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1M..... d lhem are suppoil'd to been disco,'cr!

by the anc"-'1115,
and fourlb" lhe pttIpt"l" one. is lhen estot>hshed b" h'm. FiNllr. in LN
gt'IltlTffiofo<' rt CQl'rUpri.mc. ,\ris.otk inqulI>:!S inlt) the GWl1tia. "'hich a",
theln5eh'l"! qui'" parlicuLor 6lll(l.l wilhin tIw tOOtl 6\'1:1l. And lh.>1 is !he
reason 6911\, ClInov, 'u,,1 oro'leiO\' a", OCI:""i"""ny id,""kal in """ning
for AnslOll", but only in a fonn;sl Sl'fISO!: laket1 strictly, they a", t.lo.....J fo'
parlieular reams 01 Bring, This conflttl"'lion "'ilh the ancil'11l! is, in all
Ih"", wa)'5 Aristotle carries il {JUI, dilft:renl from the Platonic one,
Aristotle already had a uni"OCll, ",,'rn jf nOI ,odical1y concrh'l'd, basis for
lhe onlOlogkal mode of questioning. "CCluil'\'d O<ll withoull!w plelimin:lry
"'ork nl him...lf.
Tht dt\-"lopMl;'1l1 0/ ontology d<;Jel; no! 10 a coUe<:tion of
onlological re5UllS ,n \he senscof a !waring up of ,....,.,found catq;-ories.On
the contrary, its prope- "'o'k is CIll'l'n!tated upon the el.tbot'3lion of lho.'
milieu in which (1l\loiogjcal re5earch can mO"e in l>"""tal,l-lere is prop'"
cenler of Cl'Nk Only if we Itam 10 understand mis. "',11 t!woe
t'XiSllho1 pKlSpl"ct of making our past producti,.., again. Pdrm....ides
lhe e1abnralion of lite mili..... from quesli"" of tlw I:Ieingof bocings
can bt .... This peeulia, loundahonol was nol, for Gn.o<:b,
explici' 35 .lId>, but ;n fact .hci, ...ork ",,,,'1 ius< much in 011, Hdd cl
<IS in INI of 6\'.Spedfll"'all)", >.00:; is,lor Cn. k onlological """'arch,
the ,,'ar of;1otti'iS 10 lhe Sringofbt'lngs. Thisdoes not mean. oowc-'er, thai
Gn.""" ontology is depmdl'nt On "logic";' "''' would first ha".. lo""k "'hal
logic w'" for th.. Greeks. and mal' no! impure to Ihmt ,h. n>O\k'm
cCln<.'epl of logic. Plato', cril1qut of the pm'ious age has lhe inlefllion 01
carryinJI oul the onlologM:a1 owr and against th.. onlic, I.... ca"*,ri.ll,,,
plicalion of l3ting o\'<'" and as"'n.st an onlk dl:':SCripliofl of beings, i ...., of
making lhis ontological fllSe3rch ''isiblt lhe lil'S! time In ilS buk p.uts.
Fo' II was Indeed an unheard of <IISC"","')' ", 5<'\' Ilelng 0"(.. oro "&lIASI
beings, rhougll. to be "' ..... Parm""ides. ..'1>0 hims<:lf "'''S no! dea' "boul
It. took lhfo fir$! Slt'p in thi:!! direct'on ""h Ihe _n"ngly trivial prindpl<":
be,ng!! an'. This princ1pk' him beyond beings in lhe
"""'" of a description.'
n,., hl.roriall consideration MalO '" h.,; P"'Jl<" d;;'lc<.k,,1 dis-
cu""i"" is meanllt)confmnl notl>ftll' all "'" pn,>\'ious philosoph;e" but lhe
one of his contemporaries as TIlt ronsiderdtion lheftby ""'lUlre> a
dear .rlieul.too.
I. The lfuruSliIOl'1 01 Ancient Doctrif\CS of cW
64. Gn....,,1 ,"".ar,,,,,,,,,,I.," 0/''''' first o"'ol'18il"ll!
aUm'7/S' (Uk-UJc). SArIch arow' 6". Mi>6a,
lSl'l1lo6uL Ptl'l1r/i"",'IOr. r! pfl'Mlurr.
,*"",;"" j"/tl 1M Otl'oI:>girtll <I",,,.,,,.,,,.
T1Il> hi5torical conoide... tion begi"" ...i6 a grn.".31 CMr,lC'1CTi:e,ltim\ of tile
This rhar.K'tNiz.:at,on beani a 50mewhal superior and ,ronic 10"".
