 5a(ing acted out o* conte&,t *or aut5ority but &ore o* 5el,ing 5is *at5er get *ree *ro& t5e gri, o* 1# Laying 5and on an agent o* a ,erson in aut5ority is not i,so *acto direct assault6 !5ile it !ould al!ays be direct assault i* done to a ,erson in aut5ority in de*iance to t5e latter is e ercise o* aut5ority# Art 1@A= -irect Assault= /eac5ers ? "ro*essors $2002+ A6 a lady ,ro*essor6 !as gi(ing an e a&ination# %5e noticed 16 one o* t5e students6 c5eating# %5e called t5e studentIs attention and con*iscated 5is e a&ination boo0let6 causing e&barrass&ent to 5i&# /5e *ollo!ing @< o* A; day6 !5ile t5e class !as going on6 t5e student6 16 a,,roac5ed A and6 !it5out any !arning6 sla,,ed 5er# 1 !ould 5a(e in*licted *urt5er in9uries on A 5ad not )6 anot5er student6 co&e to AIs rescue and ,re(ented 1 *ro& continuing 5is attac0# 1 turned 5is ire on ) and ,unc5ed t5e latter# 45at cri&e or cri&es6 i* any6 did 1 co&&itL 45yL $<N+ %'77E%/E- AB%4E.: 1 co&&itted t!o $2+ counts o* direct assault: one *or sla,,ing t5e ,ro*essor6 A6 !5o !as t5en conducting classes and t5us e ercising aut5ority= and anot5er one *or t5e (iolence on t5e student )6 !5o ca&e to t5e aid o* t5e said ,ro*essor# 1y e ,ress ,ro(ision o* Article 1<26 in relation to Article 1@A o* t5e .e(ised

"enal )ode6 teac5ers and ,ro*essors o* ,ublic or duly recogniJed ,ri(ate sc5ools6 colleges and uni(ersities in t5e actual ,er*or&ance o* t5eir ,ro*essional duties or on t5e occasion o* suc5 ,er*or&ance are dee&ed ,ersons in aut5ority *or ,ur,oses o* t5e cri&es o* direct assault and o* resistance and disobedience in Articles 1@A and 1<1 o* said )ode# And any ,erson !5o co&es to t5e aid o* ,ersons in aut5ority s5all be dee&ed an agent o* a ,erson in aut5ority# Accordingly6 t5e attac0 on ) is6 in t5e eyes o* t5e la!6 an attac0 on an agent o* a ,erson in aut5ority6 not 9ust an attac0 on a student# Art 1@A= "ersons in Aut5orityHAgents o* "ersons in Aut5ority $2000+ 45o are dee&ed to be ,ersons in aut5ority and agents o* ,ersons in aut5orityL $3N+ %'77E%/E- AB%4E.: "ersons in aut5ority are ,ersons directly (ested !it5 9urisdiction6 !5et5er as an indi(idual or as a &e&ber o* so&e court or go(ern&ent cor,oration6 board6 or co&&ission# 1arrio ca,tains and barangay c5air&en are also dee&ed ,ersons in aut5ority# $Article 1<26 .")+ Agents o* ,ersons in aut5ority are ,ersons !5o by direct ,ro(ision o* la! or by election or by a,,oint&ent by co&,etent aut5ority6 are c5arged !it5 &aintenance o* ,ublic order6 t5e ,rotection and security o* li*e and ,ro,erty6 suc5 as barrio council&an6 barrio ,olice&an6 barangay leader and any ,erson !5o co&es to t5e aid o* ,ersons in aut5ority $Art# 1<26 .")+6 In a,,lying t5e ,ro(isions o* Articles 1@A and 1<1 o* t5e .e(# "enal )ode6 teac5ers6 ,ro*essors and ,ersons c5arged !it5 t5e su,er(ision o* ,ublic or duly recogniJed ,ri(ate sc5ools6 colleges and uni(ersities6 and la!yers in t5e actual ,er*or&ance o* t5eir ,ro*essional duties or on t5e occasion o* suc5 ,er*or&ance6 s5all be dee&ed ,ersons in aut5ority# $"#-# Bo# 2996 and 1atas "a&bansa 1lg# A73+# Art 1<;= -eli(ery o* "risoners *ro& Jail $2002+ A6 a detention ,risoner6 !as ta0en to a 5os,ital *or e&ergency &edical treat&ent# Eis *ollo!ers6 all o* !5o& !ere ar&ed6 !ent to t5e 5os,ital to ta0e 5i& a!ay or )ri&inal La! 1ar E a&ination 8 ? A $199@-200;+ 5el, 5i& esca,e# /5e ,rison guards6 seeing t5at t5ey !ere outnu&bered and t5at resistance !ould endanger t5e li(es o* ot5er ,atients6 dec0led to allo! t5e ,risoner to be ta0en by 5is *ollo!ers# 45at cri&e6 i* any6 !as co&&itted by AIs *ollo!ersL 45yL $3N+ %'77E%/E- AB%4E.: AIs *ollo!ers s5all be liable as ,rinci,als in t5e cri&e o* deli(ery o* ,risoner *ro& Jail $Art# 1<;6 .e(ised "enal )ode+# /5e *elony is co&&itted not only by re&o(ing *ro& any 9ail or ,enal establis5&ent any ,erson con*ined t5erein but also by 5el,ing in t5e esca,e o* suc5 ,erson outside o* said establis5&ents by &eans o* (iolence6 inti&idation6 bribery6 or any ot5er &eans# Art 1<7= E(asion o* %er(ice o* %entence $199A+ Danny 0illed 5is !i*e under e ce,tional circu&stances and !as sentenced by t5e .egional /rial )ourt o* -agu,an )ity to su**er t5e ,enalty o* destierro during !5ic5 5e !as not to enter t5e city# 45ile ser(ing sentence6 Danny !ent to -agu,an )ity to (isit 5is &ot5er# Later6 5e !as arrested in Danila# 1# 2# -id Danny co&&it any cri&eL O3NP I* so6 !5ere s5ould 5e be ,rosecutedL O2NP

%'77E%/E- AB%4E.: 1# >es# Danny co&&itted t5e cri&e o* e(asion o* ser(ice o* sentence !5en 5e !ent to -agu,an )ity6 !5ic5 5e !as ,ro5ibited *ro& entering under 5is sentence o* destierro#

A sentence i&,osing t5e ,enalty o* destierro is e(aded !5en t5e con(ict enters any o* t5e ,laceH,laces 5e is ,ro5ibited *ro& entering under t5e sentence or co&e !it5in t5e ,ro5ibited radius# Alt5oug5 destierro does not in(ol(e i&,rison&ent6 it is nonet5eless a de,ri(ation o* liberty# $"eo,le (s# Abilong# A2 "5il# 172+# 2# Danny &ay be ,rosecuted in -agu,an )ity or in Danila !5ere 5e !as arrested# /5is is so because e(asion o* ser(ice o* sentence is a continuing o**ense6 as t5e con(ict is a *ugiti(e *ro& 9ustice in suc5 case# $"arulan (s# -ir# o* "risons6 L2A<196 17 3eb# 19;A+ Art# 13@= .ebellion (s# )ou, dIetat $200@+ -istinguis5 clearly but brie*ly: 1et!een rebellion and cou, dIetat6 based on t5eir constituti(e ele&ents as cri&inal o**enses# %'77E%/E- AB%4E.: .E1ELLI2B is co&&itted !5en a &ultitude o* ,ersons rise ,ublicly in ar&s *or t5e ,ur,ose o* o(ert5ro!ing t5e duly constituted go(ern&ent6 to be re,laced by a go(ern&ent o* t5e rebels# It is carried out by *orce and (iolence6 but need not be ,artici,ated in by any &e&ber o* t5e &ilitary6 national ,olice or any ,ublic o**icer# )2'" -IE/A/ is co&&itted !5en &e&bers o* t5e &ilitary6 "5ili,,ine Bational "olice6 or ,ublic o**icer6 @; o* A; acting as ,rinci,al o**enders6 launc5ed a s!i*t attac0 t5ru strategy6 stealt56 t5reat6 (iolence or inti&idation against duly constituted aut5orities o* t5e .e,ublic o* t5e "5ili,,ines6 &ilitary ca&, or installation6 co&&unication net!or0s6 ,ublic *acilities or utilities needed *or t5e e ercise and continued ,ossession o* go(ern&ental ,o!ers6 *or t5e ,ur,ose o* seiJing or di&inis5ing state ,o!ers# 'nli0e rebellion !5ic5 reGuires a ,ublic u,rising6 cou, dIetat &ay be carried out singly or si&ultaneously and t5e ,rinci,al o**enders &ust be &e&bers o* t5e &ilitary6 national ,olice or ,ublic o**icer6 !it5 or !it5out ci(ilian su,,ort# /5e cri&inal ob9ecti(e need not be to o(ert5ro! t5e e isting go(ern&ent but only to destabiliJe or ,aralyJe t5e e isting go(ern&ent# )o&,le )ri&e= -irect Assault !it5 &urder $2000+ 1ecause o* t5e a,,roac5ing to!n *iesta in %an Diguel6 1ulacan6 a dance !as 5eld in 1arangay )a&ias# A6 t5e 1arangay )a,tain6 !as in(ited to deli(er a s,eec5 to start t5e dance# 45ile A !as deli(ering 5is s,eec5# 16 one o* t5e guests6 !ent to t5e &iddle o* t5e dance *loor &a0ing obscene dance &o(e&ents6 brandis5ing a 0ni*e and c5allenging e(eryone ,resent to a *ig5t# A a,,roac5ed 1 and ad&onis5ed 5i& to 0ee, Guiet and not to disturb t5e dance and ,eace o* t5e occasion# 16 instead o* 5eeding t5e ad(ice o* A6 stabbed t5e latter at 5is bac0 t!ice !5en A turned 5is bac0 to ,roceed to t5e &icro,5one to continue 5is s,eec5# A *ell to t5e ground and died# At t5e ti&e o* t5e incident A !as not ar&ed# 45at cri&e !as co&&ittedL E ,lain# $2N+ %'77E%/E- AB%4E.: /5e co&,le cri&e o* direct assault !it5 &urder !as co&&itted# A6 as a 1arangay )a,tain6 is a ,erson in aut5ority and !as acting in an o**icial ca,acity !5en 5e tried to &aintain ,eace and order during t5e ,ublic dance in t5e 1arangay6 by ad&onis5ing 1 to 0ee, Guiet and not to disturb t5e dance and ,eace o* t5e occasion# 45en 16 instead o* 5eeding AIs ad(ice6 attac0ed t5e latter6 1 acted in conte&,t and la!less de*iance o* aut5ority constituting t5e cri&e o* direct assault6 !5ic5 c5aracteriJed t5e stabbing o* A# And since A !as stabbed at t5e bac0 !5en 5e !as not in a ,osition to de*end 5i&sel* nor retaliate6 t5ere !as treac5ery in t5e stabbing# Eence6 t5e deat5 caused by suc5 stabbing !as &urder and 5a(ing been co&&itted !it5 direct assault6 a co&,le cri&e o* direct assault !it5 &urder !as co&&itted by 1# Art 1@A= -irect Assault !it5 &urder $199<+

"ascual o,erated a rice t5res5er in 1arangay Ba,nud !5ere 5e resided# .enato6 a resident o* t5e neig5boring 1arangay 7ui5a&an6 also o,erated a &obile rice t5res5er !5ic5 5e o*ten broug5t to 1arangay Ba,nud to t5res5 t5e ,alay o* t5e *ar&ers t5ere# /5is !as bitterly resented by "ascual6 one a*ternoon "ascual6 and 5is t!o sons con*ronted .enato and 5is &en !5o !ere o,erating t5eir &obile rice t5res5er along a *eeder road in Ba,nud# A 5eated argu&ent ensued# A barangay ca,tain !5o !as )ri&inal La! 1ar E a&ination 8 ? A $199@-200;+ *etc5ed by one o* "ascualIs &en tried to a,,ease "ascual and .enato to ,re(ent a (iolent con*rontation# Eo!e(er6 "ascual resented t5e inter(ention o* t5e barangay ca,tain and 5ac0ed 5i& to deat5# 45at cri&e !as co&&itted by "ascualL -iscuss *ully# %'77E%/E- AB%4E.: "ascual co&&itted t5e co&,le cri&e o* 5o&icide !it5 assault u,on a ,erson in aut5ority $Arts# 1@A and 2@9 in relation to Art6 @A6 .")+# A barangay c5air&an6 is in la! $Art# 1<2+6 a ,erson in aut5ority and i* 5e is attac0ed !5ile in t5e ,er*or&ance o* 5is o**icial duties or on t5e occasion t5ereo* t5e *elony o* direct assault is co&&itted# Art# @A6 .")6 on t5e ot5er 5and6 ,ro(ides t5at i* a single act ,roduces t!o or &ore gra(e or less gra(e *elonies6 a co&,le cri&e is co&&itted# Eere6 t5e single act o* t5e o**ender in 5ac0ing t5e (icti& to deat5 resulted in t!o *elonies6 5o&icide !5ic5 is gra(e and direct assault !5ic5 is less gra(e# )ri&es against "ublic Interest 3alse Botes= Illegal "ossession $1999+ 1 Is &ere ,ossession o* *alse &oney bills ,unis5able under Article 1;A o* t5e .e(ised "enal )odeL E ,lain# $3N+ 2 /5e accused !as caug5t in ,ossession o* 100 counter*eit "20 bills# Ee could not e ,lain 5o! and !5y 5e ,ossessed t5e said bills# Beit5er could 5e e ,lain !5at 5e intended to do !it5 t5e *a0e bills# )an 5e be 5eld cri&inally liable *or suc5 ,ossessionL -ecide# $3NK %'77E%/E- AB%4E.: 1 Bo# "ossession o* *alse treasury or ban0 note alone !it5out an intent to use it6 is not ,unis5able# 1ut t5e circu&stances o* suc5 ,ossession &ay indicate intent to utter6 su**icient to consu&&ate t5e cri&e o* illegal ,ossession o* *alse notes# 2 >es# Fno!ledge t5at t5e note is counter*eit and intent to use it &ay be s5o!n by t5e conduct o* t5e accused# %o6 ,ossession o* 100 *alse bills re(eal: $a+ 0no!ledge t5at t5e bills are *a0e= and $b+ intent to utter t5e sa&e# 3alse /esti&ony $199@+ "aolo !as c5arged !it5 5o&icide be*ore t5e .egional /rial )ourt o* Danila# Andre!6 a ,rosecution !itness6 testi*ied t5at 5e sa! "aolo s5oot Abby during t5eir 5eated argu&ent# 45ile t5e case is still ,ending6 t5e )ity Eall o* Danila burned do!n and t5e entire records o* t5e case !ere destroyed# Later6 t5e records !ere reconstituted# Andre! !as again called to t5e !itness stand# /5is ti&e 5e testi*ied t5at 5is *irst testi&ony !as *alse and t5e trut5 !as 5e !as abroad !5en t5e cri&e too0 ,lace# @7 o* A; /5e 9udge i&&ediately ordered t5e ,rosecution o* Andre! *or gi(ing a *alse testi&ony *a(orable to t5e de*endant in a cri&inal case# 1#P 4ill t5e case against Andre! ,ros,erL 2#P "aolo !as acGuitted# /5e decision beca&e *inal on January 106 19A7# 2n June 1A6 199@ a case o* gi(ing *alse testi&ony !as *iled against Andre!# As 5is la!yer6 !5at legal ste, !ill you ta0eL %'77E%/E- AB%4E.: 1+ >es# 3or one to be cri&inally liable under Art# 1A16 .3)6 it is not necessary t5at t5e cri&inal case !5ere Andre! testi*ied is ter&inated *irst# It is not e(en reGuired o* t5e ,rosecution to ,ro(e !5ic5 o* t5e t!o state&ents o* t5e !itness is

*alse and to ,ro(e t5e state&ent to be *alse by e(idence ot5er t5an t5e contradictory state&ents $"eo,le (s# AraJola6 13 )ourt o* A,,eals .e,ort6 2nd series6 ,# A0A+# 2+ As la!yer o* Andre!6 I !ill *ile a &otion to Guas5 t5e In*or&ation on t5e ground o* ,rescri,tion# /5e cri&e o* *alse testi&ony under Art# 1A0 5as ,rescribed because "aolo6 t5e accused in t5e ,rinci,al case6 !as acGuitted on January 106 19A7 and t5ere*ore t5e ,enalty ,rescribed *or suc5 cri&e is arresto &ayor under Art# 1A06 ,ar# @6 .")# )ri&es ,unis5able by arresto &ayor ,rescribes in *i(e $<+ years $Art# 906 ,ar# 36 .")+# 1ut t5e case against Andre! !as *iled only on June 1A6 199@6 !5ereas t5e ,rinci,al cri&inal case !as decided !it5 *inality on January 106 19A7 and6 t5ence t5e ,rescri,ti(e ,eriod o* t5e cri&e co&&enced to run# 3ro& January 106 19A7 to June 1A6 199@ is &ore t5an *i(e $<+ years# 3alsi*ication= "resu&,tion o* 3alsi*ication $1999+ A *alsi*ied o**icial or ,ublic docu&ent !as *ound in t5e ,ossession o* t5e accused# Bo e(idence !as introduced to s5o! t5at t5e accused !as t5e aut5or o* t5e *alsi*ication# As a &atter o* *act6 t5e trial court con(icted t5e accused o* *alsi*ication o* o**icial or ,ublic docu&ent &ainly on t5e ,ro,osition t5at Mt5e only ,erson !5o could 5a(e &ade t5e erasures and t5e su,eri&,osition &entioned is t5e one !5o !ill be bene*ited by t5e alterations t5us &adeM and t5at M5e alone could 5a(e t5e &oti(e *or &a0ing suc5 alterationsM# 4as t5e con(iction o* t5e accused ,ro,er alt5oug5 t5e con(iction !as ,re&ised &erely on t5e a*oresaid ratiocinationL E ,lain your ans!er# $3N+ %'77E%/E- AB%4E.: >es6 t5e con(iction is ,ro,er because t5ere is a ,resu&,tion in la! t5at t5e ,ossessor and user o* a *alsi*ied docu&ent is t5e one !5o *alsi*ied t5e sa&e# 3orgery ? 3alsi*ication $1999+ Eo! are M*orgingM and M*alsi*icationM co&&ittedL $3N+ %'77E%/E- AB%4E.: 32.7IB7 or *orgery is co&&itted by gi(ing to a treasury or ban0 note or any instru&ent ,ayable to bearer or to order t5e a,,earance o* a true and genuine )ri&inal La! 1ar E a&ination 8 ? A $199@-200;+ docu&ent= or by erasing6 substituting6 counter*eiting6 or altering by any &eans t5e *igures6 letters6 !ords or signs contained t5erein# 3AL%I3I)A/I2B6 on t5e ot5er 5and6 is co&&itted by: 1 )ounter*eiting or i&itating any 5and!riting6 signature or rubric= 2 )ausing it to a,,ear t5at ,ersons 5a(e ,artici,ated in any act or ,roceeding !5en t5ey did not in *act so ,artici,ate= 3 Attributing to ,ersons !5o 5a(e ,artici,ated in an act or ,roceeding state&ents ot5er t5an t5ose in *act &ade by t5e&= @ Da0ing untrut5*ul state&ents in a narration o* *acts= < Altering true dates= ; Da0ing any alteration or intercalation in a genuine docu&ent !5ic5 c5anges its &eaning= 7 Issuing in an aut5enticated *or& a docu&ent ,ur,orting to be a co,y o* an original docu&ent !5en no suc5 original e ists6 or including in suc5 co,y a state&ent contrary to6 or di**erent *ro&6 t5at o* t5e genuine original= or A Intercalating any instru&ent or note relati(e to t5e issuance t5ereo* in a ,rotocol6 registry6 or o**icial boo0# 7ra(e %candal $199;+ "ia6 a bold actress li(ing on to, *loor o* a ,lus5 condo&iniu& in Da0ati )ity sunbat5ed na0ed at its ,ent5ouse e(ery %unday &orning# %5e !as una!are t5at t5e business e ecuti(es 5olding o**ice at t5e ad9oining tall buildings re,orted to o**ice e(ery %unday &orning and6 !it5 t5e use o* ,o!er*ul binoculars6 0e,t on gaJing at 5er !5ile s5e sunbat5ed# E(entually6 5er sunbat5ing beca&e t5e tal0 o* t5e to!n# 1+ 45at cri&e6 i* any6 did "ia co&&itL E ,lain6 2+ 45at cri&e6 i* any6 did t5e business e ecuti(es co&&itL E ,lain#

%'77E%/E- AB%4E.: 1+ "ia did not co&&it a cri&e6 t5e *elony closest to &a0ing "ia cri&inally liable is 7ra(e %candal6 but t5en suc5 act is not to be considered as 5ig5ly scandalous and o**ensi(e against decency and good custo&s# In t5e *irst ,lace6 it !as not done in a ,ublic ,lace and !it5in ,ublic 0no!ledge or (ie!# As a &atter o* *act it !as disco(ered by t5e e ecuti(es accidentally and t5ey 5a(e to use binoculars to 5a(e ,ublic and *ull (ie! o* "ia sunbat5ing in t5e nude# 2+ /5e business e ecuti(es did not co&&it any cri&e# /5eir acts could not be acts o* lasci(iousness Oas t5ere !as no o(ert lust*ul act+6 or slander6 as t5e e(entual tal0 o* t5e to!n6 resulting *ro& 5er sunbat5ing6 is not directly i&,uted to t5e business e ecuti(es6 and besides suc5 to,ic is not intended to de*a&e or ,ut "ia to ridicule# "er9ury $199;+ @A o* A; %isenando ,urc5ased t5e s5are o* t5e stoc05olders o* Estrella )or,oration in t!o install&ents6 &a0ing 5i& t5e &a9ority stoc05older t5ereo* and e(entually6 its ,resident# 1ecause t5e stoc05olders !5o sold t5eir stoc0s *ailed to co&,ly !it5 t5eir !arranties attendant to t5e sale6 %isenando !it55eld ,ay&ent o* t5e second install&ent due on t5e s5ares and de,osited t5e &oney in escro! instead6 sub9ect to release once said stoc05olders co&,ly !it5 t5eir !arranties# /5e stoc05olders concerned6 in turn6 rescinded t5e sale in Guestion and re&o(ed %isenando *ro& t5e "residency o* t5e Estrella )or,oration6 %isenando t5en *iled a (eri*ied co&,laint *or da&ages against said stoc05olders in 5is ca,acity as ,resident and ,rinci,al stoc05older o* Estrella )or,oration# In retaliation6 t5e stoc05olders concerned6 a*ter ,etitioning t5e %ecurities and E c5ange )o&&ission to declare t5e rescission (alid6 *urt5er *iled a cri&inal case *or ,er9ury against %isenando6 clai&ing t5at t5e latter ,er9ured 5i&sel* !5en 5e stated under oat5 in t5e (eri*ication o* 5is co&,laint *or da&ages t5at 5e is t5e "resident o* t5e Estrella )or,oration !5en in *act 5e 5ad already been re&o(ed as suc5# 'nder t5e *acts o* t5e case6 could %isenando be 5eld liable *or ,er9uryL E ,lain# %'77E%/E- AB%4E.: Bo6 %isenando &ay not be 5eld liable *or ,er9ury because It cannot be reasonably &aintained t5at 5e !ill*ully and deliberately &ade an assertion o* a *alse5ood !5en 5e alleged in t5e co&,laint t5at 5e is t5e "resident o* t5e )or,oration6 ob(iously6 5e &ade t5e allegation on t5e ,re&ise t5at 5is re&o(al *ro& t5e ,residency is not (alid and t5at is ,recisely t5e issue broug5t about by 5is co&,laint to t5e %E)# It is a *act t5at %isenando 5as been t5e "resident o* t5e cor,oration and it is *ro& t5at ,osition t5at t5e stoc05olders concerned ,ur,ortedly re&o(ed 5i&6 !5ereu,on 5e *iled t5e co&,laint Guestioning 5is re&o(al# /5ere is no !ill*ul and deliberate assertion o* a *alse5ood !5ic5 is a reGuisite o* ,er9ury# "er9ury $1997+ A6 a go(ern&ent e&,loyee6 !as ad&inistrati(ely c5arged !it5 i&&orality *or 5a(ing an a**air !it5 16 a coQe&,loyee in t5e sa&e o**ice !5o belie(ed 5i& to be single# /o e cul,ate 5i&sel*6 A testi*ied t5at 5e !as single and !as !illing to &arry 16 Ee induced ) to testi*y and ) did testi*y t5at 1 !as single# /5e trut56 5o!e(er6 !as t5at A 5ad earlier &arried -6 no! a neig5bor o* )# Is A guilty o* ,er9uryL Are A and ) guilty o* subordination o* ,er9uryL %'77E%/E- AB%4E.: Bo# A is not guilty o* ,er9ury because t5e !ill*ul *alse5ood asserted by 5i& is not &aterial to t5e c5arge o* i&&orality# 45et5er A is single or &arried6 t5e c5arge o* i&&orality against 5i& as a go(ern&ent e&,loyee could ,roceed or ,ros,er# In ot5er !ords6 AIs ci(il status is not a de*ense to t5e c5arge o* i&&orality6 5ence6 not a &aterial &atter t5at could in*luence t5e c5arge# )ri&inal La! 1ar E a&ination 8 ? A $199@-200;+ /5ere is no cri&e o* subornation o* ,er9ury# /5e cri&e is no! treated as ,lain ,er9ury !it5 t5e one inducing anot5er as t5e ,rinci,al induce&ent6 and t5e latter6 as ,rinci,al by direct ,artici,ation $"eo,le (s# "odol ;; "5il# 3;<+# %ince in

t5is case A cannot be 5eld liable *or ,er9ury6 t5e &atter t5at 5e testi*ied to being i&&aterial6 5e cannot t5ere*ore be 5eld res,onsible as a ,rinci,al by induce&ent !5en 5e induced ) to testi*y on 5is status# )onseGuently6 ) is not liable as ,rinci,al by direct ,artici,ation in ,er9ury6 5a(ing testi*ied on &atters not &aterial to an ad&inistrati(e case# "er9ury $200<+ Al )5ua6 a )5inese national6 *iled a ,etition under oat5 *or naturaliJation6 !it5 t5e .egional /rial )ourt o* Danila# In 5is ,etition6 5e stated t5at 5e is &arried to Leni )5ua= t5at 5e is li(ing !it5 5er in %a&,aloc6 Danila= t5at 5e is o* good &oral c5aracter= and t5at 5e 5as conducted 5i&sel* in an irre,roac5able &anner during 5is stay in t5e "5ili,,ines# Eo!e(er6 at t5e ti&e o* t5e *iling o* t5e ,etition6 Leni )5ua !as already li(ing in )ebu6 !5ile Al !as li(ing !it5 1abes /o5 in Danila6 !it5 !5o& 5e 5as an a&orous relations5i,# A*ter 5is direct testi&ony6 Al )5ua !it5dre! 5is ,etition *or naturaliJation# 45at cri&e or cri&es6 i* any6 did Al )5ua co&&itL E ,lain# $<N+ %'77E%/E- AB%4E.: Al )5ua co&&itted ,er9ury# Eis declaration under oat5 *or naturaliJation t5at 5e is o* good &oral c5aracter and residing at %a&,aloc6 Danila are *alse# /5is in*or&ation is &aterial to 5is ,etition *or naturaliJation# Ee co&&itted ,er9ury *or t5is !ill*ul and deliberate assertion o* *alse5ood !5ic5 is contained in a (eri*ied ,etition &ade *or a legal ,ur,ose# $)5oa (# "eo,le6 7#.# Bo# 1@20116 Darc5 1@6 2003+ )ri&es )o&&itted by "ublic 2**icers 1ribery ? )orru,tion o* "ublic 2**icial $2001+ -e,uty %5eri** 1en .i(as recei(ed *ro& t5e ./) )ler0 o* )ourt a 4rit o* E ecution in t5e case o* E9ect&ent *iled by Drs# Daria Estrada (s# Luis Ablan# /5e 9udg&ent being in *a(or o* Estrada6 .i(as !ent to 5er la!yerIs o**ice !5ere 5e !as gi(en t5e necessary a&ounts constituting t5e s5eri**s *ees and e ,enses *or e ecution in t5e total a&ount o* "<<0#006 aside *ro& "26000#00 in consideration o* ,ro&,t en*orce&ent o* t5e !rit *ro& Estrada and 5er la!yer# /5e !rit !as success*ully en*orced# a+ 45at cri&e6 i* any6 did t5e s5eri** co&&itL $3N+ b+ 4as t5ere any cri&e co&&itted by Estrada and 5er la!yer and i* so6 !5at cri&eL $2N+ %'77E%/E- AB%4E.: a+ /5e s5eri** co&&itted t5e cri&e o* -irect 1ribery under t5e second ,aragra,5 o* Article 2106 .e(ised "enal )ode6 since t5e "26000 !as recei(ed by 5i& Min @9 o* A; considerationM o* t5e ,ro&,t en*orce&ent o* t5e !rit o* e ecution !5ic5 is an o**icial duty o* t5e s5eri** to do# AL/E.BA/IVE AB%4E.= a+ 2n t5e ,re&ise t5at e(en !it5out t5e "260006 %5eri** 1en .i(as 5ad to carry out t5e !rit o* e ecution and not t5at 5e !ould be i&,le&enting t5e !rit only because o* t5e "26000#006 t5e recei,t o* t5e a&ount by said s5eri** &ay be regarded as a gi*t recei(ed by reason o* 5is o**ice and not as a MconsiderationM *or t5e ,er*or&ance o* an o**icial duty= 5ence6 only indirect 1ribery !ould be co&&itted by said s5eri**# b+ 2n t5e ,art o* t5e ,lainti** and 5er la!yer as gi(er o* t5e bribe-&oney6 t5e cri&e is )orru,tion o* "ublic 2**icials under Article 2126 .e(ised "enal )ode# -irect 1ribery: In*idelity in t5e )ustody o* -ocu&ents $200<+ -uring a "B" buy-bust o,eration6 )ao %5i5 !as arrested *or selling 20 gra&s o* &et5a&,5eta&ine 5ydroc5loride $s5abu+ to a ,oseur-buyer# )ao %5i56 t5roug5 an inter&ediary6 ,aid "atric06 t5e E(idence )ustodian o* t5e "B" 3orensic )5e&istry %ection6 t5e a&ount o* "<006000#00 in consideration *or t5e destruction by "atric0 o* t5e drug# "atric0 &anaged to destroy t5e drug# %tate !it5 reasons !5et5er "atric0 co&&itted t5e *ollo!ing cri&es: $7N+ 1#P -irect 1ribery= %'77E%/E- AB%4E.: "atric0 co&&itted t5e cri&es o* -irect 1ribery and In*idelity in t5e )ustody o* -ocu&ents# 45en a ,ublic o**icer is called u,on to ,er*or& or re*rain *ro&

,er*or&ing an o**icial act in e c5ange *or a gi*t6 ,resent or consideration gi(en to 5i& $Art# 2106 .e(ised "enal )ode+6 t5e cri&e co&&itted is direct bribery# %econdly6 5e destroyed t5e s5abu !5ic5 is an e(idence in 5is o**icial custody6 t5us6 constituting in*idelity in t5e custody o* docu&ents under Art# 22; o* t5e .e(ised "enal )ode# 2#P Indirect bribery= %'77E%/E- AB%4E.: Indirect bribery !as not co&&itted because 5e did not recei(e t5e bribe because o* 5is o**ice but in consideration o* a cri&e in connection !it5 5is o**icial duty# 3#P %ection 3$e+ o* .A 3019 $Anti-7ra*t and )orru,t "ractices Act+= %'77E%/E- AB%4E.: %ee# 3$e+6 .#A# Bo# A019 !as not co&&itted because t5ere !as no actual in9ury to t5e go(ern&ent# 45en t5ere is no s,eci*ic Guanti*ied in9ury6 (iolation is not co&&itted# $7arcia-.ueda (s A&or6 et al#6 7#.# Bo# 11;93A6 %e,te&ber 206 2001+ @#P 2bstruction o* Justice under "- 1A29= %'77E%/E- AB%4E.: "atric0 co&&itted t5e cri&e o* obstruction o* 9ustice alt5oug5 t5e *eigner ,enalty i&,osable on direct bribery )ri&inal La! 1ar E a&ination 8 ? A $199@-200;+ or in*idelity in t5e custody o* docu&ents s5all be i&,osed# %ec# 1 o* "#-# Bo# 1A29 re*ers &erely to t5e i&,osition o* t5e 5ig5er ,enalty and does not ,reclude ,rosecution *or obstruction o* 9ustice6 e(en i* t5e sa&e not constitute anot5er o**ense# AL/E.BA/IVE AB%4E.: 2bstruction o* Justice is not co&&itted in t5is case6 because t5e act o* destroying t5e e(idence in 5is custody is already ,enaliJed by anot5er la! !5ic5 i&,oses a 5ig5er ,enalty# $%ec# 16 "#I+# Bo# 1A29+ Jurisdiction= I&,eac5able "ublic 2**icers $200;+ Judge .od .eyes !as a,,ointed by *or&er "resident 3idel .a&os as -e,uty 2&buds&an *or t5e Visayas *or a ter& o* 7 years co&&encing on July <6199<# %i &ont5s t5erea*ter6 a lady stenogra,5er *iled !it5 t5e 2**ice o* t5e 2&buds&an a co&,laint *or acts o* lasci(iousness and !it5 t5e %u,re&e )ourt a ,etition *or disbar&ent against 5i&# 3ort5!it56 5e *iled se,arate &otions to dis&iss t5e co&,laint *or acts o* lasci(iousness and ,etition *or disbar&ent6 clai&ing lac0 o* 9urisdiction o(er 5is ,erson and o**ice# Are bot5 &otions &eritoriousL $<N+ %'77E%/E- AB%4E.: /5e &otion to dis&iss t5e co&,laint o* t5e -e,uty 2&buds&an *or t5e acts o* lasci(iousness s5ould be denied as only t5e 2&buds&an is included in t5e list o* i&,eac5able o**icers *ound in Article CI o* t5e 19A7 )onstitution# /5ere*ore6 t5e %andiganbayan 5as 9urisdiction o(er 5is ,rosecution $2**ice o* t5e 2&buds&an (s# )A6 7#.# 1@;@A;6 Darc5 @6 200<+# Li0e!ise6 t5e %u,re&e )ourt 5as 9urisdiction o(er t5e ,etition *or disbar&ent6 as 5e is a &e&ber o* t5e bar# Eis &otion to dis&iss s5ould be denied $%ee .ule 139 and 139 o* t5e .ules o* )ourt+# Dal(ersation $199@+ .andy6 an B1I agent6 !as issued by t5e B1I an ar&alite ri*le $Dl;+ and a %&it5 and 4esson .e(ol(er# )al# 3A# A*ter a year6 t5e B1I -irector &ade an ins,ection o* all t5e *irear&s issued# .andy6 !5o re,orted *or !or0 t5at &orning6 did not s5o! u, during t5e ins,ection# Ee !ent on absence !it5out lea(e $A42L+# A*ter t!o years6 5e surrendered to t5e B1I t5e t!o *irear&s issued to 5i&# Ee !as c5arged !it5 &al(ersation o* go(ern&ent ,ro,erty be*ore t5e %andiganbayan# .andy ,ut u, t5e de*ense t5at 5e did not a,,ro,riate t5e ar&alite ri*le and t5e re(ol(er *or 5is o!n use6 t5at t5e delay in accounting *or t5e& does not constitute con(ersion and t5at actually t5e *irear&s !ere stolen by 5is *riend6 )5iting# -ecide t5e case# %'77E%/E- AB%4E.: .andy is guilty as c5arged under Art# 2176 .")# Ee is accountable *or t5e *irear&s t5ey issued to 5i& in 5is o**icial ca,acity# /5e *ailure o* .andy to sub&it t5e *irear&s u,on de&and created t5e ,resu&,tion t5at 5e con(erted t5e& *or 5is o!n

use# E(en i* t5ere is no direct e(idence o* &isa,,ro,riation6 5is *ailure to <0 o* A; account *or t5e go(ern&ent ,ro,erty is enoug5 *actual basis *or a *inding o* &al(ersation# Indeed6 e(en 5is e ,lanation t5at t5e guns !ere stolen is incredible# 3or i* t5e *irear&s !ere actually stolen6 5e s5ould 5a(e re,orted t5e &atter i&&ediately to t5e aut5orities# $"eo,le (s# 1aguiran 6 20 %).A @<3= 3elicilda us# 7ros,e6 7. Bo# 1029@6 July 36 1992+ Dal(ersation $1999+ 45at constitutes t5e cri&e o* &al(ersation o* ,ublic *unds or ,ro,ertyL $2N+ %'77E%/E- AB%4E.: Dal(ersation o* ,ublic *unds or ,ro,erty is co&&itted by any ,ublic o**icer !5o6 by reason o* t5e duties o* 5is o**ice6 is accountable *or ,ublic *unds or ,ro,erty6 s5all ta0e or &isa,,ro,riate or s5all consent6 or t5roug5 abandon&ent or negligence6 s5all ,er&it any ot5er ,erson to ta0e suc5 ,ublic *unds or ,ro,erty6 !5olly or ,artially6 or s5all ot5er!ise be guilty o* t5e &isa,,ro,riation or &al(ersation o* suc5 *unds or ,ro,erty6 $Art6 2176 .")+ Dal(ersation $1999+ A Dunici,al /reasurer6 accountable *or ,ublic *unds or ,ro,erty6 encas5ed !it5 ,ublic *unds ,ri(ate c5ec0s dra!n in *a(or o* 5is !i*e# /5e c5ec0s bounced6 t5e dra!er not 5a(ing enoug5 cas5 in t5e dra!ee ban0# /5e Dunici,al /reasurer6 in encas5ing ,ri(ate c5ec0s *ro& ,ublic *unds6 (iolated regulations o* 5is o**ice# Bot!it5standing restitution o* t5e a&ount o* t5e c5ec0s6 can t5e Dunici,al /reasurer ne(ert5eless be cri&inally liableL 45at cri&e did 5e co&&itL E ,lain# $2N+ %'77E%/E- AB%4E.: >es6 not!it5standing t5e restitution o* t5e a&ount o* t5e c5ec06 t5e Dunici,al /reasurer !ill be cri&inally liable as restitution does not negate cri&inal liability alt5oug5 it &ay be considered as a &itigating circu&stance si&ilar or analogous to (oluntary surrender# $"eo,le (s# VelasGueJ6 73 "5il 9A+6 Ee !ill be cri&inally liable *or &al(ersation# Eo!e(er6 i* t5e restitution !as &ade i&&ediately6 under (e5e&ent ,rotest against an i&,utation o* &al(ersation and !it5out lea(ing t5e o**ice6 5e &ay not be cri&inally liable# Dal(ersation $2001+ Ale .eyes6 toget5er !it5 Jose %antos6 !ere *or&er !are5ouse&en o* t5e .ustan -e,art&ent %tore# In 19A;6 t5e ")77 seGuestered t5e assets6 *und and ,ro,erties o* t5e o!ners-incor,orators o* t5e store6 alleging t5at t5ey constitute MIll-gotten !ealt5M o* t5e Darcos *a&ily# ',on t5eir a,,lication6 .eyes and %antos !ere a,,ointed as *iscal agents o* t5e seGuestered *ir& and t5ey !ere gi(en custody and ,ossession o* t5e seGuestered building and its contents6 including (arious (e5icles used in t5e *ir&Is o,erations# A*ter a *e! &ont5s6 an in(entory !as conducted and it !as disco(ered t5at t!o $2+ deli(ery (ans !ere &issing# A*ter de&and !as &ade u,on t5e&6 .eyes and %antos *ailed to gi(e any satis*actory e ,lanation !5y t5e (ans !ere &issing or to turn t5e& o(er to t5e ")77= 5ence6 t5ey !ere c5arged !it5 Dal(ersation o* "ublic "ro,erty# -uring t5e trial6 t5e t!o )ri&inal La! 1ar E a&ination 8 ? A $199@-200;+ accused clai&ed t5at t5ey are not ,ublic accountable o**icers and6 i* any cri&e !as co&&itted6 it s5ould only be Esta*a under Art# 31<6 ,ar# l$b+ o* t5e .e(ised "enal )ode# 45at is t5e ,ro,er o**ense co&&ittedL %tate t5e reason$s+ *or your ans!er# $<N+ %'77E%/E- AB%4E.: /5e ,ro,er o**ense co&&itted !as Dal(ersation o* "ublic "ro,erty6 not esta*a6 considering t5at .eyes and %antos6 u,on t5eir a,,lication6 !ere constituted as M*iscal agentsM o* t5e seGuestered *ir& and !ere Mgi(en custody and ,ossessionM o* t5e seGuestered ,ro,erties6 including t5e deli(ery (ans !5ic5 later t5ey could not account *or# /5ey !ere t5us &ade t5e de,ositary and ad&inistrator o* ,ro,erties de,osited by ,ublic aut5ority and 5ence6 by t5e duties o* t5eir o**iceH,osition6 t5ey are accountable *or suc5 ,ro,erties# %uc5 ,ro,erties6 5a(ing been seGuestered by t5e 7o(ern&ent t5roug5 t5e ")776 are in custodia legis and t5ere*ore i&,ressed

