VILNIAUS PEDAGOGINIS UNIVERSITETAS EKONOMIKOS KATEDRA

EKONOMIKOS TERMINAI IR SÀVOKOS
(mokomasis þodynas)
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?is þodynas y*a (a8al.in/ mokymo (*i,mon/ s+ di0 o0an+i,ms ,konomin,s dis2i(linas- Bodyn, (a+,ik+i +ik (a8*indiniai ,konomi> kos +,*minai i* s:)okos- L,idinio +ikslas C (a+,ik+i s)a*.ia si= s:)o> k= a(i.*/þim s! (ad/+i a k5+=0= mokykl= s+ d,n+ams 8*,i9ia s )ok+i i* (aka*+o+i d/s+om: m,dþia8:A +o*i= n omon,! þodyn 8al/s na do+is ),*slininkai! )ady.i> ninkai .,i )isi Li,+ )os (ili,9iai! .,sidomin+ys ,konomika-

A(i.*/þian+ s:)okas i* +,*min s! *,m+asi ,konomikos mokslo lai>m/0imais! Vaka*= 5alys, i5l,is+ais þodynais! Li,+ )os R,s( .likos Ds+a+ymaisL,idinD (a*,n8/ i* s da*/4 (*oE- Fa.il- d*- 6 o3as 7a8dana)i9i s! do2- d*- P,+*as S+ank,)i9i s! do2- d*- Vy+a +as L ko5,)i9i s-

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A.,0in8 mo k*,i)/ C k*,i)/! *odan+i (asi*,nkam:0D d)i,0= (*,ki= d,*inD! kai ki,k)i,na i5 0= +,ikia )i,nod: (asi+,nkinim: a*.a a.i y*a +okios (a+ na din8os- A.,0in8 mo k*,i)/s y*a na do0amos n s+a+y+i )a*+o+o0= d)i,0= (*,ki= (i*kimo ( sia s)y*: i* i5anali> 3 o+i += d)i,0= (*,ki= kain= (asik,i+imo D+ak: (akla sai-

A.soli + s sk *das C si+ a2i0a! kai 5,imos (a0amos maþ,sn/s þ oEi2iali: sk *do *i.:A.soli + sis (*ana5 mas C (*ana5 mas! k *is .Gdin8as k *iai no*s 5aliai! + *in9iai +am +ik*= i5+,kli= i* 8alin9iai (a8amin+i da 8ia (*od k2i0os n,8 ki+os 5alys! k *ios + *i + os (a9i s i5+,kli s- Ta>9ia a.soli + sis (*ana5 mas n,n l,mia +a*(+a +in/s (*,ky.os na >din8 moA8*a*in/ (oli+ika C )als+y./s (oli+ika! k *ia si,kiama i5s(*Hs+i mais+o (*o.l,m:! in+,nsy)iai )ys+y+i þ,m/s GkD i* ki+as a8*o),*slo 5akas! *adikaliai (ak,is+i kaimo 8y),n+o0= da*.o i* . i+i,s s:ly8as-

A8*o),*slas C 5ali,s Gkio 5ak= kom(l,ksas! a(iman+is þ,m/s Gkio (*od k2i0os 8amy.:! (,*di*.im: i* *,ali3a)im:Ak2,l,*a+o*i s C (*,ki= i* (asla 8= *,ali3a)imo a(im+i,s (oky9io i* in),s+i2i0= san+ykis- Ak2,l,*a+o*ia s (*in2i(o ,sm/ +okia4 in),s> +i2i0= ly8is (*ikla so n o .,nd*o0o na2ionalinio (*od k+o (7NP) a 8imo +,m(=- 6,i 5is (*od k+as did/0a C did/0a i* 8*ynosios in> ),s+i2i0os! o 0,i na2ionalinis (*od k+as n,did/0a! +ai 8*yn=0= in> ),s+i2i0= n,.,da*oma a*.a 0os li,ka la.ai maþos- G*,i+ai a 8an+ .,nd*a0am na2ionaliniam (*od k+ i ),*slininkai ska+inami in),s> + o+i D na 0as 8amyklas n, +ik +am! kad a+na 0in+= ka(i+al:! .,+ i* +am! kad (a+,nkin+i (adid/0 si: (akla s:- Ind k2ini= in),s+i2i0= (adid/0imas sa)o * oþ+ s s+i(*ina m l+i(lika+o*ia s (o),ikD di>dinan+ na2ionalinD (*od k+:7,nd*as ak2,l,*a2i0os i* m l+i(lika2i0os ),iksm= (o),ikis! (asi> *,i5kian+is (,* in),s+i2i0= 2ikl:! 8ali (aai5kin+i (oky9i s ,kono> miko0,! s si0 si s s .i3nio 2ikl - Kadan8i in),s+i2i0= dydis (*i> kla so n o kin+an9io .,nd*o0o na2ionalinio (*od k+o a(im+i,s!
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.s 8amin+o>0as s+.Ak2i0= (*i..)ol.ikala)im s- Ak2i0= (a0amos y*a 8*ynasis (.s+i2i0os (ad.*+H./s Dmon/! + *in+i 0 *i> dinio asm.did.ndo dydis i5 anks+o n.6.l.di+o*i s.ndas.s+i2i0= did/0imas didina )is minH (akla s: i* ska+i>na did/+i 7NPAk2i0a C ).+ai 8*..is/+i 0os sa)ininkai i* + *i +.idþiamas ak2in/s .. ak2in/s . .n8imai (amaþ (as..isH 8a +i 0os (.Pa8al + *im= ak2i0= ki.5 k*..nd*o> )/s ak2i0=! +am(a ak2ininkais..kia 0ama Eond= .nd*o)/s (.s (*i.8a*an+ o0amas.i+ai 0am a 8an+ in).I*a d)i did..*+y.s+i2i0os 8ali s maþ/+i iki (a8*indinio ka(i+alo a+na 0inimo ly8io.nini + *+ þ .sn.mon/.nd*o)/ lik)id o0ama! 0i.?ios did.>das C +ai (a0amos! 8a +os i5l.n s+a+omas i* n. ...nd*o)/s kai( il8alaikio ka(i+alo didinimo (*i.o+os + *+in/s a+sakomy.Gna didþia sios! n.*slininkams da >8ia n.m: i* i5laiky+i a k5+: 7NP ly8D.is.lno dalD a*.S maþ/0 s in).id s ak2i0as did.l/s ak2i0= *G5ys4 (*i)il.nd*o)/s (*i.lnas! 8a +as s ka ( s mok.inis (o(i. a+sako +ik + *im ak2i> .ln: di)id.ln: di)id.ln: (o +o! kai s mok/+os )isos i5laidos! i* 0i.In).is+i..nd*o)/s skolas i* D)ykdþi s (*i)il.nd*=0= (a0am=Ak2in/ .i8 (akla sa il8.P*i)il.isH 8a +i )is s Dmon/s ak+y) s! s mok/0 s )isas .*daly+as i5 (a(*as+=0= ak2i0= skai9ia s.kD .s+i2i0oms s maþ/s )is min/ (akla sa i* 7NP.Ak2ininkas n.i*þo0..ks (ak.k+y)iniai ak2in/s .Ak2i0omis (*..ns +.! k *ias *. + *i +.> 8i0 o+osios ak2i0os i* (a(*as+osios ak2i0os.nd*o)/0.iliniams ak2i>ninkams i* (.nd*o)/s sa)ininkai (asiski*s+o 8a +: (.s+i2i0os .snD laik: y*a n.G+ina didin+i (a0/8 m s! i* in).8i0 o+= ak2i0= sa)inink= *.s9i= s mas ak2in/0.nd*o)/s ak2ininkai y*a +.7.l/s in).a+sako sa)o asm. daþnia siai (asiima +am +ik*: (.8i0 o+os ak2i0os sa)inink i mokamas i5 anks+o n s+a+y+o dydþio di)id.ns i* kai k *i os i5 0= +.+ kokD 0= .6.6i.*i s! i5l.Pa(*as+=0= ak2i0= sa)ininkai + *i +.da s(*Hs+i )is min/s (akla sos (*o.damos (*i.l/! +ai D*.n>d*o)/s .nd= Eo*>maPa(*as+ai ak2i0ai di)id.isH 8a +i . y*a kol.i .6i.s.a )is: (.ikia i5mok/+i .Tokios (a0amos (*id. kaina þ 0= no>minali:0: ).n8iasi (adidin+i sa)o (a0/8 m s.Kai 7NP a 8imo a(im+is maþ/0a! ).lno dalD.nys! Dsi8i0H .nd*o)/ C *i.Ji3iniai i* 0 *idiniai asm..ndais..n> d*o)/s sa)ininkai.

n3inas! dy3.Ak2i3= o.+ i a*.s+in+= (*.a (*o2.(alai! .lk si did../s a* sa)i)aldy. Dmon/0.k/s (l.E.) s+am> ..kom nika2i0os (asla 8os.lno si. i* sil(nindamos konk *.o0imaiK 1) ak2in/0.kian9ios Dmon/s.lD (ini8inD ka(i+al:K 1) *i.an8ios n.s i* n..nd*o)/s *i.. mais+o (*.i ak2in/0. C i* +.o+a ak2inink= + *+in/ a+sakomy.*slo mas+o a+ski*o0. sly(i +am +ik*= (ik+na dþia)im= 8alimy.ki= 8amin+o0ai i* im(o*+ o+o> 0ai C 0 *idiniai i* Ei3iniai asm. i* 8. +aikomas )adinamasis d)i8 .k/s ki..konomiko0.ly*iniai di*.na ).s- Ak2ininkas C Ei3inis a* 0 *idinis asm o! )als+y.n2i0:! 0os maþina .Ak2in/s .4 ") DkG* s ak2inH .o0a 8.snio )a*+o+o0= (o*./K $) s +..s+ini> masK ') n osa)y.nd*o)/0.k+ai (a(*as+ai y*a alkoFoliniai 8/*imai! +a.lD (ini8inD ka(i+a>l: ak2in/ ..... C +.n+ )i.as ak2ini= .linis k *as! (*a.Vals+y.*+ s! 0os s da*o s:ly8as .*slo )aldym.k+y)iai s *ink+i did.s9iai! n s+a+omi da > 8ia sia n.k/s! .akas i* +a.*ia +.is.sional s )aldymas.las+in8os (akla sos (*.iliai! 0 ).i *ok*a+i3m: ).iniai i* (an-)! Li.n>d*o)/s ak2i0:. ).*slo o*8ani3a)imo Eo*mo0.k>+y)iai Gkininka +i! (ad.kio a* s)o*io )i.iki sK an+*a )..nd*o)/s .) (*oE.k+*os (*. 5alys.mia 0= +*Gk m s.0./sK $) kai k *ios.E.n8)i.l.*sl:K ') 8alimy.*+ s! 8dyda>mos .0i a +omo> ..Mok.k+y) m:! *i.iki= +.. 5alys.5+a*in8as4 )i.k+y> ) m:! ska+ina mono(oli3m: .S)a*.s9i= mok/> +o0ai y*a ak2i3ais a(mok.s( .ako 8a> miniai! ka)a! 5okoladas! mais+o (*od k+ai s kaka)a! . (*ana5 mai (a(*as+ai n l.k/ms i* (asla 8oms.Mok.*>d o+i +./s ins+i+ 2i0aAk2i3ai C kai k *i= (*.E.*i.k+y)iai i5(l/s+i ).*o+iniai i* sm *+iniai s(a diniai! o kai k *ios.ni ka(i+al .da s +a (y+i d/l ).nd*o)/s (a(*as+ai y*a (.> soli 9ia s ma (*.nd*o>)i= )aidm o (*i.83is+a)imo laikasK .nd*o)i= +*Gk mai4 ") Ds+a+ymais n s+a+y+i a(*i. a+>s+o)a 0a )als+y.Pa8*indiniai ak2ini= .nys.liko0.l.n.n2i0: i* maþina 0os .nkin+i (i*k/0= (o*.?i..ia si 0= (*ana5 mai y*a 5i.ios ak2in/s .+ )os R.nd*o)/ 8ali .s9i= +a*iEai n s+a+omi a.. .E./ a* sa)i)aldy.i a* sa)i)aldy.n+ais < .Tai8i ak2ini= .E.ki= i* (asla 8= mok.*.nki>nimo 8alimy.o+as ak2in/s .o0a konk *.nd*o)i= a(mok./ (.../! k > *i Ds+a+ym= n s+a+y+a +)a*ka + *i Dsi8i0 si .n> d*o)H 8alima ./s a+o+*Gkis n o )aldymo i* kon+*ol/sK .n: ak2in/s .

n+o n/*a Dmon/s ak+y)ai! i* a+)i*k59iai C n si(i*k+as i5 ki+os Ei*mos (*..liamos +*ys s:ly8os! kad .k+y) m a*.ni i! )is maK +ai( (a+ )a*+o+inas +.! i5 k >*ios +ikimasi na din8 mo (n omo0amas + *+as! (*.isi= (+ *+o)! (*ikla san9i= Ei3iniam a* 0 *idiniam asm.da>ma s mok/+i ((.konomi> kos 8.*+/s (n o 5aly0.E.+i asm.nklas +am(a 0os ak+y) )- Ak+y)i da*.inis (o(i.s+inamos (*.ki= m i+in/s (*.da)i s! 3sk.+o .+ *in>9ios (akla sos *inko0.a Pa*.*+/s (*id/0 s m i+:)K ak2i3ais (a(*as+ai n.konomikos o*8ani3a)imo +ikslas! k *is (asi.di+y)iniam.a(mok.i(imasis D d*a 8 s! kad (as+a*i.5kan9i= da*.liamas kai( .o . daly)a 0an+ys i* (asi* o5H di*.n+ )i.*inD.O(+imala s i5+.k/s ).ki= þ.+o o(+im m .P*i.*i.n2i0os *inkos s:ly8omis.I*a k.*).di+o Ds+ai8os i5d odamas )a*di>nis ).da*.ank i (a).l. Gkio 5akos.E.n/s .s+inamos .kli= (aski*s>+ymo . y*a ly8ios *i.! 2k*.*+/s mok. >los konk *.a na do0an+ 8.iklo0.8is+*a)imasis da*.in+i! 5*G(inimasis sa)a*anki5ko ).ni i s i5ly8a! kad 0is D)ykdys ak*.k/s! n.Aloka2inis .! Ei*mos (*.k+y) mas C 8.ks(o*+ o0amos (*.>nys! k *i. ).k+y) mas i5k.o 0/8os a+*ankini os.io (as+an8os s *as+i da*>.n o a(mok. (a8a> min+= (*.0i (ad/+= Dsida*.5ko0o da*.o+as )is om.i*þos.n+as! (a8al k *D .5ka C konk*. da*..! 4- k*. ak+y)iai i.Gd:! i5+.ki= (a*da)imo kainos . *a5+. (*id/+in/s ).kliai (+ *+as)! na do0ami Dmon/s Gkin/0. .Ak+y)ios da*>.k+y) mas da* )adinamas Pa*.i(imasis D da*.ki= kainos )isos.o (*iski*iami +ik +i.o (ai.G+= (a> .9ios .*ia si: s:na d= d.o (ai.di+y)as C a+siskai+ymo dok m.s9io! n o im(o*+ o0am= (*. +y*im os. n *ody+as s:ly8asK +ai i* k*.n: ka*+: ak+y)iai i.*slo (*ad/0im i* (anAloka2inis .o.kiamas +o.E.s+iþas iki Ei*mos (a*da)imo mo>m.*o)/s didinimas.:.*minas ak+y)ai C )isi Dmo>n/s i5+.*+y.ank:) +am +ik*: s m: Ei3iniam a* 0 *idiniam asm.6is s (*an+amas kai( n.E.*ia sios kom(o3i2i0os (*..iniams ka5+ams.5kos y*a4 1*.k/s ((asla 8os) ).ki= *inkinio 8amy.imai laik*a5+y0.k/s- Ak*.Na do0an+ 5D .s+i D ki+: .kliai (aski*s+omi +ai(! kad (*.*i sAk+y)as C + *+ini= +.