.... hich, ho..."'...,., "",ould n<1l sed"ce us inlO t.lklng it M a me", We
...ill see late. L'tat only thi5 basis-il\5<,f.. as we "'71l"il'l' the way of
questioning for the inlerpM.ltion-"""kes mkJligiblc Ihe enlin: poth Gn'O.'k
ontological had to t",,er.;< in onJer 10 arrh'e al !he foundation
Arislotk- hirnlClf firmly I.'StablLohed. M(,66v '",n hoo.o.; onc''l':tI"i [.101
r..'l)'l:io6u' (2426), ft that each of tkes<>ancients is Ielling usa slory
about beings." and "a'm" Ii>.; ooo\\' (<8f.I."as if WC"'\'l'l'
Thi5 that !he ancients, ir>50fdr <l5 !hel' d..all ...itk Bring. told sloti<'S
about M"p ..,Id what haJ"P""$ to bci..'ll"- H"""" the ancients did noI at
all ani'e.t D?,,"ition from ...hich they could dekrrnir>c something about
Ille Ileing of beinl>".lf. e.g.. lhey s.'id .plo: .a 6".,,- thrn the)' ...."If' S<'lCC1ing
d..-finil" beings. ones which !>oJ an "mphatic lor them, .nd the).
expl.1iOL'd beings out of beings. This is tilt: of "t..mng stonO'S";
i.l'., they mon'll ....iwly in Ike dimC1\5ion of beings and dod rool.: aU mil!.
into tke dimem;ion 0/ the Bring of
t.) 0 j.lb, .hoe one. says: ,pia m /I"m /242<91, bt'ings 3re thr'. "T'h<1
hbtoriographkaJ aUributi.m 01 Ihes<> ".riou.> roncevtions [0 ,ndi\idu.l
o<h",,1> iU>I.I frun,m",,!> .. nUl .... hully u"... ,i"",.." I""", ...1 ....'" <kn.ut"
naml'$.re not mcntitml"d. And SO illS .... ho this /) [.ltv 15, the one
....ho S'lY!l""ings are th""",. Zeller ('Otlj:tures il is f'h<:<t'C'}'des, "ho, 10 be
sure, proposed a characteristic the pmp<:r ""ings. ""mely ZeUli
or th.. llea, en, Chmnos or bm... and Cht"",,- tr.,. c.rtI,. 1(ANlll! c1 in\"ol"e<!
h.".., in d....,I,'<I chamrten"",ti"n: tho.' wun:c'll are n",.lS'''' .s wcll. In his
I'5ycM! M5 dealt profu",I}' ...ith the "eoy early spUlati'eronlots.
The three of this t"""'fold, ....hich exist m are not d.,..rm.JOL'd
I.
:. E.t...-l z........ Oir I'ldl.'''pl... l.oQ E".", lIotn.,7. AWL. ,m.
Pr ,(ColO!;.
3. Enoln _ f'<Jo. , .oJ G""""". EtMt llo1flr. rift
I!'l(\Z o: It.>Uor. F..OIl"''ii.1Ing Itl"I tn"",tI,'Ul.u,,,,,,,",..,...,,...,J ....._or
1-. ....(1. 1IM<l<'lfL,,1> IhrOrr"""" (rP jlO-llb).Nl ph""""Pt'f (1'1' t:V-I"<)
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itself. In oIher wo<d.'l, Pl.lIQ .n.n,'s Ih<'J'cl>y II... aIlS"'''' m.c rhm ta
IWvta d(ll'll not .01 aU k>uch Ihe qUlSl"lln <>f fleing, I ....id f .... l",dili"",,1
int"'Pl'I'1ali<)n.of Zelle ell: .russes l/w> a<;lual al ... II
nol al all fIl''SSlry tel analFA' the f\lS1 of 1M que!ltiOfl ""re. For
lhe proper tMne of io'elig.llion is made abuod""Uy clear al 2#<1.