!it5 t5e c5aracter o* ,ublic ,ro,erty6 e(en t5oug5 t5e ,ro,erties belong to a ,ri(ate indi(idual $Art# 2226 .")+# /5e *ailure o* .eyes and %antos to gi(e any satis*actory e ,lanation !5y t5e (ans !ere &issing6 is ,ri&a *acie e(idence t5at t5ey 5ad ,ut t5e sa&e to t5eir ,ersonal use# Dal(ersation $200;+ 1# In 19A26 t5e "5ili,,ine Bational 1an0 $"B1+6 t5en a go(ern&ent ban0ing institution6 5ired Eenry dela .enta6 a )"A6 as .egional 1an0 Auditor# In 19926 5e resigned and !as e&,loyed by t5e "5ili,,ine -e,osit Insurance )or,oration $"-I)+6 anot5er go(ern&ent-o!ned and controlled cor,oration# In 199<6 a*ter t5e "B1 &anage&ent uneart5ed &any irregularities and (iolations o* t5e ban0Is rules and regulations6 dela .enta !as *ound to 5a(e &ani,ulated certain accounts in(ol(ing trust *unds and ti&e de,osits o* de,ositors# A*ter in(estigation6 5e !as c5arged !it5 &al(ersation o* ,ublic *unds be*ore t5e %andiganbayan# Ee *iled a &otion to dis&iss contending 5e !as no longer an e&,loyee o* t5e "B1 but o* t5e "-I)# Is dela .entaIs contention tenableL $2#<N+ %'77E%/E- AB%4E.: /5e contention o* Eenry dela .enta is not tenable# -ela .enta &ay be ,rosecuted *or &al(ersation e(en i* 5e 5ad ceased to be an e&,loyee o* t5e "B1# At t5e ti&e o* t5e co&&ission o* t5e o**ense6 "B1 !as a go(ern&ent o!ned and controlled cor,oration and t5ere*ore6 any cri&e co&&itted by t5e .egional 1an0 Auditor6 !5o is a ,ublic o**icer6 is sub9ect to t5e 9urisdiction o* t5e %andiganbayan $%ee .#A# 797< as a&ended by .A# A2@9+# 2# A*ter 5is arraign&ent6 t5e ,rosecution *iled a &otion *or 5is sus,ension ,endente lite6 to !5ic5 5e *iled an o,,osition clai&ing t5at 5e can no longer be sus,ended as 5e is no longer an e&,loyee o* t5e "B1 but t5at o* t5e "-I)# E ,lain !5et5er 5e &ay or &ay not be sus,ended# $2#<N+ %'77E%/E- AB%4E.: <1 o* A; -ela .enta &ay still be sus,ended ,endente lite des,ite 5olding a di**erent ,ublic o**ice6 t5e "-I)6 !5en 5e !as c5arged# /5e ter& Mo**iceM in %ec# 13 o* .#A# 3019 a,,lies to any o**ice !5ic5 t5e o**icer &ig5t currently be 5olding and not necessarily t5e o**ice or ,osition in relation to !5ic5 5e is c5arged $%ego(ia (# %andiganbayan6 7#.# Bo# 1227@06 Darc5 306199A+# Dal(ersation (s# Esta*a $1999+ Eo! is &al(ersation distinguis5ed *ro& esta*aL %'77E%/E- AB%4E.: Dal(ersation di**ers *ro& esta*a in t5at &al(ersation is co&&itted by an accountable ,ublic o**icer in(ol(ing ,ublic *unds or ,ro,erty under 5is custody and accountability= !5ile esta*a is co&&itted by non-accountable ,ublic o**icer or ,ri(ate indi(idual in(ol(ing *unds or ,ro,erty *or !5ic5 5e is not accountable to t5e go(ern&ent# Dal(ersation: Anti-3encing: )arna,,ing $200<+ Allan6 t5e Dunici,al /reasurer o* t5e Dunici,ality o* 7erona6 !as in a 5urry to return to 5is o**ice a*ter a daylong o**icial con*erence# Ee alig5ted *ro& t5e go(ern&ent car !5ic5 !as o**icially assigned to 5i&6 lea(ing t5e ignition 0ey and t5e car unloc0ed6 and rus5ed to 5is o**ice# Jules6 a bystander6 dro(e o** !it5 t5e car and later sold t5e sa&e to 5is brot5er6 -anny *or "206000#006 alt5oug5 t5e car !as !ort5 "A006000#00# 45at are t5e res,ecti(e cri&es6 i* any6 co&&itted by Allan6 -anny and JulesL E ,lain# %'77E%/E- AB%4E.: Allan6 t5e &unici,al treasurer is liable *or &al(ersation co&&itted t5roug5 negligence or cul,a# /5e go(ern&ent car !5ic5 !as assigned to 5i& is ,ublic ,ro,erty under 5is accountability by reason o* 5is duties# 1y 5is act o* negligence6 5e ,er&itted t5e ta0ing o* t5e car by anot5er ,erson6 resulting in &al(ersation6 consistent !it5 t5e language o* Art# 217 o* t5e .e(ised "enal )ode# -anny (iolated t5e Anti-3encing La!# Ee is in ,ossession o* an ite& !5ic5 is t5e sub9ect o* t5ie(ery#

"#-# Bo# 1;12 $Anti-3encing La!+ under %ection < ,ro(ides t5at &ere ,ossession o* any good6 article6 ite&6 ob9ect or any t5ing o* (alue !5ic5 5as been t5e sub9ect o* robbery or t5ie(ery s5all be ,ri&a *acie6 e(idence o* *encing# Jules is guilty o* carna,,ing# Ee too0 t5e &otor (e5icle belonging to anot5er !it5out t5e latterIs consent# $.#A# Bo# ;<39+ 45at6 i* any6 are t5eir res,ecti(e ci(il liabilitiesL E ,lain# $<N+ %'77E%/E- AB%4E.: Allan is under obligation to restitute t5e (e5icle or &a0e re,aration i* not ,ossible# Jules &ust ,ay t5e a&ount 5e gained *ro& t5e sale o* t5e car !5ic5 is "206000#00# )ri&inal La! 1ar E a&ination 8 ? A $199@-200;+ -anny &ust &a0e re,aration corres,onding to t5e (alue o* t5e car !5ic5 is "A006000#00# Dal(ersation= "ro,erties= )ustodia Legis $2001+ Accused Juan %antos6 a de,uty s5eri** in a .egional /rial )ourt6 le(ied on t5e ,ersonal ,ro,erties o* a de*endant in a ci(il case be*ore said court6 ,ursuant to a !rit o* e ecution duly issued by t5e court# A&ong t5e ,ro,erties le(ied u,on and de,osited inside t5e Me(idence roo&M o* t5e )ler0 o* )ourt *or Dulti,le ./) %alas !ere a re*rigerator6 a stoc0 o* cassette ta,es6 a dining table set o* c5airs and se(eral la&,s5ades# ',on t5e de*endantIs ,aying o** t5e 9udg&ent creditor6 5e tried to clai& 5is ,ro,erties but *ound out t5at se(eral ite&s !ere &issing6 suc5 as t5e cassette ta,es6 c5airs and la&,s5ades# A*ter due and diligent sleut5ing by t5e ,olice detecti(es assigned to t5e case6 t5ese &issing ite&s !ere *ound in t5e 5ouse o* accused %antos6 !5o reasoned out t5at 5e only borro!ed t5e& te&,orarily# I* you !ere t5e *iscal H,rosecutor6 !5at !ould be t5e nature o* t5e in*or&ation to be *iled against t5e accusedL 45yL $<N+ %'77E%/E- AB%4E.: I* I !ere t5e *iscalH,rosecutor6 I !ould *ile an in*or&ation *or Dal(ersation against Juan %antos *or t5e cassette ta,es6 c5ain and la&,s5ades !5ic5 5e6 as de,uty s5eri**6 le(ied u,on and t5us under 5is accountability as a ,ublic o**icer# %aid ,ro,erties being under le(y6 are in custodia legis and t5us i&,ressed !it5 t5e c5aracter o* ,ublic ,ro,erty6 &isa,,ro,riation o* !5ic5 constitutes t5e cri&e o* &al(ersation alt5oug5 said ,ro,erties belonged to a ,ri(ate indi(idual $Art# 2226 .")+# Juan %antos &isa,,ro,riated suc5 ,ro,erties !5en6 in breac5 o* trust6 5e a,,lied t5e& to 5is o!n ,ri(ate use and bene*it# Eis allegation t5at 5e only borro!ed suc5 ,ro,erties is a la&e e cuse6 de(oid o* &erit as t5ere is no one *ro& !5o& 5e borro!ed t5e sa&e# /5e *act t5at it !as only Ma*ter due and diligent sleut5ing by t5e ,olice detecti(es assigned to t5e caseM6 t5at t5e &issing ite&s !ere *ound in t5e 5ouse o* %antos6 negates 5is ,retension# AL/E.BA/IVE AB%4E.: An in*or&ation *or /5e*t &ay be *iled6 considering t5at t5e s5eri** 5ad already de,osited t5e ,ro,erties le(ied u,on in t5e Me(idence roo&M o* t5e )ler0 o* )ourt and &ay 5a(e already been relie(ed o* 5is accountability t5ere*or# I* Juan %antos !as no longer t5e ,ublic o**icer !5o s5ould be accountable *or t5e ,ro,erties le(ied u,on and *ound in 5is 5ouse6 5is ta0ing o* suc5 ,ro,erties !ould no longer constitute Dal(ersation but /5e*t6 as t5ere !as ta0ing !it5 intent to gain6 o* ,ersonal ,ro,erty o* anot5er !it5out t5e consent o* t5e latter# Dal(ersation= /ec5nical Dal(ersation $199;+ EliJabet5 is t5e &unici,al treasurer o* Dasinloc6 Ra&bales# 2n January 106 199@6 s5e recei(ed6 as &unici,al treasurer6 *ro& t5e -e,art&ent o* "ublic <2 o* A; 4or0s and Eig5!ays6 t5e a&ount o* "1006000#00 0no!n as t5e *und *or construction6 re5abilitation6 better&ent6 and I&,ro(e&ent $).1I+ *or t5e concreting o* 1arangay "5ani .oad located in Dasinloc6 Ra&bales6 a ,ro9ect underta0en on ,ro,osal o* t5e 1arangay )a,tain# In*or&ed t5at t5e *und !as already e 5austed !5ile t5e concreting o* 1arangay "5ani .oad re&ained un*inis5ed6 a re,resentati(e o* t5e )o&&ission on Audit conducted a s,ot audit o* EliJabet5 !5o *ailed to account *or

t5e "l006000 ).1I *und# EliJabet56 !5o !as c5arged !it5 &al(ersation o* ,ublic *unds6 !as acGuitted by t5e %andiganbayan o* t5at c5arge but !as ne(ert5eless con(icted6 in t5e sa&e cri&inal case6 *or illegal use o* ,ublic *unds# 2n a,,eal6 EliJabet5 argued t5at 5er con(iction !as erroneous as s5e a,,lied t5e a&ount o* "<06000#00 *or a ,ublic ,ur,ose !it5out (iolating any la! or ordinance a,,ro,riating t5e said a&ount *or any s,eci*ic ,ur,ose# /5e absence o* suc5 la! or ordinance !as6 in *act6 establis5ed# Is t5e contention o* EliJabet5 legally tenableL E ,lain# %'77E%/E- AB%4E.: EliJabet5Is contention t5at 5er con(iction *or illegal use o* ,ublic *unds $tec5nical &al(ersation+ !as erroneous6 is legally tenable because s5e !as c5arged *or &al(ersation o* ,ublic *unds under Art# 217 o* t5e .e(ised "enal )ode but !as con(icted *or Illegal use o* ,ublic *unds !5ic5 is de*ined and ,unis5ed under Art# 220 o* said )ode# A ,ublic o**icer c5arged !it5 &al(ersation &ay not be (alidly con(icted o* illegal use o* ,ublic *unds $tec5nical &al(ersation+ because t5e latter cri&e is not necessarily included nor does it necessarily include t5e cri&e o* &al(ersation# /5e %andiganbayan s5ould 5a(e *ollo!ed t5e ,rocedure ,ro(ided in %ec# 116 .ule 119 o* t5e .ules o* )ourt and order t5e *iling o* t5e ,ro,er In*or&ation# $"arungao us# %andiganbayan# 197 %).A 173#+ 3ro& t5e *acts6 t5ere is no s5o!ing t5at t5ere is a la! or ordinance a,,ro,riating t5e a&ount to a s,eci*ic ,ublic ,ur,ose# As a &atter o* *act6 t5e ,roble& categorically states t5at t5e absence o* suc5 la! or ordinance !as6 in *act6 establis5ed#M %o6 ,rocedurally and substantially 6 t5e %andiganbayanIs decision su**ers *ro& serious In*ir&ity# "ublic 2**icers= de*inition $1999+ 45o are ,ublic o**icersL $2N+ %'77E%/E- AB%4E.: "ublic 2**icers are ,ersons !5o6 by direct ,ro(ision o* t5e la!6 ,o,ular election or a,,oint&ent by co&,etent aut5ority6 ta0es ,art in t5e ,er*or&ance o* ,ublic *unctions in t5e 7o(ern&ent o* t5e "5ili,,ines6 or ,er*or&s in said 7o(ern&ent or in any o* its branc5es ,ublic duties as an e&,loyee6 agent or subordinate o**icial6 o* any ran0 or class $Art# 2036 .")+ "ublic 2**icers= In*idelity in )ustody o* "risoners $199;+ A c5ie* o* ,olice o* a &unici,ality6 belie(ing in good *ait5 t5at a ,risoner ser(ing a ten-day sentence in t5e &unici,al 9ail6 !ould not esca,e6 allo!ed said ,risoner to slee, at t5e latterIs 5ouse because t5e &unici,al Jail !as so congested and t5ere !as no bed s,ace a(ailable# Accordingly6 t5e ,risoner !ent 5o&e to slee, e(ery nig5t )ri&inal La! 1ar E a&ination 8 ? A $199@-200;+ but returned to 9ail early eac5 &orning6 until t5e ten-day sentence 5ad been *ully ser(ed# -id t5e )5ie* o* "olice co&&it any cri&eL E ,lain# %'77E%/E- AB%4E.: /5e )5ie* o* "olice is guilty o* (iolation o* Art# 2236 .")6 consenting or conni(ing to e(asion6 t5e ele&ents o* !5ic5 are $a+ 5e is a ,ublic o**icer6 $b+ 5e is in c5arge or custody o* a ,risoner6 detention or ,risoner by *inal 9udg&ent6 $c+ t5at t5e ,risoner esca,ed6 and $d+ t5ere &ust be conni(ance# .ela ation o* a ,risoner is considered in*idelity6 t5us &a0ing t5e ,enalty ine**ectual= alt5oug5 t5e con(ict &ay not 5a(e *led $'% (s# 1andino6 9 "5il# @<9+ it is still (iolati(e o* t5e ,ro(ision# It also includes a case !5en t5e guard allo!ed t5e ,risoner6 !5o is ser(ing a si -day sentence in t5e &unici,al Jail6 to slee, in 5is 5ouse and eat t5ere $"eo,le (s# .e(illa+# "ublic 2**icers= In*idelity in )ustody o* "risoners $1997+ -uring a to!n *iesta# A6 t5e c5ie* o* ,olice6 ,er&itted 16 a detention ,risoner and 5is co&,adre6 to lea(e t5e &unici,al 9ail and entertain (isitors in 5is 5ouse *ro& 10:00 a#&# to A:00 ,#&# 1 returned to t5e &unici,al 9ail at A:30 ,#&# 4as t5ere any cri&e co&&itted by AL %'77E%/E- AB%4E.:

>es6 A co&&itted t5e cri&e o* in*idelity in t5e custody o* a ,risoner# %ince 1 is a detention ,risoner# As )5ie* o* "olice6 A 5as custody o(er 1# E(en i* 1 returned to t5e &unici,al Jail at A:30 ,#&# A6 as custodian o* t5e ,risoner6 5as &aliciously *ailed to ,er*or& t5e duties o* 5is o**ice6 and !5en 5e ,er&its said ,risoner to obtain a rela ation o* 5is i&,rison&ent6 5e consents to t5e ,risoner esca,ing t5e ,unis5&ent o* being de,ri(ed o* 5is liberty !5ic5 can be considered real and actual e(asion o* ser(ice under Article 223 o* t5e .e(ised "enal )ode $"eo,le (s# Leon 1andino 29 "5il# @<9+# AL/E.BA/IVE AB%4E.: Bo cri&e !as co&&itted by t5e )5ie* o* "olice# It !as only an act o* leniency or la ity in t5e ,er*or&ance o* 5is duty and not in e cess o* 5is duty $"eo,le (s# E(angelista $)A+ 3A 2#7# 1<A+# )ri&es Against "ersons )o&,le )ri&e= Eo&icide !H Assault-Aut5ority $199<+ "ascual o,erated a rice t5res5er in 1arangay Ba,nud !5ere 5e resided# .enato6 a resident o* t5e neig5boring 1arangay 7ui5a&an6 also o,erated a &obile rice t5res5er !5ic5 5e o*ten broug5t to 1arangay Ba,nud to t5res5 t5e ,alay o* t5e *ar&ers t5ere# /5is !as bitterly resented by "ascual6 2ne a*ternoon "ascual6 and 5is t!o sons con*ronted .enato and 5is &en !5o !ere o,erating t5eir &obile rice t5res5er along a *eeder road in Ba,nud# A 5eated argu&ent ensued# A barangay ca,tain !5o !as *etc5ed by one o* "ascualIs &en tried to a,,ease "ascual and .enato to ,re(ent a (iolent con*rontation# Eo!e(er6 "ascual resented t5e inter(ention o* t5e barangay ca,tain and 5ac0ed 5i& to deat5# 45at cri&e !as co&&itted by "ascualL -iscuss *ully# <3 o* A; %'77E%/E- AB%4E.: "ascual co&&itted t5e co&,le cri&e o* 5o&icide !it5 assault u,on a ,erson in aut5ority $Arts# 1@A and 2@9 in relation to Art6 @A6 .")+# A barangay c5air&an6 is in la! $Art# 1<2+6 a ,erson in aut5ority and i* 5e is attac0ed !5ile in t5e ,er*or&ance o* 5is o**icial duties or on t5e occasion t5ereo* t5e *elony o* direct assault is co&&itted# Art# @A6 .")6 on t5e ot5er 5and6 ,ro(ides t5at i* a single act ,roduces t!o or &ore gra(e or less gra(e *elonies6 a co&,le cri&e is co&&itted# Eere6 t5e single act o* t5e o**ender in 5ac0ing t5e (icti& to deat5 resulted in t!o *elonies6 5o&icide !5ic5 is gra(e and direct assault !5ic5 is less gra(e# )o&,le )ri&e= "arricide !H unintentional abortion $199@+ Aldric5 !as dis&issed *ro& 5is Job by 5is e&,loyer# ',on reac5ing 5o&e6 5is ,regnant !i*e6 )ar&i6 nagged 5i& about &oney *or 5er &edicines# -e,ressed by 5is dis&issal and angered by t5e nagging o* 5is !i*e6 Aldric5 struc0 )ar&i !it5 5is *ist# %5e *ell to t5e ground# As a result6 s5e and 5er unborn baby died# 45at cri&e !as co&&itted by Aldric5L %'77E%/E- AB%4E.: Aldric5 co&&itted t5e cri&e o* ,arricide !it5 unintentional abortion# 45en Aldric5 struc0 5is !i*e6 )ar&i6 !it5 5is *ist6 5e co&&itted t5e cri&e o* &altreat&ent under Art6 2;;6 ,ar# 3 o* t5e .e(ised "enal )ode6 %ince )ar&i died because o* t5e *elonious act o* Aldric56 5e is cri&inally liable o* ,arricide under Art# 2@;6 .") in relation to Art# @6 ,ar# 1 o* t5e sa&e )ode# %ince t5e unborn baby o* )ar&i died in t5e ,rocess6 but Aldric5 5ad no intention to cause t5e abortion o* 5is !i*e6 Aldric5 co&&itted unintentional abortion as de*ined in Art# 2<76 .")# Inas&uc5 as t5e single act o* Aldric5 ,roduced t!o gra(e or less gra(e *elonies6 5e *alls under Art6 @A6 .")6 ie# a co&,le cri&e $"eo,le (s# %alu*rancia6 1<9 %).A @01+# )ri&inal Liabilities= .a,e= Eo&icide ? /5e*t $199A Bo+ Fing !ent to t5e 5ouse o* Laura !5o !as alone# Laura o**ered 5i& a drin0 and a*ter consu&ing t5ree bottles o* beer# Fing &ade ad(ances to 5er and !it5 *orce and (iolence6 ra(is5ed 5er# /5en Fing 0illed Laura and too0 5er 9e!elry# -o&ing6 FingIs ado,ted brot5er6 learned about t5e incident# Ee !ent to LauraIs 5ouse6 5id 5er body6 cleaned e(eryt5ing and !as5ed t5e bloodstains inside t5e

roo&# Later6 Fing ga(e Jose6 5is legiti&ate brot5er6 one ,iece o* 9e!elry belonging to Laura# Jose 0ne! t5at t5e 9e!elry !as ta0en *ro& Laura but nonet5eless 5e sold it *or "26000# 45at cri&e or cri&es did Fing6 -o&ing and Jose co&&itL -iscuss t5eir cri&inal liabilities# O10NP %'77E%/E- AB%4E.: )ri&inal La! 1ar E a&ination 8 ? A $199@-200;+ Fing co&&itted t5e co&,osite cri&e o* .a,e !it5 5o&icide as a single indi(isible o**ense6 not a co&,le cri&e6 and /5e*t# /5e ta0ing o* LauraIs 9e!elry !5en s5e is already dead is only t5e*t# )ri&inal Liability= /u&ultous A**ray $1997+ -uring a to!n *iesta6 a *ree-*or-all *ig5t eru,ted in t5e ,ublic ,laJa# As a result o* t5e tu&ultuous a**ray6 A sustained one *atal and t5ree su,er*icial stab !ounds# Ee died a day a*ter# 16 )6 - and E !ere ,ro(en to be ,artici,ants in t5e Mru&bleM6 eac5 using a 0ni*e against A6 but it could not be ascertained !5o a&ong t5e& in*licted t5e &ortal in9ury# 45o s5all be 5eld cri&inally liable *or t5e deat5 o* A and *or !5atL %'77E%/E- AB%4E.: 16 )6 -6 and E being ,artici,ants in t5e tu&ultuous a**ray and 5a(ing been ,ro(en to 5a(e in*licted serious ,5ysical in9uries6 or at least6 e&,loyed (iolence u,on A6 are cri&inally liable *or t5e latterIs deat5# And because it cannot be ascertained !5o a&ong t5e& in*licted t5e &ortal in9ury on A6 t5ere being a *ree*or-all *ig5t or tu&ultuous a**ray# 16 )6 -6 and E are all liable *or t5e cri&e o* deat5 caused in a tu&ultuous a**ray under Article 2<1 o* t5e .e(ised "enal )ode# )ri&inal Liability= /u&ultuous A**ray $2003+ In a *ree-*or-all bra!l t5at ensued a*ter so&e custo&ers inside a nig5t club beca&e unruly6 guns !ere *ired by a grou,6 a&ong t5e& A and 16 t5at *inally ,ut t5e custo&ers bac0 to t5eir senses# 'n*ortunately6 one custo&er died# %ubseGuent in(estigation re(ealed t5at AIs guns5ot 5ad in*licted on t5e (icti& a slig5t !ound t5at did not cause t5e deceasedIs deat5 nor &aterially contribute to it# It !as 1Is guns5ot t5at in*licted a *atal !ound on t5e deceased# A contended t5at 5is liability s5ould6 i* at all6 be li&ited to slig5t ,5ysical in9ury# 4ould you agreeL 45yL ;N %'77E%/E- AB%4E.: Bo6 I beg to disagree !it5 AIs contention t5at 5is liability s5ould be li&ited to slig5t ,5ysical in9ury only# Ee s5ould be 5eld liable *or atte&,ted 5o&icide because 5e in*licted said in9ury !it5 t5e use o* a *irear& !5ic5 is a let5al !ea,on# Intent to 0ill is in5erent in t5e use o* a *irear&# $Araneta6 Jr# (# )ourt o* A,,eals6 1A7 %).A 123 O1990P+ AL/E.BA/IVE AB%4E.: >es6 I !ould agree to AIs contention t5at 5is cri&inal liability s5ould be *or slig5t ,5ysical in9ury only6 because 5e *ired 5is gun only to ,aci*y t5e unruly custo&ers o* t5e nig5t club and t5ere*ore6 !it5out intent to 0ill# 1Is guns5ot t5at in*licted a *atal !ound on t5e deceased &ay not be i&,uted to A because cons,iracy cannot e ist !5en t5ere is a *ree-*or-all bra!l or tu&ultuous a**ray# A and 1 are liable only *or t5eir res,ecti(e act -eat5 under E ce,tional )ircu&stances $2001+ A and 1 are 5usband and !i*e# A is e&,loyed as a security guard at Land&ar06 5is s5i*t being *ro& 11:00 ,#&# to 7:00 a#&# 2ne nig5t6 5e *elt sic0 and cold6 5ence6 5e decided to go 5o&e around &idnig5t a*ter getting <@ o* A; ,er&ission *ro& 5is duty o**icer# ',on reac5ing t5e *ront yard o* 5is 5o&e6 5e noticed t5at t5e lig5t in t5e &aster bedroo& !as on and t5at t5e bedroo& !indo! !as o,en# A,,roac5ing t5e *ront door6 5e !as sur,rised to 5ear sig5s and giggles inside t5e bedroo&# Ee o,ened t5e door (ery care*ully and ,ee,ed inside !5ere 5e sa! 5is !i*e 1 5a(ing se ual intercourse !it5 t5eir neig5bor )# A rus5ed inside and grabbed ) but t5e latter &anaged to !rest 5i&sel* *ree and

9u&,ed out o* t5e !indo!6 A *ollo!ed suit and &anaged to catc5 ) again and a*ter a *urious struggle6 &anaged also to strangle 5i& to deat5# A t5en rus5ed bac0 to 5is bedroo& !5ere 5is !i*e 1 !as co!ering under t5e bed co(ers# %till enraged6 A 5it 1 !it5 *ist blo!s and rendered 5er unconscious# /5e ,olice arri(ed a*ter being su&&oned by t5eir neig5bors and arrested A !5o !as detained6 inGuested and c5arged *or t5e deat5 o* ) and serious ,5ysical In9uries o* 1# a+ Is A liable *or )Is deat5L 45yL $<N+ b+ Is A liable *or 1Is in9uriesL 45yL $<N+ %'77E%/E- AB%4E.: a+ >es6 A is liable *or )Is deat5 but under t5e e ce,tional circu&stances in Article 2@7 o* t5e .e(ised "enal )ode6 !5ere only destierro is ,rescribed# Article 2@7 go(erns since A sur,rised 5is !i*e 1 in t5e act o* 5a(ing se ual intercourse !it5 )6 and t5e 0illing o* ) !as MI&&ediately t5erea*terM as t5e disco(ery6 esca,e6 ,ursuit and 0illing o* ) *or& one continuous act# $'#%# (s# Vargas6 2 "5il# 19@+ b+ Li0e!ise6 A is liable *or t5e serious ,5ysical in9uries 5e in*licted on 5is !i*e 1 but under t5e sa&e e ce,tional circu&stances in Article 2@7 o* t5e .e(ised "enal )ode6 *or t5e sa&e reasons# -eat5 under E ce,tional )ircu&stances $200<+ "ete6 a security guard6 arri(ed 5o&e late one nig5t a*ter rendering o(erti&e# Ee !as s5oc0ed to see 3lor6 5is !i*e6 and 1en9ie6 5is best *riend6 co&,letely na0ed 5a(ing se ual intercourse# "ete ,ulled out 5is ser(ice gun and s5ot and 0illed 1en9ie# "ete !as c5arged !it5 &urder *or t5e deat5 o* 1en9ie# "ete contended t5at 5e acted in de*ense o* 5is 5onor and t5at6 t5ere*ore6 5e s5ould be acGuitted o* t5e cri&e# /5e court *ound t5at 1en9ie died under e ce,tional circu&stances and e onerated "ete o* t5e cri&e6 but sentenced 5i& to destierro6 con*or&ably !it5 Article 2@7 o* t5e .e(ised "enal )ode# /5e court also ordered "ete to ,ay inde&nity to t5e 5eirs o* t5e (icti& in t5e a&ount o* "<06000#00# $<N+ Is t5e de*ense o* "ete &eritoriousL E ,lain# %'77E%/E- AB%4E.: Bo# A ,erson !5o co&&its acts ,enaliJed under Article 2@7 o* t5e .e(ised "enal )ode *or deat5 or serious ,5ysical in9uries in*licted under e ce,tional circu&stances is still cri&inally liable# Eo!e(er6 t5is is &erely an e e&,ting circu&stance !5en t5e (icti& su**ers any ot5er 0ind o* ,5ysical in9ury# In t5e case at bar6 "ete !ill su**er t5e ,enalty o* destierro *or t5e deat5 o* 1en9ie# )ri&inal La! 1ar E a&ination 8 ? A $199@-200;+ AL/E.BA/IVE AB%4E.: Bo# "ete did not act in de*ense o* 5is 5onor# 3or t5is de*ense to a,,ly under Art# 116 t5ere &ust be an unla!*ul aggression !5ic5 is de*ined as an attac0 or &aterial aggression t5at ,oses a danger to 5is li*e or ,ersonal sa*ely# It &ust be a real aggression c5aracteriJed by a ,5ysical *orce or !it5 a !ea,on to cause in9ury or da&age to oneIs li*e# $"eo,le (# Ba5ayra6 7#.# Bos# 9;3;A-;96 2ctober 176 1991= "eo,le (# Eousing6 7#.# Bo# ;@9;<6 July 1A6 1991+ 'nder Article 2@7 o* t5e .e(ised "enal )ode6 is destierro a ,enaltyL E ,lain# %'77E%/E- AB%4E.: In t5e case o* "eo,le (# Abarca6 7#.# Bo# 7@@336 %e,te&ber 1@6 19A76 t5e )ourt ruled t5at Article 2@7 does not de*ine a *elony# Eo!e(er6 it !ent on to state t5at t5e ,enalty is &erely banis5&ent o* t5e accused6 intended *or 5is ,rotection# "unis5&ent6 t5ere*ore6 is not in*licted on t5e accused# AL/E.BA/IVE AB%4E.: >es# Article 2@7 o* t5e .e(ised "enal )ode does not de*ine and ,ro(ide *or a s,eci*ic cri&e but grants a ,ri(ilege or bene*it to t5e accused *or t5e 0illing o* anot5er or t5e in*liction o* %erious "5ysical In9uries# -estierro is a ,unis5&ent !5ereby a con(ict is banis5ed to a certain ,lace and is ,ro5ibited *ro& entering or co&ing near t5at ,lace designated in t5e sentence6 not less t5an 2< 0&s# $"eo,le (# AraGuel6 7#.# Bo# L-12;296 -ece&ber 96 19<9+ -id t5e court correctly order "ete to ,ay inde&nity des,ite 5is e oneration under Article 2@7 o* t5e .e(ised "enal )odeL E ,lain#