A .

a+lik+i +as (a9ias E nk>2i0as! Eo*ma- Al+.o þmok.*na+y)ios (*od k2i0os ka5+ s.os san+ykD. Dmon/0.0i n.*na+y) s da*.k+y) mas4 8.i5kia Ei3inio + *+o s sid/)/0i>m:Kai( .s+is! k *D 8al/+= 8a +i da*.*na+y): s a+m.ik/0o mok/+i! s:na daPas+a*osios D).*slinink iK $) a+ly8inimo þ da*.s (ini8in.k+as Pa*.sio8ini s (.si.*in/s a(> skai+os dok m.konomin/ ka+.i9ian+ D)ai*i= (*od k2i0os *G5i= 8amy.*ia sias (*..:! (a*sisamdþi s s).?i.+. y*a s si0H s *.G+i (a*d o+i sa)i i5+.*+/+i n.*+/s dalis! k *ios n.kliai.0i ka5+ai C i5+.+imo0.*+inamos didþia sia kaina! þ k *i: 8al/>0o .0ai4 ") na do0amas (a8*indinis ka(i+alas Ei3i5kai s sid/>)iK 1) laik i .k+i ).a (a0amomis! k *ios .*in+i )i. Fal+.:Amo*+i3a2i0a C .*ia siai a(mokam: da*.nkin+os )isos 5ios s:ly8os! + om.+ .kian+ ki+o +ikslo! 8.*kamo0i 8alia! (a8*indinio ka>(i+alo (akla sa i* (asiGla .N.kli s si.* +am +ik*: laik:.kli= na do0imo ka5+ai ma+ o0ami si.no a* da 8ia asm.+ i* n s+a+y+i sa)= i5+.+ n.ks(li2i+ini s) ka5>+ s! .n= (ad/+i.+o .i8 5ios (*od k2i0os na >din8 mas maþ.*a2ional s *.Dmanoma (a8.8o*i0a 0i y*a (a8*indinio ka(i+alo ).o þmok.G+= 8a +os na >do0an+ + os (a9i s i5+.n+os Eo*ma! i5n omo0 s sa)o (as+a+ s i* þ.*+in+i n.K $) d/l & .7.s *s= (a>ski*s+ymo i* (ana do0imo a+þ)il8i ! 0.Tai8i 0i. )adinami.s i5laidas! k *ios (a*odomos .snis þ al+.a+siþ).kli=! þ k *i os n.s + o (a+ m.kli= na do0imo si.kli= (aski*s+ymas i* o(+imali (*od k>2i0os a(im+is.m/s skly( s ki+am )./8an+ kin+a (ini8= (.s+a...*na+y)= ).os didinimas y*a n.G+= n.8a >+os (a0amos 8ali +. i* s da*o +i.lo8in s ki+= (ad/+i.*ia sio i5 8ali>m=I5+.(a.s *s= na do0imo al+.i ki+os *inkos s:ly8os! +od/l ka(i+alas 8ali n ).s+a) s sa)o ka(i+al: D al+. o+o0as! (asi*inkHs 8.+i.s+is C didþia sias da*. +ik +i.+ k >*ios (*od k2i0os 8amy.kian+ D).*.sAl+.6.nkama (.*na+y)i.G+= (a+.*slinink i4 ") (alGkan= Eo*ma! in).sio8in.i8 .n+ os.ki= (aski*s+ymas )a*>+o+o0ams! +inkamia sias i5+.l8ian+ D +ai! a* 0is na do0amas! a* n.kian+ +am +ik*o +ikslo ka5+ai! ma+ o0ami na da a*.E.s *s= (aski*s+y>m ! k. *.Galimi +*ys amo*+i3a>2i0os a+).*sl:K 1) *.sio8iniai ka5>+ai y*a (*a*as+a na da! (aly8in s (asi*ink+: *.nd*ia sia (*asm.

samsAn+imono(oliniai Ds+a+ymai C Ds+a+ymai! k *iais kon+*oli o0ama mo> no(olin/ 8alia i* mono(olin/ ).*+H.+= d*a dþiamos LSod*osM.s n *a5ymas i* Dskai9ia)imas D (*od k2i>0os sa)ikain:- An+id.da)iai i* a(d*a s+i di*./s! o s.os ka*i sA(8ynimas (a(sa 8o0imas) n o mok. min/+= ka+.n+o0= 8* (/s n o "##.6ais d*a dþiami Dmoni= ).an+ys 8y). *. l.s9i s! n os+a+os! D8alinan9ios kai k *i os mok.*i+o*i0:) maþ.inD (a0/8 m:.>moni=) ).k.s maþinimas- A(d*a s+i di*.i8Gnai.Ka(i>+alas (amaþ (. a(d*a s+i (*i)a> lom o0 )als+y.+ )o0. (*i)alom o0 )als+y.n+o0ai! k *i.ikla! +.þamos a* D).8lam.Amo*+i3a2i0a Einansin.*/0a na 0o (a8*indinio ka> (i+alo sa)y.*>+/0a.i ki+i (a*.ini so2ialini d*a dim .n+*a)imas.n> + o0an9i= mok.os a(im+i.iks> mai! k *i.P*i>/m s na 0: P.os kon2.alios ).iksni i kai( 0o (a0amos! 0os y*a in).an+i.Iki "##. m.ki= kainas 0= i5).8o*i0os! ()3-! Vida s *.s9io C Ds+a+ym=! *. (*asm.liamas D (*od k2i0os ).*.. m.G+inos ka*in/s +a*>ny.nasis ka(i+alas maþia ).(*iski*iamos k *iam no*s 8a>my.Tai8i amo*+i3a2i0a y*a Ei3inio + *+o *.an+i.ini so2ialini d*a dim (*ad/+a d*a s+i i* .ini so2ialini d*a dim .o (*i.ikal= minis+.0i.2Fnolo8in/s (aþan8os 8.moni= 8amy.y.7.þan+ a* D).s in+.þimo a* D).o (*i.ikla.0imai! (a8*indin/s (*.þan+ 5ias (*.þamos D 5alD (0os m i+= +.*+H. )o d*a dþiamos n.mia mono(olin/s *inkos s+* k+G*os s sida*ym:.n+o0= ka+.i i5). kaina þ (ana5i= a*.*+inamas! +.yn ).:! i5sa 8an+ (*adinD da*.Esan+ na+G*aliai mo> no(oli0ai! d*a dþiama mono(olin/ ).sn.+= Li.8o*i0=! (*i)alom o0 )als>+y.G+i (ada*y+a þalos 5ali.mokslin/s +.m(in8o m i+ai C m i+ai! +aikomi! kai (*.G+i s si+a*imai +a*( Dmoni=! 0= s sili.sio8 konk * o0an9i= (*.+ i* 0.þimo m. )isos 8y).s *inko0. 8amy.* m.k/s i5).+inis s maþ/0imas! sis+.So2ialinio d*a dimo Dmokas moka da*.i5kia ka(i+alo )a*+o0imo a+>skai+ym s! *odan9i s (.*k.s 8ali .s+ o0amos D 8amy>.s> # .+ s s )a*+o+o ka(i+alo (da*.a +i.*+/s dali.Tai 8ali .*+/s kasm.nsi0= Ds+a+ym:! 5ios 8y).Amo*+i3a2i0os l/5os n.*i0os i* k*a5+o a(sa 8os ka*ininkai .>ki= dali.os ).mono(olini= kai>n= n s+a+ymas! 8amy.0i C di*.mi>nis 5io + *+o ).

*di*.n.a i* k+- A(y)a*+inis 8amy.*+y..moni= s maþin+i a*.)K da 8ia(ako(is C kai (*.n: 8amy.na(ako(is a*..s+inimo +ikslas C didin+i )als+y.>ky.+i i* (a*d o+i kai( 8a+a): (*od k2i0: .*iai! k*y(+in8ai na do0amasi )isomis 8alimomis mok.ikia lai> ky+is +*i0= (a8*indini= a(mok.n8ian+ mok./s (a0amas.i+o*inis Dsiskolinimas! a+>sa*8os! n.a i* 8a+a)= (*.ki= (a*d odama a+ski*os.k>)i.k/s a(mok.na(ako(is C a+siþ).>n.inis ka(i+alas C 8amy.s l/5as kai( a(y)a*+ini= skol= san+ykD.nin/0.iklo0.i8o0imaisPadid/0 s .l8iama! ki.os 2ikl:! ()3-4 þalia)os! k *as! ( s8aminiaiA(y)a*+inis ka(i+alas C Ei*mos +* m(alaik/s a(y)a*+in/s l/5os! k >*ios 8ana 8*.ai8+a 8amy.limin o+i +am +ik*: mok. þalia)oms (i*k+i! 0oms (.0i (ini8ai laikomi Ei*mo0.iniai (o(i.* )i.i i5laid=.> .n8)a+omis i* (anA(y)a*+iniai ak+y)ai C (ini8in/s l/5os i* ki+i ak+y)ai! k *i.s9i= D(la kos i5 nam= Gki= Gkio i* Dmoni= (a0am= . (*.k (*.ki= i* (asla 8= mok. +*al mo! +.a )isi5kai .no (i*kimo>(a*da)imo m.+ A(mok.i þmok/+i þ 0as (þalia)as)- A(y)a*+os mok.nd*o)/s (*.>*i m. a* maþm.ai8+a 8amy.inio ka(i+alo dalis! k *i )isi5kai s na do0ama (..s9i= sis+.os 2ikl:! . ).i>niai (o(i./0imo s mok/+i +* m(alaik.o0.s+D! ()3-! 6AV Dsi8y0ami n.s+is C 5ali.s+inamos ki. i* kaso0.n8)ai *.snD kai( )i.ikia>mo a(y)a*+inio ka(i+aloA(y)a*+inio ka(i+alo i* +* m(alaiki= skol= san+ykis C Ei*mos 8.s>9i= l.. (*.m:! *.+aiK 0 os s da*o 8*yni.s+inami ). (ak.nin/0.s+is! ima>mas 0as (a*d odan+K 8ali ..i5kian+is Ei*mos a(y)a*+in.s+inimas C )als+y.0i (ini8ai s:skai+o0.R.*> 9iami (ini8in/mis l/5omis! (a*d odami a*.*i s m.G+i )i.i9iamos þalia)omis! n.a s na do0ami (.i> "% .9io mok/+o0 s im+is (*i..* )i.ai daþnia siai (ada 8/0a skolinink=! +ai8i (adid/0a i* *.in/s mok.*iai! d.ki= (a*da)imo s+adi0os.+ s a* D(*as+inD 8amy.Pa8*indinis a(mok..s )ida s (*.+ n. il8.*+y.a da 8ia(ako(isK )i.ali3 o0ami ).i+ai Gkin/0.s+inimo (*in2i(=4 n.ky.a(mok. (()3-! didm. (a).! l.A(y)a*+in/s l/5os! k *ias skolin8i skolininkai! i* 8*yni.s skolas i5 a(y)a*+ini= l/5= a(skai>+os ma+as! i5*.ki= a+sa*8omis! skolomis i* 8*ynaisiais (ini>8ais! +* m(alaikiais Dsi(a*.

/s i5nyks+a.a + *+o (a).*a2i0ai .konominH (a8al./! a(mok.8 s(./ (a+i D).G+= a(mok.ini s (o(i.i+*aþas d/l kain= ski*+ mo .ikia s )a*þy+i lais)osios *inkos ).k.ky.Kai *inkos y*a ( sia s)y*o0.*5ian9i= Ei*m= a(mok. a* D)ai*i laik ).Did.H.sin8 mo i* (a(*as+ mo.m.ndimo . +*ali i* k o maþia +* kdy+i (l/+o+i *ink:.konomin/ *i3ikaKadan8i a*./0imo s mok/+i mok.ms þmon/ms! 8a > nan+i.i+*aþo 8alimy.) a*.lno?iai o(.*ski*s+y+i (a0amas! +ai a(mok. ! kad mok.*i+o*ini s kain= ski*+ m s! +od/l konk *.s>9i= sis+.(*i.s+indama )i.ik+i .! a*.Gdin8a (aly8in+i n.9io0i n.o! s(*.*i0ais 8al/+= .kian9i os.ai6o .sni s mok.: ki+i. *inkos.s9iai.i+*aþas +ai( (a+ 8ali *.G+i n.s+inan+ laikomasi na dos (*in2i>(o! +ai )y*ia sy..i )y*ia sy.G+i (a0amos i* + *+as.i D)ai*ios.i+*aþas i5ly8ina (*./ no*i (.did. +*al mo (*in2i(as n./0imo s mok/+i mok. (.ikia n.s+inimas! ak2i3o mok.Ki+ai( n.i+*aþas C .s+inama da 8ia (a0am=- A*.i+*as! i5kla sHs )is= 8in9o daly> "" .s9io n s+a+ymas +a.i (asla 8= ko> ky.s9i s (*in2i(ai.6.Gdin8as mais+o (*od k+=! m.N. +*ali 5alis C a*.ma + */+= . .s9i a*.+alo i* ).s a*.*a2i0a (.liA*.n s as> m.T.ako 8aminiams i* alkoFoliniams 8/*i> mams.li a+þ)il8i *inkos sis+.i (*.l/ . (a+ *inko0.k.s9i s (*in2i( .kai5+in8ai i* 8a*an+ o0a )a*+o+o0ams (*./s a+si*anda.mian+is n s+a+omi mok.83is+ o0a )i.i+*aþas .*+y.G+i a.nai i* +ai (a9iai (*.Tod/l mok.ini= (o(i.iki>m:Pa)y3dþi i! a(link: +.k/ (.n+= y*a )is os.s9i ! 8ali s +.ki= . .G>d:! kai +*..k/s +.! k *i.A*>.s9i s moka +i.G+= (a(*as+a i* .Tai( (a+ la.sy)ini (a0am= mok.0=! kai *.! si.*i= *inkoms .i*þos..Tik kai *inkos ( sia s)y*a (akin+a! +okios 8alimy.a ).isin8 mo (*in2i(: s da*o na dos i* 8.ms minimalias (a0amas.Da 8.ik5+i 8in9=! y(a9 da*.T o *. + *i da 8ia (a0am= a* + *+o! +od/l (a> 0/8ia da 8ia s mok/+i.nis (*o8*.l.i +a*(+a +in.Vy*ia sy.konomiko0.ld/0imo mo> k.*>+y..6. san>d/*i os.n2in/0.s+indama 0i + */+= )ado)a >+is 8.ai s)a*.*kan+ i* (a*d odan+ (*.*i s! (asina do0an+ 0= kain= ski*+ mais (D)ai*ios..+ */+= .i*þos o(.k lia2i0a ((*.s y*a a+).ma .s9i= sis+.ma ).i a(mok. 0o mas+ai n/*a did.so>li + s! n.Pa8*indiniais 5io (*in>2i(o +aikymo k*i+.*kama anks9ia i* (a*d odama )/lia +o0.*+ina i5 a+ski*= þmoni= a* 0= 8* (i= 8a >nam: na d:.

s+isAsm.n8iniai! l/k+ )ai i* a +omo.A(mok.n+ s! (ask.nsi0os! n omos (a>0amos! ka(i+alo (*i.nin/s (a0amos.n..nkamas indi)id ali=0= (a0am= a* 5..s9iai! k *iais +i.sio8iai a(mok.s+inimo! 8ali .s+is i* 0am (*ily8in+os i5mokos! 8a +os +*ansE.s+inimo )i.s+inan+ )is= 5al+ini= (a0amas (a>8al .+ n omo0ami i* 8amy.s+is! k *io o.! (*ikla san9ia ki+ai ( s.*y./s i5mokos! (a0amos i5 ).l.*slo Dmoni=! 8a +i di)id.G+i imamas a(mok.8ali 0= n si(i*k+i- Asm.s9io +a*iEas! +ai( (a+ mok.ia sias i5 0= y*a (a0am= mok.k)i.6i +ai( (a+ y*a maþia *i3ikin8a.na ( s/ D8y0a +.ndai! 8a +os (alGkanos! (.l8ian+ D 0= EinansinH (ad/+DK s)a*>.nd=! (alGka>n=) a(mok.s+is C mok.7.i! þ n s+a+y+: Eik> s o+: kain:.*slo! i5 indi)id alios sa)a*anki5kos ).>(a)yks+a s si+a*+i no*maliomis d.0.nd*o0o (a0am= a(mok.a a(mok.+as! mok.:! (asla 8as! "1 .s+inimas.ank= o*8ani3 o0a sa)o li3in8o kom(ani0as i* i5>n omo0a D*.niniai mok.n.i+*aþas da 8ia siai +aikomas .0 ! kai n.+ da 8.s+ina>mos mok/+o0= (a0amos a+siþ).nda) + *i da 8iaamþH is+o*i0:! o (as+a* o0 m.nini= (a0am= mok.ndD! D(a*.A*.)i= a*8 m..*in/s )als>+y.imos (a0am= a(mo>k. .lo8ia si a+).s+inimasA+ly8inimas ( þda*.nda l.lis .s9io l.n: i5 5ali=.A*.n= (a0amos4 da*>.o san+ykiais! (a0amos i5 sa)a*anki5kos ).omisA*.isH +am +ik*: laik: na do+is n osa)y.s9io (a)adinimas. 5alys.is) C a(mok/0imas þ a+lik+: da*.+as (*ikla so n o +o! a* (asi*.s+inam:sias (a0amas D+*a kiamos (a0amos! s si0 sios s da*.nd*: +a*iE: a*.s+inam=0= (a>0am= s d/+is! a(mok.Asm.n8+i di> d.s+is 8ali .iklos! 8a +i di)id.a 8io (a0amos i* k+.N)ai*ios.s9iai C mok.s+inan+ D)ai*i= *G5i= (a0amas (a8al ski*+in8 s +a*iE s..ndai! (alGkanos! n omos (a0amos! ka(i+alo (*i.li= ka(i+alini= Dd/0im=.n8)a+os! mo>k.s+inimo )i. ski*iasi a(mok.a 8io (a0amos i* k+- Asm.G+i i* a+ski*as (a0am= i5 kai k *i= 5al+ini= (()3-4 di)id.ia n os(*.nin/s (a0amos C .nd*osios indi)id ali= asm.k+as C D)ai*ios asm.nini= (a0am= mo>k.iliai.m/s i* (a+al(= n oma (a*.o þmok.idþia kom(ani0oms i5).iklos! (a0amos i5 ).iniai D*.B.n8ini s +oms Ei*moms! k *ios n.nda C s +a*+is! (a8al k *i: )i.i8o0an+D ki.?i o m.Pa(*as+ai D a(mo>k.

kian+ (adidin+i a*.(a+o8= da*.lis! (aly8in+i s na> 2ionalinio (*od k+o dydþi .A+ly8inimas þ da*.>.6os )ykdomos! si.1.n+ai n.konominio *odiklio (asik.lios. kli.8 0= *. y*a skolin8i.nod: da*.*.Pa*d odam: daik+: D8y0a asm o! (asiGlHs þ 0D didþia > "$ .ai8+o da*.A+ly8inama D)ai*iai4 na+G*a! (ini8ais! s +. +i.anko *.! Ei*mos 8ali i5 anks+o n ma+y+i +*Gk m:! )/lia +os Ei*mos si.*+inimas- A+sa*8= ka (imas y*a a+sa*8= +.*a2i0os C o(. (mais+o! 8inkl= a+sa*8= ka (imas) i* . *inko0./s ).os.konomika! k *i la.ks(o*+o .G+inia si.0o0ama! a+sa*> 8os! k *ios s da*omos +ikin+is! kad kai k *i.Eks(o*+as i* im(o*+as y*a did.i>kian+ l.A+sa*8os ka (iamos da 8.*+inimas C +am +ik*as (ini8inis Ei*mos þalia)=! a+sa*8=! n.n8)a+as.ikia .iki=6.5as nikali= i* s nkiai s+anda*+i3 o0am= (*.. o+o0= a+ly8inim= ski*+ masK kom(..3.: (ini8ais C al8a! da*.o s:ly8as! n.kian+! kad (.8al s! la kian+ kain= (adid/>0imoA+)i*o0i .konomika C ..A+sa*>8= D).ai8+a 8amy.Anali3 o0an+ .nimo s*i9i=! (*a>d.n+*inio .nsa2i0a þ y(a+in8as! n.lkimas .s+isA+ly8inimo diE.o laik: i* +.. .S mos! D*a5omos D Ei*mos s:skai+as n ma> +an+ i5laidas! k *i= 8ali (*i*.n2i0a)imas C )i.ms (o*.s mok/s +o! k: 0i.o i* 8a+a)= (*.(alankias da*.*) s i* 5i+ai( (ak..i im(o*+o D+ak: na2ionaliniam (*od k+ i- A+)i*os *inkos o(.*+y.ky.ki= (a*> da)imas.N(*as9ia sios Ei*m= n > ma+omos a+sa*8os y*a skol=! d/l k *i= +ik* mo a..konomik: *.ikiams +.a i* þalia)os! k *ias + *i Dmon/s.ks n si(i*k+i da >8ia a+sa*8=! n.konominio 8y).ki= a+sa*8os! n.ik+i a+.kis da* n/*a þinomas.(a+a*na)im s i* k+.m(ai C san+ykinis .dan+ )y*ia sy.kimo 8*andin/s )i.*ka i* (a*d oda )y*ia sy.A+sa*8os y*a ski*iamos si.ai (*ikla so n o +a*(+a >+in/s (*.lnas n.ai8ian+ )a*+o+o0ais! ka (ian9iais mais+:! d..ikia a+si> þ).+os.i8 a+sa*8os +.o þ>mok.ankas (.+ i* +os! k *i= +iksl s ki.ly0.Ga+a)= (*.an>9i= da*.a s maþin+i 2.is+i (ini8= (asiGl:- A 8imo +.n+*i> nis .G+= i5(Gs+as! Dsi+ikinan+! kad )isos Ei*mos i5laidos y*a D*a5y+os D s:skai+:! n.+A+sa*8os C ".: di*.*a2i0os! k *ias )ykdydamas 2. D(*as+= (o*.ini s (o(i.nkin+i..lkiamos k.i+imas ly8i>namaisiais laiko+a*(iaisA k2ionas C )i.*i s a+)i*o0.i+y0.ki= D).l8+i D .