"Ent&l '01,,,,, 1\nop1\"flI'". iJsld; lid.< tjlto<:t,'li;tv i"m'W.;. tI
jloUl.l:<:riIr "'lIlivt'W lltt6tIXY el\' (a4ff.). uE!:a..,.. we dQ nol
know any way OUI as rt"jpnls "'hal S")'ing you rourscll ml.l51
c1.lrify for us ...hal you properly m"an "'hen you utter Ihis won:l6v.
u
1'1"'1
Ill<' ",""'ndy ernl",1 Cl:'t1ctT1l cf 'his of the w'ho:>k d;,,/ogJJt,
Tmay " ... an "".""..hl.. ,...."m ttl met.""",;,,, anti <w'ltnlnm' R".
lhe '1ue;linn !'laIn "'ises here and poM'S by me.ms of woole di.>loguc
has. in all bftn forgolll'n. This of lhe ",.. in quesli(>u is"oUy
for US toda)'. For we (;In "pJ'f'a" cilher e>rplicill)' Or silmll)', tel two things:
1.) The of IIdng i5 obvious e>'eryon,- U5o!S 'I roostanllr and
undE1'Wlnds ..hal I\e means il
2.) The c<>r>l:epl 01 fleing Is higtw.",t: therefore il cannl" al all b<>definN,
As 10 Ihe first we must ",,,,,uk IMI 'f'<'r1 from I.... question of whethe'
lhe supplJ!l<'d unj"er&ll ot",iouslX'S6 oflhe meaning of Ilo.>ing!nil)' or may
1>O.l>c id""'rifoed w;.h the <1"";11 of" p<>;Io:Iorhk..1"""",,,pt. in My c..sc it
is !his ob\'iousness. and nothIng ..L<e. tI>JI is I.... Ihe..... of .he
funWm....tal.<cimCll!.
As to lhe se<ond, "." must rema,k llul illwi nol 1>0..'\_'0 ",,,,-othe,
lhe CClnCt'pNai ..I.lbo",lion of lhe fundmm'Obl CON:>.'f'lS be f"l'i"d
und.... lhe rules that dl.'flnilion. "'hich il!;(:11 Presl.'Ots onl,. or\('
fonn of delennitU>lion.. Ilw .....' in a propos.itonal and
"logX.u The "log;"" of lhe determirolion of bt>ings ""'y!>01
;n,'O;.oo ;t5 tho!- cnlerion fo< lhe ",plication of Ilcing. Tl>erd'on! Ihe us"aJ
lalk lhe indefinabilily (l( IlI.'mg ...ns IlOlhing. It merely man'fests
lhe common rnisund"rsllmding 01 "'hat is issu"
\V'tth reg;>rd tel tho primal)' t.l$l< of any possible ClOloI<>g)', II mUSI be said
f'O'iti"dy thaI il resides f>""Cilo<'ly In the "",.."'lion, d' lIll' p"1"'r.ti"" of a
ground to iOSk aboul lhe "",ming of l:I.;ng in The quest...... of I"'"
meaning <i Ik-ing-"'h"t Beins "",a"" in ....l, io.he ...n"" of l!w: pmpo-
slrion from P1a!O dtJl'd ..txn,,-,,, not lhe fi""l question ofOOloiogy,
md Ittis cannol be ans"'em:! by a ,ummalion of onlOlogiCllI results.
On theronl""y. the qucstionof me......g of Bo.'ing s\.ondsal the
bocause il mu.'Ol pro>'kIcguidanre .>slo the JX-Ible """,oing in any roncn>Ie
lol..atd lrkt. Ow Plod,..,.,.. '*' Gnt</Im "... &$If' A...o, Lnpg,
tm, PI''''''''''''
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Al....ady in the Ov0J.lo. itsdf. which is bul or><' roml'O"enl 0/ ;.n,o.;. !he
lroubk- with Ihis posiliOJ1 is ,isible. The 6"",a. precisely as uVOIla. :as
""preWOfl, is suppoo;o.-d 10 .." of something; lhe m'OJ.la Jigni.
fies somelhi"s. .."d indeed U... 1l"0J.l{l itsl.'lf is nol ... t'lTll'l'-'
Nl[; U'; to"'wo. ho>nC\' .I.....uly
,,, Ii><:' 6voIJ.a of "",,"'hing. in .. significalion , ..... t means somelhing. they
are ....ying h.o 6vm. II waMe<! In identify Ihe uVOIla and Ihe
Soli..o\ij.l""oV,th<' and Wh.ll is meal'll in it made ,-;sible init. lilt'"
indccd 11>1." would"" "" expre>sion of nothing. Or d5<'. if lhe
6wjl1l1l; still suPP'*'<l 10 be- an (j,"OIlu two.;. an of SOlnl."lhing.