%'77E%/E- AB%4E.: >es6 because t5e ,ri(ilege de*ined under t5is Article e e&,ts t5e o**ender *ro& cri&inal liability but not *ro& ci(il liability# $"eo,le (# Abarca6 7#.6 Bo# L7@@A36 %e,te&ber 1@6 19A7= Art# 126 .e(ised "enal )ode+ Eo&icide= 3raustrated= "5ysical In9uries $199@+ At about 11:00 in t5e e(ening6 -ante *orced 5is !ay inside t5e 5ouse o* Da&erto# Jay6 Da&ertoIs son6 sa! -ante and accosted 5i&6 -ante ,ulled a 0ni*e and stabbed Jay on 5is abdo&en# Da&erto 5eard t5e co&&otion and !ent out o* 5is roo&# -ante6 !5o !as about to esca,e6 assaulted Da&erto# Jay su**ered in9uries !5ic56 !ere it not *or t5e ti&ely &edical attendance6 !ould 5a(e caused 5is deat5# Da&erto sustained In9uries t5at inca,acitated 5i& *or 2< days# 45at cri&e or cri&es did -ante co&&itL %'77E%/E- AB%4E.: -ante co&&itted Guali*ied tres,ass to d!elling6 *rustrated 5o&icide *or t5e stabbing o* Jay6 and less serious ,5ysical in9uries *or t5e assault on Da&erto# /5e cri&e o* Guali*ied tres,ass to d!elling s5ould not be co&,le ed !it5 *rustrated 5o&icide ### -ante co&&itted *rustrated 5o&icide *or t5e stabbing o* Jay because 5e 5ad already ,er*or&ed all t5e acts o* << o* A; e ecution !5ic5 !ould 5a(e ,roduced t5e intended *elony o* 5o&icide !ere it not *or causes inde,endent o* t5e act o* -ante# -ante 5ad t5e intent to 0ill 9udging *ro& t5e !ea,on used6 t5e &anner o* co&&itting t5e cri&e and t5e ,art o* t5e body stabbed# -ante is guilty o* less serious ,5ysical in9uries *or t5e !ounds sustained by Da&erto# /5ere a,,ears to be no intent to 0ill because -ante &erely assaulted Da&erto !it5out using t5e 0ni*e# In*anticide $200;+ Ana 5as been a bar girlH7.2 at a beer 5ouse *or &ore t5an 2 years# %5e *ell in lo(e !it5 2nio06 t5e bartender6 !5o i&,regnated 5er# 1ut Ana did not in*or& 5i& about 5er condition and instead6 !ent 5o&e to )ebu to conceal 5er s5a&e# Eo!e(er6 5er ,arents dro(e 5er a!ay# %o s5e returned to Danila and stayed !it5 2nio0 in 5is boarding 5ouse# ',on learning o* 5er ,regnancy6 already in an ad(anced state6 2nio0 tried to ,ersuade 5er to undergo an abortion6 but s5e re*used# 1ecause o* t5eir constant and bitter Guarrels6 s5e su**ered birt5 ,angs and ga(e birt5 ,re&aturely to a li(e baby girl !5ile 2nio0 !as at 5is ,lace o* !or0# ',on co&ing 5o&e and learning !5at 5a,,ened6 5e ,re(ailed u,on Ana to conceal 5er dis5onor# Eence6 t5ey ,laced t5e in*ant in a s5oe bo and t5re! it into a nearby cree0# Eo!e(er6 an inGuisiti(e neig5bor sa! t5e& and !it5 t5e 5el, o* ot5ers6 retrie(ed t5e in*ant !5o !as already dead *ro& dro!ning# /5e incident !as re,orted to t5e ,olice !5o arrested Ana and 2nio0# /5e 2 !ere c5arged !it5 ,arricide under Article 2@; o* t5e .e(ised "enal )ode# A*ter trial6 t5ey !ere con(icted o* t5e cri&e c5arged# 4as t5e con(iction correctL %'77E%/E- AB%4E.: /5e con(iction o* Ana and 2nio0 is not correct# /5ey are liable *or in*anticide because t5ey 0illed a c5ild less t5an t5ree days o* age $Art# 2<<6 .e(ised "enal )ode+# Durder ? %ec# 2<6 .#A# Bo# 91;< $200<+ )andido stabbed an innocent bystander !5o accidentally bu&,ed 5i&# /5e innocent bystander died as a result o* t5e stabbing# )andido !as arrested and !as tested to be ,ositi(e *or t5e use o* Us5abuV at t5e ti&e 5e co&&itted t5e stabbing# 45at s5ould be t5e ,ro,er c5arge against )andidoL E ,lain# $3N+ %'77E%/E- AB%4E.: /5e 0illing !as not attended by any o* t5e Guali*ying circu&stances enu&erated under Article 2@A o* t5e .e(ised "enal )ode# /5e 0illing6 5o!e(er6 constitutes &urder because t5e co&&ission o* a cri&e under t5e in*luence o* ,ro5ibited drugs is a Guali*ying6 aggra(ating circu&stance# $%ec# 2<6 .#A# Bo# 91;<+ Durder $1999+ /5e accused6 not intending to 0ill t5e (icti&6 treac5erously s5ot t5e (icti& !5ile

t5e (icti& !as turning 5is bac0 to 5i&# Ee ai&ed at and 5it t5e (icti& only on t5e leg# /5e (icti&6 5o!e(er6 died because o* loss o* blood# )an t5e accused be liable *or 5o&icide or &urder6 considering t5at treac5ery !as clearly in(ol(ed )ri&inal La! 1ar E a&ination 8 ? A $199@-200;+ but t5ere !as no atte&,t to 0illL E ,lain your ans!er# $3N+ %'77E%/E- AB%4E.: /5e accused is liable *or t5e deat5 o* t5e (icti& e(en t5oug5 5e &erely ai&ed and *ired at t5e latterIs leg6 Mnot intending to 0ill t5e (icti&M6 considering t5at t5e guns5ot !as *elonious and !as t5e ,ro i&ate cause o* deat5# An o**ender is liable *or all t5e direct6 natural6 and logical conseGuences o* 5is *elonious act alt5oug5 di**erent *ro& !5at 5e intended# Eo!e(er6 since s,eci*ic intent to 0ill is absent6 t5e cri&e *or said deat5 is only 5o&icide and not &urder $"eo,le (s# "ugay and %a&son6 1;7 %).A @39+ AL/E.BA/IVE AB%4E.: /5e accused is liable *or t5e deat5 o* t5e (icti& in as &uc5 as 5is act o* s5ooting t5e (icti& at t5e leg is *elonious and is t5e ,ro i&ate cause o* deat5# A ,erson ,er*or&ing a *elonious act is cri&inally liable *or all t5e direct6 natural6 and logical conseGuences o* suc5 act alt5oug5 di**erent *ro& !5at 5e intended# And since suc5 deat5 !as attended by treac5ery6 t5e sa&e !ill constitute &urder but t5e accused s5ould be gi(en t5e bene*it o* t5e &itigating circu&stance t5at 5e did not intend to co&&it so gra(e a !rong as t5at !5ic5 !as co&&itted $Art# 13$3+6 .")+ Durder= -e*inition ? Ele&ents $1999+ -e*ine &urder# 45at are t5e ele&ents o* t5e cri&eL O3NP %'77E%/E- AB%4E.: $a+ Durder is t5e unla!*ul 0illing o* a ,erson !5ic5 ot5er!ise !ould constitute only 5o&icide6 5ad it not been attended by any o* t5e *ollo!ing circu&stances: 1# 4it5 treac5ery or ta0ing ad(antage o* su,erior strengt56 or !it5 t5e aid o* ar&ed &en6 or e&,loying &eans to !ea0en t5e de*ense or o* &eans or ,ersons to insure or a**ord i&,unity= 2# In consideration o* a ,rice6 re!ard or ,ro&ise= 3# 1y &eans or on t5e occasion o* inundation6 *ire6 ,oison6 e ,losion6 s5i,!rec06 stranding o* a (essel6 derail&ent or assault u,on a railroad6 *all o* an airs5i,6 or by &eans o* &otor (e5icles6 or !it5 t5e use o* any ot5er &eans in(ol(ing great !aste and ruin= @# 2n occasion o* an eart5Gua0e6 eru,tion o* a (olcano6 destructi(e cyclone6 e,ide&ic or ot5er ,ublic cala&ity= <# 4it5 e(ident ,re&editation=

;# 4it5 cruelty6 by deliberately and in5u&anly aug&enting t5e su**ering o* t5e (icti&6 or outraging or sco**ing at 5is ,erson or cor,se# %'77E%/E- AB%4E.: $b+ /5e ele&ents o* &urder are: $1+ t5at a ,erson !as unla!*ully 0illed= $2+ t5at suc5 a 0illing !as attended by any o* t5e abo(e-&entioned circu&stances= $3+ t5at t5e 0illing is not ,arricide nor in*anticide= and $@+ t5at t5e accused 0illed t5e (icti&# Durder= E(ident "re&editation $199;+ 3idel and 3red 5arbored a long standing grudge against Jorge !5o re*used to &arry t5eir sister Lorna6 a*ter t5e latter got ,regnant by Jorge# A*ter !ee0s o* sur(eillance6 t5ey *inally cornered Jorge in Er&ita6 Danila6 !5en t5e latter !as !al0ing 5o&e late at nig5t# 3idel and 3red <; o* A;

*orcibly broug5t Jorge to Ra&bales !5ere t5ey 0e,t 5i& 5og-tied in a s&all ni,a 5ouse located in t5e &iddle o* a rice *ield# /!o days later6 t5ey 0illed Jorge and du&,ed 5is body into t5e ri(er# 45at cri&e or cri&es did 3idel and 3red co&&itL E ,lain# %'77E%/E- AB%4E.: 3idel and 3red co&&itted t5e cri&e o* Durder under Art 2@A6 .")6 t5e 0illing being Guali*ied by e(ident ,re&editation# /5is is due to t5e long standing grudge entertained by t5e t!o accused occasioned by t5e (icti&Is re*usal to &arry t5eir sister a*ter i&,regnating 5er# In "eo,le (s# Al*ec5e# 219 %).A A<6 t5e intention o* t5e accused is deter&inati(e o* t5e cri&e co&&itted# 45ere t5e intention is to 0ill t5e (icti& and t5e latter is *orcibly ta0en to anot5er ,lace and later 0illed6 it is &urder# /5ere is no indication t5at t5e o**enders intended to de,ri(e t5e (icti& o* 5is liberty# 45ereas6 i* t5e (icti& is 0idna,,ed6 and ta0en to anot5er situs and 0illed as an a*tert5oug5t6 it is 0idna,,ing !it5 5o&icide under Art# 2;76 .")# Durder= Eo&icide= In*anticide= "arricide $1999+ A 0illed: $1+ a !o&an !it5 !5o& 5e li(ed !it5out bene*it o* clergy6 $2+ t5eir c5ild !5o !as only t!o days old6 $3+ t5eir daug5ter6 and $@+ t5eir ado,ted son# 45at cri&e or cri&es did A co&&itL $3N+ %'77E%/E- AB%4E.: A co&&itted t5e *ollo!ing cri&es: 1#P E2DI)I-E or &urder as t5e case &ay be6 *or t5e 0illing o* 5is co&&on-la! !i*e !5o is not legally considered a Ms,ouseM 2#P IB3AB/I)I-E *or t5e 0illing o* t5e c5ild as said c5ild is less t5an t5ree $3+ days old# $Art# 2<<6 .")+ Eo!e(er6 t5e ,enalty corres,onding to ,arricide s5all be i&,osed since A is related to t5e c5ild !it5in t5e degree de*ined in t5e cri&e o* ,arricide# 3#P "A..I)I-E *or t5e 0illing o* t5eir daug5ter6 !5et5er legiti&ate or illegiti&ate6 as long as s5e is not less t5an t5ree $3+ days old at t5e ti&e o* t5e 0illing# @#P D'.-E. *or t5e 0illing o* t5eir ado,ted son as t5e relations5i, bet!een A and t5e said son &ust be by blood in order *or ,arricide to arise# Durder= .ec0les I&,rudence $2001+ Dang Jose6 a se,tuagenarian6 !as !al0ing !it5 5is ten-year old grandson along "aseo de .o as and decided to cross at t5e intersection o* Da0ati A(enue but bot5 !ere 5it by a s,eeding ).V Eonda (an and !ere sent s,ra!ling on t5e ,a(e&ent a &eter a,art# /5e dri(er6 a )5inese &estiJo6 sto,,ed 5is car a*ter 5itting t5e t!o (icti&s but t5en re(ersed 5is gears and ran o(er Dang JoseIs ,rostrate body ane! and t5ird ti&e by ad(ancing 5is car *or!ard# /5e grandson su**ered bro0en legs only and sur(i(ed but Dang Jose su**ered &ulti,le *ractures and bro0en ribs6 causing 5is instant deat5# /5e dri(er !as arrested and c5arged !it5 Durder *or t5e deat5 o* Dang )ri&inal La! 1ar E a&ination 8 ? A $199@-200;+ Jose and %erious "5ysical In9uries t5roug5 .ec0less I&,rudence !it5 res,ect to t5e grandson# Are t5e c5arges correctL E ,lain# $<N+ %'77E%/E- AB%4E.: >es6 t5e c5arges are correct# 3or deliberately running o(er Dang JoseIs ,rostrate body a*ter 5a(ing bu&,ed 5i& and 5is grandson6 t5e dri(er indeed co&&itted Durder6 Guali*ied by treac5ery# %aid dri(erIs deliberate intent to 0ill Dang Jose !as de&onstrated by 5is running o(er t5e latterIs body t!ice6 by bac0ing u, t5e (an and dri(ing it *or!ard6 !5ereas t5e (icti& !as 5el,less and not in a ,osition to de*end 5i&sel* or to retaliate# As to t5e serious ,5ysical in9uries sustained by Dang JoseIs 10-year old grandson6 as a result o* 5a(ing been 5it by t5e s,eeding (e5icle o* said dri(er6 t5e sa&e !ere t5e result o* rec0less i&,rudence !5ic5 is ,unis5able as a Guasi-o**ense in Article 3;< o* t5e .e(ised "enal )ode# /5e c5arge o* .ec0less I&,rudence .esulting to %erious "5ysical In9uries is correct# /5e ,enalty ne t 5ig5er in degree to !5at ordinarily s5ould be i&,osed is called *or6 since t5e dri(er did not lend 5el, on

t5e s,ot6 !5ic5 5el, 5e could 5a(e gi(en to t5e (icti&s# Durder= /reac5ery $199<+ 2n 5is !ay to buy a lotto tic0et6 a ,olice&an suddenly *ound 5i&sel* surrounded by *our &en# 2ne o* t5e& !restled t5e ,olice o**icer to t5e ground and disar&ed 5i& !5ile t5e ot5er t5ree co&,anions !5o !ere ar&ed !it5 a 5unting 0ni*e6 an ice ,ic06 and a balisong6 re,eatedly stabbed 5i&# /5e ,olice&an died as a result o* t5e &ulti,le stab !ounds in*licted by 5is assailants# 45at cri&e or cri&es !ere co&&ittedL -iscuss *ully# %'77E%/E- AB%4E.: All t5e assailants are liable *or t5e cri&e o* &urder6 Guali*ied by treac5ery6 $!5ic5 absorbed abuse o* su,erior strengt5+ as t5e attac0 !as sudden and une ,ected and t5e (icti& !as totally de*enseless# )ons,iracy is ob(ious *ro& t5e concerted acts o* t5e assailants# -irect assault !ould not co&,le t5e cri&e6 as t5ere is no s5o!ing t5at t5e assailants 0ne! t5at t5e (icti& !as a ,olice&an= e(en i* t5ere !as 0no!ledge6 t5e *act is t5at 5e !as not in t5e ,er*or&ance o* 5is o**icial duties6 and t5ere*ore t5ere is no direct assault# Durder= 'se o* Illegal 3irear&s $200@+ "E 0illed 2J6 5is ,olitical ri(al in t5e election ca&,aign *or Dayor o* t5eir to!n# /5e In*or&ation against "E alleged t5at 5e used an unlicensed *irear& in t5e 0illing o* t5e (icti&6 and t5is !as ,ro(ed beyond reasonable doubt by t5e ,rosecution# /5e trial court con(icted "E o* t!o cri&es: &urder and illegal ,ossession o* *irear&s# Is t5e con(iction correctL .eason brie*ly# $<N+ %'77E%/E- AB%4E.: Bo6 t5e con(iction o* "E *or t!o cri&es6 &urder and illegal ,ossession o* *irear& is not correct# 'nder t5e ne! la! on illegal ,ossession o* *irear&s and e ,losi(es6 .e,# Act Bo# A29@6 a ,erson &ay only be cri&inally liable *or illegal ,ossession o* *irear& i* no ot5er cri&e is co&&itted t5ere!it5= i* a 5o&icide or &urder is <7 o* A; co&&itted !it5 t5e use o* an unlicensed *irear&6 suc5 use s5all be considered as an aggra(ating circu&stance# "E t5ere*ore &ay only be con(icted o* &urder and t5e use o* an unlicensed *irear& in its co&&ission &ay only be a,,reciated as a s,ecial aggra(ating circu&stance6 ,ro(ided t5at suc5 use is alleged s,eci*ically in t5e in*or&ation *or Durder# "arricide $1999+ 45o &ay be guilty o* t5e cri&e o* ,arricideL $3N+ %'77E%/E- AB%4E.: Any ,erson !5o 0ills 5is *at5er6 &ot5er6 or c5ild6 !5et5er legiti&ate or illegiti&ate6 or 5is ascendants or descendants6 or s,ouse6 s5all be guilty o* ,arricide# $Art# 2@;6 .")+ "arricide $1999+ In 197<6 "edro6 t5en a resident o* Danila6 abandoned 5is !i*e and t5eir son6 .ic0y6 !5o !as t5en only t5ree years old# /!enty years later6 an a**ray too0 ,lace in a bar in 2longa,o )ity bet!een "edro and 5is co&,anions6 on one 5and6 and .ic0y and 5is *riends6 u,on t5e ot5er6 !it5out t5e *at5er and son 0no!ing eac5 ot5er# .ic0y stabbed and 0illed "edro in t5e *ig5t6 only to *ind out6 a !ee0 later6 !5en 5is &ot5er arri(ed *ro& Danila to (isit 5i& in 9ail6 t5at t5e &an !5o& 5e 0illed !as 5is o!n *at5er# 1+ 45at cri&e did .ic0y co&&itL E ,lain# 2+ %u,,ose .ic0y 0ne! be*ore t5e 0illing t5at "edro is 5is *at5er6 but 5e ne(ert5eless 0illed 5i& out o* bitterness *or 5a(ing abandoned 5i& and 5is &ot5er6 !5at cri&e did .ic0y co&&itL E ,lain# %'77E%/E- AB%4E.: 1+ .ic0y co&&itted ,arricide because t5e ,erson 0illed !as 5is o!n *at5er6 and t5e la! ,unis5ing t5e cri&e $Art# 2@;6 .")+ does not reGuire t5at t5e cri&e be M0no!inglyM co&&itted# %5ould .ic0y be ,rosecuted and *ound guilty o* ,arricide6 t5e ,enalty to be i&,osed is Art# @9 o* t5e .e(ised "enal )ode *or Eo&icide $t5e cri&e 5e intended to co&&it+ but in its &a i&u& ,eriod# AL/E.BA/IVE AB%4E.:

.ic0y s5ould be 5eld cri&inally liable only *or 5o&icide not ,arricide because t5e relations5i, !5ic5 Guali*ied t5e 0illing to ,arricide is (irtually absent *or a ,eriod o* t!enty years already6 suc5 t5at .ic0y could not ,ossibly be a!are t5at 5is ad(ersary !as 5is *at5er# In ot5er !ords6 t5e &oral basis *or i&,osing t5e 5ig5er ,enalty *or ,arricide is absent# %'77E%/E- AB%4E.: 2+ /5e cri&e co&&itted s5ould be ,arricide i* .ic0y 0ne! be*ore t5e 0illing t5at "edro is 5is *at5er6 because t5e &oral basis *or ,unis5ing t5e cri&e already e ists# Eis 5a(ing acted out o* bitterness *or 5a(ing been abandoned by 5is *at5er &ay be considered &itigating# "arricide= Dulti,le "arricide= Eo&icide $1997+ A6 a young 5ouse!i*e6 and 16 5er ,ara&our6 cons,ired to 0ill )# 5er 5usband6 to !5o& s5e !as la!*ully &arried6 A )ri&inal La! 1ar E a&ination 8 ? A $199@-200;+ and 1 boug5t ,ancit and &i ed it !it5 ,oison# A ga(e t5e *ood !it5 ,oison to )6 but be*ore ) could eat it# -6 5er illegiti&ate *at5er6 and E6 5er legiti&ate son6 arri(ed# )# - and E s5ared t5e *ood in t5e ,resence o* A !5o &erely !atc5ed t5e& eating# )6 - and E died because o* 5a(ing ,arta0en o* t5e ,oisoned *ood# 45at cri&e or cri&es did A and 1 co&&itL %'77E%/E- AB%4E.: A co&&itted t5e cri&e o* &ulti,le ,arricide *or t5e 0illing o* )6 5er la!*ul 5usband6 -6 5er illegiti&ate *at5er6 and E6 5er legiti&ate son# All t5ese 0illings constitute ,arricide under Article 2@; o* t5e .e(ised "enal )ode because o* 5er relations5i, !it5 t5e (icti&s# 1 co&&itted t5e cri&e o* &urder as a co-cons,irator o* A in t5e 0illing o* ) because t5e 0illing !as carried out by &eans o* ,oison $Art# 2@A# ,ar# 36 .e(ised "enal )ode+# 1ut *or *eloniously causing t5e deat5 o* - and E6 1 co&&itted t!o counts o* 5o&icide# /5e ,lan !as only to 0ill )# .a,e $199<+ 7a(ino bo ed 5is !i*e Al&a *or re*using to slee, !it5 5i&# Ee t5en (iolently t5re! 5er on t5e *loor and *orced 5er to 5a(e se ual intercourse !it5 5i&# As a result Al&a su**ered serious ,5ysical in9uries# $a+ )an 7a(ino be c5arged !it5 ra,eL E ,lain#

$b+ )an 7a(ino be c5arged !it5 serious ,5ysical in9uriesL E ,lain $c+ 4ill your ans!ers to $a+ and $b+ be t5e sa&e i* be*ore t5e incident 7a(ino and Al&a !ere legally se,aratedL E ,lain# %'77E%/E- AB%4E.: $a+ Bo# A 5usband cannot be c5arged !it5 t5e ra,e o* 5is !i*e because o* t5e &atri&onial consent !5ic5 s5e ga(e !5en s5e assu&ed t5e &arriage relation6 and t5e la! !ill not ,er&it 5er to retract in order to c5arge 5er 5usband !it5 t5e o**ense $%ate (s# Eaines6 11 La# Ann# 731 %o# 372= @@1 .A A37+# $b+ >es6 5e &ay be guilty o* serious ,5ysical in9uries# /5is o**ense is s,ecially &entioned in Art# 2;3 O@P6 ,aragra,5 2 !5ic5 i&,oses a 5ig5er ,enalty *or t5e cri&e o* ,5ysical in9uries in cases !5ere t5e o**ense s5all 5a(e been co&&itted against any o* t5e ,ersons enu&erated in Art 2@; $t5e cri&e o* ,arricide+# $c+ Bo6 &y ans!er !ill not be t5e sa&e# I* 7a(ino6 and Al&a !ere legally se,arated at t5e ti&e o* t5e incident6 t5en 7a(ino could be 5eld liable *or ra,e# A legal se,aration is a se,aration o* t5e s,ouses *ro& bed and board $'#%# (s# Jo5nson6 27 "5il# @776 cited in II .eyes6 .3)6 ,#

A<3# 19A1 edition+6 In t5e cri&e o* ra,e6 any cri&e resulting *ro& t5e in*liction o* ,5ysical in9uries su**ered by t5e (icti& on t5e occasion o* t5e ra,e6 is absorbed by t5e cri&e o* ra,e# /5e in9uries su**ered by t5e (icti& &ay6 5o!e(er6 be considered in deter&ining t5e ,ro,er ,enalty !5ic5 <A o* A; s5all be i&,osed on t5e o**ender# %erious ,5ysical in9uries cannot be absorbed in ra,e= it can be so i* t5e in9ury is slig5t# .a,e= Absence o* 3orce ? Inti&idation $199<+ /5ree ,olice&en conducting routine sur(eillance o* a cogonal area in Anti,ole c5anced u,on .uben6 a 1<-year old tricycle dri(er6 on to, o* .o!ena !5o !as 0no!n to be a c5ild ,rostitute# 1ot5 !ere na0ed *ro& t5e !aist do!n and a,,eared to be en9oying t5e se ual acti(ity# .uben !as arrested by t5e ,olice&en des,ite 5is ,rotestations t5at .o!ena enticed 5i& to 5a(e se !it5 5er in ad(ance celebration o* 5er t!el*t5 birt5day# /5e to!n ,5ysician *ound no se&en nor any bleeding on .o!enaIs 5y&en but *or a 5ealed scar# Eer 5y&enal o,ening easily ad&itted t!o *ingers s5o!ing t5at no e ternal *orce 5ad been e&,loyed on 5er# Is .uben liable *or any o**enseL -iscuss *ully# Ans!er= %'77E%/E- AB%4E.: .uben is liable *or ra,e6 e(en i* *orce or inti&idation is not ,resent# /5e gra(a&en o* t5e o**ense is t5e carnal 0no!ledge o* a !o&an belo! t!el(e years o* age $"eo,le (s# -ela )ruJ6 <; %).A A@+ since t5e la! doesnIt consider t5e consent (oluntary and ,resu&es t5at a girl belo! t!el(e years old does not and cannot 5a(e a !ill o* 5er o!n# In "eo,le us# "ereJ6 )A 37 27 17;26 it !as 5eld t5at se ual intercourse !it5 a ,rostitute belo! t!el(e years old is ra,e# %i&ilarly6 t5e absence o* s,er&atoJoa does not dis,ro(e t5e consu&&ation as t5e i&,ortant consideration is not t5e e&ission but t5e ,enetration o* t5e *e&ale body by t5e &ale organ $"eo,le (s# Jose 37 %).A @<0= "eo,le (s# )arandang# <2 %).A 2<9+# .a,e= Anti-.a,e La! o* 1997 $2002+ 45at ot5er acts are considered ra,e under t5e Anti-.a,e La! o* 19976 a&ending t5e .e(ised "enal )odeL $3N+ %'77E%/E- AB%4E.: /5e ot5er acts considered ra,e under t5e Anti-.a,e La! o* 1997 are: 1#P 5a(ing carnal 0no!ledge o* a !o&an by a &an by &eans o* *raudulent &ac5ination or gra(e abuse o* aut5ority6 2#P 5a(ing carnal 0no!ledge o* a de&ented !o&an by a &an e(en i* none o* t5e circu&stances reGuired in ra,e be ,resent= and 3#P co&&itting an act o* se ual assault by inserting a ,ersonIs ,enis into t5e (icti&Is &out5 or anal ori*ice6 or by inserting any instru&ent or ob9ect6 into t5e genital or anal ori*ice o* anot5er ,erson# .a,e= Anti-.a,e La! o* 1997 $2002+ /5e Anti-.a,e La! o* 1997 reclassi*ied ra,e *ro& a cri&e against 5onor6 a ,ri(ate o**ense6 to t5at o* a cri&e against ,ersons# 4ill t5e subseGuent &arriage o* t5e o**ender and t5e o**ended ,arty e tinguis5 t5e cri&inal action or t5e ,enalty i&,osedL E ,lain# $2N+ %'77E%/E- AB%4E.: )ri&inal La! 1ar E a&ination 8 ? A $199@-200;+ >es# 1y e ,ress ,ro(ision o* Article 2;;-) o* t5e .e(ised "enal )ode6 as a&ended6 t5e subseGuent (alid &arriage bet!een t5e o**ender and o**ended ,arty s5all e tinguis5 t5e cri&inal action or t5e ,enalty i&,osed6 alt5oug5 ra,e 5as been reclassi*ied *ro& a cri&e against c5astity6 to t5at o* a cri&e against ,ersons# .a,e= )onsented Abduction $2002+ A !it5 le!d designs6 too0 a 13-year old girl to a ni,a 5ut in 5is *ar& and t5ere 5ad se ual intercourse !it5 5er# /5e girl did not o**er any resistance because s5e !as in*atuated !it5 t5e &an6 !5o !as good-loo0ing and belonged to a ric5 and ,ro&inent *a&ily in t5e to!n# 45at cri&e6 i* any6 !as co&&itted by AL 45yL $2N+

%'77E%/E- AB%4E.: A co&&itted t5e cri&e o* consented abduction under Article 3@3 o* t5e .e(ised "enal )ode6 as a&ended# /5e said Article ,unis5es t5e abduction o* a (irgin o(er 12 and under 1A years o* age6 carried out !it5 5er consent and !it5 le!d designs# Alt5oug5 t5e ,roble& did not indicate t5e (icti& to be (irgin6 (irginity s5ould not be understood in its &aterial sense6 as to e clude a (irtuous !o&an o* good re,utation6 since t5e essence o* t5e cri&e is not t5e in9ury to t5e !o&an but t5e outrage and alar& to 5er *a&ily $Valde,enas (s# "eo,le61; %).A A71 O19;;P+# AL/E.BA/IVE AB%4E.: A co&&itted M)5ild AbuseM under .e,# Act Bo# 7;10# As de*ined in said la!6 Mc5ild abuseM includes se ual abuse or any act !5ic5 debases6 degrades or de&eans t5e intrinsic !ort5 and dignity o* a c5ild as a 5u&an being6 !5ose age is belo! eig5teen $1A+ years# .a,e= E**ect= A**ida(it o* -esistance $1993+ 1 Ariel inti&idated .ac5el6 a &ental retardate6 !it5 a bolo into 5a(ing se ual Intercourse !it5 5i&# .ac5elIs &ot5er i&&ediately *iled a co&,laint6 su,,orted by 5er s!orn state&ent6 be*ore t5e )ity "rosecutorIs 2**ice# A*ter t5e necessary ,reli&inary in(estigation6 an in*or&ation !as signed by t5e ,rosecutor but did not contain t5e signature o* .ac5el nor o* 5er &ot5er# )iting Art# 3@@ o* t5e .") $,rosecution o* t5e cri&es o* ra,e6 etc#+6 Ariel &o(es *or t5e dis&issal o* t5e case# .esol(e !it5 reasons# 2 A*ter t5e ,rosecution 5ad rested its case6 Ariel ,resented a s!orn a**ida(it o* desistance e ecuted by .ac5el and 5er &ot5er stating t5at t5ey are no longer interested in ,rosecuting t5e case and t5at t5ey 5a(e ,ardoned Ariel# 45at e**ect !ould t5is a**ida(it o* desistance 5a(e on t5e cri&inal and ci(il as,ects o* t5e caseL E ,lain *ully# %'77E%/E- AB%4E.: 1+ /5e case s5ould not be dis&issed# ### 2+ /5e a**ida(it o* desistance !ill only a&ount to t5e condonation o* ci(il liability but not cri&inal liability 5ence t5e case s5ould still ,roceed# <9 o* A; .a,e= Dale Victi& $2002+ A6 a &ale6 ta0es 16 anot5er &ale6 to a &otel and t5ere6 t5roug5 t5reat and inti&idation6 succeeds in inserting 5is ,enis into t5e anus o* 1# 45at6 i* any6 is A:s cri&inal liabilityL 45yL %'77E%/E- AB%4E.: A s5all be cri&inally liable *or ra,e by co&&itting an act o* se ual assault against 16 by inserting 5is ,enis into t5e anus o* t5e latter# E(en a &an &ay be a (icti& o* ra,e by se ual assault under ,ar# 2 o* Article 2;;-A o* t5e .e(ised "enal )ode6 as a&ended6 M!5en t5e o**enderIs ,enis is inserted into 5is &out5 or anal ori*ice#M .a,e= Dulti,le .a,es= 3orcible Abduction $2000+ 3lordeluna boarded a ta i on 5er !ay 5o&e to 8ueJon )ity !5ic5 !as dri(en by .oger6 3lordeluna noticed t5at .oger !as al!ays ,lacing 5is car *res5ener in *ront o* t5e car aircon (entilation but did not bot5er as0ing .oger !5y# %uddenly6 3lordeluna *elt diJJy and beca&e unconscious# Instead o* bringing 5er to 8ueJon )ity6 .oger broug5t 3lordeluna to 5is 5ouse in )a(ite !5ere s5e !as detained *or t!o $2+ !ee0s# %5e !as ra,ed *or t5e entire duration o* 5er detention# Day .oger be c5arged and con(icted o* t5e cri&e o* ra,e !it5 serious illegal detentionL E ,lain# $<N+ %'77E%/E- AB%4E.: Bo6 .oger &ay not be c5arged and con(icted o* t5e cri&e o* ra,e !it5 serious illegal detention# .oger &ay be c5arged and con(icted o* &ulti,le ra,es# Eac5 ra,e is a distinct o**ense and s5ould be ,unis5ed se,arately# E(idently6 5is ,rinci,al intention !as to abuse 3lordeluna= t5e detention !as only incidental to t5e ra,e# AL/E.BA/IVE AB%4E.: Bo6 .oger &ay not be c5arged and con(icted o* t5e cri&e o* ra,e !it5 serious

illegal detention6 since t5e detention !as incurred in ra,ing t5e (icti& during t5e days s5e !as 5eld# At &ost6 .oger &ay be ,rosecuted *or *orcible abduction *or ta0ing 3lordeluna to )a(ite against t5e latterIs !ill and !it5 le!d designs# /5e *orcible abduction s5ould be co&,le ed !it5 one o* t5e &ulti,le ra,es co&&itted6 and t5e ot5er ra,es s5ould be ,rosecuted and ,unis5ed se,arately6 in as &any ra,es !ere c5arged and ,ro(ed# .a,e= "ro,er "arty $1993+ Ariel inti&idated .ac5el6 a &ental retardate6 !it5 a bolo into 5a(ing se ual Intercourse !it5 5i&# .ac5elIs &ot5er i&&ediately *iled a co&,laint6 su,,orted by 5er s!orn state&ent6 be*ore t5e )ity "rosecutorIs 2**ice# A*ter t5e necessary ,reli&inary in(estigation6 an in*or&ation !as signed by t5e ,rosecutor but did not contain t5e signature o* .ac5el nor o* 5er &ot5er# )iting Art# 3@@ o* t5e .") $,rosecution o* t5e cri&es o* ra,e6 etc#+6 Ariel &o(es *or t5e dis&issal o* t5e case# .esol(e !it5 reasons# %'77E%/E- AB%4E.: /5e case s5ould not be dis&issed# /5is is allo!ed by la! $"eo,le us# Ilarde6 12< %).A 11+# It is enoug5 t5at a )ri&inal La! 1ar E a&ination 8 ? A $199@-200;+ co&,laint !as *iled by t5e o**ended ,arty or t5e ,arents in t5e 3iscalIs 2**ice# .a,e= %tatutory .a,e= Dental .etardate Victi& $199;+ /5e co&,lainant6 an eig5teen-year old &ental retardate !it5 an intellectual ca,acity bet!een t5e ages o* nine and t!el(e years6 !5en as0ed during t5e trial 5o! s5e *elt !5en s5e !as ra,ed by t5e accused6 re,lied MDasara,6 it ga(e &e &uc5 ,leasure#M 4it5 t5e clai& o* t5e accused t5at t5e co&,lainant consented *or a *ee to t5e se ual intercourse6 and !it5 t5e *oregoing ans!er o* t5e co&,lainant6 !ould you con(ict t5e accused o* ra,e i* you !ere t5e 9udge trying t5e caseL E ,lain# %'77E%/E- AB%4E.: >es6 I !ould con(ict t5e accused o* ra,e# %ince t5e (icti& is a &ental retardate !it5 an intellectual ca,acity o* a c5ild less t5an 12 years old6 s5e is legally inca,able o* gi(ing a (alid consent to t5e se ual Intercourse# /5e se ual intercourse is tanta&ount to a statutory ra,e because t5e le(el o* intelligence is t5at o* a c5ild less t5an t!el(e years o* age# 45ere t5e (icti& o* ra,e is a &ental retardate6 (iolence or Inti&idation is not essential to constitute ra,e# $"eo,le us# /ri&or6 76.# 10;<@1-@26 31 Dar 9<+ As a &atter o* *act6 .A Bo# 7;<96 t5e Eeinous )ri&es La!6 a&ended Art# 33<6 .")6 by adding t5e ,5rase Mor is de&ented#M )ri&es against "ersonal Liberty and %ecurity Arbitrary -etention= Ele&ents= 7rounds $200;+ 1# 45at are t5e 3 !ays o* co&&itting arbitrary detentionL E ,lain eac5# $2#<#N+ %'77E%/E- AB%4E.: /5e 3 !ays o* arbitrary detention are: a+ Arbitrary detention by detaining a ,erson !it5out legal ground co&&itted by any ,ublic o**icer or e&,loyee !5o6 !it5out legal grounds6 detains a ,erson $Art# 12@6 .e(ised "enal )ode+# b+ -elay in t5e deli(ery o* detained ,ersons to t5e ,ro,er 9udicial aut5orities !5ic5 is co&&itted by a ,ublic o**icer or e&,loyee !5o s5all detain any ,erson *or so&e legal ground and s5all *ail to deli(er suc5 ,erson to t5e ,ro,er 9udicial aut5orities !it5in t5e ,eriod o*: t!el(e $12+ 5ours6 *or cri&es or o**ense ,unis5able by lig5t ,enalties6 or t5eir eGui(alent= eig5teen 5ours $1A+6 *or cri&es or o**enses ,unis5able by correctional *acilities6 or t5eir eGui(alent= and t5irty-si $3;+ 5ours *or cri&es or o**enses ,unis5able by a**licti(e or ca,ital ,enalties6 or t5eir eGui(alent $Art# 12<6 .e(ised "enal )ode+# c+ -elaying release is co&&itted by any ,ublic o**icer or e&,loyee !5o delays t5e release *or t5e ,eriod o* ti&e s,eci*ied t5erein t5e ,er*or&ance o* any 9udicial or e ecuti(e order *or t5e release o* t5e ,risoner6 or unduly delays ;0 o* A; t5e ser(ice o* t5e notice o* suc5 order to said ,risoner or t5e ,roceedings u,on

any ,etition *or t5e liberation o* suc5 ,erson $Art# 12;6 .e(ised "enal )ode+# 2# 45at are t5e legal grounds *or detentionL $2#<N+ %'77E%/E- AB%4E.: /5e co&&ission o* a cri&e6 or (iolent insanity or any ot5er ail&ent reGuiring t5e co&,ulsory con*ine&ent o* t5e ,atient in a 5os,ital s5all be considered legal grounds *or t5e detention o* any ,erson $Art# 12@O2P6 .e(ised "enal )ode+# 3# 45en is an arrest by a ,eace o**icer or by a ,ri(ate ,erson considered la!*ulL E ,lain# $<N+ 1# 2# 45en t5e arrest by a ,eace o**icer is &ade ,ursuant to a (alid !arrant# A ,eace o**icer or a ,ri(ate ,erson &ay6 !it5out a !arrant6 arrest a ,erson:

i# 45en6 in 5is ,resence6 t5e ,erson to be arrested 5as co&&itted6 is actually co&&itting6 or is atte&,ting to co&&it an o**ense6 ii# 45en an o**ense 5as in *act 9ust been co&&itted6 and 5e 5as ,ersonal 0no!ledge o* *acts indicating t5at t5e ,erson to be arrested 5as co&&itted it6 and iii# 45en t5e ,erson to be arrested is a ,risoner !5o 5as esca,ed *ro& ,enal establis5&ent or ,lace !5ere 5e is ser(ing *inal 9udg&ent or te&,orarily con*ined !5ile 5is case is ,ending6 or 5as esca,ed !5ile being trans*erred *ro& one con*ine&ent to anot5er $%ec# <6 .ule 113619A< .ules on )ri&inal "rocedure+# 7ra(e )oercion $199A+ Isagani lost 5is gold nec0lace bearing 5is initials# Ee sa! .oy !earing t5e said nec0lace# Isagani as0ed .oy to return to 5i& t5e nec0lace as it belongs to 5i&6 but .oy re*used# Isagani t5en dre! 5is gun and told .oy6 MI* you !ill not gi(e bac0 t5e nec0lace to &e6 I !ill 0ill youSM 2ut o* *ear *or 5is li*e and against 5is !ill6 .oy ga(e t5e nec0lace to Isagani6 45at o**ense did Isagani co&&itL $<N+ %'77E%/E- AB%4E.: Isagani co&&itted t5e cri&e o* gra(e coercion $Art# 2A;6 .")+ *or co&,elling .oy6 by &eans o* serious t5reats or inti&idation6 to do so&et5ing against t5e latterIs !ill6 !5et5er it be rig5t or !rong# %erious t5reats or inti&idation a,,ro i&ating (iolence constitute gra(e coercion6 not gra(e t5reats# %uc5 is t5e nature o* t5e t5reat in t5is case because it !as co&&itted !it5 a gun6 is a deadly !ea,on# /5e cri&e is not robbery because intent to gain6 !5ic5 is an essential ele&ent o* robbery6 is absent since t5e nec0lace belongs to Isagani# )ri&inal La! 1ar E a&ination 8 ? A $199@-200;+ 7ra(e )oercion (s# Daltreat&ent o* "risoner $1999+ 3orcibly broug5t to t5e ,olice 5eadGuarters6 a ,erson !as tortured and &altreated by agents o* t5e la! in order to co&,el 5i& to con*ess a cri&e i&,uted to 5i&# /5e agents *ailed6 5o!e(er6 to dra! *ro& 5i& a con*ession !5ic5 !as t5eir intention to obtain t5roug5 t5e e&,loy&ent o* suc5 &eans# 45at cri&e !as co&&itted by t5e agents o* t5e la!L E ,lain your ans!er# $3N+ %'77E%/E- AB%4E.: E(idently6 t5e ,erson tortured and &altreated by t5e agents o* t5e la! is a sus,ect and &ay 5a(e been detained by t5e&# I* so and 5e 5ad already been boo0ed and ,ut in 9ail6 t5e cri&e is &altreat&ent o* ,risoner and t5e *act t5at t5e sus,ect !as sub9ected to torture to e tort a con*ession !ould bring about a 5ig5er ,enalty# In addition to t5e o**enderIs liability *or t5e ,5ysical in9uries in*licted# 1ut i* t5e sus,ect !as *orcibly broug5t to t5e ,olice 5eadGuarters to &a0e 5i& ad&it t5e cri&e and torturedH &altreated to &a0e 5i& con*ess to suc5 cri&e6 but later released because t5e agents *ailed to dra! suc5 con*ession6 t5e cri&e is gra(e coercion because o* t5e (iolence e&,loyed to co&,el suc5 con*ession !it5out t5e o**ended ,arty being con*ined in 9ail# $'% (s# )usi6 10 "5il 1@3+ It is noted t5at t5e o**ended ,arty !as &erely Mbroug5tM to t5e ,olice 5eadGuarters and is t5us not a detention ,risoner# Ead 5e been (alidly arrested6 t5e cri&e co&&itted !ould be &altreat&ent o* ,risoners#