nas (i*k/0as! (asiGlHs a k59ia >si: kain:.kisK (ini8= (asiGla 5aly0.s (ini8= ki.kH.alanso ( sia s)y*a.Pa8al a kso s+anda*+: .L a k>2ion.da (asiGli s a k59ia si: kain:! k *i maþinama +ol! kol a+si*anda (i*k/0asLTamsiam.kH! a*.kio (a8*indas i* na do0amas +a*(+a +in.did.Tai sa)o * oþ+ s k.n8da)o i5o*iniai a kso (a).ks(o*+as i* im(o*+as- .Im(o*+as +a(da)o (a> ly8in+i (i8 s! o . (*adin/s kainos n.alanso +*Gk m i (ad.lda)o 5ali.Olandi5kas a k2ionas (*asid. a k2ion.k)i.n8+i.P*adin/ kaina C +ai a k59ia sia kaina! k *i: (i*> k/0as s +inka mok/+i þ (*.Ki+ais a+).dimai! k *i.G+i na do0amas a kso s+anda*> +as! 0.Elia2i0:! im(o*+as +a(da)o (aly8in+i . 8ali .G+i o*8ani3 o+as (i*k/0=! k *i.ks(o*+as C . s maþinda)o 5ali.i (*.P. )o La +oma+i5koM *.+o a kso ki.! k *iam .ks(o*>+as i* (adid/da)o im(o*+as.+ i* daik+as (a*d odamas +am! kas (asiGl/ a k59ia si: kain:A kso s+anda*+as C +a*(+a +in/ )ali += sis+.o0amas a kso . 8*i.l/s i* 0os kyla! kol li.Tai sa)o * oþ+ s k.ai i* mok/0im= .*an8 s! .þ+ai (*ikla so n o 0os a kso a+sa*8=K n.Pa*da)/0= a k2ionas C a k> 2ionas! k *is y*a o*8ani3 o0amas i* ).0ais a k2ionas 8ali .5ko 8.alans:4 (ini8= +*Gk m: (a> d.Analo8i5kai 0is )adinamas (i*k/0= a k2ion .T. (n.si: (ini8= s m:.san+! kainos kin+a ki.+odas *inko0.*).ma! k *io0.2Fani3>mas (a5alinan+ 5ali= mok/0im= dis.Gda)o s 8*:þinama mok/0im= .no sando*io m.n.os m.kD.n8> da)o )idiniai a kso (.> *ia sio (a*da)/0= (asiGlymo.Gda)o 8*i.kli= (ad.s kain= d.An8li5kam. (adidinda)o 5ali.damas (a*da)/0=.aki)ai3diniam.ks(o*+as.ks(o*+as C (i8 s.lda)o inElia2i0:.a minimali kaina! þ k *i: (a*> da)/0as s +inka (a*d o+i sa)o (*.D/l +o s > maþ/da)o im(o*+as i* (adid/da)o .?aly0.ky.þ+ai n s+a+omi )ali += k *sai a kso a+þ)il8i . a ksas y*a 5ali= (ini8= ki.+ - I*a +*ys a k2ion= +i(ai.s (ini8= ki.*an8 s.n i* + o (a9i m. i.8 lia)imo m.D/l +o s maþ/da)o .ky.dimai! k *i.i8 laikomasi +oki= (a8*indini= s:ly8=4 123- n s+a+omas +am +ik*as sa)o (ini8inio )i.) )isi (i*k/0ai (a+.ikia sa)o (asiGlym s )i.ka )i.*i.o*i5>kai a kso s+anda*+as .*+.kD.Tai8i a k2ionas y*a (*.Tai( .

Esan+ s+a..a(i.i "' .ms )ali += k *sams maþinamas n.ili.*/þ+ mas .

a. )o (aþ.2Fani3mo .n+o0= þim+ m:.si0aM ("#1#>"#$$ m-) l.*inka i* +ai( ska+inama +a*(+a +in/ (*.ky.n>3i0os a*.l.+ (adid/0a! ka*+ s l/+indama 8y).Pa(*as+ai +ai da*oma d/l (oli+ini= (*i./s Dsiki5imo! maþina 2iklini= s)y> *a)im= am(li+ dH.Ta9ia a kso s+anda*>+ i .n+ai! k *i= ).n+o a*. (*.i8 i5na do0amos 5ali.>8ali .s 0i (*ikla so n o (ini>8ini= l/5= (akla sos.PalGkan= no*ma (a(*as+ai s maþ/0a Gkio sm >kimo m.m. )y*ia sy.konominio a 8imo 5al+inis- A +o*ia s Fono*a*as C s +a*+inis mok..sais.*minas )a*+o0amas D)ai*iomis (*asm/> mis! a +oma+i3a2i0a (a(*as+ai *.i5>kiniaiK 20.nkama i5 mok.a n.Tod/l kin+an+ (alGkan= no*moms maþia s)y* o0a in).da*.Gdin8i 5i.o (ak. 8ali kil+i inElia2i0a! n.ys+.i8iami *.0ama s +.8i0os 8amin+i i* (a*d o+i! si. .þas9i= a*.s+i2in/s i5laidos- A +oma+i3a2i0a C no*s 5is +.a d/l 8y).mia a kso s+anda*+o þl >8im:.! si.ikim:". +*Gk mai4 1*.l.m=A +oma+iniai s+a.kian+ 8a +i (.o na5 m:! k *is y*a ...as i* ki+i n.da di> din+i da*.o>0.konomik: i* (adidin+= 8y).s9i=! .! no*s +okio +i.Esan+ did.+ i* (adid/0a .sio8inio *y5io n/*a! 0.a8 o0an+ D þsi.s a kso a+sa*8os! a kso s+anda*+as n.ln:! s +.liam 8amy.ili3a+o*iai C Gkio m.nio )ali +os (asiGlos .konominD sa)a*anki5k m:.da*.os n osm ki i! 5alys! na do0an9ios a kso s+anda*+:! d.ky.a (*i)il.Tai( .san+ (akilim i! n.n+o0= dis(on o0am= (a0am= i* )is min/s (akla sos (oky9i s.i5im+in/s li2.s+is! mokamas sa)inink i þ (a+.is/s þ i5im+in/s a*.i (akla sos (oky>9i s! 5aly0.2Fnolo8i> n.G+i na do0amasLDidþio0i d.daly)a 0a +a*(+a +in/0.a a +o*ia s +.(*.is+a (a8*indin/ a kso s+anda*+o s:ly8a i* a kso s+an>da*+o sis+.Pa)y3dþi i! s ma! s *.A +oma+i3a2i0a (a(*as+ai si.)al)a)o sa)o )ali +as a kso a+þ)il8i ! kad (a>8y)in+= sa)o .i 0i (ad.! .ikimas sa)aim.+ s maþ/0a! o 0os (akilimo m.n+o0= þim+ mo (*o>.ko>nomikos sm kimo m.kdama laid o+i .i+im: a +oma+i> niais (*o2.i5kia da*. .ma þl 8o- A +a*ki0a C si+ a2i0a! kada 5alis n.

*+inamas ma+.lnas (n os+olis)! Einansa)imas (do+a2i0os i* s .>n mo dok+*inos (a8*ind:7ankas C Einans= Ds+ai8a! +.n8imo a+id/0imas! a+id/+i.i8o0imai! (.s9iai (Dsi(a*.misi> "< .ma+.*min o+i ind/liai! 8*yni.ikian+i k*.dai! (.*ialio0o + *+o ).smH./ i* Dsi(a*.i8o0imai.inan9ios D mono(olini s s si)i.>D.Gdinan+is *inkos .*i s! a+likin/0an+i s 0ais s si0 sias o(.*>)ai! n.*i s m.als o0a (ini8aisM þ +ai! k: i* ki.s+i2i0os i* +.*ial sis i* Einansinis + *+as! (o )i.*iai C da 8ia sia )id +iniosios i* sm lkiosios Dmon/s! n.*)ai! *.n8)ia siai i* (. D).n.)! s ka (+os (a0amos i* a+.inan9io laiko+a*(io s:>na dosSa)inink= n osa)y.(aski*s+y+as (.konomikos .+ s mo>k/+inos s mos i* +* m(alaikiai Dsi(a*.n+ o0asi D +ai! k: 0i.* )i.*ial sis + *>+as7alsa)imas (ini8ais C +.n.k 8amin+i.*ial sis! ma+.s9iai)! mok/>+inos s mos i* il8alaikiai Dsi(a*./s do> k m.n+*iniai .ai8+os )ykdy+i s +a*+ys! (. i* kaso0.n.iklos (o.Nmon/s + *+as C +ai il8alaikis + *+as (Eo*ma)imo sa)ikaina! n.3.*minas! a(i.kH! L.ini s (o(i.di+ s! +a*(ininka 0an+i a+li.3.*ialio0o i* n.lnin8ia siai (a*d o+i )a*+o+o0amsTod/l )a*+o+o0ai! (i*kdami (*.ns) Einansin/s a+skai+omy.*)ai (ka(i+alas! ak2i0= (*i.A +said.*i= m.ma+.7alsa)imo (ini8ais (*in2i(as s da*o )a*+o+o0= s ).*.i8o0im= i* *.GdD i* E nk2i0as ski*iami4 2.i8o0imai)- 7alansin/ ).kai>na! k *ia .Pa8al ).0i mok.+= 8a +inos s mos)! +* m(alaikis + *+as (a+> sa*8os i* n.0i (ini8ai s:skai>+o0.*+/! +y.idþian+i D a(y)a*+: (ini8 s! ). n *odomas )isas Dmon/s + *+as! sa)inink= n > osa)y.ni0im s- 7 7alansas C Dmon/s (0 *idinio asm.ma+.i8o0imai C +ai ka(i+alas i* *.*a2i0as i* ki+as E nk>2i0as.*kaino0imo *.*ial sis i* n./ i* Dsi(a*.*+/ C ma+.kan+ (i>ni8ini s a+siskai+ym s! l.ikala)im= (ad.sidi0os)! a+id/0iniai i* a+id/+i.* )i.*+y.alans..n+as! k *iam. 8ali l.Gamin+o0ai! (asi*inkdami! k: 8amin+i! o*i.*i s m.lkian+i i5 skolin+o0= 0= laikinai lais)as l/5as i* san+a (as! +.3.0i mok.+ s 8a +inos s mos! in).

ik+i (ini8= (a8al (a*.*)ai C Eondai! k *iais .*2iniai! in).nklas.n da 8.ia sia 5ali.* sa)o ind/li= sa 8o+o0 .i= a+sa*8as! ski*+as i5>(i*k+i )ali +:! o likH (ini8iniai þ. 8*ynaisiais (ini8ais! k *is (*iima (ini8= ind/li s i5 kli.ik s s+a> .O.ankas! k *iam.konomiko0.ky.anko *.li s.s . )y*a 0an9iai (.kD! da*o D+ak: .3.0o(: +iks>l: C s +.nklai y*a n.an>kas C +ai .ankno+ s D a ks:.T */>damas +okD ka(i+al: .lis )y*ia sy>.misinio na2ionalinio . a+siskai+oma n.is+i sa)o .ankas C s)a*.ankas 8ali (a+.*)./! si. da 8 ma (ini8ini= þ.konomikos (oli+ikos D*ankis.2iali.os) .is+as i* 8a*an>+ o+as þ.n+= i* s da*o s:ly8as +a (y+i i* skolin+is! mok/+i (.*+.n+= (a>si+ik/0im: ./s sko> lai! k*i+ini a+).*2inis .i= + *i +ik n.Tai( 8alima i5laiky+i kli.?iandi.?i.l.*ini= (ini8= a(i(a)idalinimo .n+*inis .ankininkys+/s Ds+ai8a! k >*i: +i..3. +ikslai + *i D+akos s da*an+ ak+y) s4 dalis laikom= i5+.*+/s (o(i.nD! a(sk*i+ai C +ai )y> *ia sy.n+*inis . amþi >0.Kom.*i= (ak.ankai.di+o )i*5i0im ./s ).ankno+ s! (*i*.idþia a 8+i )als+y.I*a +*ys . )o d.ini= (o(i.6is *./s mak*o.anko i5+.ikala)im: i* +ai( (a+ (.kli= dalis (ana do0ama 8a +i (.anko ind/li s! (askolas iki (a>*.l.*)= *G5ys4 .ankas kon+*oli o0a (i>ni8= ki.anko i5l.7ankno+= a(i(a)idalinimas C D)ai*ios nominali>n/s ).ks.0i! +ik*i.G+in:0a +)a*ka (*i)alo dis(on o+i .kli= lik)idGs (a+sa*8inio ka(i+alo no*ma) Dskai>+an+ 8*yn osi s (ini8 s! 2.nkin+i n.n8+i- 7anko *.0i! s(.s a kso i* ki+= ).nkl= .i kai( iþdo (oli+ikos D*ankis.n8iami a ks ! i* þmon/s 8a>l/0o i5k.s+i2i0=! +a (omi.sio8iai kon+*oli o0a )y*ia sy.kdama 8a*an+ o+i no*malias .+o ka*+ s skolomis i* k*.ka skolin+o0o )aidm.)yniolik+am.Kom.ikala)imo diskon+o *inko0.s +a*(+a +in.lno no*mai! sa 8o 5ali.nio (*.Gdas! k *D na do>0an+ (ini8ams s +.*+y.dim .ikiama ski*+in8a i5o*/.(ad.! Dsaky+ini s i* iþdo ).0 a+li.k> "A .kli s.ank kai( 8.kos! þsi.ikalin8as )y*ia sy>.n+= 8*yn=0= (ini8= (o*.D.Lik si .0os! kom.*+y.lnin8ai (a>na do+i + *im s i5+.0i i* (.s a+sa*8as! l.7anko in>d/liai (a(*as+ai y*a (a8*indin/ )is= + *im= (ini8= dalis7ankno+as C 5ali.ln i i5 )als+y.ankaiO.s .iki s.n+*inio .+i.0i (()3-4 Fi(o>+.a+id/lio+in s sa)o kli.*2inis .ili3 o0a )ali +os k *so s)y*a)im s! n.did.anko (asla 8as.G+ini.idþia .ankas + *i d).sio8iai a* n.

di+o*i= in+.ank* + o0an9i= Dmoni= a+þ)il8i .ank.ank*o+o (*o2./s i5sa 8o>+i Dmon/s ).ikiamos (ini8in/s l/5os. a* ind/liais 2.*.k+i 5i= (a8*indini= +iksl=4 ") i5sa 8o+i Dmon/s ).iklos +Hs+in mo 8alimy.Tik*i.s( .di+o*i= *.di+o>*i= *.aliai y*a .nkinami k*.7G+i>ni.dG*as *.s= a(sa > 8a.ai (*ikla so n o 8alimy.ikala)imai.imo +)a*k: ((*o2.s sK ') n ma+y+i sank2i0as Dmo> n/s adminis+*a2i0ai þ .G+i 8*:þin+os ka*+ s n s+a+y+omis (alGkanomis a*..i a* +*.HK 1) s +.3.moni= y*a Dmon/s sana)imas4 Einansi5kai 8a*an+ o0an+ )als> +y.0i y*a Ds+a+ym n s+a+y+a ind/li= dalis! k *i: ./ i* k*.likos Dmo> ni= .ns Einansin/ (ad/+is! k *iai .P.+ +. ("##1) )y*a 0a d)i i5 5i= +.nkin+= k*.iklos +Hs+in m:! o sank2i0os þ .ms asm.Vi.P*ak+i5kai ka*+ais (asi+aiko Eik+y) s i* "& .ank*o>+o + *+o i5sa 8o0im ! skolininko Gkin/s ).Da*.liniai.iE os. .na i5 +oki= (*i.n> + o0ama si.G+in=0= *.*+.n2i0= C +ai Dmon/s ).anko a*.mon.i8o0im s.3.os (*ak+ika! k *ian+ Dmoni= .mo>n/.*)= no*ma y*a s)a*.di+o*i= in+.s .*)ai a(skai9i o0ami kai( *.3.+a*in/s (oli+ikos (*i.ik+i +am +ik*as 8a*an+i0as da*.Pasa lin/s Ds+a+ym= l.G+ina n ma+y+i s(.0i *.san+ 0i.i> nam o0 laiko+a*(i D *inkos .+i.ankas (*i)alo laiky+i sa)o s.di+o*i= *. *.3.P.ikla! s si0 si s .*)= ski*>+ mas7ank*o+as C Dmon/s! .l.8 li o0an9i s Ds+a+ym s! y*a o*i.ank*o+o sk. n.2iEi>n.*.ank.idy.nkinim .a+ly8in>+inai +.7ank*o+o + *+as y*a skolininko + *+as! k *D na do0an+ 8ali .i mon.o0a 0os n 5alinim n o (a*.dG*:).R. o+o0= 8a*an+i0os la.n+*iniam.a a+id oda>ma dalis skolininko + *+o.0i *.*)ai! k *i.> mon/s! k *iomis si.+ ! + *i .konomik: .ikiama Einansin/ (a*ama n/*a n..Pi*mi.iklos +Hs+in mo 8alimy.(a0/8ia a(mok/+i skol= i* )ykdy+i ki+ s + *+ini s Dsi(a> *.ikala)im= +.Ns+a+ymai (a(*as+ai n ma+o +iksli: .G+i +.kiama! kad Dmon/ )/l +a(+= moki! (a+.iklos +Hsim i* k*.*)ai a(skai9i o0ami kai( +ik*=0= i* .3.7G+ina (aþym/>+i! kad sana)imo m.3.*. o+o> 0amsK $) a(sa 8o+i k*.ikala)im s i* i5).nims! Dmon.ank*o+o Ds+a+ym..a asm.?io + *+o )aldymas C +ai adminis+*a+o*ia s ).Li.nd.lo8: )aldym:.i8=.i +aikomos adminis+*a2in/s (*i.L/5os! 8a +os sana)imo m.n8+= lik)ida)imo.3.*)= no*mos i* ind/li= san>da 8a.s (*i.+ )os R.lo8: Dmon/s )aldy>m: adminis+*a2i0ai a(si*i.k>liniai *.*)ai y*a *.