Illegal -etention (s# 7ra(e )oercion $1999+ -istinguis5 coercion *ro& illegal detention# $3N+ %'77E%/E- AB%4E.: )oercion &ay be distinguis5ed *ro& illegal detention as *ollo!s: in coercion6 t5e basis o* cri&inal liability is t5e e&,loy&ent o* (iolence or serious inti&idation a,,ro i&ating (iolence6 !it5out aut5ority o* la!6 to ,re(ent a ,erson *ro& doing so&et5ing not ,ro5ibited by la! or to co&,el 5i& to do so&et5ing against 5is !ill6 !5et5er it be rig5t or !rong= !5ile in Illegal detention6 t5e basis o* liability is t5e actual restraint or loc0ing u, o* a ,erson6 t5ereby de,ri(ing 5i& o* 5is liberty !it5out aut5ority o* la!# I* t5ere !as no intent to loc0 u, or detain t5e o**ended ,arty unla!*ully6 t5e cri&e o* illegal detention is not co&&itted# Fidna,,ing $2002+ A and 1 !ere legally se,arated# /5eir c5ild )6 a &inor6 !as ,laced in t5e custody o* A t5e &ot5er6 sub9ect to &ont5ly (isitations by 16 5is *at5er# 2n one occasion6 !5en 1 5ad ) in 5is co&,any6 1 decided not to return ) to 5is &ot5er# Instead6 1 too0 ) !it5 5i& to t5e 'nited %tates !5ere 5e intended *or t5e& to reside ,er&anently# 45at cri&e6 i* any6 did 1 co&&itL 45yL $<N+ %'77E%/E- AB%4E.: 1 co&&itted t5e cri&e o* 0idna,,ing and *ailure to return a &inor under Article 2716 in relation to Article ;1 o* A; 2706 o* t5e .e(ised "enal )ode6 as a&ended# Article 271 e ,ressly ,enaliJes any ,arent !5o s5all ta0e *ro& and deliberately *ail to restore 5is or 5er &inor c5ild to t5e ,arent or guardian to !5o& custody o* t5e &inor 5as been ,laced# %ince t5e custody o* )6 t5e &inor6 5as been gi(en to t5e &ot5er and 1 5as only t5e rig5t o* &ont5ly (isitation6 t5e latterIs act o* ta0ing ) to t5e 'nited %lates6 to reside t5ere ,er&anently6 constitutes a (iolation o* said ,ro(isions o* la!# Fidna,,ing $200;+ Jai&e6 Andy and Ji&&y6 laborers in t5e noodles *actory o* Lu0e /an6 agreed to 0ill 5i& due to 5is arrogance and &iserliness# 2ne a*ternoon6 t5ey seiJed 5i& and loaded 5i& in a ta i dri(en by Dario# /5ey told Dario t5ey !ill only teac5 Lu0e a lesson in )5ristian 5u&ility# Dario dro(e t5e& to a *is5,ond in Ba(otas !5ere Lu0e !as entrusted to E&il and Louie6 t5e *is5,ond careta0ers6 as0ing t5e& to 5ide Lu0e in t5eir s5ac0 because 5e !as running *ro& t5e B1I# /5e trio t5en le*t in DarioIs car *or Danila !5ere t5ey called u, Lu0eIs *a&ily and t5reatened t5e& to 0ill Lu0e unless t5ey gi(e a ranso& !it5in 2@ 5ours# 'n0no!n to t5e&6 because o* a lea06 t5e 0idna,,ing !as announced o(er t5e radio and /V# E&il and Louie 5eard t5e broadcast and ,anic0ed6 es,ecially !5en t5e announcer stated t5at t5ere is a s5oot-to-0ill order *or t5e 0idna,,ers# E&il and Louie too0 Lu0e to t5e seas5ore o* -agatdagatan !5ere t5ey s&as5ed 5is 5ead !it5 a s5o(el and buried 5i& in t5e sand# Eo!e(er6 t5ey !ere seen by a barangay 0aga!ad !5o arrested t5e& and broug5t t5e& to t5e ,olice station# ',on interrogation6 t5ey con*essed and ,ointed to Jai&e6 Andy6 Ji&&y and Dario as t5ose res,onsible *or t5e 0idna,,ing# Later6 t5e @ !ere arrested and c5arged# 45at cri&e or cri&es did t5e ; sus,ects co&&itL $<N+ AL/E.BA/IVE AB%4E.: a+ Jai&e6 Andy and Ji&&y co&&itted 0idna,,ing !it5 5o&icide# /5e original intention !as to de&and ranso& *ro& t5e *a&ily !it5 t5e t5reat o* 0illing# As a conseGuence o* t5e 0idna,,ing6 5o!e(er6 Lu0e !as 0illed# /5us6 t5e (icti& !as de,ri(ed o* 5is *reedo& and t5e subseGuent 0illing6 t5oug5 co&&itted by anot5er ,erson6 !as a conseGuence o* t5e detention# Eence6 t5is ,ro,erly Guali*ied t5e cri&e as t5e s,ecial co&,le cri&e o* 0idna,,ing *or ranso& !it5 5o&icide $"eo,le (# Da&arion6 7#.# Bo# 137<<@6 2ctober 16 2003= Art# 2;76 .e(ised "enal )ode+# b+ E&il and Louie !5o s&as5ed t5e 5ead o* t5e (icti& and buried t5e latter in t5e sand co&&itted &urder Guali*ied by treac5ery or abuse o* su,erior strengt5# /5ey are not liable *or 0idna,,ing because t5ey did not cons,ire6 nor are t5ey a!are o* t5e intention to detain Lu0e !5o& t5ey !ere in*or&ed !as 5iding *ro& t5e B1I $Art# 2@A6 .eQ(ised "enal )ode+#

c+ Dario 5as no liability since 5e !as not a!are o* t5e cri&inal intent and design o* Jai&e6 Andy and Ji&&y# Eis act o* bringing Lu0e to Ba(otas *or Ma )ri&inal La! 1ar E a&ination 8 ? A $199@-200;+ lesson in )5ristian 5u&ilityM does not constitute a cri&e# Alternati(e Ans!er: a+ Jai&e6 Andy and Ji&&y co&&itted 0idna,,ing !it5 ranso&# A*ter 0idna,,ing Lu0e6 t5ey de&anded ranso& !it5 t5e t5reat o* 0illing 5i&# Eo!e(er6 t5e 0illing o* Lu0e is se,arate *ro& t5e 0idna,,ing 5a(ing been co&&itted by ot5er ,ersons6 !5o 5ad not5ing to do !it5 t5e 0idna,,ing6 and !5o !ill be liable *or a di**erent cri&e $"enulti&ate ,ar# o* Art# 2;76 .e(ised "enal )ode+# b+ E&il and Louie !5o s&as5ed t5e 5ead o* t5e (icti& and buried t5e latter in t5e sand co&&itted &urder Guali*ied by treac5ery or abuse o* su,erior strengt5# /5ey are not liable *or 0idna,,ing because t5ey did not cons,ire6 nor are t5ey a!are o* t5e intention to detain Lu0e !5o& t5ey !ere in*or&ed !as 5iding *ro& t5e B1I $Art# 2@A6 .e(ised "enal )ode+# c+ Dario 5as no liability since 5e !as not a!are o* t5e cri&inal intent and design o* Jai&e6 Andy and Ji&&y# Eis act o* bringing Lu0e to Ba(otas *or Ma lesson in )5ristian 5u&ilityM does not constitute a cri&e# Fidna,,ing !H Eo&icide $200<+ "aJ Dasi,ag !or0ed as a 5ouse&aid and yaya o* t5e one-!ee0 old son o* t5e s,ouses Dartin and "o,s Furi,ot# 45en "aJ learned t5at 5er 70 year-old &ot5er !as seriously ill6 s5e as0ed Dartin *or a cas5 ad(ance o* "16000#00 but Dartin re*used# 2ne &orning6 "aJ gagged t5e &out5 o* Dartin:s son !it5 stoc0ings= ,laced t5e c5ild in a bo = sealed it !it5 &as0ing ta,e and ,laced t5e bo in t5e attic# Later in t5e a*ternoon6 s5e de&anded "<6000#00 as ranso& *or t5e release o* 5is son# Dartin did not ,ay t5e ranso&# %ubseGuently6 "aJ disa,,eared# A*ter a cou,le o* days6 Dartin disco(ered t5e bo in t5e attic !it5 5is c5ild already dead# According to t5e auto,sy re,ort6 t5e c5ild died o* as,5y iation barely t5ree &inutes a*ter t5e bo !as sealed# 45at cri&e or cri&es did "aJ co&&itL E ,lain# $<N+ %'77E%/E- AB%4E.: "aJ co&&itted t5e co&,osite cri&e o* 0idna,,ing !it5 5o&icide under Art# 2;76 .3) as a&ended by .#A# Bo# 7;<9# 'nder t5e la!6 any ,erson !5o s5all detain anot5er or in any &anner de,ri(e 5i& o* liberty and t5e (icti& dies as a conseGuence is liable *or 0idna,,ing !it5 5o&icide and s5all be ,enaliJed !it5 t5e &a i&u& ,enalty# In t5is case6 not!it5standing t5e *act t5at t5e one-!ee0 old c5ild !as &erely 0e,t in t5e attic o* 5is 5ouse6 gagged !it5 stoc0ings and ,laced in a bo sealed !it5 ta,e6 t5e de,ri(ation o* liberty and t5e intention to 0ill beco&es a,,arent# /5oug5 it &ay a,,ear t5at t5e &eans e&,loyed by "aJ !as attended by treac5ery $0illing o* an in*ant+6 ne(ert5eless6 a se,arate c5arge o* &urder !ill not be ,ro,er in (ie! o* t5e a&end&ent# Eere6 t5e ter& M5o&icideM is used in its generic sense and co(ers all *or&s o* 0illing !5et5er in t5e nature o* &urder or ;2 o* A; ot5er!ise# It is o* no &o&ent t5at t5e e(idence s5o!s t5e deat5 o* t5e c5ild too0 ,lace t5ree &inutes a*ter t5e bo !as sealed and t5e de&and *or t5e ranso& too0 ,lace in t5e a*ternoon# /5e intention is controlling 5ere6 t5at is6 ranso& !as de&anded# AL/E.BA/IVE AB%4E.: Durder Guali*ied by treac5ery because t5e (icti& !as only one !ee0 old# /5e o**ense !as attended !it5 t5e aggra(ating circu&stance o* lac0 o* res,ect due to t5e age o* t5e (icti&6 cruelty and abuse o* con*idence# In "eo,le (# Lora $7#.# Bo6 L-@9@306 Darc5 306 19A2+6 t5e )ourt *ound t5at a c5ild sub9ected to si&ilar treat&ent as t5e in*ant in t5is case !ould 5a(e died instantly6 negating any intent to 0idna, or detain !5en ranso& !as soug5t# -e&and *or ranso& did not con(ert t5e o**ense into 0idna,,ing !it5 &urder because t5e de&and !as &erely a sc5e&e by t5e o**ender $"aJ+ to conceal t5e body o* 5er (icti&# Fidna,,ing= E**ects= Voluntary .elease $200@+

-AB6 a ,ri(ate indi(idual6 0idna,,ed )E'6 a &inor# 2n t5e second day6 -AB released )E' e(en be*ore any cri&inal in*or&ation !as *iled against 5i&# At t5e trial o* 5is case6 -AB raised t5e de*ense t5at 5e did not incur any cri&inal liability since 5e released t5e c5ild be*ore t5e la,se o* t5e 3-day ,eriod and be*ore cri&inal ,roceedings *or 0idna,,ing !ere instituted# 4ill -ABIs de*ense ,ros,erL .eason brie*ly# $<N+ %'77E%/E- AB%4E.: Bo# -ABIs de*ense !ill not ,ros,er# Voluntary release by t5e o**ender o* t5e o**ended ,arty in 0idna,,ing is not absolutory# 1esides6 suc5 release is irrele(ant and i&&aterial in t5is case because t5e (icti& being a &inor6 t5e cri&e co&&itted is 0idna,,ing and serious illegal detention under Art# 2;76 .e(ised "enal )ode6 to !5ic5 suc5 circu&stance does not a,,ly# /5e circu&stance &ay be a,,reciated only in t5e cri&e o* %lig5t Illegal -etention in Art# 2;A $Asistio (# %an -iego6 10 %).A ;73 O19;@P+ Fidna,,ing= Illegal -etention= Dinority $200;+ -ang !as a beauty Gueen in a uni(ersity# Job6 a ric5 class&ate6 !as so ena&ored !it5 5er t5at 5e ,ersistently !ooed and ,ursued 5er# -ang6 being in lo(e !it5 anot5er &an6 re9ected 5i&# /5is angered Job6 %o&eti&e in %e,te&ber 20036 !5ile -ang and 5er sister Lyn !ere on t5eir !ay 5o&e6 Job and 5is &inor *riend Bonoy grabbed t5e& and ,us5ed t5e& inside a !5ite (an# /5ey broug5t t5e& to an abandoned !are5ouse !5ere t5ey *orced t5e& to dance na0ed# /5erea*ter6 t5ey broug5t t5e& to a 5ill in a nearby barangay !5ere t5ey too0 turns ra,ing t5e&# A*ter satis*ying t5eir lust6 Job ordered Bonoy to ,us5 -ang do!n a ra(ine6 resulting in 5er deat5# Lyn ran a!ay but Job and Bonoy c5ased 5er and ,us5ed 5er inside t5e (an# /5en t5e duo dro(e a!ay# Lyn !as ne(er seen again# 1# 45at cri&e or cri&es !ere co&&itted by Job and BonoyL $2#<N+ %'77E%/E- AB%4E.: )ri&inal La! 1ar E a&ination 8 ? A $199@-200;+ Job and Bonoy co&&itted 1+ 0idna,,ing and serious illegal detention !it5 5o&icide and ra,e *or t5e subQseGuent deat5 o* -ang6 and 2+ 0idna,,ing !it5 ra,e against 5er sister6 Lyn# /5e (icti&s6 !5o !ere 0idna,,ed and detained6 !ere subseGuently ra,ed and 0illed $as regards -ang+ in t5e course o* t5eir detention# /5e co&,osite cri&e is co&&itted regardless o* !5et5er t5e subseGuent cri&es !ere ,ur,osely soug5t or &erely an a*tert5oug5t $"eo,le (# Larranaga6 7#.# Bos# 13AA7@-<6 3ebruarys6 200@+# AL/E.BA/IVE AB%4E.: Job and Bonoy co&&itted 2 counts o* t5e co&,le cri&e o* *orcible abduction !it5 ra,e $Art# 3@26 .e(ised "enal )ode+ and t5e se,arate o**ense o* &urder against -ang# /5e cri&e co&&itted is abduction because t5ere !as le!d design !5en t5ey too0 t5e (icti&s a!ay and subseGuently ra,ed t5e&# /5e 0illing t5erea*ter6 constitutes t5e se,arate o**ense o* &urder Guali*ied by treac5ery# 2# 45at ,enalties s5ould be i&,osed on t5e&L $2#<N+ %'77E%/E- AB%4E.: %ince t5e deat5 ,enalty 5as already been ,ro5ibited6 reclusion ,er,etua is t5e a,,ro,riate ,enalty $.A# 93@;+# In t5e case o* t5e &inor Bonoy6 5is ,enalty s5all be one degree lo!er $Art# ;A6 .e(ised "enal )ode+# 3# 4ill BonoyIs &inority e cul,ate 5i&L $2#<N+ %'77E%/E- AB%4E.: 'nder .A# 93@@6 t5e Ju(enile Justice and .e*or& Act6 !5ic5 retroacts to t5e date t5at t5e cri&e !as co&&itted6 Bonoy !ill be e cul,ated i* 5e !as 1< years old or belo!# Eo!e(er6 i* 5e !as abo(e 1< years old but belo! 1A years o* age6 5e !ill be liable i* 5e acted !it5 discern&ent# As t5e ,roble& s5o!s t5at Bonoy acted !it5 discern&ent6 5e !ill be entitled to a sus,ension o* sentence#$B2/A1EBE: .#A# 93@@ is outside t5e co(erage o* t5e e a&ination+ @# Is t5e non-reco(ery o* LynIs body &aterial to t5e cri&inal liability o* Job and BonoyL $2#<N+ %'77E%/E- AB%4E.: /5e non-reco(ery o* LynIs body is not &aterial to t5e cri&inal liability o* Job

and Bonoy6 because t5e cor,us delicti o* t5e cri&e !5ic5 is 0idna,,ing !it5 ra,e o* Lyn 5as been duly ,ro(en# AL/E.BA/IVE AB%4E.: /5e non-reco(ery o* LynIs body is not &aterial to t5e cri&inal liability o* Job and Bonoy6 because t5e cor,us delicti o* t5e cri&e !5ic5 is *orcible abduction !it5 ra,e o* Lyn 5as been duly ,ro(en# Fidna,,ing= "ro,osal to Fidna, $199;+ Edgardo induced 5is *riend Vicente6 in consideration o* &oney6 to 0idna, a girl 5e is courting so t5at 5e &ay succeed to ra,ing 5er and e(entually &a0ing 5er accede to &arry 5i&# Vicente as0ed *or &ore &oney !5ic5 Edgardo *ailed to ,ut u,# Angered because Edgardo did not ,ut u, t5e &oney 5e reGuired6 5e re,orted Edgardo to t5e ,olice# ;3 o* A; Day Edgardo be c5arged !it5 atte&,ted 0idna,,ingL E ,lain# %'77E%/E- AB%4E.: Bo6 Edgardo &ay not be c5arged !it5 atte&,ted 0idna,,ing inas&uc5 as no o(ert act to 0idna, or restrain t5e liberty o* t5e girl 5ad been co&&enced# At &ost6 !5at Edgardo 5as done in t5e ,re&ises !as a ,ro,osal to Vicente to 0idna, t5e girl6 !5ic5 is only a ,re,aratory act and not an o(ert act# /5e atte&,t to co&&it a *elony co&&ences !it5 t5e co&&ission o* o(ert act6 not ,re,aratory act# "ro,osal to co&&it 0idna,,ing is not a cri&e# Fidna,,ing= %erious Illegal -etention $1997+ A and 1 cons,iring !it5 eac5 ot5er6 0idna,,ed ) and detained 5i&# /5e duo t5en called u, )Is !i*e in*or&ing 5er t5at t5ey 5ad 5er 5usband and !ould release 5i& only i* s5e ,aid a ranso& in t5e a&ount o* "1060006000 and t5at6 i* s5e !ere to *ail6 t5ey !ould 0ill 5i&# /5e ne t day6 )6 !5o 5ad 9ust reco(ered *ro& an illness 5ad a rela,se# 3earing 5e &ig5t die i* not treated at once by a doctor6 A and 1 released ) during t5e early &orning o* t5e t5ird day o* detention# )5arged !it5 0idna,,ing and serious illegal detention ,ro(ided in Article 2;76 .")6 A and 1 *iled a ,etition *or bail# /5ey contended t5at since t5ey 5ad (oluntarily released ) !it5in t5ree days *ro& co&&ence&ent o* t5e detention6 !it5out 5a(ing been ,aid any a&ount o* t5e ranso& de&anded and be*ore t5e institution o* cri&inal ,roceedings against t5e&6 t5e cri&e co&&itted !as only slig5t illegal detention ,rescribed in Article 2;A6 .")# A*ter 5earing6 t5e trial court *ound t5e e(idence o* guilt to be strong and t5ere*ore denied t5e ,etition *or bail# 2n a,,eal6 t5e only issue !as: 4as t5e cri&e co&&itted 0idna,,ing and serious detention or slig5t Illegal detentionL -ecide# %'77E%/E- AB%4E.: /5e cri&e co&&itted by A and 1 is 0idna,,ing and serious illegal detention because t5ey &ade a de&and *or ranso& and t5reatened to 0ill ) i* t5e latterIs !i*e did not ,ay t5e sa&e# 4it5out t5e de&and *or ranso&6 t5e cri&e could 5a(e been slig5t illegal detention only# /5e contention o* A and 1 t5at t5ey 5ad (oluntary released ) !it5in t5ree days *ro& t5e co&&ence&ent o* t5e detention is i&&aterial as t5ey are c5arged !it5 a cri&e !5ere t5e ,enalty ,rescribed is deat5 $Asistio (s# %an -iego# 10%).A;73+# /5ey !ere ,ro,erly denied bail because t5e trial court *ound t5at t5e e(idence o* guilt in t5e in*or&ation *or 0idna,,ing and serious Illegal detention is strong# /res,ass to -!elling= "ri(ate "ersons $200;+ 'nder !5at situations &ay a ,ri(ate ,erson enter any d!elling6 residence6 or ot5er establis5&ents !it5out being liable *or tres,ass to d!ellingL $2#<N+ %'77E%/E- AB%4E.: )ri&inal La! 1ar E a&ination 8 ? A $199@-200;+ /res,ass to d!elling is not a,,licable to any ,erson !5o s5all enter anot5erIs d!elling *or t5e ,ur,ose o*: a+ "re(enting so&e serious 5ar& to 5i&sel*6 its occu,ants6 or a t5ird ,erson= and b+ .endering ser(ice to 5u&anity or 9ustice= Any ,erson !5o s5all enter ca*es6 ta(erns6 inns6 and ot5er ,ublic 5ouses6 !5ile t5e sa&e are o,en !ill li0e!ise not be liable $Art# 2A06 .e(ised "enal )ode+#

/ress,ass to -!elling= .ule o* Absor,tion $199@+ At about 11:00 in t5e e(ening6 -ante *orced 5is !ay inside t5e 5ouse o* Da&erto# Jay# Da&ertoIs son6 sa! -ante and accosted 5i&6 -ante ,ulled a 0ni*e and stabbed Jay on 5is abdo&en# Da&erto 5eard t5e co&&otion and !ent out o* 5is roo&# -ante6 !5o !as about to esca,e6 assaulted Da&erto# Jay su**ered In9uries !5ic56 !ere it not *or t5e ti&ely &edical attendance6 !ould 5a(e caused 5is deat5# Da&erto sustained In9uries t5at inca,acitated 5i& *or 2< days# 45at cri&e or cri&es did -ante co&&itL %'77E%/E- AB%4E.: -ante co&&itted Guali*ied tres,ass to d!elling6 *rustrated 5o&icide *or t5e stabbing o* Jay6 and less serious ,5ysical in9uries *or t5e assault on Da&erto# /5e cri&e o* Guali*ied tres,ass to d!elling s5ould not be co&,le ed !it5 *rustrated 5o&icide because !5en t5e tres,ass is co&&itted as a &eans to co&&it a &ore serious o**ense6 tres,ass to d!elling is absorbed by t5e greater cri&e6 and t5e *or&er constitutes an aggra(ating circu&stance o* d!elling $"eo,le (s# AbedoJa6 <3 "5il#7AA+# -ante co&&itted *rustrated 5o&icide *or t5e stabbing o* Jay#### -ante is guilty o* less serious ,5ysical in9uries *or t5e !ounds sustained by Da&erto### 'n9ust Ve ation (s Acts o* Lasci(iousness $199@+ 45en is e&bracing6 0issing and touc5ing a girlIs breast considered only un9ust (e ation instead o* acts o* lasci(iousnessL %'77E%/E- AB%4E.: /5e acts o* e&bracing6 0issing o* a !o&an arising eit5er out o* ,assion or ot5er &oti(e and t5e touc5ing o* 5er breast as a &ere incident o* t5e e&brace !it5out le!d design constitutes &erely un9ust (e ation $"eo,le (s6 Ignacio# )A 7.Bo# <119-.6 %e,te&ber 306 19<0+# Eo!e(er6 !5ere t5e 0issing6 e&bracing and t5e touc5ing o* t5e breast o* a !o&an are done !it5 le!d design6 t5e sa&e constitute acts o* lasci(iousness $"eo,le (s# "erci(al 7ilo6 10 %).A 7<3+# )ri&es Against "ro,erty Arson= -estructi(e Arson $199@+ /ata o!ns a t5ree-storey building located at Bo# 3 Eerran %treet# "aco6 Danila# %5e !anted to construct a ne! building but 5ad no &oney to *inance t5e construction# %o6 s5e insured t5e building *or "360006000#00# %5e t5en urged >oboy and >ongsi6 *or ;@ o* A; &onetary consideration6 to bu& 5er building so s5e could collect t5e insurance ,roceeds# >oboy and >ongsi burned t5e said building resulting to its total loss# 45at cri&e did /ata6 >oboy and >ongsi co&&itL %'77E%/E- AB%4E.: /ata6 >oboy and >ongsi co&&itted t5e cri&e o* destructi(e arson because t5ey collecti(ely caused t5e destruction o* ,ro,erty by &eans o* *ire under t5e circu&stances !5ic5 e ,osed to danger t5e li*e or ,ro,erty o* ot5ers $Art6 3206 ,ar# <6 .")# as a&ended by .A Bo# 7;<9+# Arson= -estructi(e Arson $2000+ 2ne early e(ening6 t5ere !as a *ig5t bet!een Eddie 7utierreJ and Dario )orteJ# Later t5at e(ening6 at about 11 oIcloc06 Eddie ,assed by t5e 5ouse o* Dario carrying a ,lastic bag containing gasoline6 t5re! t5e bag at t5e 5ouse o* Dario !5o !as inside t5e 5ouse !atc5ing tele(ision6 and t5en lit it# /5e *ront !all o* t5e 5ouse started blaJing and so&e neig5bors yelled and s5outed# 3ort5!it56 Dario ,oured !ater on t5e burning ,ortion o* t5e 5ouse# Beig5bors also rus5ed in to 5el, ,ut t5e *ire under control be*ore any great da&age could be in*licted and be*ore t5e *la&es 5a(e e tensi(ely s,read# 2nly a ,ortion o* t5e 5ouse !as burned# -iscuss EddieIs liability6 $3N+ %'77E%/E- AB%4E.: Eddie is liable *or destructi(e arson in t5e consu&&ated stage# It is destructi(e arson because *ire !as resorted to in destroying t5e 5ouse o* Dario !5ic5 is an in5abited 5ouse or d!elling# /5e arson is consu&&ated because t5e 5ouse !as in *act already burned alt5oug5 not totally# In arson6 it is not reGuired t5at t5e

,re&ises be totally burned *or t5e cri&e to be consu&&ated# It is enoug5 t5at t5e ,re&ises su**er destruction by burning# Arson= Be! Arson La! $200@+ )- is t5e ste,*at5er o* 3EL# 2ne day6 )- got (ery &ad at 3EL *or *ailing in 5is college courses# In 5is *ury6 )- got t5e leat5er suitcase o* 3EL and burned it toget5er !it5 all its contents# 1# 2# 45at cri&e !as co&&itted by )-L Is )- cri&inally liableL E ,lain brie*ly# $<N+

%'77E%/E- AB%4E.: /5e cri&e co&&itted by )- is arson under "res# -ecree Bo# 1;13 $t5e ne! Arson La!+ !5ic5 ,unis5es any ,erson !5o burns or sets *ire to t5e ,ro,erty o* anot5er $%ection 1 o* "res# -ecree Bo# 1;13+# )- is cri&inally liable alt5oug5 5e is t5e ste,*at5er o* 3EL !5ose ,ro,erty 5e burnt6 because suc5 relations5i, is not e e&,ting *ro& cri&inal liability in t5e cri&e o* arson but only in cri&es o* t5e*t6 s!indling or esta*a6 and &alicious &isc5ie* $Article 3326 .e(ised "enal )ode+# /5e ,ro(ision $Art# 323+ o* t5e )ode to t5e e**ect t5at burning ,ro,erty o* s&all (alue s5ould be ,unis5ed as &alicious &isc5ie* 5as long been re,ealed by "res# -ecree 1;13= 5ence6 t5ere is no &ore legal basis to consider burning ,ro,erty o* s&all (alue as &alicious &isc5ie*# )ri&inal La! 1ar E a&ination 8 ? A $199@-200;+ ;< o* A; 1" 22= De&orandu& )5ec0 $199@+ 1 45at is a &e&orandu& c5ec0L 2 Is t5e MbouncingM t5ereo* !it5in t5e ,ur(ie! o* 1" 1lg# 22L %'77E%/E- AB%4E.: 1 A MDe&orandu& )5ec0M is an ordinary c5ec06 !it5 t5e !ord MDe&orandu&M6 MDe&oM or MDe&M !ritten across its *ace6 signi*ying t5at t5e &a0er or dra!er engages to ,ay its 5older absolutely t5us ,arta0ing t5e nature o* a ,ro&issory note# It is dra!n on a ban0 and is a bill o* e c5ange !it5in t5e ,ur(ie! o* %ection 1A< o* t5e Begotiable Instru&ents La! $"eo,le (s# Judge -a(id Bita*an6 7#.# Bo# 7<9<@6 2ctober 226 1992+# 2 >es6 a &e&orandu& c5ec0 is co(ered by 1atas "a&bansa Bo# 22 because t5e la! co(ers any c5ec0 !5et5er it is an e(idence o* Indebtedness6 or in ,ay&ent o* a ,re-e isting obligation or as a de,osit or guarantee $"eo,le (ersus Bita-*an+# 1" 22= De&orandu& )5ec0 $199<+ 1 45at is a &e&orandu& c5ec0 L 2 Is a ,erson !5o issues a &e&orandu& c5ec0 !it5out su**icient *unds necessarily guilty o* (iolating 1#"# 1lg# 22L E ,lain# 3 Jane is a &oney lender# Ed&und is a business&an !5o 5as been borro!ing &oney *ro& Jane by rediscounting 5is ,ersonal c5ec0s to ,ay 5is loans# In Darc5 19A96 5e borro!ed "1006000 *ro& Jane and issued to 5er a c5ec0 *or t5e sa&e a&ount# /5e c5ec0 !as dis5onored by t5e dra!ee ban0 *or 5a(ing been dra!n against a closed account# 45en Ed&und !as noti*ied o* t5e dis5onor o* 5is c5ec0 5e ,ro&ised to raise t5e a&ount !it5in *i(e days# Ee *ailed# )onseGuently6 Jane sued Ed&und *or (iolation o* t5e 1ouncing )5ec0s La! $1"# 1lg# 22+# /5e de*ense o* Ed&und !as t5at 5e ga(e t5e c5ec0 to Jane to ser(e as a &e&orandu& o* 5is indebtedness to 5er and !as not su,,osed to be encas5ed# Is t5e de*ense o* Ed&und (alidL -iscuss *ully# %'77E%/E- AB%4E.: 1# A &e&orandu& c5ec0 is an ordinary c5ec0 !it5 t5e !ord MDe&orandu&M6 MDe&oM6 or MDe&M !ritten across t5e *ace6 signi*ying t5at t5e &a0er or dra!er engages to ,ay its 5older absolutely t5us ,arta0ing t5e nature o* a ,ro&issory note# It is dra!n on a ban0 and is a bill o* e c5ange !it5in t5e ,ur(ie! o* %ection 1A< o* t5e Begotiable Instru&ents La!#

$"eo,le (s# Bita*an6 21< %).A 79+ 2# >es6 a ,erson !5o issued a &e&orandu& c5ec0 !it5out su**icient *unds is guilty o* (iolating 1#"# 1lg# 22 as said la! co(ers all c5ec0s !5et5er it is an e(idence o* indebtedness6 or in ,ay&ent o* a ,reQe isting obligation6 or as de,osit or guarantee# $"eo,le (s# Bita*an+ 3# /5e de*ense o* Ed&und is B2/ (alid# A &e&orandu& c5ec0 u,on ,resent&ent is generally acce,ted by t5e ban0# It does not &atter !5et5er t5e c5ec0 is in t5e nature o* a &e&orandu& as e(idence o* indebtedness# 45at t5e la! ,unis5es is t5e &ere issuance o* a bouncing c5ec0 and not t5e ,ur,ose *or !5ic5 it !as issued nor t5e ter&s and conditions relating t5ereto# /5e &ere act o* issuing a !ort5less c5ec0 is a &alu& ,ro5ibitu&# /5e understanding t5at t5e c5ec0 !ill not be ,resented at t5e ban0 but !ill be redee&ed by t5e &a0er !5en t5e loan *alls due is a &ere ,ri(ate arrange&ent !5ic5 &ay not ,re(ail to e e&,t it *ro& t5e ,enal sanction o* 1#"# 1lg# 22# $"eo,le (s# Bita*an+ 1" 22= "resu&,tion o* Fno!ledge $2002+ A a business&an6 borro!ed "<006000#00 *ro& 16 a *riend# /o ,ay t5e loan6 A issued a ,ostdated c5ec0 to be ,resented *or ,ay&ent 30 days a*ter t5e transaction# /!o days be*ore t5e &aturity date o* t5e c5ec06 A called u, 1 and told 5i& not to de,osit t5e c5ec0 on t5e date stated on t5e *ace t5ereo*6 as A 5ad not de,osited in t5e dra!ee ban0 t5e a&ount needed to co(er t5e c5ec0# Be(ert5eless6 1 de,osited t5e c5ec0 in Guestion and t5e sa&e !as dis5onored o* insu**iciency o* *unds# A *ailed to settle t5e a&ount !it5 1 in s,ite o* t5e latterIs de&ands# Is A guilty o* (iolating 1#"# 1lg# 226 ot5er!ise 0no!n as t5e 1ouncing )5ec0s La!L E ,lain# $<N+ %'77E%/E- AB%4E.: >es6 A Is liable *or (iolation o* 1"# 1lg# 22 $1ouncing )5ec0s La!+6 Alt5oug5 0no!ledge by t5e dra!er o* insu**iciency or lac0 o* *unds at t5e ti&e o* t5e issuance o* t5e c5ec0 is an essential ele&ent o* t5e (iolation6 t5e la! ,resu&es ,ri&a *acie suc5 0no!ledge6 unless !it5in *i(e $<+ ban0ing days o* notice o* dis5onor or nonQ,ay&ent6 t5e dra!er ,ays t5e 5older t5ereo* t5e a&ount due t5ereon or &a0es arrange&ents *or ,ay&ent in *ull by t5e dra!ee o* suc5 c5ec0s# A &ere notice by t5e dra!er A to t5e ,ayee 1 be*ore t5e &aturity date o* t5e c5ec0 !ill not de*eat t5e ,resu&,tion o* 0no!ledge created by t5e la!= ot5er!ise6 t5e ,ur,ose and s,irit o* 1#"# 22 !ill be rendered useless# Esta*a ? /rust .ecei,t La! $199<+ Julio obtained a letter o* credit *ro& a local ban0 in order to i&,ort auto tires *ro& Ja,an# /o secure ,ay&ent o* 5is letter o* credit6 Julio e ecuted a trust recei,t in *a(or o* t5e ban0# ',on arri(al o* t5e tires6 Julio sold t5e& but did not deli(er t5e ,roceeds to t5e ban0# Julio !as c5arged !it5 esta*a under "#-# Bo# 11< !5ic5 &a0es t5e (iolation o* a trust recei,t agree&ent ,unis5able as esta*a under Art# 31<6 ,ar# $1+6 sub,ar# $b+6 o* t5e .e(ised "enal )ode# Julio contended t5at "#-# Bo# 11< !as unconstitutional because it (iolated t5e 1ill o* .ig5ts ,ro(ision against i&,rison&ent *or nonQ,ay&ent o* debt# .ule on t5e contention o* Julio6 -iscuss *ully# %'77E%/E- AB%4E.: )ri&inal La! 1ar E a&ination 8 ? A $199@-200;+ %uc5 contention is in(alid# A trust recei,t arrange&ent doesnIt in(ol(e &erely a si&,le loan transaction but includes li0e!ise a security *eature !5ere t5e creditor ban0 e tends *inancial assistance to t5e debtor-i&,orter in return *or t5e collateral or security title as to t5e goods or &erc5andise being ,urc5ased or i&,orted# /5e title o* t5e ban0 to t5e security is t5e one soug5t to be ,rotected and not t5e loan !5ic5 is a se,arate and distinct agree&ent# 45at is being ,enaliJed under "6-# Bo# 11< is t5e &isuse or &isa,,ro,riation o* t5e goods or ,roceeds realiJed *ro& t5e sale o* t5e goods6 docu&ents or Instru&ents !5ic5 are being 5eld in trust *or t5e entrustee-ban0s# In ot5er !ords6 t5e la! ,unis5es t5e dis5onesty and abuse o* con*idence in t5e 5andling o* &oney or goods to t5e ,re9udice o* t5e ot5er6 and 5ence t5ere is no (iolation o* t5e rig5t against i&,rison&ent *or non-,ay&ent o* debt# $"eo,le (s# Bita*an6 207 %).A 72<+

Esta*a $1999+ Is t5ere suc5 a cri&e as esta*a t5roug5 negligenceL E ,lain# $2N+ Aurelia introduced .osa to Victoria6 a dealer in 9e!elry !5o does business in /i&og6 8ueJon )ity# .osa6 a resident o* )ebu )ity6 agreed to sell a dia&ond ring and bracelet to Victoria on a co&&ission basis6 on condition t5at6 i* t5ese ite&s can not be sold6 t5ey &ay be returned to Victoria *ort5!it5# 'nable to sell t5e ring and bracelet6 .osa deli(ered bot5 ite&s to Aurelia in )ebu )ity !it5 t5e understanding t5at Aurelia s5all6 in turn6 return t5e ite&s to Victoria in /i&og6 8ueJon )ity# Aurelia duti*ully returned t5e bracelet to Victoria but sold t5e ring6 0e,t t5e cas5 ,roceeds t5ereo* to 5ersel*6 and issued a c5ec0 to Victoria !5ic5 bounced# Victoria sued .osa *or esta*a under Article 31<6 .#"#)#6 Victoria insisting t5at deli(ery to a t5ird ,erson o* t5e t5ing 5eld in trust is not a de*ense in esta*a# Is .osa cri&inally liable *or esta*a under t5e circu&stancesL E ,lain6 O@N+ %'77E%/E- AB%4E.: $a+ /5ere is no suc5 cri&e as esta*a t5roug5 negligence# In esta*a6 t5e ,ro*it or gain &ust be obtained by t5e accused ,ersonally6 t5roug5 5is o!n acts6 and 5is &ere negligence in allo!ing anot5er to ta0e ad(antage o* or bene*it *ro& t5e entrusted c5attel cannot constitute esta*a# $"eo,le (# Be,o&uceno6 )A6 @;27 ;13<+ $b+ Bo6 .osa cannot be 5eld cri&inally liable *or esta*a# Alt5oug5 s5e recei(ed t5e 9e!elry *ro& Victoria under an obligation to return t5e sa&e or deli(er t5e ,roceeds t5ereo*6 s5e did not &isa,,ro,riate it# In *act6 s5e ga(e t5e& to Aurelia s,eci*ically to be returned to Victoria# /5e &isa,,ro,riation !as done by Aurelia6 and absent t5e s5o!ing o* any cons,iracy bet!een Aurelia and .osa6 t5e latter cannot be 5eld cri&inally liable *or A&eliaIs acts# 3urt5er&ore6 as e ,lained abo(e6 .osaIs negligence !5ic5 &ay 5a(e allo!ed Aurelia to ;; o* A; &isa,,ro,riate t5e 9e!elry does not &a0e 5er cri&inally liable *or esta*a# Esta*a (s# 1" 22 $199;+ /5e accused !as con(icted under 1#"6 1lg# 22 *or 5a(ing issued se(eral c5ec0s !5ic5 !ere dis5onored by t5e dra!ee ban0 on t5eir due date because t5e accused closed 5er account a*ter t5e issuance o* c5ec0s# 2n a,,eal6 s5e argued t5at s5e could not be con(icted under 1lg# 22 by reason o* t5e closing o* 5er account because said la! a,,lies solely to c5ec0s dis5onored by reason o* insu**iciency o* *unds and t5at at t5e ti&e s5e issued t5e c5ec0s concerned6 s5e 5ad adeGuate *unds in t5e ban0# 45ile s5e ad&its t5at s5e &ay be 5eld liable *or esta*a under Article 21< o* t5e .e(ised "enal )ode6 s5e cannot 5o!e(er be *ound guilty o* 5a(ing (iolated 1lg# 22# Is 5er contention correctL E ,lain# %'77E%/E- AB%4E.: Bo6 t5e contention o* t5e accused is not correct# As long as t5e c5ec0s issued !ere issued to a,,ly on account or *or (alue6 and !as dis5onored u,on ,resentation *or ,ay&ent to t5e dra!ee ban0 *or lac0 o* insu**icient *unds on t5eir due date6 suc5 act *alls !it5in t5e a&bit o* 1#"# 1lg# 22# %aid la! e ,ressly ,unis5es any ,erson !5o &ay 5a(e insu**icient *unds in t5e dra!ee ban0 !5en 5e issues t5e c5ec06 but *ails to 0ee, su**icient *unds to co(er t5e *ull a&ount o* t5e c5ec0 !5en ,resented to t5e dra!ee ban0 !it5in ninety $90+ days *ro& t5e date a,,earing t5ereon# Esta*a (s# 1" 22 $2003+ A and 1 agreed to &eet at t5e latterIs 5ouse to discuss 1Is *inancial ,roble&s# 2n 5is !ay6 one o* AIs car tires ble! u,# 1e*ore A le*t *ollo!ing t5e &eeting6 5e as0ed 1 to lend 5i& $A+ &oney to buy a ne! s,are tire# 1 5ad te&,orarily e 5austed 5is ban0 de,osits6 lea(ing a Jero balance# Antici,ating6 5o!e(er6 a re,lenis5&ent

o* 5is account soon6 1 issued A a ,ostdated c5ec0 !it5 !5ic5 A negotiated *or a ne! tire# 45en ,resented6 t5e c5ec0 bounced *or lac0 o* *unds# /5e tire co&,any *iled a cri&inal case against A and 1# 45at !ould be t5e cri&inal liability6 i* any6 o* eac5 o* t5e t!o accusedL E ,lain# AN %'77E%/E- AB%4E.: A !5o negotiated t5e un*unded c5ec0 o* 1 in buying a ne! tire *or 5is car &ay only be ,rosecuted *or esta*a i* 5e !as a!are at t5e ti&e o* suc5 negotiation t5at t5e c5ec0 5as no su**icient *unds in t5e dra!ee ban0= ot5er!ise6 5e is not cri&inally liable# 1 !5o acco&&odated A !it5 5is c5ec0 &ay ne(ert5eless be ,rosecuted under 1" 22 *or 5a(ing issued t5e c5ec06 0no!ing at t5e ti&e o* issuance t5at it 5as no *unds in t5e ban0 and t5at A !ill negotiate it to buy a ne! tire6 i#e#6 *or (alue# 1 &ay not be ,rosecuted *or esta*a because t5e *acts indicate t5at 5e is not actuated by intent to de*raud in issuing t5e c5ec0 !5ic5 A negotiated# 2b(iously6 1 issued t5e ,ostdated c5ec0 only to 5el, A: cri&inal intent or dolo is absent# )ri&inal La! 1ar E a&ination 8 ? A $199@-200;+ Esta*a (s# Doney Dar0et "lace&ent $199;+ 2n Darc5 316 199<6 2r,5eus 3inancing )or,oration recei(ed *ro& Daricar t5e su& o* "<006000 as &oney &ar0et ,lace&ent *or si ty days at *i*teen $1<+ ,er cent interest6 and t5e "resident o* said )or,oration issued a c5ec0 co(ering t5e a&ount including t5e interest due t5ereon6 ,ostdated Day 306 199<# 2n t5e &aturity date6 5o!e(er6 2r,5eus 3inancing )or,oration *ailed to deli(er bac0 DaricarIs &oney ,lace&ent !it5 t5e corres,onding interest earned6 not!it5standing re,eated de&ands u,on said )or,oration to co&,ly !it5 its co&&it&ent# -id t5e "resident o* 2r,5eus 3inancing )or,oration incur any cri&inal liability *or esta*a *or reason o* t5e non,ay&ent o* t5e &oney &ar0et ,lace&entL E ,lain# %'77E%/E- AB%4E.: Bo6 t5e "resident o* t5e *inancing cor,oration does not incur cri&inal liability *or esta*a because a &oney &ar0et transaction ,arta0es o* t5e nature o* a loan6 suc5 t5at non,ay&ent t5ereo* !ould not gi(e rise to esta*a t5roug5 &isa,,ro,riation or con(ersion# In &oney &ar0et ,lace&ent6 t5ere is trans*er o* o!ners5i, o* t5e &oney to be in(ested and t5ere*ore t5e liability *or its return is ci(il in nature $"ereJ (s# )ourt o* A,,eals6 127 %).A ;3;= %ebreno (s# )ourt o* A,,eals etal6 7#.# A@09;6 2; Jan 9<+# Esta*a (s# /5e*t $200<+ -- !as engaged in t5e !are5ouse business# %o&eti&e in Bo(e&ber 200@6 5e !as in dire need o* &oney# Ee6 t5us6 sold &erc5andise de,osited in 5is !are5ouse to V. *or "<006000#00# -- !as c5arged !it5 t5e*t6 as ,rinci,al6 !5ile V. as accessory# /5e court con(icted -- o* t5e*t but acGuitted V. on t5e ground t5at 5e ,urc5ased t5e &erc5andise in good *ait5# Eo!e(er6 t5e court ordered V. to return t5e &erc5andise to t5e o!ner t5ereo* and ordered -- to re*und t5e "<006000#00 to V.# -- &o(ed *or t5e reconsideration o* t5e decision insisting t5at 5e s5ould be acGuitted o* t5e*t because being t5e de,ositary6 5e 5ad 9uridical ,ossession o* t5e &erc5andise# V. also &o(ed *or t5e reconsideration o* t5e decision insisting t5at since 5e !as acGuitted o* t5e cri&e c5arged6 and t5at 5e ,urc5ased t5e &erc5andise in good *ait56 5e is not obligated to return t5e &erc5andise to its o!ner# .ule on t5e &otions !it5 reasons# $<N+ %'77E%/E- AB%4E.: /5e &otion *or reconsideration s5ould be granted# 1y de,ositing t5e &erc5andise in 5is !are5ouse6 5e trans*erred not &erely ,5ysical but also 9uridical ,ossession# /5e ele&ent o* ta0ing in t5e cri&e o* t5e*t is !anting# At t5e &ost6 5e could be 5eld liable *or esta*a *or &isa,,ro,riation o* t5e &erc5andise de,osited# 2n t5e ot5er 5and6 t5e &otion o* V. &ust also be denied# Eis acGuittal is o* no &o&ent because t5e t5ing6 sub9ect &atter o* t5e o**ense6 s5all be restored to t5e o!ner e(en t5oug5 it is *ound in t5e ,ossession o* a t5ird ,erson !5o acGuired it by la!*ul &eans# $Art# 10<6 .3)+ ;7 o* A; Esta*a= Ele&ents $200<+

-- ,urc5ased a tele(ision set *or "<06000#00 !it5 t5e use o* a counter*eit credit card# /5e o!ner o* t5e establis5&ent 5ad no in0ling t5at t5e credit card used by -- !as counter*eit# 45at cri&e or cri&es did -- co&&itL E ,lain# $<N+ %'77E%/E- AB%4E.: -- co&&itted t5e cri&e o* esta*a under Art# 31<6 ,ar# 2$a+ o* t5e .e(ised "enal )ode by *alsely ,retending to ,osses credit# /5e ele&ents o* esta*a under t5is ,enal ,ro(ision are= $1+ t5e accused de*rauded anot5er by &eans o* deceit= and $2+ da&age or ,re9udice ca,able o* ,ecuniary esti&ation is caused to t5e o**ended ,arty or t5ird ,arty# /5e accused also (iolated .#A# Bo# A@A@6 !5ic5 ,unis5es t5e use or ,ossession o* *a0e or counter*eit credit card# Esta*a= 3alsi*ication o* )o&&ercial -ocu&ent $2000+ Dr# )arlos 7abisi6 a custo&s guard6 and Dr6 .ico >to6 a ,ri(ate Indi(idual6 !ent to t5e o**ice o* Dr# -iet5er 2cuarto6 a custo&s bro0er6 and re,resented t5e&sel(es as agents o* Doonglo! )o&&ercial /rading6 an I&,orter o* c5ildrenIs clot5es and toys# Dr# 7abisi and Dr# >to engaged Dr# 2cuarto to ,re,are and *ile !it5 t5e 1ureau o* )usto&s t5e necessary I&,ort Entry and Internal .e(enue -eclaration co(ering Doonglo!Is s5i,&ent# Dr# 7abisi and Dr# >to sub&itted to Dr# 2cuarto a ,ac0ing list6 a co&&ercial in(oice6 a bill o* lading and a %!orn I&,ort -uty -eclaration !5ic5 declared t5e s5i,&ent as c5ildrenIs toys6 t5e ta es and duties o* !5ic5 !ere co&,uted at ";06000#00# Dr# 2cuarto *iled t5e a*ore&entioned docu&ents !it5 t5e Danila International )ontainer "ort# Eo!e(er6 be*ore t5e s5i,&ent !as released6 a s,ot c5ec0 !as conducted by )usto&s %enior Agent Ja&es 1andido6 !5o disco(ered t5at t5e contents o* t5e (an $s5i,&ent+ !ere not c5ildrenIs toys as declared in t5e s5i,,ing docu&ents but 16000 units o* (ideo cassette recorders !it5 ta es and duties co&,uted at ";006000#00# A 5old order and !arrant o* seiJure and detention !ere t5en issued by t5e -istrict )ollector o* )usto&s# 3urt5er in(estigation s5o!ed t5at Doonglo! is non-e istent# )onseGuently6 Dr6 7abisi and Dr# >to !ere c5arged !it5 and con(icted *or (iolation o* %ection 3$e+ o* .#A# 3019 !5ic5 &a0es it unla!*ul a&ong ot5ers6 *or ,ublic o**icers to cause any undue In9ury to any ,arty6 including t5e 7o(ern&ent# In t5e disc5arge o* o**icial *unctions t5roug5 &ani*est ,artiality6 e(ident bad *ait5 or gross ine cusable negligence# In t5eir &otion *or reconsideration6 t5e accused alleged t5at t5e decision !as erroneous because t5e cri&e !as not consu&&ated but !as only at an atte&,ted stage6 and t5at in *act t5e 7o(ern&ent did not su**er any undue in9ury# Assu&ing t5at t5e atte&,ted or *rustrated stage o* t5e (iolation c5arged is not ,unis5able6 &ay t5e accused be ne(ert5eless con(icted *or an o**ense ,unis5ed by t5e .e(ised "enal )ode under t5e *acts o* t5e caseL E ,lain# $3N+ )ri&inal La! 1ar E a&ination 8 ? A $199@-200;+ %'77E%/E- AB%4E.: >es6 bot5 are liable *or atte&,ted esta*a t5ru *alsi*ication o* co&&ercial docu&ents6 a co&,le cri&e# /5ey tried to de*raud t5e 7o(ern&ent !it5 t5e use o* *alse co&&ercial and ,ublic docu&ents# -a&age is not necessary# Esta*a= 3alsi*ication o* )o&&ercial -ocu&ents $1997+ /5e accused o,ened a sa(ing account !it5 1an0 A !it5 an initial de,osit o* "26000#00# A *e! days later6 5e de,osited in t5e sa(ings account a 1an0 1 c5ec0 *or " 106000#00 dra!n and endorsed ,ur,ortedly by )# /en days later6 5e !it5dre! " 106000#00 *ro& 5is sa(ings account# ) co&,lained to 1an0 1 !5en t5e c5ec0 !as deducted *ro& 5is account# /!o days t5erea*ter6 t5e accused de,osited anot5er 1an0 1 c5ec0 o* " 106000#00 signed and endorsed allegedly by )# A !ee0 later6 t5e accused !ent to 1an0 A to !it5dra! "106000#00# 45ile !it5dra!ing t5e a&ount6 5e !as arrested# )on(icted under t!o in*or&ations o* esta*a and atte&,ted esta*a bot5 t5roug5 *alsi*ication o* co&&ercial docu&ents6 5e set u, t5e de*enses t5at6 e ce,t *or t5e s5o!ing t5at t5e signature o* ) 5ad been *orged6 no *urt5er e(idence !as ,resented to establis5 $a+ t5at 5e !as t5e *orger o* t5e signature o* ) nor $b+6 t5at as to t5e second c5arge ) su**ered any da&age# .ule on t5e de*ense# %'77E%/E- AB%4E.:

/5e de*ense is not tenable= $a+ t5e ,ossessor o* a *alsi*ied docu&ent is ,resu&ed to be t5e aut5or o* t5e *alsi*ication $"eo,le (s# %endaydtego6 A1 %).A 120= Fo5 /ie0 (s# "eo,le6 et al6 -ec# 216 1990+= $b+ In esta*a6 a &ere disturbance o* ,ro,erty rig5ts6 e(en i* te&,orary6 !ould be su**icient to6 cause da&age# Doreo(er6 in a cri&e o* *alsi*ication o* a co&&ercial docu&ent6 da&age or intent to cause da&age is not necessary because t5e ,rinci,al t5ing ,unis5ed is t5e (iolation o* t5e ,ublic *ait5 and t5e destruction o* t5e trut5 as t5erein sole&nly ,roclai&ed# Esta*a= -e*ense o* 2!ners5i, $2002+ A sold a !as5ing &ac5ine to 1 on credit6 !it5 t5e understanding t5at 1 could return t5e a,,liance !it5in t!o !ee0s i*6 a*ter testing t5e sa&e6 1 decided not to buy it# /!o !ee0s la,sed !it5out 1 returning t5e a,,liance# A *ound out t5at 1 5ad sold t5e !as5ing &ac5ine to a t5ird ,artyIs 1 liable *or esta*aL 45yL $<N+ %'77E%/E- AB%4E.: Bo6 1 is not liable *or esta*a because 5e is not 9ust an entrustee o* t5e !as5ing &ac5ine !5ic5 5e sold= 5e is t5e o!ner t5ereo* by (irtue o* t5e sale o* t5e !as5ing &ac5ine to 5i&# /5e sale being on credit6 1 as buyer is only liable *or t5e un,aid ,rice o* t5e !as5ing &ac5ine= 5is obligation is only a ci(il obligation# /5ere is no *elonious &isa,,ro,riation t5at could constitute esta*a# Esta*a= %!indling $199A+ -i(ina6 is t5e o!ner o* a <00-sGuare &eter residential lot in Da0ati )ity co(ered by /)/ Bo# 199A# As 5er son needed &oney *or 5is tri, abroad6 -i(ina &ortgaged 5er ;A o* A; lot to 5er neig5bor -ino *or "160006000# Later -i(ina sold t5e sa&e lot to Angel *or "260006000# In t5e -eed o* %ale6 s5e e ,ressly stated t5at t5e ,ro,erty is *ree *ro& any lien or encu&brance# 45at cri&e6 i* any6 did -i(ina co&&itL O<NP %'77E%/E- AB%4E.: -i(ina co&&itted esta*a or s!indling under Art# 31;6 ,ar# 2 o* t5e .e(ised "enal )ode because6 0no!ing t5at t5e real ,ro,erty being sold is encu&bered6 s5e still &ade a &isre,resentation in t5e -eed o* %ale t5at t5e sa&e is *ree *ro& any lien or encu&brance# /5ere is t5us a deceit or *raud causing da&age to t5e buyer o* t5e lot# .obbery $199;+ 3i(e robbers robbed6 one a*ter t5e ot5er *i(e 5ouses occu,ied by di**erent *a&ilies located inside a co&,ound enclosed by a si -*eet 5ig5 5ollo! bloc0 *ence# Eo! &any robberies did t5e *i(e co&&itL E ,lain# %'77E%/E- AB%4E.: /5e o**enders co&&itted only one robbery in t5e eyes o* t5e la! because !5en t5ey entered t5e co&,ound6 t5ey !ere i&,elled only by a single indi(isible cri&inal resolution to co&&it a robbery as t5ey !ere not a!are t5at t5ere !ere *i(e *a&ilies inside said co&,ound6 considering t5at t5e sa&e !as enclosed by a si *eet 5ig5 5ollo!-bloc0 *ence# /5e series o* robbery co&&itted in t5e sa&e co&,ound at about t5e sa&e ti&e constitutes one continued cri&e6 &oti(ated by one cri&inal i&,ulse# .obbery under .") $2000+ A6 16 )6 - and 1 !ere in a beer5ouse along DacArt5ur Eig5!ay 5a(ing a drin0ing s,ree# At about 1 oIcloc0 in t5e &orning6 t5ey decided to lea(e and so as0ed *or t5e bill# /5ey ,ooled t5eir &oney toget5er but t5ey !ere still s5ort o* "26000#00# E t5en orc5estrated a ,lan !5ereby A6 16 ) and - !ould go out6 *lag a ta icab and rob t5e ta i dri(er o* all 5is &oney !5ile E !ould !ait *or t5e& in t5e beer5ouse# A# 16 ) and - agreed# All ar&ed !it5 balisongs6 A6 16 ) and - 5ailed t5e *irst ta icab t5ey encountered# A*ter robbing C6 t5e dri(er6 o* 5is earnings6 !5ic5 a&ounted to "16000#00 only6 t5ey needed "1 6000#00 &ore to &eet t5eir bill# %o6 t5ey decided to 5ail anot5er ta icab and t5ey again robbed dri(er / o* 5is 5ardearned &oney a&ounting to "16000# 2n t5eir !ay bac0 to t5e beer5ouse6 t5ey !ere a,,re5ended by a ,olice tea& u,on t5e co&,laint o* C6 t5e dri(er o* t5e *irst cab# /5ey ,ointed to E as t5e &aster&ind# 45at cri&e or cri&es6 i* any6 did A6 16 )6 and 1 co&&itL E ,lain *ully# $3N+

%'77E%/E- AB%4E.: A# 16 )6 - and E are liable *or t!o $2+ counts o* robbery under Article 29@ o* t5e .e(# "enal )ode= not *or 5ig5!ay .obbery under "- <32# /5e o**enders are not brigands but only co&&itted t5e robbery to raise &oney to ,ay t5eir bill because it 5a,,ened t5at t5ey !ere s5ort o* &oney to ,ay t5e sa&e# .obbery under .") $2001+ A and 1 are neig5bors in 1arangay Bue(o I6 %ilang6 )a(ite# A is a barangay Faga!ad and 0no!n to be a )ri&inal La! 1ar E a&ination 8 ? A $199@-200;+ bully6 !5ile 1 is re,uted to be gay but noted *or 5is industry and econo&ic sa((y !5ic5 allo!ed 5i& to a&ass !ealt5 in lea,s and bounds6 including registered and unregistered lands in se(eral barangays# .esenting 1Is ric5es and relying on 5is ,olitical in*luence6 A decided to 5arass and inti&idate 1 into s5aring !it5 5i& so&e o* 5is lands6 considering t5at t5e latter !as single and li(ing alone# 2ne nig5t6 A bro0e into 1Is 5ouse6 *orced 5i& to bring out so&e titles and a*ter ,ic0ing out a title co(ering 200 sGuare &eters in t5eir barangay6 co&,elled 1 to ty,e out a -eed o* %ale con(eying t5e said lot to 5i& *or "1#00 and ot5er (aluable considerations# All t5e !5ile6 A carried a ,alti0 caliber #@< in *ull (ie! o* 16 !5o signed t5e deed out o* *ear# 45en A later on tried to register t5e deed6 1 su&&oned enoug5 courage and 5ad A arrested and c5arged in court a*ter ,reli&inary in(estigation# 45at c5arge or c5arges s5ould be *iled against AL E ,lain# $<N+ %'77E%/E- AB%4E.: /5e c5arge *or .obbery under Article 29A o* t5e .e(ised "enal )ode s5ould be *iled against A# %aid Article ,ro(ides t5at any ,erson !5o6 !it5 intent to de*raud anot5er6 by &eans o* (iolence or inti&idation6 s5all co&,el 5i& to sign6 e ecute and deli(er any ,ublic instru&ent or docu&ent s5all be 5eld guilty o* robbery# /5e ,alti0 caliber #@< *irear& carried by A !as ob(iously intended to inti&idate 1 and t5us6 used in t5e co&&ission o* t5e robbery# I* it could be establis5ed t5at A 5ad no license or ,er&it to ,ossess and carry suc5 *irear&6 it s5ould be ta0en only as s,ecial aggra(ating circu&stance to t5e cri&e o* robbery6 not sub9ect o* a se,arate ,rosecution# AL/E.BA/IVE AB%4E.: 2n t5e ,re&ise t5at t5e -eed o* %ale !5ic5 A co&,elled 1 to sign6 5ad not attained t5e c5aracter o* a M,ublicM instru&ent or docu&ent6 A s5ould be c5arged *or t5e cri&e o* 8uali*ied /res,ass to -!elling under Article 2A0 o* t5e .e(ised "enal )ode *or 5a(ing intruded into 1:s 5ouse6 and *or t5e cri&e o* 7ra(e )oercion under Article 2A; o* sa&e )ode6 *or co&,elling 1 to sign suc5 deed o* sale against 5is !ill# .obbery (s# Eig5!ay .obbery $2000+ -istinguis5 Eig5!ay .obbery under "residential -ecree Bo# <32 *ro& .obbery co&&itted on a 5ig5!ay# $3N+ %'77E%/E- AB%4E.: Eig5!ay .obbery under "res# -ecree <32 di**ers *ro& ordinary .obbery co&&itted on a 5ig5!ay in t5ese res,ects: 1 In Eig5!ay .obbery under "- <326 t5e robbery is co&&itted indiscri&inately against ,ersons !5o co&&ute in suc5 5ig5!ays6 regardless o* t5e ,otentiality t5ey o**er= !5ile in ordinary .obbery co&&itted on a 5ig5!ay6 t5e robbery is co&&itted only against ,redeter&ined (icti&s= 2 It is Eig5!ay .obbery under "- <326 !5en t5e o**ender is a brigand or one !5o roa&s in ,ublic ;9 o* A; 5ig5!ays and carries out 5is robbery in ,ublic 5ig5!ays as (enue6 !5ene(er t5e o,,ortunity to do so arises# It is ordinary .obbery under t5e .e(ised "enal )ode !5en t5e co&&ission t5ereo* in a ,ublic 5ig5!ay is only incidental and t5e o**ender is not a brigand: and 3# In Eig5!ay .obbery under "- <326 t5ere is *reGuency in t5e co&&ission o* t5e

robbery in ,ublic 5ig5!ays and against ,ersons tra(elling t5ereat= !5ereas ordinary .obbery in ,ublic 5ig5!ays is only occasional against a ,redeter&ined (icti&6 !it5out *reGuency in ,ublic 5ig5!ays# .obbery !H *orce u,on t5ings $2000+ A6 brot5er o* 16 !it5 t5e intention o* 5a(ing a nig5t out !it5 5is *riends6 too0 t5e coconut s5ell !5ic5 is being used by 1 as a ban0 *or coins *ro& inside t5eir loc0ed cabinet using t5eir co&&on 0ey# 3ort5!it56 A bro0e t5e coconut s5ell outside o* t5eir 5o&e in t5e ,resence o* 5is *riends# 45at is t5e cri&inal liability o* A6 i* anyL E ,lain# $3N+ Is A e e&,ted *ro& cri&inal liability under Article 332 o* t5e .e(ised "enal )ode *or being a brot5er o* 1L E ,lain# $2N+ %'77E%/E- AB%4E.: a+ A is cri&inally liable *or .obbery !it5 *orce u,on t5ings6 because t5e coconut s5ell !it5 t5e coins inside6 !as ta0en !it5 intent to gain and bro0en outside o* t5eir 5o&e6 $Art# 299 $b+ $2+# .")+# b+ Bo6 A is not e e&,t *ro& cri&inal liability under Art# 332 because said Article a,,lies only to t5e*t6 s!indling or &alicious &isc5ie*# Eere6 t5e cri&e co&&itted is robbery# .obbery !H Eo&icide - .#A# Bo# 7;<9 $200<+ Jose e&,loyed Dario as gardener and Eenry as coo0# /5ey learned t5at Jose !on "<006000#00 in t5e lotto6 and decided to rob 5i&# Dario ,ositioned 5i&sel* about 30 &eters a!ay *ro& Jose:s 5ouse and acted as loo0out# 3or 5is ,art6 Eenry surre,titiously gained entry into t5e 5ouse and 0illed Jose !5o !as t5en 5a(ing 5is dinner# Eenry *ound t5e "<006000#00 and too0 it# Eenry t5en too0 a can o* gasoline *ro& t5e garage and burned t5e 5ouse to conceal t5e acts# Dario and Eenry *led6 but !ere arrested around 200 &eters a!ay *ro& t5e 5ouse by alert barangay tanods# /5e tanods reco(ered t5e "<006000#00# Dario and Eenry !ere c5arged !it5 and con(icted o* robbery !it5 5o&icide6 !it5 t5e aggra(ating circu&stances o* arson6 d!elling6 and nig5tti&e# Dario &o(ed to reconsider t5e decision &aintaining t5at 5e !as not at t5e scene o* t5e cri&e and !as not a!are t5at Eenry 0illed t5e (icti&= 5ence6 5e !as guilty only o* robbery6 as an acco&,lice# Dario also clai&ed t5at 5e cons,ired !it5 Eenry to co&&it robbery but not to 0ill )ri&inal La! 1ar E a&ination 8 ? A $199@-200;+ Jose# Eenry6 li0e!ise6 &o(ed to reconsider t5e decision6 asserting t5at 5e is liable only *or atte&,ted robbery !it5 5o&icide !it5 no aggra(ating circu&stance6 considering t5at 5e and Dario did not bene*it *ro& t5e "<006000#00# Ee *urt5er alleged t5at arson is a *elony and not an aggra(ating circu&stance= d!elling is not aggra(ating in atte&,ted robbery !it5 5o&icide= and nig5tti&e is not aggra(ating because t5e 5ouse o* Jose !as lig5ted at t5e ti&e 5e !as 0illed# .esol(e !it5 reasons t5e res,ecti(e &otions o* Dario and Eenry# $7N+ %'77E%/E- AB%4E.: Dario is not correct# Dario cons,ired and acted in concert !it5 Eenry to co&&it robbery# Eence6 t5e act o* one is t5e act o* all and t5e e tent o* t5e s,eci*ic ,artici,ation o* eac5 indi(idual cons,irator beco&es secondary6 eac5 being 5eld liable *or t5e cri&inal deed$s+ e ecuted by anot5er or ot5ers# As a cons,irator6 Dario casts 5is lot !it5 5is *ello! cons,irators and beco&es liable to any t5ird ,erson !5o &ay get 0illed in t5e course o* i&,le&enting t5e cri&inal design# $"eo,le (# "unJalan6 et al## 7#.# Bo# 7AA<36 Bo(e&ber A6 1991+ Eenry is incorrect6 since 5e acGuired ,ossession o* t5e &oney# /5e cri&e o* robbery !it5 *orce and inti&idation is consu&&ated !5en t5e robber acGuires ,ossession o* t5e ,ro,erty6 e(en i* *or a s5ort ti&e# It is no de*ense t5at t5ey 5ad no o,,ortunity to dis,ose o* or bene*it *ro& t5e &oney ta0en# $"eo,le (# %al(ilia6 et al#6 7#.# Bo# AA1;36 A,ril 2;6 1990+ %ince t5e cri&e in robbery !it5 *orce and inti&idation against ,ersons $robbery !it5 5o&icide+6 d!elling is aggra(ating# Arson6 !5ic5 acco&,anied t5e cri&e o* robbery !it5 5o&icide is absorbed $Art# 29@6 .3) as a&ended by .#A# Bo# 7;<9+ and is not aggra(ating because t5e .") does not ,ro(ide t5at suc5 cri&e is an aggra(ating circu&stance# $"eo,le (# .egala6 7#.# Bo# 130<0A6 A,ril <6 2000+