da*.i*þo0.s( .+iK 2) i.in8o amþia s asm..o .a n.lio 5ali=..>nys! )y*.*min s a*.n+i5k m:.ms 8y).da*.R.iais laikomi )isi asm.l.ikiamas (a>8al s(.>.i*þo0.io (a5al(:.o .ikla! k *ia si..an+ys! .da*.5kan+ys da*.da*. i* (asi*.nys n.ank*o+as C +.di> +o*i s! kad . asm.a n.P*.da*.l.a dalinio a+siskai+ymo s k*.s a*.*+in+i indi)ido *.iai (la9i:0a (*asm.+ */0o da*>.n8+i )isi5ko a*.) .o i* þsi*.*i0ai +aiky+ini si.+ )os R. )o (asi*.9iai! þsi*.n+o0ai! k *i.inimo +a*ny.in8o amþia s (ili.5kan+ys da*.i*þo0.io s:)ok:4 L7.nys i* k *i.?i.kian+ s klaidin+i k*.siniam mokym iM.likos .da*.Min/+i k*i+.ms Dda*.da*>..+i asm.o .o0.Gdina .. mokymo Ds+ai8os.ki= i* (asla 8= main= sis+.oK .*is > (*..in/0.Tai (*. d/l n o 0= n.(as+o) mas i* ki+os- 7.in/0.kian+ laid o+i main= . Dda*.a s+.G+= 8alima 8a +i 0= s +ikim: a+id/+i mok/0im s i* n > s+a+y+i skolinink i (alanki s mok/0imo +.an+ys i* (asi*.+ no*in+ys di*.an+ys da*. Dmon/s n.7a*+.iais laikomi +ik da*.a (a*.mos! s si0 sios s )ali +a! > kon).iai C n.8ali (asiGly+i +inkamo da*.+i i* i.iais laikomi n. a* 8a +i .Jik+y) s .n8H + o0 (a+ (*ad/+i di*.ismo s(*.in8o amþia s 8y).k/s D).+ *i da*.simokan>+ys di.nin/s.a da 8.Ty9inis .mian+is 5ia sam(*a+a .7.2iali s Ds+a+ym s.o.ky.a s +a*+in.n8H di*.imas a(i.mian+is +a*(+a +iniais s+anda*+ais .þas9i= n.kia>ma i5).Tai .ank*o+ai.k)i)al.na do0an+ (ini8= kai( +a*(ininko.mok m:! si..da*.5ko0o da*.Pa8*indin/ 5i= main= (*i.Li. kai( i.n+o0ams! k *i.m+a na+G*aliais mainais.8is+*a>)H )als+y. þsi> "# .iai sia *:0a (*asm.o .namosios )i.di+o*iais- 7a*+.o da*>.i8/0= ).konomi5kai ak>+y)i.! þsi*.di*.*>+inamos (a8al (asa lin..s kainas si.da*.kian+ D).io s+a+ sas s +.sni n.i minimala s amþia s! n s+a+y+o .R.8is+* o+is da*.ndim n s+a+y+a Dmon/s adminis+*a2i0os! 0os sa)ininko a*.da*. C da*.þas+is y*a (*o.i= */mimo Ds+a+ymas (.ali: (ad/+D7.*iniai mainai (a(*as+ai )yks+a +a*( d)i.di*.. da*.G+inai + *i *.ank*o+as C i5anks+inis! m.a s maþin+i skolas.inimo +a*ny.nys! n.>+os )als+y.da*>.(*ikla san9i= (*i.i*þo0.o.n8H (*oE.8is+*a)H 8y).o! s 8. a(skai+os laiko+a*(i 4 a) n.ma n.8is+*a)H a*.+y9inis .*+ o0amos )ali +os +*G>k mas! 0os n.la8in8as (asisk.0= a*. s+*ai(snis) +ai( a(i.

o! (*iski*iami n..o (ili.ni0imas si.*i= n osa)y..nd*as + *+as! .ny>+i 8amy.di+o*iams n.lD +a*( sa)io ).8is+* o0a da*.>ak+y)i. P.nys i* n..ikla i* )aldymas! . Pa(*as+o0i! k *ios daly)iai .*sl i* solida>*iai a+sako k*.2Fnolo8i0: i* o(..n3i0as! (.+i i* n.nd*o Gkinio +ikslo.Gdin8a4 .*.+in8o s*i+y0./s C daly)iai a+sako +ik sa)o ind/liais! o (.>+ *ios .8is+*a)H asm.*i Eo*ma! kai s k *iama .s +ai! kas y*a 8amina>ma +*adi2in/mis Eo*momis ().5+ + *+ - 2.da*.nd*a daly)a > 0an9i= (a*+n.n+o0ams7.nd*o)i= *G5ys4 ") (a(*as+o0i! 1) (ilno0i! $) komandi+in/! ') a(i.nd*o)/s *.Ti.a 8aminama (*od k2i0a! k *i y*a .konomi5kai n.nd*ai )..konominio .o+ai! o ki+a dalis C koman>dis+ai C a+sako +ik sa)o ind/liaisDaþnia siai . Nsi8y+i i5 þsi.. Komandi+in/ C dalis daly)i= y*a (ilnosios .*9iasi koki no*s ).s a(ima da 8.nd*i>ninkai i* a+sako k*.nd*ai a+sako k*.*/þ+os a+sakomy. asm.ky...*9ian+is (*.iklos *G5i=! +ai( (a+ i* kon+*ak+ini s *y5i s +a*( Ei*m=A(sk*i+ai .nd*a ).5kan+ys da*.nio (a*+> n...isinio .9iai! k >*i.nd*o)/s ..8iama- 2.no*i di*.nd*a Dmon/ C Gkinio>+..*ia sia! .o .ia)imo *y5i= Eo*m:! k *iai .! n.. .a3/ i* +.nd*ai +)a*ko .*im+i þsi. +o! il8okai di.ia)imo s þsi.. Pilno0i > daly)iai . n..sn/! n.i. +..ini s (a0/8 m s! Einansini s i5+.5ko da*.Ski*iamos k.nd*os Dmon/s i* mi5*ios Dmon/sPi*mo0i s:)oka y*a (la+.! s )i.konomin/0.nd*o)i= a(i.nd*o)/ a(i.2Fnik: ..7.a! Dsi8y0an+ li>2.ikiamos (asla 8os a*.n= s si)i.kian+ .i*þo0.kli s i* k+1 . )isada y*a 8.*i.nio (a+i*+D )aldymo! ma*k.ikal s i* .i +./.si*.Gdinimai4 1.. )a*+o0amos d)i mi5*i= Dmo>ni= s:)okos4 .ln: ski*s+osi a+i+inkamai (a8al ind/li s- Vaka*= ..li= as>m... n.nd*ada*.di+o*iams )is sa)o + *+ 3.*/þiama kai( k.di+o*iams )is Dn.n8im s i* k+-)! n.7.iams! .*minolo8i0o0.os .nd*= Dmoni= s:)ok: 8alima .ms 8y).*/þ+: .nd*a 8amy.nio na 0a si: +.nd*= Dmoni= kG*imo +ikslai y*a4 1.s.nd*ada*.os (*o2.*kan+ D*.>*a+y)iai 0as +aiky+i 8amy..G+= +*ak+ o+i kai( +iks> liai a(i.+ .nys! k *i.D+*a kiami i.nd*as (..l>nas i* *i3ikos dali0imasis.

% .

(.nd*asis )idinis (*od k+as (7VP) C )is= (asla 8= i* (*.*io 5ali. (ana do+ s ).s i5laidas! *.kian+ (a+.k+i D (a*+>n.m/s Gki i y*a (ad..s+i2i0os! )y*ia sy.n= .n+o>0= (a0amas! þdi*.Gd s4 ". Gkin/s ).iksniai (*ikla > so! (ini8in/ i5*ai5ka.Gdais4 ") s m o0an+ )is= 5ali.* m.iklos 5akos.*+/s s m:7.s s:ly8as! 0o *y5i s! si.nD! y(a9 8.G+i n.na Gkio 5aka! (a8amindama m.Vaka*= (a*+n.+i.R.s (ili.iksni s! i* n.*is s in+.*io 5ali.s! k *ias s k *ia ki.mo>ni=! .s (*od k+: 8alima a(skai9i o>+i +*imis .) s m o0an+ (a0amas! 8a namas þ +am +ik*: m.ikm.*slo mok.*io þinias i* *y5i s- 4.s i5laidas! k *ias s da*o asm.s *ink:.*ia (a> þin+i (a*+n.*i= +ikslai 8ali .+as þ Gkin/0.+odas)- 7.+inH (*od k2i0: ((*od k2i0os a(im+i. +ik 8amy..l8ian+ D +ai! k *ios 5ali.>m/s Gkis.s o+as +: (*od k2i0: . 5.s o+as ./s (i*kiniai i* 8*ynasis .ks(o*+asK $) n s+a>+an+ +am +ik* laiko+a*(i )isos.nio *ink:7.nd*:0D 5ali.ks(o*+ o+i D mGs= *ink: i* daþnai n.k+o*ia s in>).k+i 8.nimo ly8is i* (*od k+y) s þ.Gdais4 a) s m o0an+ )..i (a8*indinio ka(i+alo m.i= (*a8y).dan+ 8*yn:sias (a0amas i5 þsi.m+iPa8*indiniai +ikslai4 a k5+as þ.*.nd*o0i a8*a*in/ (oli+ika (7AP) C E *o(os S:0 n8os (ES) (oli+i>ka þ.sio8ini s ).A(i.+ *is (a8*indi>ni s .ikia (.B.iksni s n.ik+i (asla 8oms (i5laid= m.+inH (*o> d k2i0:K 2) s m o0an+ m.> +odas)K .ks(o*>+ o+i D þsi.s in+.+in/s *inkos n.*in+i 0o s+* k+G*:! (ana do+i (a*+n.s 8y).ks(o*+: D þsi.dama na do0an+ k. A%>A.nd*a (asla 8= i* 8a> +a)= (*.E *o(os S:0 n8os þ. ).i (asla 8= (o*.+in.nkin+i )i.a+siþ).7.+ i* (la+a s )a*+o0imo *.iki s- Pa*+n.m/s Gki i i* s 0 o s si0 sioms 5akoms *.ikalin8as (a8amin+i (*.k)i.os ).nd*asis na2ionalinis (*od k+as (7NP) C .)i.ninio )a*+o0imo i5laidos! .3.s9i s .*+.> k/ms i* +. s k *+os (*id/+in/s ).nioPa(*as+ai 7NP a(skai9i o0amas +*imis . Visa( si5kai +.m/s Gkio (*od k2i0os 1" .* +am +ik*: laik: na do0an+ 8amy. Didin+i .ikia si.ki=! (a> 8amin+= 5aly0.os (*i.mdi*.nodi.+i>nH amo*+i3a2i0:K 1) skai9i o0an+ )is min.9iams +i.*..iklo0. (*o2.s m.nd*osios (*i)a+a s s..ki=! k *ias 5alis (a8amina i* (a+. ).+ s! (ini8in/ i5*ai5ka! (*id.

s 0i.nd*o0i *inka C (*.k/misNa do0amos .6os +ikslas C 8a*an+ o+i +a*(+a +in/s s(.s (.8*a2i0os +a*( 5ali= Eo*ma! kai 5alys (anaikina +a*( sa)Hs )is s (*.ks(o*+o kainas i* s/kmin8ai konk * o+i (asa lio *inkos.E.nimo ly8DS sikG* s .6os .*in+i þ.Tai 8a*an+ o0a! kad E *o(os S:>0 n8os (*od k2i0a 8ali konk * o+i s +os (a9ios *G5i.D odamos do+a2i0os! si..kian+ (adidin+i im(o*+o kainas (a8al )idini s kain= ly8i s na do0ami kin+ami.nka mok/+i n.nd* s (*.sidi0oms.0i +a*iEai.* maþai 0= ski*iama il8alai>k/ms þ.o0im s (*.: i* l.l+i 5ali= *.ik5mH + *i kain= */mimo sis+.Eo*moms )ykdy+i i* 0D mod.os a(*i.did.l/s kainos ska+ina (.mdi*.iai 8ali s maþin+i .ma.nim:7.s E *o(os S:0 n8os þ.*ski*s+ym *in> .8 (asa lin/s *inkos kainos.ky.o 0/8ai i* ka(i+al i.ks(o*+o s .kliai! n.P*.*+.mia (*od k+= (.?i *inka l. 7AP y*a didþia sia ES .i dþ.0ais! kai kin+a 5ali= na2ionalin/s )ali +os k *sas- 2.8 li o0amos +ais a+).al= (*a8y).+o (as+a*aisiais m.+o s d.ms +.i (a>sla 8oms i* n s+a+o .+inai did.(a8*Ds+ai did.os a(*i.ky..os (l/+imas y*a s si0Hs s i5+.nd*o0o .sidi0os! d/l +o ES þ.Kainos *.l+i (asa linH þ.i dþ.ky.n8 si= 5ali= 8y).7AP .klinH 8amy.>m/s Gkio Dmon. )o i5l.sn.>l. Si.damo0i dalisDa >8ia kai( #% (*o2.os in+.2iali3a2i0os (*ana5 m s i* +ai( (ak.ky.m/s Gkio (*od k+= k*i3H! da* la.ia a(s nkin+i maþia (aþ.m/s Gkio (*od k+= kainas n..*nin+iK di*.lo8ai (aski*s+omi i5+.os a(> im+is.ks(o*+o s .ks(o*+as i5 ES 5ali= 8ali s k.idþia lais)ai 0 d/+i da*.s! +ai8i didin+i 0= .s ki+= 5ali= (*.sidinis .i8ia! kad 0i + *i da 8 +*Gk m=4 123- (*alaimi )a*+o+o0ai! n.+ais .nd*:0: *ink: (i*mia sia (adid/0a 5ali= (*.No*s 7AP 8alima laiky+i s/k>min8a! k*i+ikai +.*+. 4.kli=! k *D s nk i5laiky+i (sand/li o+i) i* s nk i5(a*d o+iK 4s .s kainas þ mais+o (*od k+ sK .m/s Gkio *.kian+ s mod.ky.lH *.*nin+i i* (a8.kli= (.k/ms .o0im s ki+oms (asa >lio 5alims.k+y) m:- 3..is>+a kain= i* .sm/4 (alaiky+i did.