Big5tti&e6 li0e!ise6 is not aggra(ating# /5ere is no s5o!ing t5at t5e sa&e !as ,ur,osely soug5t by t5e o**enders to *acilitate t5e co&&ission o* t5e cri&e or i&,unity# .obbery !H Eo&icide $199;+ Jose6 -o&ingo6 Danolo6 and 3ernando6 ar&ed !it5 bolos6 at about one oIcloc0 in t5e &orning6 robbed a 5ouse at a desolate ,lace !5ere -anilo6 5is !i*e6 and t5ree daug5ters !ere li(ing# 45ile t5e *our !ere in t5e ,rocess o* ransac0ing -aniloIs 5ouse6 3ernando6 noticing t5at one o* -aniloIs daug5ters !as trying to get a!ay6 ran a*ter 5er and *inally caug5t u, !it5 5er in a t5ic0et so&e!5at distant *ro& t5e 5ouse# 3ernando6 be*ore bringing bac0 t5e daug5ter to t5e 5ouse6 ra,ed 5er *irst# /5erea*ter6 t5e *our carted a!ay t5e belongings o* -anilo and 5is *a&ily# a+ 45at cri&e did Jose6 -o&ingo6 Danolo and 3ernando co&&itL E ,lain# b+ %u,,ose6 a*ter t5e robbery6 t5e *our too0 turns in ra,ing t5e t5ree daug5ters o* -anilo inside t5e latterIs 5ouse6 but be*ore t5ey le*t6 t5ey 0illed t5e !5ole *a&ily 70 o* A; to ,re(ent identi*ication6 !5at cri&e did t5e *our co&&itL E ,lain# %'77E%/E- AB%4E.: $a+ Jose6 -o&ingo6 and Danolo co&&itted .obbery6 !5ile 3ernando co&&itted co&,le cri&e o* .obbery !it5 .a,e# )ons,iracy can be in*erred *ro& t5e &anner t5e o**enders co&&itted t5e robbery but t5e ra,e !as co&&itted by 3ernando at a ,lace Mdistant *ro& t5e 5ouseM !5ere t5e robbery !as co&&itted6 not in t5e ,resence o* t5e ot5er cons,irators# Eence6 3ernando alone s5ould ans!er *or t5e ra,e6 rendering 5i& liable *or t5e s,ecial co&,le cri&e# $"eo,le (s# )anturia et# al6 7#.# 10A@906 22 June 199<K b+ /5e cri&e !ould be .obbery !it5 Eo&icide because t5e 0illings !ere by reason $to ,re(ent identi*ication+ and on t5e occasion o* t5e robbery# /5e &ulti,le ra,es co&&itted and t5e *act t5at se(eral ,ersons !ere 0illed O5o&icide+6 !ould be considered as aggra(ating circu&stances# /5e ra,es are synony&ous !it5 Igno&iny and t5e additional 0illing synony&ous !it5 cruelty6 $"eo,le (s# %olis6 1A2 %).A= "eo,le (s# "laga6 202 %).A <31+ .obbery !H Eo&icide $199A+ A6 16 ) and - all ar&ed6 robbed a ban06 and !5en t5ey !ere about to get out o* t5e ban06 ,olice&en ca&e and ordered t5e& to surrender but t5ey *ired on t5e ,olice o**icers !5o *ired bac0 and s5ot it out !it5 t5e&# 1# %u,,ose a ban0 e&,loyee !as 0illed and t5e bullet !5ic5 0illed 5i& ca&e *ro& t5e *irear& o* t5e ,olice o**icers6 !it5 !5at cri&e s5all you c5arge A6 1# ) and -L O3NP 2# %u,,ose it !as robber - !5o !as 0illed by t5e ,olice&en and t5e ,rosecutor c5arged A6 1 and ) !it5 .obbery and Eo&icide# /5ey de&urred arguing t5at t5ey $A6 1 and )+ !ere not t5e ones !5o 0illed robber -6 5ence6 t5e c5arge s5ould only be .obbery# Eo! !ould you resol(e t5eir argu&entL $2N+ %'77E%/E- AB%4E.: 1# A6 16 ) and - s5ould be c5arged !it5 t5e cri&e o* robbery !it5 5o&icide because t5e deat5 o* t5e ban0 e&,loyee !as broug5t about by t5e acts o* said o**enders on t5e occasion o* t5e robbery# /5ey s5ot it out !it5 t5e ,olice&an6 t5ereby causing suc5 deat5 by reason or on t5e occasion o* a robbery= 5ence6 t5e co&,osite cri&e o* robbery !it5 5o&icide# 2# /5e argu&ent is (alid6 considering t5at a se,arate c5arge *or Eo&icide !as *iled# It !ould be di**erent i* t5e c5arge *iled !as *or t5e co&,osite cri&e o* robbery !it5 5o&icide !5ic5 is a single6 indi(isible o**ense# AL/E.BA/IVE AB%4E.: 2# /5e argu&ent raised by A6 1 and ) is not correct because t5eir liability is not only *or .obbery but *or t5e s,ecial co&,le cri&e o* .obbery !it5 5o&icide# 1ut t5e *acts stated i&,resses t5at se,arate cri&es o* .obbery MandM Eo&icide !ere

c5arged6 !5ic5 is not correct# 45at !as co&&itted !as a single indi(isible o**ense o* .obbery !it5 5o&icide6 not t!o cri&es# )ri&inal La! 1ar E a&ination 8 ? A $199@-200;+ .obbery !H Eo&icide $2003+ A learned t!o days ago t5at 1 5ad recei(ed dollar bills a&ounting to W106000 *ro& 5is daug5ter !or0ing in t5e 'nited %tates# 4it5 t5e intention o* robbing 1 o* t5ose dollars6 A entered 1Is 5ouse at &idnig5t6 ar&ed !it5 a 0ni*e !5ic5 5e used to gain entry6 and began Guietly searc5ing t5e dra!ers6 s5el(es6 and ot5er li0ely rece,tacles o* t5e cas5# 45ile doing t5at6 1 a!o0e6 rus5ed out *ro& t5e bedroo&6 and gra,,led !it5 A *or t5e ,ossession o* t5e 0ni*e !5ic5 A !as t5en 5olding# A*ter stabbing 1 to deat56 A turned o(er 1Is ,illo! and *ound t5e latterIs !allet underneat5 t5e ,illo!6 !5ic5 !as bulging !it5 t5e dollar bills 5e !as loo0ing *or# A too0 t5e bills and le*t t5e 5ouse# 45at cri&e or cri&es !ere co&&ittedL AN %'77E%/E- AB%4E.: /5e cri&e co&&itted is robbery !it5 5o&icide6 a co&,osite cri&e# /5is is so because AIs ,ri&ordial cri&inal intent is to co&&it a robbery and in t5e course o* t5e robbery6 t5e 0illing o* 1 too0 ,lace# 1ot5 t5e robbery and t5e 0illing !ere consu&&ated6 t5us gi(ing rise to t5e s,ecial co&,le cri&e o* robbery !it5 5o&icide# /5e ,ri&ary cri&inal intent being to co&&it a robbery6 any 0illing on t5e MoccasionM o* t5e robbery6 t5oug5 not by reason t5ereo*6 is considered a co&,onent o* t5e cri&e o* robbery !it5 5o&icide as a single indi(isible o**ense# .obbery !H Eo&icide= %,ecial )o&,le )ri&e $199<+ Victor6 .ic0y6 .od and .onnie !ent to t5e store o* Dang "andoy# Victor and .ic0y entered t5e store !5ile .od and .onnie ,osted t5e&sel(es at t5e door# A*ter ordering beer .ic0y co&,lained t5at 5e !as s5ortc5anged alt5oug5 Dang "andoy (e5e&ently denied it# %uddenly .ic0y !5i,,ed out a 0ni*e as 5e announced MEold-u, itoSM and stabbed Dang "andoy to deat5# .od bo ed t5e storeIs salesgirl Lucy to ,re(ent 5er *ro& 5el,ing Dang "andoy# 45en Lucy ran out o* t5e store to see0 5el, *ro& ,eo,le ne t door s5e !as c5ased by .onnie# As soon as .ic0y 5ad stabbed Dang "andoy6 Victor scoo,ed u, t5e &oney *ro& t5e cas5 bo # /5en Victor and .ic0y das5ed to t5e street and s5outed6 M/u&a0bo na 0ayoSM .od !as 1@ and .onnie !as 17# /5e &oney and ot5er articles looted *ro& t5e store o* Dang "andoy !ere later *ound in t5e 5ouses o* Victor and .ic0y# -iscuss *ully t5e cri&inal liability o* Victor6 .ic0y6 .od and .onnie# %'77E%/E- AB%4E.: All are liable *or t5e s,ecial co&,le cri&e o* robbery !it5 5o&icide# /5e acts o* .ic0y in stabbing Dang "andoy to deat56 o* .od in bo ing t5e salesgirl to ,re(ent 5er *ro& 5el,ing Dang "andoy6 o* .onnie in c5asing t5e salesgirl to ,re(ent 5er in see0ing 5el,6 o* Victor in scoo,ing u, &oney *ro& t5e cas5 bo 6 and o* .ic0y and Victor in das5ing to t5e street and announcing t5e esca,e6 are all indicati(e o* cons,iracy# /5e rule is settled t5at !5en 5o&icide ta0es ,lace as a conseGuence or on t5e occasion o* a robbery6 all t5ose 71 o* A; !5o too0 ,art in t5e robbery are guilty as ,rinci,als o* t5e cri&e o* robbery !it5 5o&icide6 unless t5e accused tried to ,re(ent t5e 0illing $"eo,le (s# 1aello6 22@ %).A 21A+# 3urt5er6 t5e aggra(ating circu&stance o* cra*t could be assessed against t5e accused *or ,retending to be custo&ers o* Dang "andoy# .obbery !H Inti&idation (s# /5e*t $2002+ A entered t5e 5ouse o* anot5er !it5out e&,loying *orce or (iolence u,on t5ings# Ee !as seen by a &aid !5o !anted to screa& but !as ,re(ented *ro& doing so because A t5reatened 5er !it5 a gun# A t5en too0 &oney and ot5er (aluables and le*t# Is A guilty o* t5e*t or o* robberyL E ,lain# $3N+ %'77E%/E- AB%4E.: A is liable *or robbery because o* t5e inti&idation 5e e&,loyed on t5e &aid be*ore t5e ta0ing o* t5e &oney and ot5er (aluables# It is t5e inti&idation o* ,erson relati(e to t5e ta0ing t5at Guali*ies t5e cri&e as robbery6 instead o* si&,ly t5e*t# /5e non-e&,loy&ent o* *orce u,on t5ings is o* no &o&ent because robbery is

co&&itted not only by e&,loying *orce u,on t5ings but also by e&,loying (iolence against or inti&idation o* ,ersons# .obbery !H .a,e $1999+ /!o young &en6 A and 16 cons,ired to rob a residential 5ouse o* t5ings o* (alue# /5ey succeeded in t5e co&&ission o* t5eir original ,lan to si&,ly rob# A6 5o!e(er6 !as se ually aroused !5en 5e sa! t5e lady o!ner o* t5e 5ouse and so6 ra,ed 5er# /5e lady (icti& testi*ied t5at 1 did not in any !ay ,artici,ate in t5e ra,e but 1 !atc5ed t5e 5a,,ening *ro& a !indo! and did not5ing to sto, t5e ra,e# Is 1 as cri&inally liable as A *or robbery !it5 ra,eL E ,lain# $@N+ %'77E%/E- AB%4E.: >es6 1 is as cri&inally liable as A *or t5e co&,osite cri&e o* robbery !it5 ra,e under Art# 29@ $1+# Alt5oug5 t5e cons,iracy o* A and 1 !as only to rob6 1 !as ,resent !5en t5e ra,e !as being co&&itted !5ic5 ga(e rise to a co&,osite cri&e6 a single indi(isible o**ense o* robbery !it5 ra,e# 1 !ould not 5a(e been liable 5ad 5e endea(ored to ,re(ent t5e co&&ission o* t5e ra,e# 1ut since 5e did not !5en 5e could 5a(e done so6 5e in e**ect acGuiesced !it5 t5e ra,e as a co&,onent o* t5e robbery and so 5e is also liable *or robbery !it5 ra,e# .obbery !H .a,e= )ons,iracy $200@+ /oget5er CA6 >1 and R) ,lanned to rob Diss 2-# /5ey entered 5er 5ouse by brea0ing one o* t5e !indo!s in 5er 5ouse# A*ter ta0ing 5er ,ersonal ,ro,erties and as t5ey !ere about to lea(e6 CA decided on i&,ulse to ra,e 2-# As CA !as &olesting 5er6 >1 and R) stood outside t5e door o* 5er bedroo& and did not5ing to ,re(ent CA *ro& ra,ing 2-# 45at cri&e or cri&es did CA6 >1 and R) co&&it6 and !5at is t5e cri&inal liability o* eac5L E ,lain brie*ly# $<N+ )ri&inal La! 1ar E a&ination 8 ? A $199@-200;+ %'77E%/E- AB%4E.: /5e cri&e co&&itted by CA6 >1 and R) is t5e co&,osite cri&e o* .obbery !it5 .a,e6 a single6 indi(isible o**ense under Art# 29@$1+ o* t5e .e(ised "enal )ode# Alt5oug5 t5e cons,iracy a&ong t5e o**enders !as only to co&&it robbery and only CA ra,ed )-6 t5e ot5er robbers6 >1 and R)6 !ere ,resent and a!are o* t5e ra,e being co&&itted by t5eir co-cons,irator# Ea(ing done not5ing to sto, CA *ro& co&&itting t5e ra,e6 >1 and R) t5ereby concurred in t5e co&&ission o* t5e ra,e by t5eir cocons,irator CA# /5e cri&inal liability o* all6 CA6 >R and R)6 s5all be t5e sa&e6 as ,rinci,als in t5e s,ecial co&,le cri&e o* robbery !it5 ra,e !5ic5 is a single6 indi(isible o**ense !5ere t5e ra,e acco&,anying t5e robbery is 9ust a co&,onent# .obbery= Eo&icide= Arson $199<+ Earry6 an o(erseas contract !or0er6 arri(ed *ro& %audi Arabia !it5 considerable sa(ings# Fno!ing 5i& to be MloadedM6 5is *riends Jason6 Danuel and -a(e in(ited 5i& to ,o0er session at a rented beac5 cottage# 45en 5e !as losing al&ost all 5is &oney !5ic5 to 5i& !as 5is sa(ings o* a li*eti&e6 5e disco(ered t5at 5e !as being c5eated by 5is *riends# Angered by t5e betrayal 5e decided to ta0e re(enge on t5e t5ree c5eats# Earry ordered se(eral bottles o* /anduay .5u& and ga(e t5e& to 5is co&,anions to drin06 as t5ey did6 until t5ey all *ell aslee,# 45en Earry sa! 5is co&,anions already sound aslee, 5e 5ac0ed all o* t5e& to deat5# /5en 5e re&e&bered 5is losses# Ee ri*led t5roug5 t5e ,oc0ets o* 5is (icti&s and got bac0 all t5e &oney 5e lost# Ee t5en ran a!ay but not be*ore burning t5e cottage to 5ide 5is &isdeed# /5e *ollo!ing day ,olice in(estigators *ound a&ong t5e debris t5e c5arred bodies o* Jason6 Danuel6 -a(e and t5e careta0er o* t5e resort# A*ter ,reli&inary in(estigation6 t5e "ro(incial "rosecutor c5arged Earry !it5 t5e co&,le cri&e o* arson !it5 Guadru,le 5o&icide and robbery# 4as Earry ,ro,erly c5argedL -iscuss *ully# %'77E%/E- AB%4E.: Bo6 Earry !as net ,ro,erly c5arged# Earry s5ould 5a(e been c5arged !it5 t5ree $3+ se,arate cri&es6 na&ely: &urder6 t5e*t and arson# Earry 0illed Jason6 Danuel and -a(e !it5 e(ident ,re&editation6 as t5ere !as considerable la,se o* ti&e be*ore 5e decided to co&&it t5e cri&e and t5e actual

co&&ission o* t5e cri&e# In addition6 Earry e&,loyed &eans !5ic5 !ea0ened t5e de*ense o* Jason6 Danuel and -a(e# Earry ga(e t5e& t5e liGuor to drin0 until t5ey !ere drun0 and *ell aslee,# /5is ga(e Earry t5e o,,ortunity to carry out 5is ,lan o* &urder !it5 i&,unity# 72 o* A; /5e ta0ing o* t5e &oney *ro& t5e (icti&s !as a &ere a*tert5oug5t o* t5e 0illings# Eence6 Earry co&&itted t5e se,arate cri&e o* t5e*t and not t5e co&,le cri&e o* robbery !it5 5o&icide# Alt5oug5 t5e*t !as co&&itted against dead ,ersons6 it is still legally ,ossible as t5e o**ended ,arty are t5e estates o* t5e (icti&s# In burning t5e cottage to 5ide 5is &isdeed# Earry beca&e liable *or anot5er se,arate cri&e6 arson# /5is act o* burning !as not necessary *or t5e consu&&ation o* t5e t!o $2+ ,re(ious o**enses 5e co&&itted# /5e *act t5at t5e careta0er died *ro& t5e blaJe did not Guali*y EarryIs cri&e into a co&,le cri&e o* arson !it5 5o&icide *or t5ere is no suc5 cri&e# Eence6 Earry !as i&,ro,erly c5arged !it5 t5e co&,le cri&e o* arson !it5 Guadru,le 5o&icide and robbery# Earry s5ould 5a(e been c5arged !it5 t5ree $3+ se,arate cri&es6 &urder6 t5e*t and arson# .obbery= .a,e $1997+ A*ter ra,ing t5e co&,lainant in 5er 5ouse6 t5e accused struc0 a &atc5 to s&o0e a cigarette be*ore de,arting *ro& t5e scene# /5e brie* lig5t *ro& t5e &atc5 allo!ed 5i& to notice a !atc5 in 5er !rist# Ee de&anded t5at s5e 5and o(er t5e !atc5# 45en s5e re*used6 5e *orcibly grabbed it *ro& 5er# /5e accused !as c5arged !it5 and con(icted o* t5e s,ecial co&,le cri&e o* robbery !it5 ra,e# 4as t5e court correctL %'77E%/E- AB%4E.: Bo# t5e court erred in con(icting t5e accused o* t5e s,ecial co&,le cri&e o* robbery !it5 ra,e# /5e accused s5ould instead be 5eld liable *or t!o $2+ se,arate cri&es o* robbery and ra,e6 since t5e ,ri&ary intent or ob9ecti(e o* t5e accused !as only to ra,e t5e co&,lainant6 and 5is co&&ission o* t5e robbery !as &erely an a*tert5oug5t# /5e robbery &ust ,recede t5e ra,e# In order to gi(e rise to t5e s,ecial co&,le cri&e *or !5ic5 t5e court con(icted t5e accused# /5e*t $199A+ Dario *ound a !atc5 in a 9ee, 5e !as riding6 and since it did not belong to 5i&6 5e a,,roac5ed ,olice&an " and deli(ered t5e !atc5 !it5 instruction to return t5e sa&e to !5oe(er &ay be *ound to be t5e o!ner# " *ailed to return t5e !atc5 to t5e o!ner and6 instead6 sold it and a,,ro,riated *or 5i&sel* t5e ,roceeds o* t5e sale# )5arged !it5 t5e*t6 " reasoned out t5at 5e cannot be *ound guilty because it !as not 5e !5o *ound t5e !atc5 and6 &oreo(er6 t5e !atc5 turned out to be stolen ,ro,erty# Is "Is de*ense (alidL O<NP %'77E%/E- AB%4E.: Bo6 "Is de*ense is not (alid# In a c5arge *or t5e*t6 it is enoug5 t5at t5e ,ersonal ,ro,erty sub9ect t5ereo* belongs to anot5er and not to t5e o**ender $"+# It is irrele(ant !5et5er t5e ,erson de,ri(ed o* t5e ,ossession o* t5e !atc5 5as or 5as no rig5t to t5e !atc5# /5e*t is )ri&inal La! 1ar E a&ination 8 ? A $199@-200;+ co&&itted by one !5o6 !it5 intent to gain6 a,,ro,riates ,ro,erty o* anot5er !it5out t5e consent o* its o!ner# And t5e cri&e is co&&itted e(en !5en t5e o**ender recei(es ,ro,erty o* anot5er but acGuires only ,5ysical ,ossession to 5old t5e sa&e# /5e*t $2001+ 3rancis 7arcia6 a Jollibee !aiter6 *ound a gold bracelet in *ront o* 5is !or0ing ,lace in Da0ati and6 u,on ins,ecting it6 sa! t5e na&e and address o* t5e o!ner engra(ed on t5e inside# .e&e&bering 5is ,arentsI ad&onition t5at 5e s5ould not ta0e anyt5ing !5ic5 does not belong to 5i&6 5e deli(ered t5e bracelet to "21 Jesus .eyes o* t5e Da0ati 8uad ,recinct !it5 t5e instruction to locate t5e o!ner and return it to 5i&# "21 .eyes6 instead6 sold t5e bracelet and &isa,,ro,riated t5e ,roceeds# %ubseGuent e(ents broug5t out t5e *act t5at t5e bracelet !as dro,,ed by

a snatc5er !5o 5ad grabbed it *ro& t5e o!ner a bloc0 a!ay *ro& !5ere 3rancis 5ad *ound it and *urt5er in(estigation traced t5e last ,ossessor as "21 .eyes# )5arged !it5 t5e*t6 "21 .eyes reasoned out t5at 5e 5ad not co&&itted any cri&e because it !as not 5e !5o 5ad *ound t5e bracelet and6 &oreo(er6 it turned out to 5a(e been stolen# .esol(e t5e case !it5 reasons# $10N+ %'77E%/E- AB%4E.: )5arged !it5 t5e*t6 "21 .eyes is cri&inally liable# Eis contention t5at 5e 5as not co&&itted any cri&e because 5e !as not t5e one !5o *ound t5e bracelet and it turned out to be stolen also6 is de(oid o* &erit# It is enoug5 t5at t5e bracelet belonged to anot5er and t5e *ailure to restore t5e sa&e to its o!ner is c5aracteriJed by intent to gain# /5e act o* "21 .eyes o* selling t5e bracelet !5ic5 does not belong to 5i& and !5ic5 5e only 5eld to be deli(ered to its o!ner6 is *urti(e &isa,,ro,riation !it5 intent to gain# 45ere a *inder o* lost or &islaid ,ro,erty entrusts it to anot5er *or deli(ery to t5e o!ner6 t5e ,erson to !5o& suc5 ,ro,erty is entrusted and !5o acce,ts t5e sa&e6 assu&es t5e relation o* t5e *inder to t5e o!ner as i* 5e !as t5e actual *inder: i* 5e !ould &isa,,ro,riate it6 5e is guilty o* t5e*t $"eo,le (s# A(ila6 @@ "5il# 720+# /5e*t= 8uali*ied /5e*t $2002+ A *ire bro0e out in a de,art&ent store6 A6 ta0ing ad(antage o* t5e con*usion6 entered t5e store and carried a!ay goods !5ic5 5e later sold# 45at cri&e6 i* any6 did 5e co&&itL 45yL $2N+ %'77E%/E- AB%4E.: A co&&itted t5e cri&e o* Guali*ied t5e*t because 5e too0 t5e goods on t5e occasion o* and ta0ing ad(antage o* t5e *ire !5ic5 bro0e out in t5e de,art&ent store# /5e occasion o* a cala&ity suc5 as *ire6 !5en t5e t5e*t !as co&&itted6 Guali*ies t5e cri&e under Article 310 o* t5e .e(ised "enal )ode6 as a&ended# /5e*t= 8uali*ied /5e*t $2002+ 73 o* A; A (e5icular accident occurred on t5e national 5ig5!ay in 1ulacan# A&ong t5e *irst to arri(e at t5e scene o* t5e accident !as A6 !5o *ound one o* t5e (icti&s already dead and t5e ot5ers unconscious# 1e*ore rescuers could co&e6 A6 ta0ing ad(antage o* t5e 5el,less condition o* t5e (icti&s6 too0 t5eir !allets and 9e!elry# Eo!e(er6 t5e ,olice6 !5o res,onded to t5e re,ort o* t5e accident6 caug5t A# 45at cri&e or cri&es did A co&&itL 45yL $<N+ %'77E%/E- AB%4E.: A co&&itted t5e cri&e o* Guali*ied t5e*t because 5e too0 t5e !allets and 9e!elry o* t5e (icti&s !it5 e(ident intent to gain and on t5e occasion o* a (e5icular accident !5erein 5e too0 ad(antage o* t5e 5el,less condition o* t5e (icti&s# 1ut only one cri&e o* Guali*ied t5e*t !as co&&itted alt5oug5 t5ere !ere &ore t5an one (icti& di(ested o* t5eir (aluables6 because all t5e ta0ing o* t5e (aluables !ere &ade on one and t5e sa&e occasion6 t5us constituting a continued cri&e# /5e*t= 8uali*ied /5e*t $200;+ 1# 3orest .anger Jay Velasco !as ,atrolling t5e 1alara 4aters5ed and .eser(oir !5en 5e noticed a big ,ile o* cut logs outside t5e gate o* t5e !aters5ed# )urious6 5e scouted around and a*ter a *e! &inutes6 5e sa! .ene and -ante co&ing out o* t5e gate !it5 so&e &ore ne!ly-cut logs# Ee a,,re5ended and c5arged t5e& !it5 t5e ,ro,er o**ense# 45at is t5at o**enseL E ,lain# %'77E%/E- AB%4E.: /5e o**ense is 8uali*ied /5e*t under %ec# ;A o* "#-# 70<6 a&ending "#-# Bo# 3306 !5ic5 ,enaliJes any ,erson !5o directly or indirectly cuts6 gat5ers6 re&o(es6 or s&uggles ti&ber6 or ot5er *orest ,roducts *ro& any o* t5e ,ublic *orest# /5e 1alara 4aters5ed is ,rotected by t5e cited la!s# 2# -uring t5e ,reli&inary in(estigation and u, to t5e trial ,ro,er6 .ene and -ante contended t5at i* t5ey !ere to be 5eld liable6 t5eir liability s5ould be li&ited only to t5e ne!ly-cut logs *ound in t5eir ,ossession but not to t5ose *ound outside t5e gate# I* you !ere t5e 9udge6 !5at !ill be your rulingL $2#<N+

%'77E%/E- AB%4E.: /5e contention is untenable6 t5e ,resence o* t5e ne!ly cut logs outside t5e gate is circu&stantial e(idence6 !5ic56 i* unrebutted6 establis5es t5at t5ey are t5e o**enders !5o gat5ered t5e sa&e# /5e*t= %tages o* E ecution $199A+ In t5e 9e!elry section o* a big de,art&ent store6 Julia snatc5ed a cou,le o* bracelets and ,ut t5ese in 5er ,urse# At t5e storeIs e it6 5o!e(er6 s5e !as arrested by t5e guard a*ter being radioed by t5e store ,ersonnel !5o caug5t t5e act in t5e storeIs &o(ing ca&era# Is t5e cri&e consu&&ated6 *rustrated6 or atte&,tedL O<NP %'77E%/E- AB%4E.: /5e cri&e is consu&&ated t5e*t because t5e ta0ing o* t5e bracelets !as co&,lete a*ter Julia succeeded in ,utting t5e& in 5er ,urse# Julia acGuired co&,lete control o* t5e bracelets a*ter ,utting t5e& in 5er ,urse= )ri&inal La! 1ar E a&ination 8 ? A $199@-200;+ 5ence6 t5e ta0ing !it5 intent to gain is co&,lete and t5us t5e cri&e is consu&&ated# /5e*t= %tages o* E ecution $2000+ %uns5ine6 a beauteous McolegialaM but a s5o,li*ter6 !ent to t5e E(er -e,art&ent %tore and ,roceeded to t5e !o&enIs !ear section# /5e saleslady !as o* t5e i&,ression t5at s5e broug5t to t5e *itting roo& t5ree $3+ ,ieces o* s!i&suits o* di**erent colors# 45en s5e ca&e out o* t5e *itting roo&6 s5e returned only t!o $2P ,ieces to t5e clot5es rac0# /5e saleslady beca&e sus,icious and alerted t5e store detecti(e# %uns5ine !as sto,,ed by t5e detecti(e be*ore s5e could lea(e t5e store and broug5t to t5e o**ice o* t5e store &anager# /5e detecti(e and t5e &anager searc5ed 5er and *ound 5er !earing t5e t5ird s!i&suit under 5er blouse and ,ants# 4as t5e t5e*t o* t5e s!i&suit consu&&ated6 *rustrated or atte&,tedL E ,lain# $<N+ %'77E%/E- AB%4E.: /5e t5e*t !as consu&&ated because t5e ta0ing or as,ortation !as co&,lete# /5e as,ortation is co&,lete !5en t5e o**ender acGuired e clusi(e control o* t5e ,ersonal ,ro,erty being ta0en: in t5is case6 !5en %uns5ine !ore t5e s!i&suit under 5er blouse and ,ants and !as on 5er !ay out o* t5e store# 4it5 e(ident intent to gain6 t5e ta0ing constitutes t5e*t and being co&,lete6 it is consu&&ated# It is not necessary t5at t5e o**ender is in a ,osition to dis,ose o* t5e ,ro,erty6 AL/E.BA/IVE AB%4E.= /5e cri&e o* t5e*t !as only *rustrated because %uns5ine 5as not yet le*t t5e store !5en t5e o**ense !as o,,ortunely disco(ered and t5e article seiJed *ro& 5er# %5e does not 5a(e yet t5e *reedo& to dis,ose o* t5e s!i&suit s5e !as ta0ing $"eo,le (s# -ino6 )A @< 2#7# 3@@;+# Doreo(er6 in case o* doubt as to !5et5er it is consu&&ated or *rustrated6 t5e doubt &ust be resol(ed in *a(or o* t5e &ilder cri&inal res,onsibility# 'sur,ation o* .eal .ig5ts $199;+ /eresita is t5e o!ner o* a t!o-5ectare land in 1ulacan !5ic5 s5e ,lanted to rice and corn# ',on 5er arri(al *ro& a t5ree-&ont5 (acation in t5e 'nited %tates6 s5e !as sur,rised to disco(er t5at 5er land 5ad been ta0en o(er by Danuel and /eo*ilo !5o *orcibly e(icted 5er tenant-careta0er Juliana6 a*ter t5reatening to 0ill t5e latter i* s5e !ould resist t5eir ta0ing o* t5e land# /5erea*ter6 Danuel and /eo*ilo ,lo!ed6 culti(ated and a,,ro,riated t5e 5ar(est *or t5e&sel(es to t5e e clusion o* /eresita# 1+ 45at cri&e or cri&es did Danuel and /eo*ilo co&&itL E ,lain# 2+ %u,,ose Danuel and /eo*ilo 0illed Juliana !5en t5e latter re*used to surrender ,ossession o* t5e land6 !5at cri&e or cri&es did t5e t!o co&&itL E ,lain# %'77E%/E- AB%4E.: 1+ Danuel and /eo*ilo co&&itted t5e cri&e o* usur,ation o* real rig5ts under Art# 312 o* t5e .e(ised "enal )ode *or e&,loying (iolence against or inti&idation o* ,ersons# /5e t5reats to 0ill e&,loyed by t5e& in *orcibly entering t5e land is t5e &eans o* co&&itting t5e cri&e and t5ere*ore absorbed in t5e 7@ o* A;

*elony6 unless t5e inti&idation resulted in a &ore serious *elony# 2K /5e cri&e !ould still be usur,ation o* real rig5ts under Art# 3126 .")6 e(en i* t5e said o**enders 0illed t5e careta0er because t5e 0illing is t5e Violence against ,ersonsM !5ic5 is t5e &eans *or co&&itting t5e cri&e and as suc56 deter&inati(e only# Eo!e(er6 t5is gi(es !ay to t5e ,ro(iso t5at t5e ,enalty ,ro(ided *or t5erein is Min addition to t5e ,enalty incurred in t5e acts o* (iolence $&urder or 5o&icideP e ecuted by t5e&# /5e cri&e is si&ilar to a robbery !5ere a 0illing is co&&itted by reason t5ereo*6 gi(ing rise only to one indi(isible o**ense $"eo,le (s# Judge Al*ec5e6 ,lus t5e *ine &entioned t5erein# )ri&es Against )5astity Acts o* Lasci(iousness (s# 'n9ust Ve ation $199@+ 45en is e&bracing6 0issing and touc5ing a girlIs breast considered only un9ust (e ation instead o* acts o* lasci(iousnessL %'77E%/E- AB%4E.: /5e acts o* e&bracing6 0issing o* a !o&an arising eit5er out o* ,assion or ot5er &oti(e and t5e touc5ing o* 5er breast as a &ere incident o* t5e e&brace !it5out le!d design constitutes &erely un9ust (e ation $"eo,le us6 Ignacio# )A 7.Bo# <119-.6 %e,te&ber 306 19<0+# Eo!e(er6 !5ere t5e 0issing6 e&bracing and t5e touc5ing o* t5e breast o* a !o&an are done !it5 le!d design6 t5e sa&e constitute acts o* lasci(iousness $"eo,le (s# "erci(al 7ilo6 10 %).A 7<3+# Adultery $2002+ A6 a &arried !o&an6 5ad se ual intercourse !it5 a &an !5o !as not 5er 5usband# /5e &an did not 0no! s5e !as &arried# 45at cri&e6 i* any6 did eac5 o* t5e& co&&itL 45yL $2N+ %'77E%/E- AB%4E.: A6 t5e &arried !o&an6 co&&itted t5e cri&e o* adultery under Article 333 o* t5e .e(ised "enal )ode6 as a&ended6 *or 5a(ing se ual intercourse !it5 a &an not 5er 5usband !5ile 5er &arriage is still subsisting# 1ut t5e &an !5o 5ad carnal 0no!ledge o* 5er6 not 0no!ing 5er to be &arried6 s5all not be liable *or adultery# )oncubinage $199@+ Abe6 &arried to LiJa6 contracted anot5er &arriage !it5 )onnie in %inga,ore# /5erea*ter6 Abe and )onnie returned to t5e "5ili,,ines and li(ed as 5usband and !i*e in t5e 5o&eto!n o* Abe in )ala&ba6 Laguna# 1+ )an Abe be ,rosecuted *or biga&yL 2+ I* not6 can 5e be ,rosecuted *or any ot5er cri&eL %'77E%/E- AB%4E.: 1+ Bo6 Abe &ay not be ,rosecuted *or biga&y ### 2+ >es6 Abe6 toget5er !it5 )onnie6 &ay be ,rosecuted *or concubinage under Art# 33@ o* t5e .e(ised "enal )ode *or 5a(ing co5abited as 5usband and !i*e# 1ut concubinage being a ,ri(ate cri&e reGuires t5e s!orn co&,laint o* LiJa6 t5e o**ended s,ouse in accordance )ri&inal La! 1ar E a&ination 8 ? A $199@-200;+ !it5 .ule 110 o* t5e .e(ised .ules on )ri&inal "rocedure# )oncubinage $2002+ A is &arried# Ee 5as a ,ara&our !it5 !5o& 5e 5as se ual relations on a &ore or less regular basis# /5ey &eet at least once a !ee0 in 5otels6 &otels and ot5er ,laces !5ere t5ey can be alone# Is A guilty o* any cri&eL 45yL $3N+ %'77E%/E- AB%4E.: A is guilty o* t5e cri&e o* concubinage by 5a(ing se ual intercourse under scandalous circu&stances6 !it5 a !o&an !5o is not 5is !i*e# Ea(ing se ual relations on a &ore or less regular basis in 5otels6 &otels and ot5er ,laces &ay be considered a scandalous circu&stance t5at o**ends ,ublic conscience6 gi(ing rise to criticis& and general ,rotest suc5 acts being i&,rudent and !anton and setting a bad e a&,le $"eo,le (s# %antos6 A; %).A 70< O197AP+# AL/E.BA/IVE AB%4E.: A is not guilty o* any cri&e because a &arried &an does not incur t5e cri&e o* concubinage by &erely 5a(ing a ,ara&our6 unless under scandalous circu&stances6 or

5e 0ee,s 5er in t5e con9ugal d!elling as a &istress6 or co5abits !it5 5er in any ot5er ,lace# Eis !ee0ly &eetings !it5 5is ,ara&our does not ,er se constitute scandalous circu&stance# 'n9ust Ve ation (s# Act o* Lasci(iousness $200;+ Eduardo 8uintos6 a !ido!er *or t5e ,ast 10 years6 *elt t5at 5is retire&ent at t5e age o* 70 ga(e 5i& t5e o,,ortunity to engage in 5is *a(orite ,asti&e X (oyeuris&# I* not using 5is 5ig5-,o!ered binoculars to ,ee, at 5is neig5borIs 5o&es and do&estic acti(ities6 5is second c5oice !as to *ollo! s!eet young girls# 2ne day6 5e trailed a teenage girl u, to t5e L./ station at E-%A-1uendia# 45ile ascending t5e stairs6 5e stayed one ste, be5ind 5er and in a &o&ent o* bra(ado6 ,laced 5is 5and on 5er le*t 5i, and gently &assaged it# %5e screa&ed and s5outed *or 5el,# Eduardo !as arrested and c5arged !it5 acts o* lasci(iousness# Is t5e designation o* t5e cri&e correctL $<N+ AL/E.BA/IVE AB%4E.: /5e designation o* t5e cri&e as acts o* lasci(iousness is not correct# /5ere is no le!d design e 5ibited by Eduardo !5en 5e ,laced 5is 5and on t5e le*t 5i, o* t5e (icti& and gently &assaging it# /5e act does not clearly s5o! an e clusi(ely se ual &oti(ation# /5e cri&e 5e co&&itted is only un9ust (e ation *or causing annoyance6 irritation or disturbance to t5e (icti& $Art# 2A76 .e(ised "enal )ode+6 not acts o* lasci(iousness $Art# 33;6 .e(ised "enal )ode+# AL/E.BA/IVE AB%4E.: /5e cri&e s5ould be 2t5er Acts o* )5ild Abuse under %ection 10 o* .A# 7;106 ,ar# b o* %ection 3 t5at re*ers to c5ild abuse co&&itted by any act6 deeds or !ords !5ic5 debases6 degrades or de&eans t5e intrinsic !ort5 and dignity o* a c5ild as a 5u&an being# In relation t5ereto6 %ection 10 ,ro(ides cri&inal liability *or ot5er acts o* c5ild abuse6 cruelty or e ,loitation6 or *or ot5er condiQ 7< o* A; tions ,re9udicial to t5e c5ildIs de(elo,&ent# /5e reaction o* t5e (icti&6 screa&ing *or 5el, u,on t5e occurrence o* t5e touc5ing indicates t5at s5e ,ercei(ed 5er dignity !as being debased or (iolated# )ri&es Against t5e )i(il %tatus o* "ersons 1iga&y $199@+ Issa and 1obby6 !5o !ere *irst cousins6 !ere &arried in 197<# In 19936 1obby !as told t5at 5is &arriage to Issa !as incestous under t5e la! t5en in *orce and t5ere*ore (oid ab initio# Ee &arried )aring# )5arged !it5 biga&y6 1obby raised t5e de*ense t5at 5is *irst &arriage is (oid ab initio and t5ere*ore6 t5ere is no ,re(ious &arriage to s,ea0 o*# 4ill you sustain 1obbyIs de*enseL %'77E%/E- AB%4E.: Bo# I !ill not sustain 1obbyIs de*ense6 1obby re&arried in 19936 or a*ter t5e 3a&ily )ode too0 e**ect on August 36 19AA6 and t5ere*ore 5is ca,acity to &arry in 1993 s5all be go(erned by said )ode# In Art# @0 o* t5e 3a&ily )ode6 it is &andated t5at t5e absolute nullity o* a ,re(ious &arriage &aybe in(o0ed *or ,ur,oses o* re&arriage on t5e basis solely o* a *inal 9udg&ent declaring suc5 ,re(ious &arriage (oid# In s5ort6 t5ere is a need o* a 9udicial declaration o* suc5 nullity be*ore 1obby &ay (alidly re&arry $-orot5y /erre (s# Jordan /erre6 211 %).A ;+# 1iga&y $199;+ Joselito &arried .a&ona in July6 199<6 only to learn later on t5at .a&ona !as ,re(iously &arried to -a(id6 *ro& !5o& .a&ona 5ad been se,arated *or &ore t5an ten years# 1elie(ing t5at 5is &arriage to .a&ona !as an absolute nullity6 Joselito contracted a subseGuent &arriage !it5 Anabelle# )an Joselito be ,rosecuted *or biga&yL E ,lain# %'77E%/E- AB%4E.: >es6 Joselito can be ,rosecuted *or biga&y *or 5is subseGuent &arriage !it5 Anabelle e(en t5oug5 5is &arriage !it5 .a&ona !as an absolute nullity# -es,ite t5e nullity o* t5e *irst &arriage6 Joselito s5ould 5a(e *iled a case o* dissolution o* suc5 &arriage under Art# @06 3a&ily )ode6 be*ore contracting a second &arriage !it5 Anabelle#