11 .

inan9ios (asiGlos )i.Da 8.! s +.konomikos i5si)ys+ymo ly8io n.nas i5 .ios .G+= 8alima (a+.k+i n ola+inio sa)o .ikian+ (i*m.D/l .si)ys>+an9ios 5ali.n+o0= (*a8y). 7.k! kad .nam 8y).n>2ial: i* si.ky.nimo ly8is y*a minimal s a*...Did.konomika C +okia .S)a*.>+oms i* kain= s maþinim i! k *is (asida*o 8alimas +ada! kai (a>naikinami +a*iEai i* s maþinamos 8amy.nimo ly8DE >*o(os S:0 n8a y*a )i.).Naikinan+ +a*iE s! s da*omos s:ly8os .n2i0os s:ly8os ska+ina Ei*mas in)./s i* did. 3.E.nd*o0i s +a*+is d/l +a*iE= i* (*.os . 4.li= i5laid=! o +i.a .k+y>)iai konk *.snD *.Tokioms 5alims y*a .ny.2Fnolo8i0os (aþan8a.ia sias 7STP da*>.n+o0 i did/0imas! i5a 8 si (*.G>d s! kai( .G+inia si s þmoni= (o*.nsy) mas C )iskas ka*+ 8ali 8a*an+ o+i di> d. 8aminama +ik +i..si)ys+an9i= 5ali= .sn/s *inkos 8alimy.8i0aPkini= o(..lio 8y).a! (adid/0Hs 8amy.os (7STP) C +a*(+a +in/ ins> +i+ 2i0a! Dk *+a "#'A m.ali=0= (a0am= )i.s>n/s konk *..Gdin8os didþi l/s þ..n2i0ai! n.os i5laidos.k+y) mas i* in+.inD (o+.mon/mis4 1.i* ska+inan+i +a*(+a +inH (*.i ki+= n.os i* (aski*s>+ymo (*ana5 mais! s maþin+i +i.ky.ndin+i *im+as þ.iki s.+a*iEini= (*.8aminamos (*.os li.konomika! k *i n ma+o .nkin+i .: (.konomikos a 8imo.i 8amin+i (*..ky../s.m/s Gkio 8amy. Konk *.8alima (*ad/+i D8y>)..idþia Ei*>moms (asina do+i s+am.k/0ai 8ali (asina do+i na 0os *inkos (*i)il.7 )o ma> 1$ .ko0.7.kimo i5laidas i* s maþin+i ly>8inam osi s (*ana5 m sT.Pla+.ikia did.k/s! k *ias (a8amin+i *.>*in+: (*.*a2i0= (l/+im .k.E.H maþia siai a+si.ky.al= (*a8y).os d/l da 8ia5ali= +a*iE= s maþinimo i* k)o+= .si)ys+an+i 5alis 8al/+= (adidin+i sa)o 8amy.?aly0.s+a)im i* .s+i2i0= (*o8*amas.*ali3a)imo (*o8*am:.sIn).k+y) m: 5iomis (*i.R.sn/ Lsa)aM *inka l.*y.ky.m/s Gkio i* (*amon/s in).* s d.E. +o! .2Fnik: .konomikos 8amy.as > d.os kliG9i= (anaikinimas7.konomikos (l/+*a.n2i0a.nd*osios *inkos (a)y3dþi=- 2.s+ o+i i* k *+i na 0: +.snH a 8imo a(im+D i* a k5+.n>d*o0i *inka 8ali ska+in+i dinami5k s (oky9i s! didinan9i s .os i5si>)ys+ymo 8alimy.kono>mikos .ik minimal s..s .

n>+o0= skai9ia s a 8im:.i k l+G*iniai ). D*.k+i .i5kia! kad *..i8ia! kad 8.mon. s da*omi Einansiniai! (*.iksni s./0im= i* no> *o! +ai y*a did.*k)aliEika)im:1' .7.5+a*in8a (*o.Pa)y3dþi i! i5kyla kla simas! a* þ.lis ..ini= i5+.l.*i= .i i* (asla 8= sE. s*i>+ys.>al= (a0am= did/0im:! o +ai *.i8 .*amai *.*ai )ys+y+i.a* da 8ia d/m. s (.s þmon/s + *i (akankamai 8.*ia sia s > d.*+y.ma C a* maþia i5si)ys9i sios 5alys +aiko +in> kam: +.*i=! k *i= (i*kim:>(a*da)im: kon+*oli o0a +ik .Tai ak2i0=! ).si)ys+an9i: 5alD d.momis! y(a9 n o +o laiko! kai (adid/0o naE+os kai>nos! a+si*ado l.9iai s (*amon.G+i (l/+o0amas ly8ia8*.G+i (l/+o0amos n.*>+.sio ski*iama . mod.i)a y*a ).ky.*+y.o 0/8os (i*kimo i* (a*da)imo s +a*+is! o*8ani3 o>0an+i (.lkian+ da*.7i*þos ).Da 8.m/s Gkio na5 m i didin+i! s +.0os.si)ys+an9i= 5ali= .*+y.o .Ta9ia )is d/l+o y*a da 8 (*o.ini= (o(i.na kylan+i 8ana (*i.k2ioni3mas7.6..s (*amon.Da* )i./ 0ai +a(+i i5)ys+y+a 5alimi.iniai i* ki+i sand/>*iai..sio ski*iama þ.ini= (o(i..l8ian+ D ki+as! a* ska+in+i ki+= Gkio 5ak= )ys+ym:.os (*i.*nia si:0:.ks(o*+:! o a 8an+ 5ali.kian+! kad . a.i*þa > Ds+ai8a! +a*(ininka 0an+i +a*( .kli s (*amon.2Fnolo8i0:! o n.2Fnolo8i0:.mia i5)ys+y+os 5alys i* 5ali.i*þo0.l/ 8alimy.n8)a+in/s s:ly8os i* (a(li+o (*o+.kli= (i*kimo i* (a*da)imo )i. da 8ia sia d/m.si)ys+an9ios 5alys s sid *ia s (asa lin/s .m/s Gkis + *i .8is+* o+= ).konomikos a 8imo.i ki+= 8amy.Si.*i= .noma! kad (l/+o0an+ (*amonH .ikia i5laiky+i (asi.*in+i +ai l.konomis+= +.*ia +aiky>+i )id +inio ly8io +..da*.i*þos .konomiko0.i C +ai( (a+ þ D)ai*ias 8amy.*iai.Da.i.iniai (o(i.konomika (*ad/+= no*maliai )ys+y+is! la.+a.mian9i s ).ikia kon+*oli o+i 8y).konomikos (l/> +o0imo (*o.k+: *.*iai y*a dalis .ki= .ai s)a*.+a! k *io0.*ok.l.*+y.k+a n ola+i> nio .m=. .Pa)y3dþi i! *.G> dams! k *iais 8alima (asi.Gs y*a i* so2ia> liniai .7i*þo0. kon+*oli o0ami ).ini= (o(i.i*þos s(.a+siþ).da)i=! s da*an9i= da*.*sila þ+a i* (asi.o 0/8: i* i5+.2ialis+as! *i3ik o0an+is sa>) ka(i+al - Da*.konomikos a 8imo i* 8.l.! a* s)a*> . +o! da 8 ma þsi.iksniai- 7i*þa C )i.ia sios (*amon/s 5akos + */+= .i= i* da*.Ta9ia 5ios.s.nio )ali +os 8a na>ma þ )a*+o0am=0= (*.

/s! )i.*+y.a dalinis .* . .konomini (a*+n.ikimas Dmon/ms! mokykloms i* o*8ani3a2i0oms ska+inan+ (l/s+i 0= ). +*alios 5ali.>kian+ (*i).ali3 o0amos (*i.oiko+as da*.an9i=0= (ask.oiko+o *G5ys4 1) (i*k/0= .+ini= l/5= s +.i*þa C k*.*+y.P*.oiko+as da*.lnin8 mo san+ykDP*.! kaina.+in/s in0.ini= (o(i. i5anks+i> n/s n os+a+os (a8al n s+a+y+ s s+anda*+ s i* (a)y3dþi s7i dþ..ki= .k/s (a*d odamos i* (.Uþ sa)o (asla 8as .6i n s+a+oma (a8al (a> lGkan= no*mos i* ).l.*i n +*a kimas.ini= (o(i.i*þa C y(a+in8a masi5kai 8aminam=! koky.>da)i iK (*od k2i0os .oiko+as C (i*k/0= a+sisakymas (i*k+i k *io no*s 2) 3) 4) 8a>min+o0o (*.*ia s (.moni=! ska+inan9i= Gki>ni= s ./s .an9i=0= a+sisakymas di*.k>li= ki.+as .+ k *i o laiko+a*(i ..7.iniai (o(i..*kami i* (a*> d odami ).*s+i 0D (*iim+i (*oEs:0 n8os *.s a* (asla 8asK (i*minis .0.+inH (oli+ik: s da*o )als+y.i*þo0.+i s k >*io no*s 8amin+o0o (a8amin+a (*od k2i0aK an+*inis .*ok.kis y*a Eiks o+as7oiko+as C )isi5kas a*.i5kai )i.konomini s (*o2.*+y.i*þa! k *io0.+inis Einansa)imas y*a n.*i= (i*kimoC(a*da)imo sando*i s (*.>*i= .*+y.da)i i! si.+ini= )aldymo o*8an=! Dmoni=! Ds+ai8=! 5.n>d*o0i i5+..> mon/s! k *iomis si.*minas! a(i.*is 8a na +am +ik*: n s+a+y+o 1.inio (o(i..ki= i* ).Vals+y.s .> *i=! 2i*k li o0an9i= Eond= .oiko+as C di*.i> mos a* .+as C )als+y.nd*as i5+.i dþ.+o i5laid= i* (a0am= san+ykD *./s (lan o0a>m= (a0am= i* i5laid= s:ma+a Einansiniams m./s *.(*ikla somas +a*(ininkas! )ykdan+is (*.*iai.s s.k.Gdinan+is )als+y.*+y.oiko+as C n.alansas.7i*þos k *sas C ).konomini= san+yki= s .o0imas C +ai .i dþ.di+inio ka(i+alo .k+= ak+y) m:! )is m:.8 li o+i mak*o.nod= (*.k2i0os C +. (.i*þos.7i dþ.+as y*a )y*ia sy.Jond= .ns +am +ik*o laiko+a*(io (ini8ini= (a0am= i* i5laid= .7i dþ.ki= *inkos *G5is.7i dþ.ikl:.+in/s )als+y.mokamas ./s .ikala)im s- 7*ok.kiama (.Ei>2i+as C dydis! kai m.*is C n.i dþ.+ k *io asm.Pa(*as+ai ski*iamos 5ios .+inis a(*i.*kamos .+ams.+o i5laidos )i*5i0a (a0a>mas7i dþ.7i dþ.+o d.kli= (asiGla! k *ia +am +ik* laiko+a*(i 8ali dis(on o+i )isi )a*+o+o0ai i* 8amin+o0ai.ki= i* ).ini= (o(i.i dþ.ini= (*i.oiko+as C di*.

ikl:1< ..*i= kainos a 8s! i* +od/l s (.ki= +i.8ali (a*d o+i anks9ia (i*k+= ). >li mi- 7 mas C 8*.n+*inis .n+as! k *is n.a (a8al Dsi(a*.?i olaikin/mis s:ly8omis (a8*indin.7Gsim=0= sando*i= *ink= s +a*+ys.ini= (o(i.mos ).*min o>+os s +a*+ys./ *.8is+* o+a Ei*>ma! daþnia siai n.dydþio a+ly8inim:.(asi./s *.(alaiko il8alai> ki= (*.sn/mis kainomis! )adinamas (a)a*8 si (i5sik)/( si ) .>8 li o0a )isas .i+as i* (a(*as+ai n.n+:! k *is +ikisi! kad ).Gdinan+is si+ a2i0:! kai kainos a*.*ok.kis i* kaina- O O.*minas! )a*+o0amas a(i.kli= ski*s+ymas si.s (ini8= sis+.Gdinan+ .ankais- 7 li= *inka C +.mos E nk2iona)im: i* .n+*ini= )aldymo o*8a>n= s(*.iksni=.7 li s C +.s +a*(ininka> )imo o(.konomika 2. lasQEik+y)io0i Ei*ma C s(.n+*ali3 o+as i5+.ma! k *io0.3 l+a+ai (*ikla so da 8ia sia n o 2.i8o0im s.konomikos a*.O.8 a8.*i= k *sas n ola+ a 8a! kol n.*+y.*+y.8aminan+i 0okios (*od k2i0os7Gsim=0= sando*i= *inka C *inka! k *io0.ka s+am.a ).kim= da+a! ki.*a2i0as a+li.n+*ali3 o+as (lana)imas C 2.i*þos a8.k lia2i0os +ikslais D*.konomika C .konomikos s*i+is- O.k+o*i= a 8imas7 *.ankas C .7.n+as . n *odoma (*.Ki+ai( n.kia a k59ia sio +a5ko.il s .a 0os a+ski*= s.ank= sis+.n+*ali3 o+a! )als+y.*ok.+ kokia .7i*þos a8.ndin+i n ma+y+ s þda)ini s6is (la9iai +aikomas 2.konomika y*a i5 dali. . 8al +i> niai *.ini= (o(i.>kian+ D8y).>8 li o0ama! +a9ia ! k *ios .konomikos 5alys.*is n.*ka 0 os no*/damas )/lia (a*d o+i a k5+.i (a*da)/0as i* di*.s )als+y.ios .*> +y.ky. s s da*omos +.sn/mis kainomis.n+*ali3 o+o0i .ankas! koo*din o0an+is 5ali.*in/s Ei*mos! + *in9ios (la+= Eilial= +inkl:! (alaikan9ios 8la dþi s *y5i s s .n>+*ali3 o+os .ndim=! o n. n o )a*+o+o0= (asi*inkimo a* (asiGlos C (a>kla sos ).*i= a k5+.ini= san+yki= s (i*k/0ais .ini= (o(i.*minas! a(i.s+a.konomin/ sis+.

3.Dalinio *. kai( a+i+inkamo kom.)ol/ C mok.san+ (.*+/..anko ind/li= dalD.s+D +ik n o (a0am=! 8a += sa)o 5aly0.*2inio .ank.*)as n s+a+omas Ds+a+ym i* (a(*as+ai laikomas 2.l.as C þmo8a s Ei3ini= .8a += +i.ank= sis+.n+as! i5d odamas! ()3-! (a*d o+ )/0. .3. s 8a +i a+.0. i* (*id/+in/s ).*)o (*in2i(as C 5i olaikin/s ./s mok/0im= ./ms 8amin+i.*s(. .*da)imo Eak+:K )i.ank.k+y)os (a8.k+= (*i.0.mon/ C main= (*i.a*+in/ ).n+=! (a+)i*+inan9i= (.! +i.(o3i+as.a*+in/ ).y.ni5kai na din8a 1A .n+*i> niam.a*+in/ ).s9io s . 5alys.I*a da* )isi5ka mok.kono> min/ms 8/*y.ki= ki. (a(ildom= dok m.N)ai>*i= *G5i= d. þ*a5omas (i*k+= (*.i (*o+ini= 8.s9io s ma- D Da.*+/! a(skai9i o+a .*+/s mo>k.ny0.mos (*in2i(as! (a8al k *D Eak+i5kai kom. .did.k+ai + *i mok/+i mo>k.+as) k.k þsi.i+y0.+: m.il/s! n.6i a(skai9i o0ama (a8al a+i+inkam: Eo*m lH! o a(skai9ia)imo o(.+= i5 .i+y0.kis! kaina i* .n+as! (a8al k *D .kis C n s+a+y+os Eo*mos dok m.(o3i+ams n s+a+omas ski*+in8as (*i)alomasis *.*in+i 0D a+.! k *iam.Ei2i+as C n.s9io (*i.)ol/ C (*i..>*a2i0a )adinama diskon+a)im Dalin/ mok.s9i s n o )i>s= (a0am=! +.)ol/ mok/+i mok.Gsima0am laiko+a*(i iK (ini8=! k *i. .i8iamas )als+y.i dþ.kis s da*o +ik n./0im= na do0imas .*+/ C (a0am= da.na i5 (a8*indini= (ini8= E nk2i0=- R R.Oi*k lia2i0os (*i.P*i)alomas da> linis *..san+is 8*yn=0= (a0am= ki.alansas (..*)as- Da*.s9io (*i.lH )is= .mon/! 2i*k li o0an+i lais)ai .OF*oni5kasis d.3.k sa)o 5aly0.! da.anko d.nd*a (i*kimo s maK kai k *ios..*2iniam.Tai þmoni= )is om.ankas (*i)alo i5d o+i +am +ik*: s m:K +ai( (a+ dok m.)ol/! kai s .

k+:! 0D k.Da*.da)i= s:0 n>8os y*a da*.sn/ þ +*is di.o o*8ani3a)imo Eo*ma! (ad.n+o0ams! k *i.o s +a*+i.o *inko0.o)i. )is: da*.ni0imai! o*8ani3a2i0os! a+s+o)a 0an9ios 0= .+ )os þ.sams (alaikan+ san+yki s s )als+y.asK $) da*.nd*o)i= aso2ia2i0a i* k+Da*.ninio da*.n+o0ai C +ai )als+y.i9ia.s s) ).l8ian+ D 0= ak+y) m: da*./s.in+i 8y).o laik: C +ai sa)ano*i5ka n ola+inio þim+ mo Eo*ma (a> 8*indin/0.si. san+ykia 0a 8amindami .nimo laiko+a*(is! kai 0o (*a8y).da*.Da*> .ninH 8a> my.da)i i i* da*.ikla! k *io0. a* ki+o0.y(a+D da*.+/0.+ )o0. i* +od/l di*.d.8ali ..s+is (*ikla so n o Eak+i5kai di*.s+D i* 8a*an+ o0a da*.ia sio0i þmo8a s .Tai Li./s Ds+a+ymais n s+a+y+o amþia s þmon/s! n.:K 1) da*.o laik:.i=! s). 0i.kio i* koky.i8o0a mok/+i da*.konomin.s! k *ias na dodamas þmo8 s )..Gkl/s a*.da)ys C asm o a* Ei*ma! k *i samdo da*.> nimo 5al+ini + */+= .o di.nini s in+.Da*>.Da*. d/l 5.*+y.Da*.m/s Gkio .kian+ (l/s+i (*. y*a y(a+in8a da*.(s d.*a2i0a! Li.o di. o+o0= s:0 n8omis ((*oEs:0 n8omis).i8= )ykdy> m: Dsi(a*.nini s i* )is om.+o laiko a*.sn/ þ ( sH da*.o (*o2.as n.*.! kai da*.G+i +* m>(.þas9i= n.o þmok.as nam os.ikl:! +. )isa da*.8ali di*. s da*o (alankias s:ly8as Dsida*.ikia da*.: i* *a2ionaliai (ana do+i da*.m +in/ da*> 1& .k+:! +.o 0/8: (*.83is+a)imo i* 0o +o.a+siþ). (nam dinD da*.o s:ly>8as! n ma+y+as D)ai*i os.: n.y.in/mis ins+i+ 2i0omis i* da*. no*mini os.o sa)ai+/ n.G+i asm.>+ )os (*amonink= konE. +a*( sa)y0.y.B..as C (i*mo0i i* s)a*.nos! o n.a ki+= (*i.ms in+.o (*i. o+o0 i s si+a* s da*. l/0i>mo s:ly8a.i(+as da*. ak+ os.as nam os.a (a8amin+os (*od k2i0os ((asla 8os) ki.o þmok. o+o0 i! þ 0o da*.da)i= s si)i.Da*.a nam os.sas a(ima4 ") +ikslin8: þmo8a s ).. )is: da*.: i* (asla 8= +. da*.G+i +* m(.k/ms 8a> min+i a* (asla 8oms +.: nam os.+ai! D k: n k*.ki= 8amy.8ali .imynini= a(linky.dan+i Dsi+*a k+i D )is om.sio8iai Dmo> n/0.A+ski*ai 8alima i5ski*+i da*.Da*.nd*i.o s . n.o (a0amos.ik+iK )i.o 0/8: si.s ).*in s asm.s 5ali=! k *i ki> +ai 5aliai! +.in8o amþia s 8y).in8as amþi s C þmo8a s 8y).ikim:.+i +i.:! +am +ik*= (a*.nas (. o*8ani3a2i0o0.0.na n.o o.> 0.:) i* da*. )isa da*.Li.* sa)ai+H- Da*.ika+os .o laikas s +* m(inamas i* da*..*.na i5 da*.mon.s.

s Eak+i5kai di*. (a9io0.+in/.G+i d)i.in8o amþia s 8y).o ki.*ysPa8al "##' m.y.san+ 1# .inis mo.o 0/8os m.o laik:! .il mo Eo*ma.inio mo. s laikomi )y*ai n o "< iki <1!.namosios )i..inis mo. +.o a(mok/0imo Eo*mai! da*.: maþda 8 )i.o 0/> 8os mi8*a2i0a! k.Da*.o)i.+= amþia s mo+./s.i>9ian+ n ola+in/s 8y)..nodas )isos.in8o amþia s 8y).i>ni= so2ialinio d*a dimo (.ia si= *inkos .o *inkos i5si)ys+ymo (oþymi=.+osDa*.! *.o a(mok/0imas C a+ly8inimas þ (ada*y+: da*.+: lai>k:Da*.2Faninis 0 d/0imas! da*.in8o amþia s (*adþia! o a k5+ +in/ s +am(a s (.o þmok.konomi5kai ak+y)Gs.Da*.0= *G5i=.! da*.nam:0: )i.I5ski*iamos d)i da*.i+imas +o0. o+o0ams þ a+lik+: da*.+= Li.Esan+ laikin.: a* di*.+/s k. a(mok/0imas þ )i.in8o amþia s 8y> ). )o lai> komi "<>.Pi*mo0i C D(*as+in/ da*.kio i* koky.in8o amþia s *i.Da*>.*i+o*ini mo..nimo s:ly8asDa*.o a(mok/0imo Eo*mos y*a ski*>+in8i da*.k.An+*o0i C 5)y+ oklin/ mi8*a2i0a! +.+ais (*iim+: na 0: Li.o a(mok/0imo Eo*mos C laikin/ i* )i.+ )os R.nsininkai! (aa 8liai)Iki "##.a y*a da*.+= amþia s )y*ai i* "<>.+os k.namo> sios )i.n: i* +: (a+D da*.n+o0ai ((. 5alys. n.:! (*ikla san+i n o da*.n+o0ai y*a .o)i. mi.i+imas )adinamas +.o )i.s+. (a9io0.2iEikos.i da*.o (o.! a+siþ).o *ink:! k *io0.o a(mok/0imo Eond: s da*o .o )i.' m.o ly8is C .il mas y*a )i.konomikos i* da*.n+o0ais .konomi5kai ak+y)Gs! n.l8ian+ D ski*>+in8as 8y).)! n.n+o0= y*a .nsini amþi mi. da*.in8o amþia s 8y).G+inai +ik da*.i9ian+ 8y).i+imas +o0.+:.N.s( ..Gdai! (*ikla san+ys n o da*.o 0/8os mi8*a2i0a y*a da*.+= da*.o 0/> 8os mi8*a2i0a 8ali .da*.n+o0= n.da*.Da 8 ma da*.*i+o*i0o0.a i* kai k >*i.+: da*. m. o+o0ams )aþin/0an+ i5 nam= D da*.n.da*.n+o0ais .G>dþio i* s(.in8o amþia s 8y).+os k.n+inis san+ykis- Da*. da*. m.nsi0= Ds+a+ymo (a+ais: n o 1%"% m.Da*.+ )o0.> +/0.in8o amþia s 8y).nd*o0i (ini8ini= l/5= s >ma! ski*+a a(mok/+i da*.+= amþia s.+= amþia s i* mo+.likos )als+y.o a(mok/0imo .+: (ki+am.s+is skai9i o0amas þ Eak+i5kai di*.il m - Da*.il mas Eo*>m o0a na2ionalinH da*.*ys n o "< iki <% m.n+o0= skai9ia s (*o2.i= i* da*.nas i5 s)a*.da*.# m.8ion.il mas C da*.inis mo.! o 8y).in8o amþia s 8y).

.o + *inio in+.o .o *inkos dalis! k *io0.i s 8.s da*.o . (akla >sias (*oE.n:).Ti.o . k *ian+ ma+.inimo +a*ny.o 0/8os (asiGl: i* (akla s:! ).no da*.>s.Tai )i.o (ili.+inH (a>(*as+:0: i* ako*dinHDa*.s da*.kliai y*a s)a*.)i.s ).:Da*.o .o a(mok/0imo Eo*mos 8ali + */+i D)ai*ias a(mok/>0imo sis+.nsy) mas C da*.a +.Gdinan+is 5ali.Tai da*. s 5ali.n2ialiai 8alin+ys daly)a +i )is om.da)i= i* i.+in.sa)o (a*.3 l+a+ s.k)i.i*þ= s+.o d*a sm/ C (*i)alomas ki.*ialin.+ (o+.o o*8ani3a)imo (so2ia>lin/ d*a sm/) +aisykli= laikymasis! +y.ai8+i da*.in8= 8y).i*þa +i*ia da*.iklos (*o2.in/s ).ms (*iski*ia> $% .k )i.io (a5al(:! +.+a )als>+y.* laiko )i.o ki.kis! a+lik+as (..ms Dsida*.l.o *inkos i5)ys+ymo ly8DDa*.o in+.nas i5 *odikli=! a(i.i*þa (Dda*.*inama +a*(ininka 0an+ da*.ka 0a nimo (*oE.Da*.sinD o*i.ik)o0imo lai(snis (.ini= da*.mi0inH! )i.da .Ma+ o>0amas Ei3ini= i* (*o+ini= (as+an8= .Gdai (a8al 0o s:na das i* *.in+i.k+ ali>3a)im i* o(+imali= da*.o D+am(a! da*.n+a)im:.Da*..o i5>+.Da*.k laikin/! +i.Da*.i8= a+likimas da*.konominio (o+.o a(mok/0imo sis+.ikian+ (asla 8as.*+y.iklo>0.o .i*þ= kon+*oli o0ama da*.dan+i 0i.mos y*a da*.n.a) C Ds+ai8a! +a*(ininka 0an+i +a*( da*.mas! ()3-4 laikin: (a(*as+:0: i* (*.ikia n s+a+y+ laik (*ad/+i i* .n+o0ai! þim+i i* n..i= a(skai+:! moka .s9io skai>9ia)imo .n+o0= skai9i s.m. o+o0o 8amy.kliai C 5ali...n. ).6i.ikia inEo*ma2i0os a(i.l.o 0/8os (Ei3ini=! (*o+ini= (as+an8=) .n.n.o F mani3a)im C da*.G*.o *inka y*a 5ali.da*.i*þos! k *i= (asla >8os y*a mokamos- Da*.Da*.2Fnolo8in/ d*a sm/) i* da*.o .s .o in+.+in/ da*.Laikan+is da*.ik+i (asla 8:.n2ialo .in8i 8y).i*þoms.o i5+.5kan9i= da*.o )aland:! di.Gdina da*.s da*.si0as! a+li.o d*a sm/s *. þim+i! .o s:ly8= þmoni= da*.n+as.2F>nolo8i0os (+.* +am +ik*: laiko+a*(D.o (asiGla i* (akla sa d.ni5kai na din8o0.+: (da*. s da*ym Da*. da*.kli s a(i.9i=! (ad..nsy) mas 8la >dþiai s si0Hs s da*..da*.o i5+.i C þ Eak+i5kai (a8amin+ s (*od k+ s (a8al n s+a+y+ s Dkaini s.i8iasi (*i)a9ios da*.o þmok./0im= )is ma no*in+ (a8amin+i (*od k+: a*.os +.s i* +.

o i5+.ias amþia s 8* (.Pa8al +a*(+a +ini s s+anda*+ s s:)okos da*.kliai (a8al s+am.o 0/8os (a8*ind: s da*o þmo8a s da*.n+o0= skai9i=Da*.Da*.* a+i+inkam: laiko+a*(D! a+siþ).Tai8i s:)oka da*.ik>lasPa8al da*. o+o0ai d/l mokslo .konomi5kai ak+y)Gs 8y). ).4 1) kai( )is minis þmoni= 8.*+inami da*.n si +.Da*>.o 0/8os (o*.s ).*sik)aliEik o+iDa*.moni=! k *iomis (.Pas. (*iiman+ na 0 s a* a+l.2Fnika k.o 0/8a i* .alansas y*a *odikli= sis+.kli= ..o 0/8a C Ei3iniai i* (*o+iniai þmoni= 8.o 0/8os i5lais)inimas y*a )is ma (*i. a* ki+o0.an+ys (ili. o+o0ai (*i)alo k.2Fnikos (aþan8os i* da*.ni5kai na din8o0.mi4 ") )isi da*. C 0= (asiski*s+ymas (a8al n osa)y.o 0/8os (oky9iai (.nys! di*.kliai ski*s+omi D ak+y)i osi s C Eak+i5kai þim+ s i* (asy>)i osi s C +ai mokiniai! s+ d..*> ski*s+omi da*.0o(a (*asm.in8 mo (ili.konomin/0.o i5+.Da*./ C konk*.in8o amþia s di*.Da*.an>9i=0= k)aliEika2i0a n.ikio n s+a+ym:! 0os 8a sinimo i* *a2iona>la s (ana do0imo s+*a+.in8 mas! +.konomi5kai ak+y)i= 8y>).o i5+.kli= (lana)imas > (.konomin.nam.o+o da*.2ia>lis+ai.ai daþnai di*.n> sininkai! (aa 8liai! *i.2Fnikai i* +. )is om.s.9iai (in)alidai).o (*o2.A+8y).>n s +.alans: D).Da*.:.in>8o! iki da*.ma! k * )i.l8ian+ D Dsida*..+iK 2) kai( s+a+is+inis *odiklis! a(i.o koky.+a s þmo8a s 8.9iai! kai( an+ai4 (.8i0os (a*.n+ai! asm.o i5+.a+i+inka na 0= da*.s da*.. n *odomi i5+./s ly8i Da*.ik> lo0. o+o0= skai>9ia s ki+imas o*8ani3a2i0o0..kli s 8alima (lan o+i Dmon/s! Gkio 5akos a* )als+y. sky>*i 0./0imai! k *i os 8alima (ana do+i .?i olaikin/mis s:ly8omis la.n8imas.i9iama na 0a! o 0: +aikH da*.Da*.kli= .in8o amþia s da*.o i5+.so s:ly8=.n+o0aiK 1) )isi ikida*> .ika+os ..+o.o 0/8a )a*+o0ama d).k+y> )inio da*.o na5 mo a 8imo.2Fnolo8i0ai! ka*+ n.n= skai9ia s ki+im:.in8o i* (oda*./0imas di*./0imas a+lik+i +am +ik*o s > $" .ys).n+o0ai y*a sinonimai.idþian+ di*>. l/0a i* 0: +aikH s(.inan9i= i* a+l.an9i s þmon.in8o amþia s di*.o 0/8os kai+a C n ola+inis da*.in8o i* (o da*.*s(.s (da*.Gdinan+is .an+ys 8y).an+ys nam= Gky>0.Gkl/! þinios i* D8Gdþiai! k *i os na do0an+ 8alima a+>lik+i +am +ik*o s d/+in8 mo i* a(im+i.is+= asm.o i5+.l+i k)aliEika2i0: a* (./s Eo*mas i* .i +.kliai)! ki+am.

*/þiamas kai( laikas! s na do+as (.o na5 mas ((*od k+y) mas) C konk*.+as laikas ski*iasi + o! kad (i*mo0i )a*>+o0ama n s+a+an+ +i(i5k: laiko+a*(D! an+*o0i C a+askai+inD (.) da*.Da*./0imo (*o2.o kol.n+*a2i0os lai(snD 8alima i5*.o s:na domis i* s:ly8omisDa*.ik+i.ikia (*od k2i0ai (a8amin+i i* (a>sla 8ai s +.kan+ nam= Gki= da*.k+i ski*+in8 s *.n+*a2i0a C da*.o sa)ai+/s +* km/! k *i 8ali .o laik (*od k+o )i.o laiko dalis! k *io *.Jak+i5kai di*. o+o0= skai9ia s did/0imas a+ski*os.ki a*..Ki+ai( +a*ian+! +ai Dmoni= s+am.o laikas a(i.os +. d/l n.o di.o sa)ai+/s +* km/ s)y>* o0a n o $< iki '% )aland=Pa8al +a*(+a +ini s s+anda*+ s i5ski*iamos s:)okos4 Eak+i5kai di*.ik5+i )id +ini da*.o laikas.Da*.+a s da*.8o*i0oms! D)ai*i= (*oE.o laikas n o s:)okos Eak+i5kai di*.o na5 mas ma+ o0amas .>+as laikas i* D(*as+inis da*.+ai (a* o5+iK ') laikas! s 8ai5+as da*.> nos! da*.konomini= 8/*y.o s:ly8=K .* +i(i5k: sa)ai+H a*.m= s(*.d/+in8 mo E nk2i0as i* (asi.o kon2.o i* 8amy.) laikas! ski*+as +* m(alaik/ms (oilsio (.i=! s k *>+= (.ndo*i>nio da*.no*mal s da*.o kon>2.2Fnini= s +*ikim=K . o+o0= ka+.o (*od k+y> ) mas.o )i.3 l+a+ s )i.a da*.+i )i*5)alandþiaiK $) laikas! (ana do+as da*.*+*a koms da*.+ N(*as+inis da*.ly0.Ta*(+a +in/0.n/s . o+o0= o*8ani3a2ini= i* +.(*ikla san9i= n o da*.sas.l.ia sias )is om. o+o0= k)aliEika2i>0osK ') da*.Tai kal.Da*.G+i ski*+in8a a+ski*oms da*>.o laikas (+a*iEinis) C Ds+a+ym n s+a+y+a da*. o+o0ams.S:)oka D(*as+inis da*.+as laikas n s+a>+omas +ik samdomi.o na5 mo ly8is y*a s)a*. s+a+is+iko0.2Fnolo8i0os ly8ioK $) da*.n>dimo$1 . 0is )adinamas no*mali da*.o na5 mas +i.y.k+y)o san+yki= (*o. E *o(os 5ali= da*.+:! ki.Da 8.n:.si0= þmon/ms.n.nodomis da*.ko>nomin/s (aþan8os *odiklis.os o*8ani3a)imo ly8ioK 1) 8amy>. o+o0= skai9i >mi! +.o 0/8os +y*im s- Da*.2Fnikos i* +.o laik .6D s da*o4 ") Eak+i5kai di*.o laikasK 1) di*.ms da*.*iod:! a+li. Dmo>n/s.iDa*.o m.Da*. o+o0o da*.sio8iai (*ikla so n o4 ") )aldymo! da*.nai Dmon.a +i(i5k: di.n.+o0.>+os )alandos! +.nkan9i )i.o )i.* laiko )i.+ i (a8amin+i.

iai.os )./ms.Gdina di*. (*asm.mon/s (da*>.o )i.da*.:! .da*. a(i.+= skai9i s! da*. o+o0= skai9i s! da*.Da*.konomin.s )is s 8amy.+i konk*..o )i.+i (a8al samdos s +a*+D þmo> ni= skai9i s i* 0= so2ialin/Cd.ik>los! þmok.s.o (akla sa C +ai )is om.o (a0am= y*a san+ykinis! n. þ*.inis! (*i)a+ s).in/s ).soli >+iniai i* san+ykiniai *odikliai4 .i*þos.da*.o (a0amos y*a (.an9i=0= skai9i s (li s lais)= da*>.+os) i* da*. da*.T. da*. o+o0ams þ a+lik+: da*.o .n2i0os $$ .i= skai9i s! konk *.i= Dsida*.6: a(i.ms þim+i konk*.iksni s 8alima laiky+i L þdi*.n/s da*.sini sCk)aliEi> ka2ini s! so2ialini sCd.Da*. ski*+ mas +a*( da*.o )i.o )i.: i* da*.Gdina a.o *inko>0.8is+* o+= lais)= da*.Da*.kli s i* þ ka(i+al: *.nys i* .mo8*aEin/ .o (asiGl: a(i.n+a! di)id..Da*.2ialios! ()3-! k)o+in/s da*.in+iDa*.o (akla sos s+* k+G*a (a*odo lais)= i* na 0ai Ds+. a(i.o þmok.l>nas.da)io (.o 0/8os (asiGla C +ai þim+i.o 0/8os (asiGla C +ik .i s! k *i.*i+o*in/s.si0= 8* (.o 0/8os (akla s: sia *:0a (*asm.o .ikis da*.Gdina indi)id= 8.san+ al+.o (a0amos C (a0amos! 8a namos i5 +am +ik*os da*.si0as a*.os (*i.n+ (*oE./0imas i* no>*as di*.da)i= (a*ai5k= d/l da*.s+i2i0os C anks9ia s ka (+= da*.a . da*.konomikos s.mo8*aEini s i* ki+ s (oþymi s.iklos *G5is i* a+ski* s .i (*oE.Gdi>na +oki. lais)as da*.0i asm.i8+= da*.ia >sias da*.nd=) 5al+ini daþnia siai y*a in> ).liami +am +ik*i (*o> E.N.+os ski*iamos Dda*.s>9io! da*.Da*.7.o a(mok/0imo Eondas.Gdinan+is *odiklis.o i* n.in+i ..n+ais) (a8al (*oE.S(..Da*.3 l+a+asDa*.k+o*i s ()als> +y.lnas! 8a namas þ 8am+os i5+.+= skai9i s.! k *D no*in+ (ana do+i y*a a+i+inkamos 8amy.sin/Ck)aliEika>2in/ s+* k+G*a.+= s d/+D ((*o2.ndai i* (alGkanos.o (a0am= ((alGkan=! di)id.o (akla s: (la9i:0a (*asm.ikala)imai.+os (asi*inkimo 8alimy.Pakla sa y*a s)a*.i*þos.Sia *:0a (*asm.o s:ly8=! da*.o (a0am= *.s ).o )i.da*. da*.o (asiGla C 8alin9i= i* no*in9i= di*. + *i da 8ia 8a>limy.+= da*.nims! no*in+i.o )i.siniaiCk)aliEika2iniai *.o 0/8os (akla sa (a8al .. ka (iama inEo*ma2i0a a(i. da*.*na+y)ioms da*..N.Asm..o *inkos iml m: a(i. *odikliai! kai( da*.+as (a8al (*oE.s+is da*.iai.Ekonomin.+= )akan+i5k mo ly8is.o )i.o 0/8os (o*.+as! k.o )i.9ias da*.an9iaisM (a0amas. +o! i5ski*iama da*.o laiko i* )i.