1iga&y $200@+ )1" is legally &arried to 2ED# 4it5out obtaining a &arriage license6 )1" contracted a second &arriage to .%/# Is )1" liable *or biga&yL .eason brie*ly# $<N+ %'77E%/E- AB%4E.: 45et5er )1" could be 5eld liable *or biga&y or not6 de,ends on !5et5er t5e second &arriage is in(alid or (alid e(en !it5out a &arriage license# Alt5oug5 as a general rule6 &arriages sole&niJed !it5out license are null and (oid ob initio6 t5ere are &arriages e e&,ted *ro& license reGuire&ent under )5a,ter 26 /itle 1 o* t5e )ri&inal La! 1ar E a&ination 8 ? A $199@-200;+ 3a&ily )ode6 suc5 as in Article 27 !5ic5 is a &arriage in articulo &ortis# I* t5e second &arriage !as (alid e(en !it5out a &arriage license6 t5en )1" !ould be liable *or biga&y# 2t5er!ise6 )1" is not liable *or biga&y but *or Illegal Darriage in Art# 3<0 *or t5e .e(ised "enal )ode6 s,eci*ically designated as MDarriage contracted against ,ro(isions o* la!s#M 1iga&y= "rescri,ti(e "eriod $199<+ Joe and Darcy !ere &arried in 1atanes in 19<<# A*ter t!o years6 Joe le*t Darcy and settled in Dindanao !5ere 5e later &et and &arried Linda on 12 June 19;0# /5e second &arriage !as registered in t5e ci(il registry o* -a(ao )ity t5ree days a*ter its celebration# 2n 10 2ctober 197< Darcy !5o re&ained in 1atanes disco(ered t5e &arriage o* Joe to Linda# 2n 1 Darc5 197; Darcy *iled a co&,laint *or biga&y against Joe# /5e cri&e o* biga&y ,rescribed in *i*teen years co&,uted *ro& t5e day t5e cri&e is disco(ered by t5e o**ended ,arty6 t5e aut5orities or t5eir agents# Joe raised t5e de*ense o* ,rescri,tion o* t5e cri&e6 &ore t5an *i*teen years 5a(ing ela,sed *ro& t5e celebration o* t5e biga&ous &arriage u, to t5e *iling o* DarcyIs co&,laint# Ee contended t5at t5e registration o* 5is second &arriage in t5e ci(il registry o* -a(ao )ity !as constructi(e notice to t5e !5ole !orld o* t5e celebration t5ereo* t5us binding u,on Darcy# Eas t5e cri&e o* biga&y c5arged against Joe already ,rescribedL -iscuss *ully6 %'77E%/E- AB%4E.: Bo# /5e ,rescri,ti(e ,eriod *or t5e cri&e o* biga&y is co&,uted *ro& t5e ti&e t5e cri&e !as disco(ered by t5e o**ended ,arty6 t5e aut5orities or t5eir agents# /5e ,rinci,le o* constructi(e notice !5ic5 ordinarily a,,lies to land or ,ro,erty dis,utes s5ould not be a,,lied to t5e cri&e o* biga&y6 as &arriage is not ,ro,erty# /5us !5en Darcy *iled a co&,laint *or biga&y on 7 Darc5 197;6 it !as !ell !it5in t5e regla&entary ,eriod as it !as barely a *e! &ont5s *ro& t5e ti&e o* disco(ery on 10 2ctober 197<# $%er&onia (s# )A6 233 %).A 1<<+ %i&ulation o* 1irt5 ? )5ild /ra**ic0ing $2002+ A c5ildless cou,le6 A and 16 !anted to 5a(e a c5ild t5ey could call t5eir o!n# )6 an un!ed &ot5er6 sold 5er ne!born baby to t5e&# /5erea*ter6 A and 1 caused t5eir na&es to be stated in t5e birt5 certi*icate o* t5e c5ild as 5is ,arents# /5is !as done in conni(ance !it5 t5e doctor !5o assisted in t5e deli(ery o* )# 45at are t5e cri&inal liabilities6 i* any6 o* t5e cou,le A and 16 ) and t5e doctorL %'77E%/E- AB%4E.: /5e cou,le A and 16 and t5e doctor s5all be liable *or t5e cri&e o* si&ulation o* birt56 ,enaliJed under Article 3@7 o* t5e .e(ised "enal )ode6 as a&ended# /5e act o* &a0ing it a,,ear in t5e birt5 certi*icate o* a c5ild t5at t5e ,ersons na&ed t5erein are t5e ,arents o* t5e c5ild !5en 7; o* A; t5ey are not really t5e biological ,arents o* said c5ild constitutes t5e cri&e o* si&ulation o* birt5# )6 t5e un!ed &ot5er is cri&inally liable *or Mc5ild tra**ic0ingM6 a (iolation o* Article IV6 %ec# 7 o* .e,# Act Bo# 7;10# /5e la! ,unis5es inter alia t5e act o* buying and selling o* a c5ild# AL/E.BA/IVE AB%4E.:

/5e cou,le A and 16 t5e un!ed &ot5er )6 and t5e doctor being all in(ol(ed in t5e si&ulation o* birt5 o* t5e ne!born c5ild6 (iolate .e,# Act Bo# 7;10# /5eir acts constitute c5ild tra**ic0ing !5ic5 are ,enaliJed under Article IV o* said la!# )ri&es Against Eonor Libel $2002+ A# A !as no&inated %ecretary o* a -e,art&ent in t5e E ecuti(e 1ranc5 o* t5e go(ern&ent# Eis no&ination !as t5erea*ter sub&itted to t5e )o&&ission on A,,oint&ents *or con*ir&ation# 45ile t5e )o&&ission !as considering t5e no&ination6 a grou, o* concerned citiJens caused to be ,ublis5ed in t5e ne!s,a,ers a *ull-,age state&ent ob9ecting to AIs a,,oint&ent /5ey alleged t5at A !as a drug de,endent6 t5at 5e 5ad se(eral &istresses6 and t5at 5e !as corru,t6 5a(ing acce,ted bribes or *a(ors *ro& ,arties transacting business in 5is ,re(ious o**ice6 and t5ere*ore 5e !as un*it *or t5e ,osition to !5ic5 5e 5ad been no&inated# As a result o* t5e ,ublication6 t5e no&ination !as not con*ir&ed by t5e )o&&ission on A,,oint&ents# /5e o**icial sued t5e concerned citiJens and t5e ne!s,a,ers *or libel and da&ages on account o* 5is non-con*ir&ation# Eo! !ill you decide t5e caseL $3N+ %'77E%/E- AB%4E.: I !ill acGuit t5e concerned citiJens and t5e ne!s,a,ers in(ol(ed6 *ro& t5e cri&e o* libel6 because ob(iously t5ey &ade t5e denunciation out o* a &oral or social duty and t5us t5ere is absence o* &alice# %ince A !as a candidate *or a (ery i&,ortant ,ublic ,osition o* a -e,art&ent %ecretary6 5is &oral6 &ental and ,5ysical *itness *or t5e ,ublic trust in suc5 ,osition beco&es a ,ublic concern as t5e interest o* t5e ,ublic is at sta0e# It is ,ursuant to suc5 concern t5at t5e denunciation !as &ade= 5ence6 bere*t o* &alice# 1# I* de*a&atory i&,utations are &ade not by ,ublication in t5e ne!s,a,ers but by broadcast o(er t5e radio6 do t5ey constitute libelL 45yL $2N+ %'77E%/E- AB%4E.: >es6 because libel &ay be co&&itted by radio broadcast Article 3<< o* t5e .e(ised "enal )ode ,unis5es libel co&&itted by &eans6 a&ong ot5ers6 o* radio broadcast6 inas&uc5 as t5e broadcast &ade by radio is ,ublic and &ay be de*a&atory# Libel $2003+ -uring a se&inar !or0s5o, attended by go(ern&ent e&,loyees *ro& t5e 1ureau o* )usto&s and t5e 1ureau )ri&inal La! 1ar E a&ination 8 ? A $199@-200;+ o* Internal .e(enue6 A6 t5e s,ea0er6 in t5e course o* 5is lecture6 la&ented t5e *act t5at a great &a9ority o* t5ose ser(ing in said agencies !ere utterly dis5onest and corru,t# /5e *ollo!ing &orning6 t5e !5ole grou, o* e&,loyees in t5e t!o bureaus !5o attended t5e se&inar6 as co&,lainants6 *iled a cri&inal co&,laint against A *or uttering !5at t5e grou, clai&ed to be de*a&atory state&ents o* t5e lecturer# In court6 A *iled a &otion to Guas5 t5e in*or&ation6 reciting *ully t5e abo(e *acts6 on t5e ground t5at no cri&e !ere co&&itted# I* you !ere t5e 9udge6 5o! !ould you resol(e t5e &otionL AN %'77E%/E- AB%4E.: I !ould grant t5e &otion to Guas5 on t5e ground t5at t5e *acts c5arged do not constitute an o**ense6 since t5ere is no de*inite ,erson or ,ersons dis5onored# /5e cri&e o* libel or slander6 is a cri&e against 5onor suc5 t5at t5e ,erson or ,ersons dis5onored &ust be identi*iable e(en by innuendoes: ot5er!ise t5e cri&e against 5onor is not co&&itted# Doreo(er6 A !as not &a0ing a &alicious i&,utation6 but &erely stating an o,inion= 5e !as deli(ering a lecture !it5 no &alice at all during a se&inar !or0s5o,# Dalice being in5erently absent in t5e utterance6 t5e state&ent is not actionable as de*a&atory# Libel $200<+ In an inter(ie! aired on tele(ision6 )indee uttered de*a&atory state&ents against Eri0a6 a success*ul and re,utable business!o&an# 45at cri&e or cri&es did )indee co&&itL E ,lain# $3N+ %'77E%/E- AB%4E.: )indee co&&itted libel *or uttering de*a&atory re&ar0s tending to cause dis5onor

or discredit to Eri0a# Libel can be co&&itted in tele(ision ,rogra&s or broadcasts6 t5oug5 it !as not s,eci*ically &entioned in t5e article since it !as not yet in e istence t5en6 but is included as Many si&ilar &eans#M -e*a&atory state&ents aired on tele(ision is si&ilar to radio6 t5eatrical e 5ibition or cine&atogra,5ic e 5ibition6 !5ic5 are a&ong t5e &odes *or t5e co&&ission o* libel# $Arts# 3<3 and 3<<6 .")+ %lander $19AA+ 3or so&e ti&e6 bad blood 5ad e isted bet!een t5e t!o *a&ilies o* Daria .aJon and Judge 7adio&a !5o !ere neig5bors# 3irst6 t5ere !as a boundary dis,ute bet!een t5e& !5ic5 !as still ,ending in court# DariaIs &ot5er also *iled an ad&inistrati(e co&,laint against t5e 9udge !5ic5 !as 5o!e(er dis&issed# /5e .aJons also *elt inti&idated by t5e ,osition and alleged in*luence o* t5eir neig5bor# 3anning *ire to t5e situation !as t5e ,ractice o* t5e 7adio&as o* t5ro!ing garbage and ani&al e cre&ent into t5e .aJonIs ,re&ises# In an e ,losion o* anger6 Daria called Judge 7adio&a Mland grabberM6 Ms5a&elessM6 and M5y,ocrite#M 45at cri&e !as co&&itted by Daria6 i* anyL E ,lain brie*ly# %'77E%/E- AB%4E.: Daria co&&itted t5e cri&e o* slander or slig5t de*a&ation only because s5e !as under t5e in*luence o* anger# 45en Daria called Judge 7adio&a a 5y,ocrite and 77 o* A; land grabber s5e i&,uted to 5i& t5e co&&ission o* cri&es# %lander $199;+ "ia6 a bold actress li(ing on to, *loor o* a ,lus5 condo&iniu& in Da0ati )ity sunbat5ed na0ed at its ,ent5ouse e(ery %unday &orning# %5e !as una!are t5at t5e business e ecuti(es 5olding o**ice at t5e ad9oining tall buildings re,orted to o**ice e(ery %unday &orning and6 !it5 t5e use o* ,o!er*ul binoculars6 0e,t on gaJing at 5er !5ile s5e sunbat5ed# E(entually6 5er sunbat5ing beca&e t5e tal0 o* t5e to!n# 1+ 45at cri&e6 i* any6 did "ia co&&itL E ,lain6 2+ 45at cri&e6 i* any6 did t5e business e ecuti(es co&&itL E ,lain# %'77E%/E- AB%4E.: 1+ "ia did not co&&it a cri&e6 /5e *elony closest to &a0ing "ia cri&inally liable is 7ra(e %candal6 but t5en suc5 act is not to be considered as 5ig5ly scandalous and o**ensi(e against decency and good custo&s# In t5e *irst ,lace6 it !as not done in a ,ublic ,lace and !it5in ,ublic 0no!ledge or (ie!# As a &atter o* *act it !as disco(ered by t5e e ecuti(es accidentally and t5ey 5a(e to use binoculars to 5a(e ,ublic and *ull (ie! o* "ia sunbat5ing in t5e nude# 2+ /5e business e ecuti(es did not co&&it any cri&e# /5eir acts could not be acts o* lasci(iousness Oas t5ere !as no o(ert lust*ul act+6 or slander6 as t5e e(entual tal0 o* t5e to!n6 resulting *ro& 5er sunbat5ing6 is not directly i&,uted to t5e business e ecuti(es6 and besides suc5 to,ic is not intended to de*a&e or ,ut "ia to ridicule# %lander by -eed (s# Daltreat&ent $199@ + -istinguis5 slander by deed *ro& &altreat&ent# %'77E%/E- AB%4E.: %LAB-E. 1> -EE- is a cri&e co&&itted !5en a ,erson ,ublicly sub9ects anot5er to an act intended or calculated to cast dis5onor6 discredit or conte&,t u,on t5e latter# Absent t5e intent to cast dis5onor6 discredit6 conte&,t6 or insult to t5e o**ended ,arty6 t5e cri&e is only DAL/.EA/DEB/ under Art6 2;;# ,ar# 36 !5ere6 by deed6 an o**ender ill-treats anot5er !it5out causing in9ury# %lander (s# )ri&inal )on(ersation $200@+ -istinguis5 clearly but brie*ly bet!een oral de*a&ation and cri&inal con(ersation# %'77E%/E- AB%4E.: 2ral de*a&ation6 0no!n as %LAB-E.6 is a &alicious i&,utation o* any act6 o&ission6 condition or circu&stance against a ,erson6 done orally in ,ublic6 tending to cause dis5onor6 discredit6 conte&,t6 e&barass&ent or ridicule to t5e latter# /5is is a cri&e against 5onor ,enaliJed in Art# 3<A o* t5e .e(ised "enal )ode# ).IDIBAL )2BVE.%A/I2B# /5e ter& is used in &a0ing a ,olite re*erence to se ual

intercourse as in )ri&inal La! 1ar E a&ination 8 ? A $199@-200;+ certain cri&es6 li0e ra,e6 seduction and adultery# It 5as no de*inite conce,t as a cri&e# Discellaneous )or,us -elicti $2001+ At a birt5day ,arty in 1ogo6 )ebu6 A got into icated and started Guarrelling !it5 1 and )# At t5e 5eig5t o* t5eir argu&ents6 A le*t and too0 a bolo *ro& 5is 5ouse6 a*ter !5ic5 5e returned to t5e ,arty and t5reatened to stab e(erybody# 1 got scared and ran to!ards t5e seas5ore6 !it5 A c5asing 5i&6 1 ran u, a stee, incline along t5e s5ore and !as cornered on to, o* a cli**# 2ut o* *ear6 1 9u&,ed *ro& t5e cli** into t5e sea6 A returned to t5e scene o* t5eir con*rontation and seeing t5at nobody !as t5ere6 !ent 5o&e to slee,# /5e ne t day6 1Is !i*e re,orted to t5e ,olice station t5at 5er 5usband 5ad not yet co&e 5o&e# A searc5 !as conducted by t5e residents o* t5e barangay but a*ter al&ost t!o days6 1 or 5is body could not be located and 5is disa,,earance continued *or t5e ne t *e! days# 1ased on t5e testi&ony o* ) and ot5er guests6 !5o 5ad seen A and 1 on to, o* t5e cli**6 A !as arrested and c5arged !it5 Durder# In 5is de*ense6 5e clai&ed t5at since 1Is body 5as not been *ound6 t5ere !as no e(idence o* Mcor,us delictiI and t5ere*ore6 5e s5ould be acGuitted# Is t5e de*ense o* A tenable or notL %tate t5e reason$s+ *or your ans!er# $<N+ %'77E%/E- AB%4E.: /5e de*ense o* A is not tenable# M)or,us delictiM does not re*er to t5e body o* t5e ,ur,orted (icti& !5ic5 5ad not been *ound# E(en !it5out t5e body o* t5e ,ur,orted (icti& being *ound6 t5e o**ender can be con(icted !5en t5e *acts and circu&stances o* a cri&e6 t5e body o* t5e cri&e or Mcor,us delictiM is establis5ed# In ot5er !ords6 t5e non-reco(ery o* t5e body o* t5e (icti& is not a bar to t5e ,rosecution o* A *or Durder6 but t5e *act o* deat5 and identity o* t5e (icti& &ust be establis5ed beyond reasonable doubt# )or,us -elicti= -e*inition ? Ele&ents $2000+ a+ -e*ine Mcor,us delictiM# $2N+ b+ 45at are t5e ele&ents o* Mcor,us delictiML $3N+ %'77E%/E- AB%4E.: )or,us -elicti literally &eans Mt5e body or substance o* t5e cri&eM or t5e *act t5at a cri&e 5as been co&&itted6 but does not include t5e identity o* t5e ,erson !5o co&&itted it# $"eo,le (s# "ascual @@ 27 27A9+# Ele&ents o* cor,us delicti: /5e actual co&&ission by so&eone o* t5e ,articular cri&e c5arged# It is a co&,ound *act &ade u, o* t!o t5ings: 1 /5e e istence o* a certain act or result *or&ing t5e basis o* t5e cri&inal c5arge= and 2 /5e e istence o* a cri&inal agency as t5e cause o* t5e act or result 3 /5e identity o* t5e o**ender is not a necessary ele&ent o* cor,us delicti 7A o* A; Entra,&ent (s# Instigation $199<+ -istinguis5ed entra,&ent *ro& Instigation# %'77E%/E- AB%4E.: In IB%/I7A/I2B6 t5e instigator ,ractically induces t5e ,ros,ecti(e accused into co&&ission o* t5e o**ense and 5i&sel* beco&es co-,rinci,al# In EB/.A"DEB/6 !ays and &eans are resorted to *or t5e ,ur,ose o* tra,,ing and ca,turing t5e la!brea0er !5ile e ecuting 5is cri&inal ,lan# Instigation $199<+ %us,ecting t5at Juan !as a drug ,us5er6 %"22 Dercado6 leader o* t5e Barco& tea&6 ga(e Juan a "l00-bill and as0ed 5i& to buy so&e &ari9uana cigarettes# -esirous o* ,leasing %"22 Dercado6 Juan !ent inside t5e s5o,,ing &all !5ile t5e o**icer !aited at t5e corner o* t5e &all# A*ter *i*teen &inutes6 Juan returned !it5 ten stic0s o* &ari9uana cigarettes !5ic5 5e ga(e to %"22 Dercado !5o

t5ereu,on ,laced Juan under arrest and c5arged 5i& !it5 (iolation o* /5e -angerous -rugs La! by selling &ari9uana cigarettes# Is Juan guilty o* any o**ense ,unis5able under /5e -angerous -rugs ActL -iscuss *ully# %'77E%/E- AB%4E.: Juan cannot be c5arged o* any o**ense ,unis5able under /5e -angerous -rugs Act# Alt5oug5 Juan is a sus,ected drug ,us5er6 5e cannot be c5arged on t5e basis o* a &ere sus,icion# 1y ,ro(iding t5e &oney !it5 !5ic5 to buy &ari9uana cigarettes6 %"22 Dercado ,ractically induced and ,rodded Juan to co&&it t5e o**ense o* illegal ,ossession o* &ari9uana# %et against t5e *acts instigation is a (alid de*ense a(ailable to Juan# Entra,&ent (s# Instigation $2003+ -istinguis5 *ully bet!een entra,&ent and instigation in )ri&inal La!6 E e&,li*y eac5# @N %'77E%/E- AB%4E.: In EB/.A"DEB/ 1 t5e cri&inal design originates *ro& and is already in t5e &ind o* t5e la!brea0er e(en be*ore entra,&ent= 2 t5e la! en*orcers resort to !ays and &eans *or t5e ,ur,ose o* ca,turing t5e la!brea0er in *lagrante delicto- and 3 t5is circu&stance is no bar to ,rosecution and con(iction o* t5e la!brea0er# In IB%/I7A/I2B1 t5e idea and design to bring about t5e co&&ission o* t5e cri&e originated and de(elo,ed in t5e &ind o* t5e la! en*orcers= 2 t5e la! en*orcers induce6 lure6 or incite a ,erson !5o is not &inded to co&&it a cri&e and !ould not ot5er!ise co&&it it6 into co&&itting t5e cri&e= and 3 t5is circu&stance absol(es t5e accused *ro& cri&inal liability $"eo,le (# -ante Darcos6 1A< %).A 1<@# O1990P+# )ri&inal La! 1ar E a&ination 8 ? A $199@-200;+ E a&,le o* Entra,&ent: A6 an anti-narcotic agent o* t5e 7o(ern&ent acted as a ,oseur buyer o* s5abu and negotiated !it5 16 a sus,ected drug ,us5er !5o is una!are t5at A is a ,olice o**icer# A t5en issued &ar0ed &oney to 1 !5o 5anded a sac5et o* s5abu to 1# /5ereu,on6 A signaled 5is anti-narcotic tea& to close-in and arrest 1# /5is is a case o* entra,&ent because t5e cri&inal &ind is in 1 already !5en A transacted !it5 5i&# E a&,le o* Instigation: 1ecause t5e &e&bers o* an anti-narcotic tea& are already 0no!n to drug ,us5ers# A6 t5e tea& leader6 a,,roac5ed and ,ersuaded 1 to act as a buyer o* s5abu and transact !it5 )6 t5e sus,ected drug ,us5er# 3or t5e ,ur,ose6 A ga(e 1 &ar0ed &oney to be used in buying s5abu *ro& )# A*ter ) 5anded t5e sac5et o* s5abu to 1 and t5e latter 5anded t5e &ar0ed &oney to )6 t5e tea& closed-in and ,laced 1 and ) under arrest# 'nder t5e *acts6 1 is not cri&inally liable *or 5is ,artici,ation in t5e transaction because 5e !as acting only under instigation by t5e la! en*orcers# %,ecial "enal La!s Anti-)arna,,ing Act= )arna,,ing !H Eo&icide $199A+ %a&uel6 a tricycle dri(er6 ,lied 5is usual route using a Eonda &otorcycle !it5 a sidecar# 2ne e(ening6 .aul rode on t5e sidecar6 ,o0ed a 0ni*e at %a&uel and instructed 5i& to go near t5e bridge# ',on reac5ing t5e bridge6 .aul alig5ted *ro& t5e &otorcycle and suddenly stabbed %a&uel se(eral ti&es until 5e !as dead# .aul *led *ro& t5e scene ta0ing t5e &otorcycle !it5 5i&# 45at cri&e or cri&es did .aul co&&itL Y<NP %'77E%/E- AB%4E.: .aul co&&itted t5e co&,osite cri&e o* )arna,,ing !it5 5o&icide under %ec# 1@ o*

.e,# Act Bo# ;<396 as a&ended6 considering t5at t5e 0illing Min t5e course or Mon t5e occasion o* a carna,,ing $"eo,le (s# -e la )ruJ6 et al# 1A3 %).A 7;3+# A &otorcycle is included in t5e de*inition o* a M&otor (e5icleM in said .e,# Act6 also 0no!n as t5e IAnti-)arna,,ing Act o* 1972I# /5ere is no a,,arent &oti(e *or t5e 0illing o* t5e tricycle dri(er but *or .aul to be able to ta0e t5e &otorcycle# /5e *act t5at t5e tricycle dri(er !as 0illed brings about t5e ,enalty o* reclusion ,er,etua to deat5# AL/E.BA/IVE AB%4E.: /5e cri&e co&&itted by .aul is carna,,ing6 ,unis5ed by %ection 1@ o* .e,# Act Bo# ;<39# /5e 0illing o* %a&uel is not a se,arate cri&e but only an aggra(ating circu&stance# Anti-7ra*t ? )orru,t "ractices - .A 3019 $1997+ A is c5arged !it5 t5e cri&e de*ined in %ection 3$e+ o* t5e Anti-7ra*t and )orru,t "ractices Act in an In*or&ation t5at reads: /5at *ro& 01 to 30 January 199<6 in t5e )ity o* "asig and !it5in t5e 9urisdiction o* t5is Eonorable )ourt6 t5e accused6 being t5en e&,loyed in t5e 2**ice o* t5e -istrict Engineer6 -e,art&ent o* "ublic 4or0s and 79 o* A; Eig5!ays and in t5e disc5arge o* 5is o**icial ad&inistrati(e *unctions6 did t5en and t5ere !ill*ully and unla!*ully !or0 *or and *acilitate t5e a,,ro(al o* 1Is clai& *or t5e ,ay&ent o* t5e ,rice o* 5is land !5ic5 t5e go(ern&ent 5ad e ,ro,riated6 and a*ter t5e clai& !as a,,ro(ed6 t5e accused ga(e 1 only "16000#00 o* t5e a,,ro(ed clai& o* "<6000 and !ill*ully and unla!*ully a,,ro,riated *or 5i&sel* t5e balance o* "@60006 t5us causing undue in9ury to 1 and t5e 7o(ern&ent#M A 5as *iled a &otion to Guas5 t5e in*or&ation6 contending t5at it does not c5arge an o**ense# Is 5e correctL %'77E%/E- AB%4E.: >es6 t5e contention o* A is correct# /5e in*or&ation *ailed to allege t5at t5e undue in9ury to 1 and t5e go(ern&ent !as caused by t5e accusedIs &ani*est ,artiality6 e(ident bad *ait56 or gross Ine cusable negligence6 !5ic5 are necessary ele&ents o* t5e o**ense c5arged6 ie#6 (iolation o* %ection 3$e+ o* t5e Anti-7ra*t and )orru,t "ractices Act# /5e accused is e&,loyed in t5e 2**ice o* t5e -istrict Engineer o* t5e -"4E !5ic5 5as not5ing to do !it5 t5e deter&ination and *i ing o* t5e ,rice o* t5e land e ,ro,riated6 and *or !5ic5 e ,ro,riated land t5e 7o(ern&ent is legally obligated to ,ay# /5ere is no allegation in t5e in*or&ation t5at t5e land !as o(er,riced or t5at t5e ,ay&ent o* t5e a&ount !as disad(antageous to t5e 7o(ern&ent# It a,,ears t5at t5e c5arge !as solely based on t5e accused 5a(ing *ollo!ed u, t5e ,ay&ent *or 1Is land !5ic5 t5e 7o(ern&ent 5as already a,,ro,riated6 and t5at t5e accused e(entually !it55eld *or 5i&sel* *ro& t5e ,rice o* t5e said land6 t5e a&ount o* "@6000 *or 5is ser(ices# Bo (iolation o* %ection 3$e+ o* t5e Anti-7ra*t and )orru,t Act a,,ears# At &ost6 t5e accused s5ould be &erely c5arged ad&inistrati(ely AL/E.BA/IVE AB%4E.%: 1# >es6 A is correct in *iling a &otion to Guas5 t5e in*or&ation because %ection 3$e+ o* .e,ublic Act 3019 a,,lies only to o**icers and e&,loyees o* go(ern&ent cor,orations c5arged !it5 t5e grant o* licenses or ,er&its or ot5er concessions6 and not to -"4E6 !5ic5 is not a go(ern&ent cor,oration# 2# A is not correct# In t5e case o* De*orda (s# %andiganbayan# 1<1 %).A 3996 !5ic5 in(ol(es a substantially identical in*or&ation as t5e In*or&ation Guoted in t5e Guestion6 t5e %u,re&e )ourt 5eld t5at t5e In*or&ation !as (alid# 45ile it is true t5at t5e in*or&ation Guoted In t5e Guestion6 *ailed to allege e(ident bad *ait56 gross ine cusable negligence or &ani*est ,artiality6 said In*or&ation Is ne(ert5eless adeGuate because it a(erred t5e t5ree $3+ ele&ents *or t5e (iolation o* %ection 3$c+ o* .A# 3012 !5en it stated $1+ t5at t5e accused is a ,ublic

o**icer at t5e ti&e o* t5e co&&ission o* t5e cri&e6 being e&,loyed in t5e 2**ice o* t5e -istrict Engineer6 -"4E= $2+ t5at t5e accused caused undue In9ury to 1 and t5e 7o(ern&ent6 !it5 t5e state&ent t5at 1/ t5e o!ner o* t5e land6 recei(ed only "16000#00 instead o* t5e *ull (alue o* "<6000#00= and $3+ )ri&inal La! 1ar E a&ination 8 ? A $199@-200;+ t5at in t5e disc5arge o* AIs o**icial ad&inistrati(e *unctions6 5e Mdid t5en and t5ere !ill*ully and unla!*ully !or0 *or and *acilitate t5e a,,ro(al o* 5is clai& and M!ill*ully and unla!*ully a,,ro,riate *or 5i&sel* t5e balance o* "@6000#00 M# An in*or&ation need not e&,loy or use t5e (ery !ords or language o* t5e statute# It &ay also use !ords or language o* si&ilar i&,ort# Anti-EaJing la! – .A A0@9 $2002+ 45at is 5aJing as de*ined by la!L $2N+ %'77E%/E- AB%4E.: EaJing6 as de*ined by la!6 is an initiation rite or ,ractice as a ,rereGuisite *or ad&ission into &e&bers5i, in a *raternity6 sorority or organiJation by ,lacing t5e recruit6 neo,5yte or a,,licant in so&e e&barrassing or 5u&iliating situations suc5 as *orcing 5i& to do &enial6 silly6 *oolis5 and si&ilar tas0s or acti(ities or ot5er!ise sub9ecting 5i& to ,5ysical or ,syc5ological su**ering or in9ury# 45at does t5e la! reGuire be*ore initiation rites &ay be ,er*or&edL $3N+ %'77E%/E- AB%4E.: %ection 2 o* .e,# Act Bo# A0@9 $Anti-EaJing La!+ reGuires t5at be*ore 5aJing or initiation rites &ay be ,er*or&ed6 notice to t5e sc5ool aut5orities or 5ead o* organiJations s5all be gi(en se(en $7+ days be*ore t5e conduct o* suc5 rites# /5e !ritten notice s5all indicate $a+ t5e ,eriod o* t5e initiation acti(ities6 not e ceeding t5ree $3+ days= $b+ t5e na&es o* t5ose to be sub9ected to suc5 acti(ities6 and $c+ an underta0ing t5at no ,5ysical (iolence s5all be e&,loyed by anybody during suc5 initiation rites# )EIL- A1'%E= .A 7;10 $200@+ Drs# DBA !as c5arged o* c5ild abuse# It a,,ears *ro& t5e e(idence t5at s5e *ailed to gi(e i&&ediately t5e reGuired &edical attention to 5er ado,ted c5ild6 1"26 !5en 5e !as accidentally bu&,ed by 5er car6 resulting in 5is 5ead in9uries and i&,aired (ision t5at could lead to nig5t blindness# /5e accused6 according to t5e social !or0er on t5e case6 used to !5i, 5i& !5en 5e *ailed to co&e 5o&e on ti&e *ro& sc5ool# Also6 to ,unis5 5i& *or carelessness in !as5ing dis5es6 s5e so&eti&es sent 5i& to bed !it5out su,,er# %5e &o(ed to Guas5 t5e c5arge on t5e ground t5at t5ere is no e(idence s5e &altreated 5er ado,ted c5ild 5abitually# %5e added t5at t5e accident !as caused by 5er dri(erIs negligence# %5e did ,unis5 5er !ard *or naug5tiness or carelessness6 but only &ildly# Is 5er &otion &eritoriousL .eason brie*ly# $<N+ %'77E%/E- AB%4E.: Bo6 t5e &otion to Guas5 is not &eritorious# It is not necessary t5at &o(antIs &altreat&ent o* a c5ild be M5abitualM to constitute c5ild abuse# /5e !rong*ul acts ,enaliJed as M)5ild AbuseM under .e,# Act Bo# 7;10 re*ers to t5e &altreat&ent o* t5e c5ild6 M!5et5er 5abitual or notM: t5is is e ,ressly stated in %ec# 2$b+ o* t5e said La!# Drs# DBA s5ould be liable *or c5ild abuse# A0 o* A; )5ild Abuse= .A 7;10 $200;+ Eduardo 8uintos6 a !ido!er *or t5e ,ast 10 years6 *elt t5at 5is retire&ent at t5e age o* 70 ga(e 5i& t5e o,,ortunity to engage in 5is *a(orite ,asti&e X (oyeuris&# I* not using 5is 5ig5-,o!ered binoculars to ,ee, at 5is neig5borIs 5o&es and do&estic acti(ities6 5is second c5oice !as to *ollo! s!eet young girls# 2ne day6 5e trailed a teenage girl u, to t5e L./ station at E-%A-1uendia# 45ile ascending t5e stairs6 5e stayed one ste, be5ind 5er and in a &o&ent o* bra(ado6 ,laced 5is 5and on 5er le*t 5i, and gently &assaged it# %5e screa&ed and s5outed *or 5el,# Eduardo !as arrested and c5arged !it5 acts o* lasci(iousness# Is t5e designation o* t5e cri&e correctL $<N+

AL/E.BA/IVE AB%4E.: /5e cri&e s5ould be 2t5er Acts o* )5ild Abuse under %ection 10 o* .A# 7;106 ,ar# b o* %ection 3 t5at re*ers to c5ild abuse co&&itted by any act6 deeds or !ords !5ic5 debases6 degrades or de&eans t5e intrinsic !ort5 and dignity o* a c5ild as a 5u&an being# In relation t5ereto6 %ection 10 ,ro(ides cri&inal liability *or ot5er acts o* c5ild abuse6 cruelty or e ,loitation6 or *or ot5er condiQtions ,re9udicial to t5e c5ildIs de(elo,&ent# /5e reaction o* t5e (icti&6 screa&ing *or 5el, u,on t5e occurrence o* t5e touc5ing indicates t5at s5e ,ercei(ed 5er dignity !as being debased or (iolated# -angerous -rug Act: "lea-1argaining $200<+ 2bie Juan is sus,ected to 5a(e in 5is ,ossession an uns,eci*ied a&ount o* &et5a&,5eta&ine 5ydroc5loride or Us5abuV# An entra,&ent o,eration !as conducted by ,olice o**icers6 resulting in 5is arrest *ollo!ing t5e disco(ery o* 100 gra&s o* t5e said dangerous drug in 5is ,ossession# Ee !as sub9ected to a drug test and !as *ound ,ositi(e *or t5e use o* &ari9uana6 anot5er dangerous drug# Ee !as subseGuently c5arged !it5 t!o cri&es: Violation o* %ection 116 Article II o* .A 91;< *or t5e ,ossession o* Us5abuV and (iolation o* %ection 1<6 Article II o* .A 91;< *or t5e use o* &ari9uana# $<N+ a+ Are t5e c5arges ,ro,erL E ,lain# %'77E%/E- AB%4E.: Bo# /5e use o* dangerous drugs is not co&&itted !5en 2bie Juan !as also *ound to 5a(e in 5is ,ossession suc5 Guantity o* any dangerous drug# $%ee s# 11 and 1;6 .A# Bo# 91;<+ b+ %o as not to be sentenced to deat56 2bie Juan o**ers to ,lead guilty to a lesser o**ense# )an 5e do soL 45yL %'77E%/E- AB%4E.: Bo# 2bie Juan cannot ,lead guilty to a lo!er o**ense as it is ,ro5ibited under t5e la!# $%ection 236 .A# Bo# 91;<+ Any ,erson c5arged under any ,ro(ision o* t5is Act regardless o* t5e i&,osable ,enalty s5all not be allo!ed to a(ail o* t5e ,ro(ision on ,lea-bargaining# -angerous -rugs Act $199A+ %u,erintendent Al %antiago6 )5ie* o* t5e Barcotics -i(ision6 4estern "olice -istrict6 recei(ed in*or&ation t5at a certain Lee Lay o*-Bo# A /indalo %treet6 /ondo6 )ri&inal La! 1ar E a&ination 8 ? A $199@-200;+ Danila is a &e&ber o* t5e 1@F 7ang selling s5abu and &ari9uana# %"2l LorenJo and %"23 "eralta !ere instructed to conduct sur(eillance and buy-bust o,erations against Lay# /5eir in*or&ant contacted Lay and a &eeting !as arranged at /# "in,in .estaurant at 2:00 in t5e a*ternoon on 3ebruary 1@6 1993# %"21 LorenJo and %"23 "eralta6 acting as ,oseur-buyers6 ,urc5ased *ro& Lay 10 stic0s o* &ari9uana and ,aid "<00# Later6 Lay agreed to sell to t5e& one 0ilo o* dried &ari9uana *ruiting to,s !5ic5 5e ga(e t5e& at 5is residence# /5e ,olice&en arrested Lay and a searc5 !as conducted# 3ound !ere 3<; gra&s o* &ari9uana seeds6 932 gra&s o* &ari9uana *ruiting to,s and <0 stic0s o* &ari9uana cigarettes# 45at o**ense or o**enses did Lay co&&itL O<NP %'77E%/E- AB%4E.: Lay co&&itted t5e o**enses o* illegal selling o* dangerous drugs and illegal ,ossession o* dangerous drugs !5ic5 s5ould be &ade sub9ect o* se,arate in*or&ations# /5e cri&e o* illegal selling o* dangerous drugs is co&&itted as regards t5e 10 stic0s o* &ari9uana and as regards t5e one $1+ 0ilo o* dried &ari9uana *ruiting to,s6 !5ic5 s5ould be sub9ect o* t!o $2+ se,arate in*or&ations because t5e acts !ere co&&itted at di**erent ti&es and in di**erent ,laces# /5e cri&e o* Illegal ,ossession o* dangerous drugs is co&&itted as regards t5e &ari9uana seeds6 &ari9uana *ruiting to,s and &ari9uana cigarettes !5ic5 are not t5e sub9ect o* t5e sale# Anot5er in*or&ation s5all be *iled *or t5is# -angerous -rugs Act $200;+