o þmok.a a*.konominH )is o> m.Da*.n+ siGlo sa)o da*.lai(snis! da*.o laikas! kai 8y).! 0o k l+G*inD C +. da*.nka n.mia indi)ido )i.Gd:! k *i o da*.*o0.+i a(skai+os laiko+a*(i ! da*.sini s> k)aliEika2ini s i* so2ialini s>d.o in+.o (asiGlos in+.Pi*mo0i n ma+o4 $' .ki Da*.o *inka a(i.*.o *inka.smH +am +ik* 5ali. 5al+ini os.2iala s i5simokslinimo i* k)aliEika2i>0os) ki.Da*.konomikos s d. i* (an-! +.Koky.damo0i dalisSki*iama oEi2ialio0i i* n. (*asm.mian+is 5i o *odikli 8alima (aly8in+i da*.ninio da*. da*.d k2i0a C +ai s d/+in8o da*.n+o0= skai9i mi- R. *.n= 8a nama a+li.o (*.Gdis C s:)oka! *.Gdinama kai( *inkos .>nis! ()3-! a(i. da*.nsy) mas! 8y).n+o0ai di*.n2in8 m i da*.nsy>) m: a+ski* os.9i= (*o>2.ik5m/mis da*.n8imo ly8is.i= kon+in8.0o so2ialinD s+a+ s:- Da*.nodas )aidm o )is om..6i n sako +: y(a+in8: .Da*.o (asidali0im.o in+..ikala 0an9io 0okio s(.da*.o 0/8os (a*da)imo i* (i*kimo .> )i.n/ n.o (o. o+o0= 8* (/ms +.o *.Tai( da*.! da*.niniam.i 0o kaina C da*.o *inka C da*.n+: ((*o2.o .nsy) mo *odiklis.>kan+ nam= Gki= da*.i(ian9i= D da*.2FninD ly8D! (a0am= dydD! daly)a)i>m: )aldym.o .o o*8ani3a2i0o0.o (asiGlos in+.os sE.sinio (asi*..s+is.i*þas (.nin/0.o (asiGla i* (akla sa .s i5si)ys+ymo laiko+a*(i .* +am +ik*: laiko+a*(D (ili. Eo*m o0asi da*.o 0/8os (asiGla (a8al +a*(+a +ini s s+anda*+ s C +ai 8y).oEi2ialio0i da*.Da 8 ma 5i= d om.8ion os.kio D).: (asla 8= i* (*.o *inko0.n+ais) (a8al (*oE.a 8al/+= di*.konomini= san+y>ki= sis+.o (asiGlos s+* k+G*a *odo .Pas+a*asis *odo .o 0/8a s 0 n8iama (.kono> min.mon/mis.y. +y*imo mom.ly8ia*.nodai ).*+inimas (a(*as+o da*.+: )is om.si0= ski*+ mai l.o (asidali0imas y*a s > si0Hs s n.o *G5imis! k *ias )is om.ma! k *io0.i5kian+i so2ialinH i* .*+ina.o (*i..o (n.D/l +o a+ski*oms da*.> )i.mo8*aEini s (o> þymi s! + *in9i s D+akos 0= konk *.in8o amþia s 8y).ikala 0an9io +am +ik*o i5>simokslinimo i* k)aliEika2i0os) ki.i>niai (*oE.Da*.>sik*.n+o0= (*o>E.n+o>0ai! k *i.ki= 8amy.n+inD san+ykD s da*.o 0/8os a+*ankini s +y*im s! o ki+ s d om.) s da*.nsy) m:! k)aliEika2i0os (ana do0im:! 8alima *as+i ki+ os.

o *inkos inE*as+* k+G*a > da*.s s! a+li.k+ai sia *:0a (*asm.0..") da*. o+o0= in+.iki sK 1) da*.8 li o0an9i= 5i= ins+i+ 2i0= ).o (akla sos lais>)H! +.in+i. 0i.da)iai i* (o+. o+o0= .da)i= i* samdom= da*.da>)i= i* da*.da>)iams! laikan+is da*.o *inkos kon0 nk+G*:! da*.k+ai (la9i:0a (*asm.*k)aliEika)im:! (a>d.0i da*.k>+ . san+ykia 0a kai( da*.kan9ios )als+y.o *inkos kon0 nk+G*a! da*.da)i= aso2ia2i0os! a*.ikl: .o 0/8os (i*k/0as) i* da*.o Ds+a+ym=! 8a*an+ o0an+ da*.o 0/8os a*..6i.kian>+ys s da*y+i da*.2Fani3mo E nk2io> na)imo o*8ani3a2in/ ins+i+ 2in/ Eo*ma.nda+o*i= s:0 n8os)! o*8ani3 o0an9ios da*.si0os i* ).s= a(sa 8:S)a*.o 0/8os kaina! konk *.2iEin/s (*.nini s i* )is om.o *inkos s . o+o0ai! si..Ta9ia da*.da Dsida*.da*.da)ys (da*.a sa)o s 8.o *inkos s .*ys+/s kla simaisDa*.l.y.*.Da*.>da*.i (.o *inkos kon0 nk+G*a C +ai da*.ini= ins+i+ 2i0= (Dda*.samdymo i* a+l. C da*.da>)iai! samdomi.ia si.o s +a*+isDa*.o (asiGlos lais)H! +.s (asi*inkim: a+siþ).0.o *inkos kai( i* ki+= *ink= s .l8ian+ D +ai! kas laikoma da*.iklos *G5i. C +ai da*.0.o *inko0.6: 8alima a(i.Da*.o (asiGla i* (a>kla sa! da*.o *inkos m..4 da*.n2i>0a! inE*as+* k+G*a. + *i s(.y.o! lais): (*oE.Da*..l8ian+ D asm.ini= i* n.nini s (o*.i= a(skai+:! o*8a>ni3 o0a 0= so2ialinH a(sa 8: i* mokym: .o lais)H )isi.+i (a*>da)/0as).m.! a+siþ).n+ai y*a 5i.i da*.0i da*. o+o0ai i* .Gdin8os ins+i+ >2i0os ((*oEs:0 n8os! da*.*.da*.k/s C da*. o+o0= +a*( sa)io san+yki sN)ai*ios inE*as+* k+G*os 8*andys +i*ia da*.2iEinD so2ialinD s+a+ s:.o *inkos 5alims .*sonalo sky*iai! (*oE.o *inkos s:)oka )a*+o0ama (la9i:0a i* sia >*:0a (*asm.6i (*ikla so n o da 8.)als+y.n2ialGs da*.k+y)ini s in+.0.idimo i5 da*./0imo di*. .lio .o 0/8os (asiGl: i* (akla s:! a+li.o 0/8os (asiGlos i* (akla sos san+ykis da*..ka .sin/s o*8ani3a2i0os) sis+.k+ai y*a (i*k/0as i* (a*da>)/0as.Da*.o *inkos s .konomini=! so> $.m:! +.i>nD +a*(ininka)im: (+*i5aliai s si+a*imai) so2ialin/s (a*+n.o *inko0.I5)ys+y+os da*.iai.Gdin+i kai( )als+y.nd*ada*>..o *inkos .inimo +a*ny.os! Dmo>ni= i* Ei*m= (.isini= no*m=! *. o+o0as (s(.ms da*.(asi*inkimo lais)H +a*( da*.ia)im:! 8inan+ 0= kol.o i* n.

o *inko0.?i o a+).o *inkos (oli+ika C +ai s d.?D *odiklD (a+o8 i5*.6is (a>*odo da*.9i= n +*a k si= da*>.snis þ (.6i l.o (ai.+oms i5sa 8o+i i* na >0oms s+.G+i (.o )i.+ai (asi.)isi5kam da*.?i os þda)ini s a+i+in>ka ak+y)i i* (asy)i da*.5kas asm.da*.6i 8ali . )o did. *.* +am +ik*: laiko+a*(D þ*.konomikos 5alys.klin/ a*.n>+ais.ik5m/ did.o ly8D! *.o 0/8os (asiGlos da*.miamas +o.an9i osi s n o n.mia d s)a*..>da*.i s.an9i=0=- Da*.Rinkos .0 0is (a*odo! ki.an9i=0= skai9i s .o (ai.konomini= (*i.da*.i5kia! kad na 0ai þ*.8is+* o+= n. o+o0= (s +* m> þim+ m i (in+a da*.i8+i s d/+in8 os.moni= sis+.a s maþin+i n.kiamaDa*..samoms da*.8ion os.o *inkos kon0 nk+G*: a(i.nod: a+ski*= so2ialini= 8* (i= (ad/+D da*.o (ili. (la9iai +aikomos 5ios ak+y>)ios da*.da*.n+o *.di*.m:! k *ios (a>ski*+is C a(sa 8o+i di*.inimo ly8is i* no*ma! )id +in/ n.Ei2i.n= skai9i= i* a+)i*k59iai. (adid/0im: a*.o *inkos (oli+ikos k*y(+ys.5kas! skai9i mi.a d.s 2Fa*ak+.da*.o *inko0.o *inkos (a(ildymo ko.o di.o *inkos (oli+ikos (*i.o +* km/! .na! sa)ai+/)- .5kan9i= da*.da*.* +: (a+D laiko+a*(D da*.iksni=. (s+* k+G*in/ kon0 nk+G*a).Pi*mo0i a(ima )als+y./s so2ialini= i* .o (asiGlos i* (akla sos ( sia s)y*a da*.! s da*omos s:ly8os n.o *inko0..* +am +ik*: laiko+a*(D.alans o+a i* i5*.o a*. i* Gkio 5akos.k 5im+ i (ili.Gdina +oki.nka na 0ai þ*.o ly>8is! konk *. i5+ik*=0= *.6.9i= skai9ia s san+ykis s asm.)i.8is+>* o+= i.5kas! +.mon/s4 123- *.s>k)aliEika2in.*is+ikas.s i* (*oE.*+.ik5+i (*o2. *odikliai4 n.ia si s þda)ini s4 ") da*o D+ak: n.Da*.2ialini= i* (oli+ini= ).n+as C (.sinis mokymas i* k)aliEika2i0= Einansin/ (a*ama .sn/ þ "! +ai *. linimas! (*oE.Ei2i.di*.* +: (a+D laiko+a*(D n +*a k si= da*.n=! n >+*a k si= (.8is+* o+= n.Ei2i+i>n/! da 8ia a* maþia s .o *inko0.o ly8i i i* +* km.8 li o0an+ san+ykD +a*( (asiGlos i* (akla sos da*.Da*.iK 1) so2ialiai a(sa 8o .i= s d/+is (a8al so2ialin.>mo8*aEin.sin.da*.a s ma>þ/0im: (.n2i0os no*ma i* lai(snis! Dda*.ik5+i n.o (ai.s>d.damo0i þim+ mo (oli+ikos dalis.i ko.

E.Pasy)i $< .Ak+y)i da*.k+y) mo didinim:.ko> nomin/ s+*a+.o *inkos (oli+ika! kai +aikoma +okia so2ialin/ i* .8i0a! k *i 8a*an+ o0a .

mian+i da*.inD i* ki.nas daik+as a* *.*/þ+ mas (s:)oka! d.n: s:)ok: ki.*is+ikos.s a*.5ios *inkos (oli+ika! kai )als+y.8iono s:ly8=Da*.s+*ak9ios s:)okos! k *i= ki.in/0.*/þ+ m:.k)i.n *odikli .k)i.E.ik5+i )i.>m.s (da*.sn/s s:)okos (i*mia sia i5*. a* +olim.s i i* l.s da*.0= (oli+ikos *G5i= i* .o s:ly8as4 1234- .+.ik5+i konk*.*+inim so2ialin/0.o 0/8os s:na d= s+* k+G*:! a(im+D i* 0= a+kG*im:-San+ykinai 8alima i5ski*+i +okias da*.2Fnini=! so2ialini= i* o*8ani3a2ini= ).konomin/0.G+i +i.kD4 s)o*D! daþ> n m:! +* kmH i* (an.Da*>. ki.N.o *inkos (*o8no3a)imas 8*indþiamas . )i.o *inkos a+ski*as sa)y.A.mon/mis *.s anali3.E.iksni= )is ma! + *in+i D+akos da*.i5kinys + *i koky.2Fnikos s*i+ys.k ak+y)i! +i.nodai .! 0os (a>8*indini= *odikli= i* (a*am.n2i0as! al>+.a *.San+ykis +a*( 5i= d)i.sn/0.s (asi.ky.ky.o *inkos s:)ok= ki./s n s+a+y+omis (*i.o s:ly8os C 8amy.Rodikliai 8ali .s i* (a*am.*is+i>kos i5*.*min s.ky.n ! .2Fani3mas i* 8a*an+ o0amas d*a >dimas n o n..ini=>+.o *i+mas! kG*y.smH! ki.Da*.i5kiamos n.ik5+i koki no*s )i.liais *odikliais- Da*.da*.Gdina 8ana a.sn.*na+y)i s +os a* ki+os (ad/+i.l.n+= C 0= a(im+is! koky.6 o s:)oka! a.o (0o a(mok/0imas)! o*8ani3a2in.k+y)i 8ali .sn/! + o s nkia 0: +i.i5kiami na+G*iniais i* san+ykiniais dydþiais. 8ali ski*+is.o *inkos (ad/+D a*+im.Koky.2Fnolo8in.! d.i5k mas! +.þimas! (amainin8 mas)! (da*.G+i i5*.o *inkos (oli+ika.+* s daþnia siai a(i>.i5kiamos (.>8 li o0amas kom(.inis C +os .nsa2inis m.i5kai 8alima i5*./ i* .sio8iai i5*.in/s 2Fa*ak+.! .konomin.+*= (oky9i s! *aidos +.nd. 5alys..s+*ak> +.! 8amy.inis a(i.n konk*. i* *aidos (.sio8iai 8alima i5*.s! s:)okas! k *ias 0a +i. da*.*s(.k+y)= D). a+.sn/0.9i= 5ali.kimo .o.i+y0.mo>8*aEin/0.Gd s i* +.ky.+ k.inD a(i.k (asy)i da*.9iais *odik>liaisDa*.i5kinio .s (Ei3in/ i* (*o+in/ D+am(a)! .Ki.> ky.s mono+oni5k mas)! (si2FoEi3iolo8in.Vi.sm/s ki.in/s 2Fa> *ak+.* ki+as! konk*.o *inkos (*o8no3a)imas C moksli5kai (a8*Ds+i s(/0imai a(i.k+y) mas C a+ski*os.Tai (*ikla so n o konk*.samos (ad/+i.9i *odikli .o *.o (*o2.o *inkos *odikliai y*a da*.s+*ak+.! mokslo i* +.Eini2i0a) n sako *.

$A .

l8.2Fnolo8in/ da*.: (a+i+inkan+D 0o (*oE.Gdinan>9i= )is om.k+y)o san+ykiai)! N +*a k s da*.Da*.s+.l8ian+ D da*.Eiks o>0amasDa*.2iEini s (oþymi s.o o(.+os . o+o0o i* da*.+i +am +ik*: da*.8 li o0amas s(.i8as! laikydamasis n s+a+y> +os )ida s da*.m(.o s +a*+is C da*.! da*.nsy) m:! i5*.o +)a*kos! o da*.o (*i.id s da*.ma! laid o+i no*malias! sa 8ias da*.da)ys Dsi(a*.o (*od k+as! 0= +.o þmok./s! s mokama kom(.nsa2i0aDa*.Da*.8 li o0a s(.s (da*.o in+.o )i. o+o0o .is/s ak+ o>s.k+as! da*.o + *inys C s:)oka! a(i.i8asDa*.iklos *G5i=! a(i.nin.si0: i* k)aliEika2i0:) a*.k+ ali3a)i> $& .o san+ykiai C da*.o (*o2.Da*.*a2i0=! a(i.o o.inimo 0 *idinis DEo*minimas! *.*is+ika! n sakan+i a+ski*= o(.Fi8i.sio i* da*.2ialGs Ds+a+ymai! n ma+an+ys 0= +.2Fnolo8inio s:).ika)i>mo .iklos 2Fa> *ak+.Gdas! k *D +i. a* 5ali= s si+a*im - 12- (si2Folo8in.sio8iai *odo da*.o s:ly8as! a+siþ).0.da)io s si+a*imas! kai da*.k+y)in/0.i8o0a mok/+i da*> .*min o+a! kai 8alio0imo +.+a s da*. o+o0 i da*.s (da*.o kol.so y(a+ m s.G+i +.o + *inD! )is m:- In+.+a s da*.*minas n.s+D i* 8a*an+ o0a da*.! ki+ os.*a2i0= )is ma i* 0= n > os.>þas9i=! n.o s:ly8as *.kl m:! Ei3ini= i* (*o> +ini= (as+an8= san+ykD da*.o )i.o + *inD! )is >m:An+*:0D ly8D C kai( D)ai*i= da*. kai( da*.o d/l (*i.moni= sis+.Gdinan+i konk*.+os ly8i i* )is om. o+o0o Dda*.o o(.i5kian+D da*.8*aliniais da*.Da*. +. s +a*+y0. o+o0o +a*( sa)io san+ykiai! k *i os *.in/s ).>2iala s Ds+a+ymo.a D)ai* m: i* (an.8 li o0a Ds+a+ymas.o sa 8a C s(.n/s ly8i .*a+G*a! d*/8m/) i* k+. o+o> 0as Dsi(a*.6i 8ali .a .o + *inio *odikliais 8alima laiky+i Ei3ini= i* (*o> +ini= (as+an8= in+. o+o0: i5 da*.o + *inD 8alima na8*in/+i d)i.s i* (a*.Pi*m:0D ly8D s (*an+am.i8o0a di*.o (*o2.o s +a*+is C da*.ninio da*.o koky.o Ds+a+ym os.kl mas.Konk*.*min o+a! kai n *odomas 0os 8alio>0imo +.mon/s i* da*.o mono+oni5k m: a*.l.(*ikla san9i= n o da*.m ly8iais4 da*.o + *inD l.*a2i0= n os.2ia>li= +aisykli= i* (*i.o s +a*+D i* a+l.s.i+i +am +ik*as (a*.o s:ly8as! n ma+y+as da*.o s(.Tai o*8ani3a2in/>+.! kol.is.da)io i* da*.*minas! i* n.Gdinan9i= indi)id ala s da*.+ika! +.+.in/s ).mia4 da*.

+inis C da*.i da*.o þmok.o þmok.+: laik: i* da*.mi0os! )i*5)alandþi= a(mo>k/0imas i* k+Ski*iamos 5ios da*.*ia si: (al+.>kio i* koky.s9io o*8ani3a)imo Eo*ma! kai þmo>k..No*in+ D8y+i a k5+: k)aliEika>2i0: .o þmok.s9io +a*iEas C da*.*na>+y) sis! laikinis! nominal sis! *.n.o þmok.as! 3) a k5+o in+.n8imasDa*.*i0= i5> ski*iamos +*ys da*.l8ian+ D +ai! a* (*.o laik:.kis! k *D 8alima Dsi8y+i þ nomi>nal= da*.*o>s.s9io Eo*mos4 al+.k)aliEik o+as! )id +in/s k)a> liEika2i0os i* a k5+os k)aliEika2i0os.Da*.a! 8alio0an+i )isos. o+o0= . o+o0= *.l.o + *inio klasiEika2i0o0. da*.l.Pa8al 5i os *odikli s 8ali>ma i5ski*+i +okias da*.mo in+.s+is C da*.*na+y)=0D) da*.o þmok.o + *inio 8* (.s+is- R. o+o0o (*i/mim D da*.o þmok. o+o0o k)aliEika2i0a). +ik da*.mo lai(snD .l8ian+ D di*.s+is! k *D 8a na da*.s9io *i.s+isDa*.ia sias k*i+.2ial s (asi*.o D).G+inas il8: laik: +* nkan+is s(.*+inimas (ini8ais! k *D s da*o (a*.k+ alinio ly8io da*.Pa8al 5D k*i+.al sis C (*.o s d/+in8 mas (da*.o þmok.as?io0.as! 2) )id +inio in+.s+is! k *D 8a += indi)idas! (a>si*inkHs 8.o þmok.i8i>n/ al8a! (*i.i8asNominal sis C (ini8inis da*.dai i* (*.k+ alinio ly8io da*.s9io minim mas C Ds+a+ym n s+a+y+a þ.kian+ i5sa 8o+i .o þmok.s9io o*8ani3a)imo Eo*ma! kai þmok.inis! )i.ki= i* (a>sla 8= kainos did/0a.*i0 s y*a da*>.al sis da*./s an+iinElia2in/ (oli+ika! si.mi0os.s> +is mokamas! a+siþ).al sis! *i..Jak+inis da*.o þmok.+inis- Al+.nd*o da*.Da*.o + *inio 8* (/s4 n.:- Vi.ki= i* (asla 8= ki.D/l +o maþ/0a da*./s$# .+ i* (*.o þmok.?i o minim m si.mia sia da*.inis C )is= da*.l.k+ alinio ly8io da*.s9io ly8D! n.s+is C +ai n.o þmok.kiama 8a*an+ o+i minimal= (*a8y).o þmok. da*.a+siþ).*na+y) sis C didþia sias þmok.s+is (*ikla so n o (a8amin+= (*od k+= a* s +.ik+= (asla 8= ki.s9io D5al>dymas C )als+y.s9io (asik.sa>m: da*. o+o0o (a*. o+o0as þ no*mal= da*.o so2ialinH (*asmH.mokos! (*i.s+is! .o þmok.nimo ly8D.s4 1) þ.o þmok..o sE.s+DRi.o þmok..:Laikinis C da*.n. s)a*.i+imas! s si0Hs s (a(ildomo da*.

k/s ).*+/s +.n+:! +a9ia +ai n.ki= kain= ( sia s)y*os san+ykis y*a +i.G+i a+l.G+= laikinas! +i.m.o*i0a D d.*+. a+siþ).idþiami.o ind/lD 8amy.as i* s da*o didþia si: 8al +in/s ).).o )i.ikia 0oms (a8amin+i! san+yki iSmi+as .o ).0= )a*+o0am=0= (*.*.ln: i* *.ns o0an+ da*> .o )i.k Dda*.o )i.Ka*las Ma*ksas i5(l/+o0o Rika*do id/0as! i5> skaidydamas da*.?ios +.n2ialias .sinH>k)aliEika2inH 2Fa*ak+.> += )akan+i5k mo ly8is C lais)= da*.o )i.*+H D +*is s d.> )yniolik+o0o amþia s (a.Tai>8i d)i..da*.2Fnolo8in/>o*8ani3a2in/ E nk2i0a! k *iai a+lik+i *.inimo +a*ny.N).5> kan9i= da*.*+.o! k *io *.o )i.ikala)im sDa*.inimo 8alimy.*+H l.n+a! da*.ikian+ (a*am: da*.inio na5 mo (a> ski*s+ymo +. i s+a.Kadan8i +oks a+l. san+ykin.i8ia! kad (*.lnas! n.o (*o2.mian+i (o+.mia *.o*i0:! no*s (*i(aþino! kad ).o ).n+o a(i.o ).s o+os i5sa 8o+i da*.kli= ki.o*i0os 5alininkai +.l8iama D )is= 8amy.sini s>k)aliEika2ini s da*.n+inis san+ykis s s:*a5 os.o a(mok/0imo i5laidas +i.sinH>k)aliEika2inH s+* k+G*:! o da*.os (*o2.Da*.+ 0.Rika*das (*i(aþino! kad 8ali *.*+/s dalD. d/l laikino 8a> my.kli=! o n.*>+/s +.+= )is ma! l.k..*+inan+ da*.> sio8iai (*o(o*2in8as da*.s+is.da)iams C i5 dali.so +.ai8: .a s in> +.s ).+a C da*.s+is i* (.*im.o þmok.Da*.o i* ka(i+alo! k *i.+= (akla sa y*a i.dam:0: ).l8+i D (.s kom(.kli s) i* (*id.os s maþ/0imo Dmon/0.k Ei*ma! +i.o (ili.o )i.os i5+.mia da 8 i5laid=4 *.Gali .n+i5kai (asiGl/ da*.i= Dsida*.si0os! s(.ik+i a+siþ). o+o0o *.moni= n.l8iama D 0os (*oE. o+o0= skai9i mi.idimas .ili> 3 o+i! +.i (a8amin+i da*.o*i0os s(.+: a+siþ).sm/s l.Da*.. + */+= . o+o0 s.Da*.ki=! k *ias i5 .o )i.mia da*.o0.*+/s +.G+i a(> '% .konomikos +. s na do0amas ka(i+alas)! kin+am:0D ka(i+al: (da*> .0= (*.o )./s! k)aliEika>2i0os da*. )o (ak.9i= skai9i s (a8al 0= (*oE.o (*i.is+a *i.*+H .o0.san9i= da*.na i5 (*i. o+o0ams! k *i.o*i0a C klasikin/s .+= skai9ia s (*o2.s.*is+ik:! n sakan9i: (*oE.Da*.+= *inka C +ai lais)= da*.klinH ).ikia +am +ik*os (*oE.dam:sias dalis4 (as+o)=0D ka> (i+al: (8amy.o*i0a! k *io0. da*.i8 da*.ks(. s na do0ami 8amy. +ik D da*.o )i.+= i5sa 8o0imas y*a )i.s.*> +H l.2ialy.ms da*.moni=.o i5+.kis.o þmok.o i5+.*+H ((.nkino 0o s)a*.2ialis+= s k *+as mokymas. )o (i*masis! k *is .da*.s +a*( d)i. o+o0o i* a+i+inkam= da*.ia sio a*8 m. .ikalin8= +ai (*.

Po +o kainos (ak.m(in8as C (*.Elia2i0a C (*.nsy) m: da*.nd*o0o kain= ly8io ind.+i>niai 8amin+o0ai (asi+*a kia i5 konk *.m( s- D.D.is/+ mo (aþ.+ þ sa)ikain:.lia>mos i* daþnai )i*5i0a iki d.konomi0: d/l 8amy.*+y.si0as a*.o 0/8os (akla sos in+.i>+o*i s (skolininkas) C Ei3inis a* 0 *idinis asm o! skolin8as ki+am Ei3iniam a* 0 *idiniam asm.Ei2i+as C +*Gk mas! n os+olis! k *is s sida*o! kai i5laidos )i*5i0a (a0amas.s.skai9i o0amas (a8al a+ski*as (*oE.a a*+im= (*oE.os mas+o.?io *odiklio (aly8inimas s da*.i +. 5aly0.i (asiG>los ( sia s)y*os. Si.:! kad 8a += did.0 0os! +aikydamos d.! 0is +aikomas +ol! kol )i.kian+ maþin+i )als+y.ki= i* (asla 8= .kio! k *is )i*5i0a (*.ki= (a*da)imo i* (asla 8= +i..lio i5da)/0asD.i> ki s! i5/mimas i5 a(y)a*+os.no*mali .. mo>no(olinH a* oli8o(olinH (ad/+DD.kian+ Dsi8al/+i þsi.nsy) mo *odikli (a*o>do D+am(: da*. ) sD ly8D.kimo þsi.ikimo i* ki+= sando*i= s 5iais 0 *idiniais a* Ei3iniais asm.nio- D..ki= 2i*k lia2i0os i* mok/0imo (o*.ki= (akla sa il8: laik: )i*5i0a (asiGl:! o kainos n.*okai maþ.Jinans= s*i+y0.idim=)! +od/l laikomas n.a s 0ais s da*omas kon+*olinis s si+a*imas.?i o a+).D.mon/ na do0ama +ik si..m(in8:! D8y0a +o0. '" ./s inElia2i0os +.D.o *inko>0.snH .*iali=0= ).al=0D .6is (a*odo da*.nio i5laidos )i*5i0a (a0amas i5 þsi. +: sa)o 2.Ei2i+as C *inkos si+ a2i0a! kai k *i= no*s *.ksas! na do0amas a(skai> 9i o+i *.o *inko0.! 8alima (aly8in+i 5i o (oþiG*i a+ski* s *.ni i! a*.D.> Elia+o*i s C .nio *inkos.Mokamo0o .i+o*inis Dsiskolinimas C 0 *idini= a* Ei3ini= asm.i>dimo i5 0= ( s/s (d/l Einansin/s i* a+siskai+ym= (mok/0im=) d*a s>m/s ..n2in/s ko)os a*.G+i +aikomas! kai Dmon/s si.a n.D. kaina! k *i 8.a! ()3-! ).8ion s.a+*odo (akla sos .m(in8:! *.ali3 o0a *inkos.m(in8as 8ali .?i (*i.si0= 8* >(.ks.kia i5(l/s+i 8a> my.s *s= a* (*.m(in8o .s þsi.n= Dsiskolini>mas! k *is a+si*anda d/l ma+.i= (a+.nd*o0o kain= ly8io maþ/0imas.nd*:0D na2ionalinD (*od k+:.nio *inkos.Ei2i+as C kada 5ali.sn/ þ )ida s *inkos kain: a*.m(in8as +aikomas +okiais a+). d.alanso d.0ais4 1.Elia2i0a C +ai i* (i>ni8= ki.o 0/8os (asiGlos in+.Tai D)yks+a +ada! kai Dmon/s! +aikan9ios d.nimis s:ly8= (aþ...

*io Dmon/ Ds+a+ym= n s+a+y+a +)a*ka 8a) si l.6..ankas! .m+as d.k/s (akla s: i* (a8amin s (.s )ida s *in>ko0.liais an+id.anko (a)aldþio0i Dmon/ a* Einans= makl. Vali +inis d.G+i maþ.(o3i+as C ind/lis .m(in8in..os ka5+= a*.>k.TokD d.þ+i! a*.*+in s (*.ki= kain= 5ali.i n s+a+y+o m i+o dydis- 3.s (.*n.s (asa lin/0.Nmon/s daþnia siai +aiko d.nd*o)/s a* (.*+.ini s (o(i.s +a*(+a +in/0.N ).ny0.di+o Ds+ai8ai n s+a+y+o> mis s:ly8omis.s *inko0.snis n.m(in8: .m(in8as maþina lais):0: konk *.k.s9i i i* so2ialin/ms *.þ+os im(o*+o k)o+os! a*.þamos (*.m(in8:! kai no*i *.n2i0: +a*( +a += i* y*a þalin> 8as d.iniai (o(i.m(in8as 8*indþiamas na2ionalin/s )ali +os (.s9io n l.ki= +*ans>(o*+a)imo ka5+ai i* +ai (*.lD (.> 8 (asa lin/s kainos i* 8a +i did.(*. Gamy.ly8 da 8 (*.nin/mis kainomis n.*kan9ioms 5alims.Gdai! k *iais þk.(*od k2i0os dalD! k *ios n.Tod/l na do0ami D)ai*Gs ./! a+id o+a sa 8o+i k*.s )ali +:! Dmon/s! k *i= 8amy.ki=N s+a+an+ d.a n s+a+omos 8*i.s (*.*+in s 5ali.*i s- D. *inko0.s+i2i0= ..s D).k.ikm/ms 5alis 8ali (a*d o+i (*. ski*+ mas + *i .*ialio0i ).)al)a)imas.mas d.6is da* )adinamas so2ialini d.i8 kokia no*s 5a>lis +aiko þ. a*.a +aikan+ d.s l/5as i* ).lias s).8ali +*ali3 o+i 5ali.ali3 o+i sa)o (*od k2i0os (.s )id 0.os ka5+ai did.*+y.kli=! a+si*ad sD klaidin8ai D).sn/mis kainomis n. Ski*iamos +okios d.k/s a(mok.+im= 5ali= (*.m(in8i>niais m i+aisD.nsi0= Eondo (ini8in.8 0os )a*þo)ai- 2. þ.m(in8 .*> kamosios 8alios ski*+ m 5ali.m(in8o Eo*mos4 1. maþm. i* þsi.0 d/l maþ= i5laid= da*> .s+inamos did.ln:- D.*+y.m(in8as.li! 8ali (a*> d o+i (*. ((ini8in/s l/5os a* )..Gd D).?i o a+).os sm kim: a* s s+in8im:'1 .nio 5alys.s )id 0.m(in8o kainas! +ai += (*. i* þsi.o þmok.k.a þmok.*slo 2iklo Ea3/! *.*+y.(o3i+o*i mas C . *inko0.i5kian+i il8alaikD 8amy.idi>m: i* sa 8an+i in).*iai)! ma+.*+amas k.a i5 )iso þd*a dþiama +okias (*.D.8 (*.m>(in8 i 5ali.si0a C ).k.m(in8: +aiky+ina +okia +aisykl/.m.ank.ki= d.m> (in8: ska+ina na2ionalin/s )ali +os d.

ima) 8ali lais)ai na do+i a*.lno dalis! kasm.lno ((a0am=) mok.li>8a2i0as i* (*.s9i '$ .! n.n+o (i*kimo iki skolos 8*:þinimo di.sn/ms kainoms! 8a na .os ka5+ s i* lik s anks+.ks.5 skolos mok/0imo +.kami a+skai+ymai 8amy.as a(mok.*a2i0as sa)o s:skai+aDinaminis .s+inimas C a(mok.k+o*iai- Do+a2i0a C )als+y./ms )isi 8amin+o0ai ska+inami di.*)ai! i5mokami (*o2.k+y) m:Diskon+as C skolos dok m.*+/s n s+a+ymas.*ialin/ (a8al.ki=! ).a*+in/ ).8+i na 0as +.ks.Gdas! kai n s+a+omi ak2ini= .konominD (.i+y0.aD)i8 .nini= (a0am= mok.n+a)imas si.nos! +ai( (a+ (a*da>)imo ((i*kimo) kainos n olaida.kian+ 8.. s 8a +os a+.a*+in/s ).3.Tai lik si (a0a>m= dalis s mok/0 s asm.l> n:.ninD .E.n8+i! (*i.li s! k (on s) n o s mos! k *i n s+a+oma i5 mok/+inos 0= sa)inink i s mos a+skai>+an+ (*o2.*i=! )ali +os! .nkama 8alimy.i>+y0.n= (a0am= dalis C l/5os! k *ias in> di)idas (5.*min:! a+skai+an+ (alGkanas þ laik: n o dok m.Esan+ +okioms 8alimy.n+= (9.*is C +a*(ininkas +a*( (a*da)/0o i* (i*k/0o! )ykdan+is ).*+y.Diskon+o no*ma C (*o2.mo>ka! ma+.k+y) mas C ino)a2i0= o*i.E.nio )ali += a+þ)il8i Dil.*ia sio *./s 8a +i (alGkan= iki +o laiko! kai 0os i5 +ik*=0= ..ndas C ak2in/s .ki s! ).s9iai! a+li.3 l+a+o.nd*o)/s (.s+inimo .s+D i* ki+ s mok.a +a (y+i.s9iai! (o +o +as (.li=! k (on=) (i*kimas (*i.ndais ak2ininkams! 5ios (a0amos )/l a(mok.n+ai þ o.lnas (a>ski*s+omas di)id.n+ s (9.ai (l/s+i! (a(ildomi *.in/ (a5al(a ((ini8in/s l/5os) Ei*moms! Dmon/ms! Ds+ai8oms! ski*iamos +am +ik*oms 0= i5laidoms (ad.*an8i=0= m.+ (aski*s+oma +a*( ak2inink= (o +o! kai s mokami mok. s 8a +os a+.n+ s þ da* n.Nmon/s! Ddi.(*a/0 sD laiko+a*(DDis(on o0amos (a0amos C asm.Diskon+a)imas C (a0am=! k *ios .+.mi0 o0ami di*.anko! diskon+ o0an+ skolos dok m.ini= (o(i.*+/ y*a maþ.)al)a2i0a C oEi2ial s na2ionalin/s )ali +os k *so s maþinimas þ>si.D.nini= (a0am= mok.nd*o)i= (.! da.7Gsim=0= (a0a>m= da.2Fnolo8i0:! s maþina 8a> my.8 sios na 0: +.2Fnolo8i0as i* +ai( didin+i )is om.+al= i* ki+as (i*kimo>(a*da)imo o(.n+ai! imami .sn/! n.s>+inamos asm.s9i s- Di)id. s 8a +os.s kai (a0amos .

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