A*ter recei(ing reliable in*or&ation t5at -ante 2ng6 a notorious drug s&uggler6 !as arri(ing on "AL 3lig5t B2# ". 1A16 "B" )5ie* Ins,ector %a&uel 7a&boa *or&ed a grou, o* anti-drug agents# 45en 2ng arri(ed at t5e air,ort6 t5e grou, arrested 5i& and seiJed 5is attac5e case# ',on ins,ection inside t5e I&&igration 5olding area6 t5e attac5e case yielded < ,lastic bags o* 5eroin !eig5ing <00 gra&s# )5ie* Ins,ector 7a&boa too0 t5e attac5e case and boarded 5i& in an un&ar0ed car dri(en by "23 "e,ito Lorbes# 2n t5e !ay to )a&, )ra&e and u,on nearing 45ite "lains corner E-%A6 )5ie* Ins,ector 7a&boa ordered "23 Lorbes to sto, t5e car# /5ey broug5t out t5e drugs *ro& t5e case in t5e trun0 and got 3 ,lastic sac0s o* 5eroin# /5ey t5en told 2ng to alig5t *ro& t5e car# 2ng le*t !it5 t5e 2 re&aining ,lastic sac0s o* 5eroin# )5ie* Ins,ector 7a&boa ad(ised 5i& to 0ee, silent and go 5o&e !5ic5 t5e latter did# 'n0no!n to t5e&6 an B1I tea& o* agents 5ad been *ollo!ing t5e& and !itnessed t5e transaction# /5ey arrested )5ie* Ins,ector 7a&boa and "23 Lorbes# Dean!5ile6 anot5er B1I tea& *ollo!ed 2ng and li0e!ise arrested 5i&# All o* t5e& !ere later c5arged# 45at are t5eir res,ecti(e cri&inal liabilitiesL $<N+ %'77E%/E- AB%4E.: A1 o* A; )5ie* Ins,ector 7a&boa and "23 "e,ito Lorbes !5o cons,ired in ta0ing t5e attac5e case are liable *or t5e *ollo!ing cri&es de*ined under .A# 91;<: a+ %ec# 27 *or &isa,,ro,riation or *ailure to account *or t5e con*iscated or seiJed dangerous drugs# b+ %ec# @ in relation to %ec# 3$ee+ *or t5eir acts as ,rotectorHcoddler o* -ante 2ng !5o i&,orted drugs In addition6 by allo!ing 2ng to esca,e ,rosecution *or illegal i&,ortation or illegal trans,ortation o* dangerous drugs6 !5ere t5e ,enalty is li*e i&,rison&ent to deat56 t5ey are also liable *or Guali*ied bribery under Art# 211-A o* t5e .e(ised "enal )ode# 4it5 res,ect to -ante 2ng6 5e is guilty o* illegal i&,ortation o* dangerous drugs under %ec# @6 .#A# 91;<6 i* ". 1A1 is an international *lig5t# I* ". 1A1 is a do&estic *lig5t6 5e is liable *or (iolation o* %ec# <6 .A# 91;< *or illegal trans,ortation o* dangerous drugs# -angerous -rugs Act $;@2<+= Dar0ed Doney $2000+ At about 9 oIcloc0 in t5e &orning6 a Barco& 7rou, laid a ,lan to entra, and a,,re5end A6 a long sus,ected drug dealer6 t5roug5 a Mbuy-bustM o,eration# At t5e a,,ointed ti&e6 t5e ,oseur-buyer a,,roac5ed A !5o !as t5en !it5 1# A &ar0ed "100 bill !as 5anded o(er to A !5o in turn6 ga(e t5e ,oseur-buyer one $1+ tea bag o* &ari9uana lea(es# /5e &e&bers o* t5e tea&6 !5o !ere t5en ,ositioned be5ind t5ic0 lea(es6 closed in but e(idently !ere not s!i*t enoug5 since A and 1 !ere able to run a!ay# /!o days later6 A !as arrested in connection !it5 anot5er incident# It a,,ears t5at during t5e o,erations6 t5e ,olice o**icers !ere not able to seiJe t5e &ar0ed &oney but !ere able to get ,ossession o* t5e &ari9uana tea bag# A !as subseGuently ,rosecuted *or (iolation o* %ection @6 Article II o* .e,ublic Act Bo# ;@2<6 ot5er!ise 0no!n as t5e -angerous -rugs Act6 -uring t5e trial6 t5e &ar0ed &oney !as not ,resented# )an A be 5eld liableL E ,lain# $2N+ %'77E%/E- AB%4E.: >es# A can be 5eld liable# /5e absence o* t5e &ar0ed &oney !ill not create a 5iatus in t5e ,rosecutionIs e(idence as long as t5e sale o* t5e dangerous drugs is adeGuately ,ro(en and t5e drug sub9ect o* t5e transaction is ,resented be*ore t5e court# /5ere !as a ,er*ected contract o* sale o* t5e drug $"eo,le (s# 2ng )o6 2@< %).A 733= "eo,le (s# Rer(oula0os6 2@1 %).A ;2<+# -angerous -rugs Act $;@2<+= "lea 1argaining $199A+ Edgardo !as c5arged !it5 i&,ortation o* ,ro5ibited drugs in an in*or&ation *iled !it5 t5e .egional /rial )ourt o* Faloo0an )ity on June @6 199@# /5e o**ense is ,unis5able by reclusion ,er,etua to deat5# )an Edgardo a(ail o* ,lea-bargainingL O2NP %'77E%/E- AB%4E.: Bo6 Edgardo cannot a(ail o* ,lea-bargaining because t5e i&,osable ,enalty *or 5is (iolation o* t5e -angerous -rugs Act $.#A# Bo# ;@2<# as a&ended+ is reclusion

,er,etua to deat5# %ection 20-A e ,ressly ,ro(ides t5at ,lea-bargaining s5all not be allo!ed !5ere t5e i&,osable )ri&inal La! 1ar E a&ination 8 ? A $199@-200;+ ,enalty *or t5e (iolation o* said la! is reclusion ,er,etua to deat5# $%ec# 20-A6 .#A# Bo# ;@2<6 as a&ended+# -angerous -rugs Act= )onsu&&ation o* %ale $199;+ "at# 1uensuceso6 ,osing as a buyer6 a,,roac5ed .onnie6 a sus,ected drug ,us5er6 and o**ered to buy "300 !ort5 o* s5abu# .onnie t5en le*t6 ca&e bac0 *i(e &inutes later and 5anded "at6 1uensuceso an alu&inu& *oil containing t5e s5abu# Eo!e(er6 be*ore "at6 1uensuceso !as able to deli(er t5e &ar0ed &oney to .onnie6 t5e latter s,otted a ,olice&an at a distance6 !5o& .onnie 0ne! to be connected !it5 t5e Barcotics )o&&and o* t5e "olice# ',on seeing t5e latter6 .onnie ran a!ay but !as arrested t5irty &inutes later by ot5er ,olice&en !5o ,ursued 5i&# 'nder t5e circu&stances6 !ould you consider t5e cri&e o* sale o* a ,ro5ibited drug already consu&&atedL E ,lain# %'77E%/E- AB%4E.: >es6 t5e sale o* ,ro5ibited drug is already consu&&ated alt5oug5 t5e &ar0ed &oney !as not yet deli(ered# 45en .onnie 5anded t5e alu&inu& *oil containing t5e s5abu to "at# 1uensuceso ,ursuant to t5eir agreed sale6 t5e cri&e !as consu&&ated# "ay&ent o* t5e consideration is not an ele&ent o* reGuisite o* t5e cri&e# I* e(er6 t5e &ar0ed &oney is only e(identiary to strengt5en t5e case o* t5e ,rosecution# -angerous -rugs Act= )ri&inal Intent to "osses $2002+ A and 5is *iancee 1 !ere !al0ing in t5e ,laJa !5en t5ey &et a grou, o* ,olice&en !5o 5ad earlier been ti,,ed o** t5at A !as in ,ossession o* ,ro5ibited drugs# ',on seeing t5e ,olice&en and sensing t5at t5ey !ere a*ter 5i&6 A 5anded a sac5et containing s5abu to 5is *iancee 16 telling 5er to 5ide it in 5er 5andbag# /5e ,olice&en sa! 1 ,lacing t5e sac5et inside 5er 5andbag# I* 1 !as una!are t5at A !as a drug user or ,us5er or t5at !5at !as inside t5e sac5et gi(en to 5er !as s5abu6 is s5e nonet5eless liable under t5e -angerous -rugs ActL $<N+ %'77E%/E- AB%4E.: Bo6 1 !ill not be cri&inally liable because s5e is una!are t5at A !as a drug user or ,us5er or o* t5e content o* t5e sac5et 5anded to 5er by A6 and t5ere*ore t5e cri&inal intent to ,ossess t5e drug in (iolation o* t5e -angerous -rugs Act is absent# /5ere !ould be no basis to i&,ute cri&inal liability to 5er in t5e absence o* ani&us ,ossidendi# -angerous -rugs Act= "lea-1argaining $200@+ DB26 !5o is 30 years old6 !as c5arged as a drug ,us5er under t5e )o&,re5ensi(e -angerous -rugs Act o* 2002# -uring ,re-trial6 5e o**ered to ,lead guilty to t5e lesser o**ense concerning use o* dangerous drugs# %5ould t5e Judge allo! DB2Is ,lea to t5e lesser o**enseL E ,lain brie*ly# $<N+ %'77E%/E- AB%4E.: Bo6 t5e Judge s5ould not allo! DB2Is ,lea to a lesser o**ense6 because ,leabargaining in ,rosecutions o* drug-related cases is no longer allo!ed by .e,# Act Bo# 91;<6 A2 o* A; t5e )o&,re5ensi(e -angerous -rugs Act o* 20026 regardless o* t5e i&,osable ,enalty# Eig5!ay .obbery $2001+ "olice %gt# -iego )5an6 being a &e&ber o* t5e /5e*t and .obbery -i(ision o* t5e 4estern "olice -istrict and assigned to t5e %out5 Earbor6 Danila6 !as ,ri(y to and &ore or less *a&iliar !it5 t5e sc5edules6 routes and 5ours o* t5e &o(e&ents o* container (ans6 as !ell as t5e &obile ,olice ,atrols6 *ro& t5e ,ier area to t5e di**erent e ,ort ,rocessing Jones outside Detro Danila# 3ro& ti&e to ti&e6 5e ga(e (aluable and detailed in*or&ation on t5ese &atters to a grou, interested in t5ose s5i,&ents in said container (ans# 2n se(eral instances6 using t5e said in*or&ation as t5eir basis6 t5e gang 5i9ac0ed and ,il*ered t5e contents o* t5e (ans# "rior to t5eir sale to M*encesM in 1ana!e6 8ueJon )ity and 1ang0al6 Da0ati )ity6 t5e gang In*or&s %gt6 )5an !5o t5en ins,ects t5e ,il*ered goods6 &a0es 5is c5oice o* t5e

(aluable ite&s and dis,oses o* t5e& t5roug5 5is o!n sources or M*encesM# 45en t5e 5ig59ac0ers !ere traced on one occasion and arrested6 u,on custodial in(estigation6 t5ey i&,licated %gt# )5an and t5e *iscal c5arged t5e& all6 including %gt# )5an as co-,rinci,als# %gt# )5an6 in 5is de*ense6 clai&ed t5at 5e s5ould not be c5arged as a ,rinci,al but only as an accessory a*ter t5e *act under "#-# <326 ot5er!ise 0no!n as t5e Anti-"iracy and Anti-Eig5!ay .obbery Act o* 1972# Is t5e contention o* %gt# )5an (alid and tenableL E ,lain6 $<N+ %'77E%/E- AB%4E.: Bo6 t5e contention o* %gt# )5an is not (alid or tenable because by e ,ress ,ro(ision o* "#-# <326 %ection @6 a ,erson !5o 0no!ingly and in any &anner6 aids or ,rotects 5ig5!ay robbersHbrigands6 suc5 as gi(ing t5e& in*or&ation about t5e &o(e&ent o* ,olice o**icers or acGuires or recei(es ,ro,erty ta0en by brigands6 or !5o directly or indirectly abets t5e co&&ission o* 5ig5!ay robberyHbrigandage6 s5all be considered as acco&,lice o* t5e ,rinci,al o**enders and ,unis5ed in accordance !it5 t5e rules in t5e .e(ised "enal )ode# AL/E.BA/IVE AB%4E.: Bo6 t5e contention o* %gt# )5an t5at 5e s5ould be c5arged only as accessory a*ter t5e *act is not tenable because 5e !as a ,rinci,al ,artici,ant in t5e co&&ission o* t5e cri&e and in ,ursuing t5e cri&inal design# An accessory a*ter t5e *act in(ol(es 5i&sel* in t5e co&&ission o* a cri&e only a*ter t5e cri&e 5ad already been consu&&ated6 not be*ore6 3or 5is cri&inal ,artici,ation in t5e e ecution o* t5e 5ig59ac0ing o* t5e container (ans6 %gt# )5an is a co-,rinci,al by indis,ensable coo,eration# Illegal 3is5ing - "- 70@ $199;+ ',on a laboratory e a&ination o* t5e *is5 seiJed by t5e ,olice and agents o* t5e 3is5eries )o&&ission6 it !as indubitably deter&ined t5at t5e *is5 t5ey !ere selling !ere caug5t !it5 t5e use o* e ,losi(es# Accordingly6 t5e t5ree (endors !ere cri&inally c5arged !it5 t5e (iolation )ri&inal La! 1ar E a&ination 8 ? A $199@-200;+ o* %ection 33 o* "#-# 70@ !5ic5 &a0es it unla!*ul *or any ,erson to 0no!ingly ,ossess6 deal in6 or sell *or ,ro*it any *is5 !5ic5 5a(e been illegally caug5t# -uring t5e trial6 t5e t5ree (endors clai&ed t5at t5ey boug5t t5e *is5 *ro& a *is5ing boat !5ic5 t5ey duly identi*ied# /5e ,rosecution 5o!e(er clai&ed t5at t5e t5ree (endors s5ould ne(ert5eless be 5eld liable *or t5e o**ense as t5ey !ere t5e ones caug5t in ,ossession o* t5e *is5 illegally caug5t# 2n t5e basis o* t5e abo(e *acts6 i* you !ere t5e 9udge6 !ould you con(ict t5e t5ree *is5 (endorsL E ,lain# %'77E%/E- AB%4E.: Bo6 I !ould not con(ict t5e t5ree *is5 (endors i* I !ere t5e 9udge# Dere ,ossession o* suc5 *is5 !it5out 0no!ledge o* t5e *act t5at t5e sa&e !ere caug5t !it5 t5e use o* e ,losi(es does not by itsel* render t5e seller-,ossessor cri&inally liable under "#-# 70@# Alt5oug5 t5e act ,enaliJed in said -ecree &ay be a &alu& ,ro5ibitu&6 t5e la! ,unis5es t5e ,ossession6 dealing in or selling o* suc5 *is5 only !5en M0no!inglyM done t5at t5e *is5 !ere caug5t !it5 t5e use o* e ,losi(es= 5ence cri&inal intent is essential# /5e clai& by t5e *is5 (endors t5at t5ey only boug5t t5e *is5 *ro& *is5ing boats !5ic5 t5ey Mduly identi*iedM6 renders t5eir ,ossession o* suc5 *is5 innocent unless t5e ,rosecution could ,ro(e t5at t5ey 5a(e 0no!ledge t5at e ,losi(es !ere used in catc5ing suc5 *is56 and t5e accused 5ad 0no!ledge t5ereo*# Illegal "ossession o* 3irear&s – .A A29@ $199A+ %u,,osing a ,ublic sc5ool teac5er ,artici,ated in a cou, dIetat using an unlicensed *irear&# 45at cri&e or cri&es did 5e co&&itL O2NP %'77E%/E- AB%4E.: /5e ,ublic sc5ool teac5er co&&itted only cou, dIetat *or 5is ,artici,ation t5erein# Eis use o* an unlicensed *irear& is absorbed in t5e cou, dIetat under t5e ne! *irear&s la! $.e,# Act Bo# A29@+# A ,rosecution *or illegal ,ossession o* *irear& under t5e ne! la! is allo!ed only i* t5e unlicensed *irear& !as not used in t5e co&&ission o* anot5er cri&e#

Illegal "ossession o* 3irear&s ? A&&unitions $2000+ A 5as long been !anted by t5e ,olice aut5orities *or (arious cri&es co&&itted by 5i&# Acting on an in*or&ation by a ti,ster6 t5e ,olice ,roceeded to an a,art&ent !5ere A !as o*ten seen# /5e ti,ster also !arned t5e ,olice&en t5at A !as al!ays ar&ed# At t5e gi(en address6 a lady !5o introduced 5ersel* as t5e elder sister o* A6 o,ened t5e door and let t5e ,olice&en in inside6 t5e tea& *ound A slee,ing on t5e *loor# I&&ediately beside 5i& !as a clutc5 bag !5ic56 !5en o,ened6 contained a #3A caliber ,alti0 re(ol(er and a 5and grenade# A*ter (eri*ication6 t5e aut5orities disco(ered t5at A !as not a licensed 5older o* t5e #3A caliber ,alti0 re(ol(er# As *or t5e 5and grenade6 it !as establis5ed t5at only &ilitary ,ersonnel are aut5oriJed to carry 5and grenades# %ubseGuently6 A !as c5arged !it5 t5e cri&e o* Illegal "ossession o* 3irear&s and A&&unition# -uring trial6 A &aintained t5at t5e bag containing t5e unlicensed *irear& and 5and grenade belonged to A6 5is *riend6 and A3 o* A; t5at 5e !as not in actual ,ossession t5ereo* at t5e ti&e 5e !as arrested# Are t5e allegations &eritoriousL E ,lain# $3N+ %'77E%/E- AB%4E.: AIs allegations are not &eritorious# 2!ners5i, is not an essential ele&ent o* t5e cri&e o* illegal ,ossession o* *irear&s and a&&unition# 45at t5e la! reGuires is &erely ,ossession6 !5ic5 includes not only actual ,5ysical ,ossession but also constructi(e ,ossession !5ere t5e *irear& and e ,losi(e are sub9ect to oneIs control and &anage&ent# $"eo,le us# -e 7recia6 233 %).A 71;= '#%# (s# Juan6 23 "5il# 10<: "eo,le (s# %oyag6 110 "5il# <;<+# "- @; ? .A ;713 ? Indirect 1ribery $200;+ )o&&issioner Darian /orres o* t5e 1ureau o* internal .e(enue $1I.+ !rote solicitation letters addressed to t5e 3ili,ino-)5inese )5a&ber o* )o&&erce and Industry and to certain )E2s o* (arious &ultinational cor,orations reGuesting donations o* gi*ts *or 5er o**ice )5rist&as ,arty# %5e used t5e 1ureauIs o**icial stationery# /5e res,onse !as ,ro&,t and o(er!5el&ing so &uc5 so t5at )o&&issioner /orresI o**ice !as o(ercro!ded !it5 rice coo0ers6 radio sets6 *reeJers6 electric sto(es and toasters# Eer sta** also recei(ed se(eral en(elo,es containing cas5 &oney *or t5e e&,loyeesI )5rist&as lunc5eon# Eas )o&&issioner /orres co&&itted any i&,ro,riety or irregularityL 45at la!s or decrees did s5e (iolateL $<N+ %'77E%/E- AB%4E.: >es6 )o&&issioner /orres (iolated t5e *ollo!ing: 1# .A# ;713 X )ode o* )onduct and Et5ical %tandards *or "ublic 2**icials and E&,loyees !5en 5e solicited and acce,t gi*ts $%ec# 7OdP+# 2# "#-# @; X Da0ing it ,unis5able *or ,ublic o**icials and e&,loyees to recei(e6 and *or ,ri(ate ,ersons to gi(e6 gi*ts on any occasion6 including )5rist&as# 3# Indirect 1ribery $Art# 2116 .e(ised "enal )ode+ *or recei(ing gi*ts o**ered by reason o* o**ice# "- @; $199@+ 7ino !as a,,ointed )ollector o* )usto&s and !as assigned at t5e Binoy AGuino International Air,ort6 7erry6 an i&,orter6 5osted a dinner *or 100 ,ersons at t5e 4estin "5ili,,ine "laJa in 5onor o* 7ino# 45at are t5e o**ense or o**enses co&&itted by 7ino and 7erryL %'77E%/E- AB%4E.: 1ot5 7ino and 7erry are liable *or (iolation o* "residential -ecree Bo# @;6 !5ic5 ,unis5es any ,ublic o**icial or e&,loyee !5o recei(es6 directly or indirectly6 and *or ,ri(ate ,ersons !5o gi(e6 o**er any gi*t6 ,resent or (aluable t5ing on any occasion6 including )5rist&as6 !5en suc5 gi*t or (aluable t5ing is gi(en by reason o* 5is o**icial ,osition6 regardless o* !5et5er or not t5e sa&e is *or ,ast *a(or or *a(ors6 or t5e gi(er 5o,es or e ,ects to recei(e a *a(or or better treat&ent in

t5e *uture# 1eing an i&,orter6 7erry reasonably e ,ects *uture *a(or *ro& 7ino# Included !it5in t5e ,ro5ibition is t5e t5ro!ing o* ,arties or entertain&ent in 5onor o* t5e o**icial or e&,loyee or o* 5is i&&ediate relati(es# )ri&inal La! 1ar E a&ination 8 ? A $199@-200;+ A@ o* A; "- @; $1997+ A6 !5o is t5e ,ri(ate co&,lainant in a &urder case ,ending be*ore a .egional /rial )ourt Judge6 ga(e a 9udge a )5rist&as gi*t6 consisting o* big bas0et o* assorted canned goods and bottles o* e ,ensi(e !ines6 easily !ort5 "10#000#00# /5e 9udge acce,ted t5e gi*t 0no!ing it ca&e *ro& A# 45at cri&e or cri&es6 i* any6 !ere co&&ittedL %'77E%/E- AB%4E.: /5e Judge co&&itted t5e cri&e o* Indirect bribery under Art# 211 o* t5e .e(ised "enal )ode# /5e gi*t !as o**ered to t5e Judge by reason o* 5is o**ice# In addition6 t5e Judge !ill be liable *or t5e (iolation o* "#-# @; !5ic5 ,unis5es t5e recei(ing o* gi*ts by ,ubic o**icials and e&,loyees on occasions li0e )5rist&as# "lunder under .A 70A0= "rescri,ti(e "eriod $1993+ /5roug5 0ic0bac0s6 ,ercentages or co&&issions and ot5er *raudulent sc5e&es Hcon(eyances and ta0ing ad(antage o* 5is ,osition6 Andy6 a *or&er &ayor o* a suburban to!n6 acGuired assets a&ounting to "10 billion !5ic5 is grossly dis,ro,ortionate to 5is la!*ul inco&e# -ue to 5is in*luence and connections and des,ite 0no!ledge by t5e aut5orities o* 5is Ill-gotten !ealt56 5e !as c5arged !it5 t5e cri&e o* ,lunder only a*ter t!enty $20+ years *ro& 5is de*eat in t5e last elections 5e ,artici,ated in# 1+ Day Andy still be 5eld cri&inally liableL 45yL 2+ )an t5e %tate still reco(er t5e ,ro,erties and assets t5at 5e illegally acGuired6 t5e bul0 o* !5ic5 is in t5e na&e o* 5is !i*e and c5ildrenL .eason out# %'77E%/E- AB%4E.: 1+ Andy !ill not be cri&inally liable because %ection ; o* .A 70A0 ,ro(ides t5at t5e cri&e ,unis5able under t5is Act s5all ,rescribe in t!enty years and t5e ,roble& as0ed !5et5er Andy can still be c5arged !it5 t5e cri&e o* ,lunder a*ter 20 years# 2+ >es6 because %ection ; ,ro(ides t5at reco(ery o* ,ro,erties unla!*ully acGuired by ,ublic o**icers *ro& t5e& or t5eir no&inees or trans*erees s5all not be barred by ,rescri,tion6 lac5es or esto,,el# .#A# Bo# 91;0 Anti-Doney Laundering Act $200<+ -on 7abito6 a ,5ilant5ro,ist6 o**ered to *und se(eral ,ro9ects o* t5e Dayor# Ee o,ened an account in t5e Dayor:s na&e and regularly de,osited (arious a&ounts ranging *ro& "<006000#00 to "1 Dillion# 3ro& t5is account6 t5e Dayor !it5dre! and used t5e &oney *or constructing *eeder roads6 barangay clinics6 re,airing sc5ools and *or all ot5er &unici,al ,ro9ects# It !as subseGuently disco(ered t5at -on 7abito !as actually a 9ueteng o,erator and t5e a&ounts 5e de,osited !ere ,roceeds *ro& 5is 9ueteng o,erations# 45at cri&eHs !ere co&&ittedL 45o are cri&inally liableL E ,lain# $;N+ %'77E%/E- AB%4E.: -on 7abito (iolated t5e Anti-Doney Laundering Act $%ec# @6 .#A# Bo# 91;0+ *or 0no!ingly transacting &oney as ,ro,erty !5ic5 in(ol(es or relates to t5e ,roceeds o* an unla!*ul acti(ity suc5 as 9ueteng# In addition6 5e &ay be ,rosecuted *or liability as a9ueteng o,erator# $.#A# Bo# 92A7+ /5e &ayor !5o allo!ed t5e o,ening o* an account in 5is na&e is li0e!ise guilty *or (iolation o* t5e ADLA# Ee6 0no!ing t5at t5e &oney instru&ent or ,ro,erty in(ol(es t5e ,roceeds o* an unla!*ul acti(ity6 ,er*or&s or *ails to ,er*or& any act !5ic5 results in t5e *acilitation o* &oney laundering# .a 3019= "re(enti(e %us,ension $1999+ A ,ublic o**icer !as accused be*ore t5e %andiganbayan o* a (iolation o* %ection 3 $e+ o* .A Bo# 30196 t5e Anti-7ra*t and )orru,t "ractices Act# Just a*ter arraign&ent and e(en be*ore e(idence !as ,resented6 t5e %andiganbayan issued an order *or 5is sus,ension ,endente lite# /5e accused Guestioned t5e said 2rder

contending t5at it is (iolati(e o* t5e constitutional ,ro(ision against an e ,ost *acto la!# 4ill you sustain t5e ob9ection o* t5e accusedL 45yL O2NP $c+ 45at ,re-conditions are necessary to be &et or satis*ied be*ore ,re(enti(e sus,ension &ay be orderedL $2N+ %'77E%/E- AB%4E.: $b+ Bo6 I !ill not sustain t5e ob9ection o* t5e accused# %us,ension o* t5e accused ,endente lite is not (iolati(e o* t5e constitutional ,ro(ision against e ,ost *acto la!# E -,ost *acto la! &eans &a0ing an innocent act a cri&e be*ore it is &ade ,unis5able# $c+ /5e ,re-conditions necessary to be &et or satis*ied be*ore a sus,ension &ay be ordered are: $1+ t5ere &ust be ,ro,er notice reGuiring t5e accused to s5o! cause at a s,eci*ic date o* 5earing !5y 5e s5ould not be ordered sus,ended *ro& o**ice ,ursuant to .A 30196 as a&ended= and $2+ t5ere &ust be a deter&ination o* a (alid in*or&ation against t5e accused t5at !arrants 5is sus,ension# .A 3019= "re(enti(e %us,ension $2000+ A &ont5 a*ter t5e arraign&ent o* 1rad Fit )o&&issioner o* t5e Eousing and Land 'se .egulatory 1oard6 !5o !as c5arged !it5 (iolation o* %ection 3 $5+ o* .e,ublic Act 3019 OAnti-7ra*t and )orru,t "ractices Act+ be*ore t5e %andiganbayan6 t5e 2**ice o* t5e %,ecial "rosecutor *iled a Dotion to %us,end Accused "endente Lite ,ursuant to %ection 13 o* t5e Anti-7ra*t La!# /5e )ourt granted t5e &otion and sus,ended accused 1rad Fit *or a ,eriod o* 90 days# Accused assailed t5e constitutional (alidity o* t5e sus,ension order on t5e ground t5at it ,arta0es o* a ,enalty be*ore Judg&ent o* con(iction is reac5ed and is t5us (iolati(e o* 5is constitutional rig5t to be ,resu&ed innocent# Ee also clai&ed t5at t5is ,ro(ision o* t5e la! on sus,ension ,endente lite a,,lies only to electi(e o**icials and not to a,,ointed ones li0e 5i&# .ule !it5 reasons# $<N+ %'77E%/E- AB%4E.: /5e sus,ension order does not ,arta0e o* a ,enalty and is t5us not (iolati(e o* 1rad FitIs constitutional rig5t to )ri&inal La! 1ar E a&ination 8 ? A $199@-200;+ be ,resu&ed innocent# 'nder t5e la!6 t5e accused ,ublic o**icers s5all be sus,ended *ro& o**ice !5ile t5e cri&inal ,rosecution is ,ending in court $%ec# 136 .A# 3019+# %uc5 ,re(enti(e sus,ension is &andatory to ,re(ent t5e accused *ro& 5a&,ering t5e nor&al course o* t5e in(estigation $.ios (s# %andiganbayan6279 %).A <A1 $1997+= 1unye (s# Escareal 22; %).A 332 $1993++# Beit5er is t5ere &erit in 1rad FitIs clai& t5at t5e ,ro(ision on sus,ension ,endente lite a,,lies only to electi(e o**icials and not to a,,ointed ones li0e 5i&# It a,,lies to all ,ublic o**icials Indicted u,on a (alid in*or&ation under .A# Bo# 30196 !5et5er t5ey be a,,ointi(e or electi(e o**icials= or ,er&anent or te&,orary e&,loyees6 or ,ertaining to t5e career or nonQcareer ser(ice $%ego(ia (s# %andiganbayan6 2AA %).A 32A O199AP+# .A 3019= "ublic 2**icer $2003+ /5e )entral 1an0 $1ang0o %entral ng "ili,inasK6 by a resolution o* t5e &onetary board6 5ires /5eo* %to /o&as6 a retired &anager o* a leading ban0 as a consultant# /5eo* later recei(es a (aluable gi*t *ro& a ban0 under in(estigation by t5e )entral 1an0# Day /5eo* be ,rosecuted under .e,ublic Act Bo# 3019 $Anti-7ra*t and )orru,t "ractices Act+ *or acce,ting suc5 a gi*tL E ,lain# AN %'77E%/E- AB%4E.: Bo6 /5eo* &ay not be ,rosecuted under .e,# Act 30196 but &ay be ,rosecuted *or (iolation o* "res6 -ecree Bo# @;6 under !5ic5 suc5 act o* recei(ing a (aluable gi*t is ,unis5ed# Alt5oug5 /5eo* is a M,ublic o**icerM !it5in t5e a,,lication o* t5e Anti-7ra*t and )orru,t "ractices Act $.A 3019+6 yet 5is act o* recei(ing suc5 gi*t does not a,,ear to be included a&ong t5e ,unis5able acts under .e,# Act 3019 since 5e is not to inter(ene in 5is o**icial ca,acity in t5e in(estigation o* t5e ban0 !5ic5

ga(e t5e gi*t# "enal la!s &ust be strictly construed against t5e %tate# In any case6 /5eo* is ad&inistrati(ely liable# AL/E.BA/IVE AB%4E. >es6 /5eo* &ay be ,rosecuted under .e,# Act 3019 because 5e is a M,ublic o**icerM !it5in t5e ,ur(ie! o* said la!6 and /5eo* recei(ed t5e (aluable gi*t *ro& a ban0 !5ic5 is under in(estigation by t5e )entral 1an0 !5ere 5e is e&,loyed as a M,ublic o**icerM# .ecei(ing gi*t6 directly or indirectly by a ,ublic o**icer *ro& a ,arty !5o 5as a transaction !it5 t5e 7o(ern&ent is !rong6 &ore so !5en t5e gi*t-gi(er is under in(estigation by t5e go(ern&ent o**ice to !5ic5 t5e ,ublic o**icer is connected# .a ;713= )o(erage $2001+ .obert %y6 a !ell 0no!n business&an and a *ounding &e&ber o* t5e Da0ati 1usiness )lub6 aside *ro& being a class&ate o* t5e ne!ly-elected "resident o* t5e "5ili,,ines6 5ad In(est&ents consisting o* s5ares o* stoc0s in t5e 'rban 1an06 t5e "B16 t5e .ural 1an0 o* )aloocan )ity and 5is ,ri(ately-o!ned cor,oration6 t5e .% 1uilders )or,oration and /rans-"aci*ic Air# A*ter t5e A< o* A; "resident 5ad ta0en 5is oat5 and assu&ed 5is o**ice6 5e a,,ointed .obert as Eonorary )onsul to t5e .e,ublic o* Vietna&# .obert too0 5is oat5 be*ore t5e "resident and a*ter *urnis5ing t5e -e,art&ent o* 3oreign A**airs !it5 5is a,,oint&ent ,a,ers6 *le! to %aigon6 no! Eo )5i Din )ity6 !5ere 5e organiJed 5is sta**6 ,ut u, an o**ice and stayed t5ere *or t5ree &ont5s attending to trade o,,ortunities and relations !it5 local business&an# 2n t5e *ourt5 &ont56 5e returned to t5e "5ili,,ines to &a0e 5is re,ort to t5e "resident# Eo!e(er6 t5e Anti-7ra*t League o* t5e "5ili,,ines *iled a co&,laint against .obert *or $1+ *alling to *ile 5is %tate&ent o* Assets and Liabilities !it5in t5irty $30+ days *ro& assu&,tion o* o**ice= $2+ *ailing to resign *ro& 5is businesses6 and $3+ *alling to di(est 5is s5ares and in(est&ents in t5e ban0s and cor,orations o!ned by 5i&6 as reGuired by t5e )ode o* )onduct and Et5ical %tandards *or "ublic 2**icials and E&,loyees# 4ill t5e co&,laint ,ros,erL E ,lain# $<N+ %'77E%/E- AB%4E.: /5e co&,laint !ill not ,ros,er because t5e )ode o* )onduct and Et5ical %tandards *or "ublic 2**icials and E&,loyees $.e,# Act# Bo# ;713+6 e ,ressly e e&,ts t5ose !5o ser(e t5e 7o(ern&ent in an 5onorary ca,acity *ro& *iling %tate&ents o* Assets and Liabilities6 and *ro& resigning and di(esting t5e&sel(es o* interest *ro& any ,ri(ate enter,rise $%ecs# AA and 9+# AL/E.BA/IVE AB%4E.: >es6 t5e co&,laint !ill ,ros,er under %ec# 7 o* t5e Anti-7ra*t and )orru,t "ractices Act $.e,# Act Bo# 30196 as a&endedP6 !5ic5 reGuires all ,ublic o**icers !it5in 30 days *ro& assu&ing ,ublic o**ice to *ile a true6 detailed s!orn state&ent o* assets and liabilities# Violations o* t5is la! are &ala ,ro5ibita !5ic5 ad&its o* no e cuses# .A 7@3A-Econo&ic %abotage= Illegal .ecruit&ent $200@+ .. re,resented to AA6 116 )) and -- t5at s5e could send t5e& to London to !or0 t5ere as sales ladies and !aitresses# %5e collected and recei(ed *ro& t5e& (arious a&ounts o* &oney *or recruit&ent and ,lace&ent *ees totalling "@006000# A*ter t5eir dates o* de,arture !ere ,ost,oned se(eral ti&es6 t5e *our ,ros,ects got sus,icious and !ent to "2EA $"5il# 2(erseas E&,loy&ent Aut5ority+# /5ere t5ey *ound out t5at .. !as not aut5oriJed nor licensed to recruit !or0ers *or e&,loy&ent abroad# /5ey soug5t re*und to no a(ail# Is .. guilty o* any gra(e o**enseL E ,lain brie*ly# $<N+ %'77E%/E- AB%4E.: >es# .. is guilty o* a gra(e o**ense6 5a(ing engaged in illegal recruit&ent constituting t5e o**ense o* econo&ic sabotage !5ic5 is ,unis5able !it5 li*e i&,rison&ent and a *ine o* "100#000#00# E)2B2DI) %A12/A7E is an o**ense de*ined in 3A$b+ o* t5e Labor )ode6 as a&ended by "res# -ecree Bo# 201A6 !5ic5 is incurred !5en t5e illegal recruit&ent is carried out in large scale or by a syndicate# It is in a large scale !5en t5ere are t5ree

or &ore aggrie(ed ,arties6 indi(idually or as a grou,# And it is co&&itted by a syndicate !5en t5ree or &ore ,ersons cons,ire or )ri&inal La! 1ar E a&ination 8 ? A $199@-200;+ A; o* A; coo,erate !it5 one anot5er in carrying out t5e illegal transaction6 sc5e&e or acti(ity# .A 7;10 – )5ild E ,loitation $200;+ Aling Daria recei(ed an urgent tele,5one call *ro& Junior6 5er eldest son6 as0ing *or "26000#00 to co&,lete 5is se&estral tuition *ees ,re,aratory to 5is *inal e a&s in )o&&erce# -istressed and disturbed6 s5e borro!ed &oney *ro& 5er co&,adre Dang Juan !it5 t5e assurance to ,ay 5i& !it5in 2 &ont5s# /!o &ont5s la,sed but Aling Daria *ailed to settle 5er obligation# Dang Juan told Aling Daria t5at s5e does not 5a(e to ,ay t5e loan i* s5e !ill allo! 5er youngest 10-year old daug5ter Annie to !or0 as a 5ouse&aid in 5is 5ouse *or 2 &ont5s at "l6000#00 a &ont5# -es,ite Aling DariaIs ob9ection6 Dang Juan insisted and broug5t Annie to 5is 5ouse to !or0 as a &aid# 1# 4as a cri&e co&&itted by Dang Juan !5en 5e broug5t Annie to 5is 5ouse as &aid *or t5e ,ur,ose o* re,aying 5er &ot5erIs loanL $2#<N+ %'77E%/E- AB%4E.: >es# Dang Juan co&&itted t5e cri&e o* e ,loitation o* c5ild labor !5ic5 is co&&itted by any ,ersons !5o unQder t5e ,rete t o* rei&bursing 5i&sel* o* a debt incurred by an ascendant6 guardian or ,erson entrusted !it5 t5e custody o* a &inor6 s5all6 against t5e latterIs !ill6 retain5 i& in 5is ser(ice $Art# 2736 .e(ised "enal )ode+# Ee can also be liable as an e&,loyer *or t5e e&,loy&ent o* a &inor belo! 1< yrs# old6 under %ec# 126 Art# A o* .A# 7;10# 2# I* Aling Daria 5ersel* !as &ade to !or0 as a 5ouseQ&aid in Dang JuanIs 5ouse5old to ,ay 5er loan6 did 5e co&&it a cri&eL $2#<N+ %'77E%/E- AB%4E.: >es# Dang Juan co&&itted t5e cri&e o* in(oluntary ser(itude *or rendering ser(ices under co&,ulsion and ,ay&ent o* debts# /5is is co&&itted by any ,erson !5o6 in order to reGuire or en*orce t5e ,ay&ent o* a debt6 s5all co&,el t5e debtor to !or0 *or 5i&6 against 5is !ill6 as 5ouse5old ser(ant or *ar& laborer $Art# 27@6 .e(ised "enal )ode+

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