yet wilhoull""nt>y ,,--kning 10 50mcthing <>tI>I."r tM" ilSt'lf.lhen ttl u"opu
6vq.uto<'; 6VOjlu laO"()\'. iiUuu lit 0" (2+kl5f.). Hlhis 6''OJ.I(l rould
onl)' be an bv<>t<lItO<; m'OJ.lo bUI nol lhe 6vopa of sorn<'Ihlng ,,150:." Thus
lhe diffkulty of this posllion is ..1....adydNr in a fundamental componenl
of),Qyo<;; Itself. We need I., noUn> thaI MalO;" helt" cof\a'iving lhe 0"01111
in the....".. 0/ ,Is me..ning 5Omcthing. To bo: sun:. he <k>e!; noll\"ll""l f"nher
on the sf"'Cific .trucltl .... of I""connection 0/ the word with wltdl il n"',"5.
He is salisfied w;lh Ihf s.imple for"",lonlOlogicaJ fact IMI 10 the "'ON as
word ""longs Ihal which is m".."t.l-I" under.;I.ond. thi. fact pu....l}' ontkally
here: something is together wilh tomething. In an ""p.........,., "'SUCh,IM""
is Ihus already a OUj.Iv.o."1\.
''ou "'-'<'d In...., ,"'arty IMI Ihis ronsid"r"lion eannol "" laken me",
snphistic.ll ""....owbo.i"l:\. On ...... contrary. ;t is a n,atle. of laking lhe
lhesis l'\' 6" Til mv ...rious1r. Plalo is '<>n<:efll.,d to !J>ow th:at in Ihi5
itx08l'Ol; the.... resid"" a moment "'hieh n.xh6 b<.')'Ond its o....n P"'P""
....-. Tn Undl'"!%lnd I'Lllo's e:cphcation here and panicular/y in lhe fol-
kWdng case. ....e must thai he has nol yet an ""luaUy
precise cof>C\'PI of Being ,""'u. beings. bu' lrol the whole cunsid"rahon
f\I,," its routS(' in an bet....""'" the onlkal al'ld the OIllOlogkal.
And Ihis applies nol Oflly I""re bul ullimatt.-Iy 10 II\(' .....d of lho!
SO IMI this unclarity, present In P\.JIO hirnst'lf, 'onoliNI"" III' prnp<'f diffi
rulty in th.: d,alog..... llw:: ""plic.,lions. 31 fif\>l "Iew, gin>
llul ;rnpn:ssi<m of b(oing simple imitalions of sophislic..1 argum....,b. St'l....
on lr>p 01 the lat;><11""'" in the firsl part. 'ho.'Y occ.,si<mt..orl Ihe
,.........'. p<>pub...",Iil "<'I')' Ihal Ihis dialogue. loged",,' with some
olhl"f5, was apocryphal. But if we a.... clear about the inl."'lion .....iding in
I.... Idea 01 diale<:tie_ Ihis becam" v;sibl" in """"'-"'lion with lhe PIoJv.
the intenlion tn go war 01 mway<1IY'I to"'ard ,he l'\'. so
IMI on lhe basi. of the t., lhe further rislics or beings become
inteUigibl.., tho>n "0(> will not find oursdves ,n Ih diffICUlt)' of
Ing thesto "rgum""ts as purel)' onlical in th... sophislk.. I ..... 'nSe.
The i..... lho: renelu,",," of I.... ''''''lid.-mll"" or IhI, tv a. a d<'I<:1'-
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bl The discussion of U-' .s ul.o\', Tlu b<:,wccn the
tv as 6"",' and the tv aA'llM;. ConSN!uel\(fl for O,'.s 6Wv'
it> unlen.bility.
The i,."... loculoos "","' 1.1> up ' ......i. 01 Pa"""",idH. hlw ro ft....
(rom d diff<'f'ml point of "jc,,'. They do not ...mply consider that Ov is
;>ddrt.'55<.'d <os lv, bu' ;J\Stc.'>d lake up the principle as a ,,'hole; t\'/h'
tV mv. WlLiI' this duls ""th. pn>petly spe.tking. i5 0,- And this
ptOOSt'ly 6\.', ill (orocein..:l in ilS as rtirv; 0", ....hkh is "'hal
is "bout, is under,ilnod from the n'''')' ouls<>l as t6 .{xv. And of this
.. 6\', in this .no.... "ro'. il15 s.,ld, lv. Thus , ..... fv is ,ho, which i\ is
lIddres6l.........
Thcql>e>tion r>oW is how ,,,'can b\o und,;>n;'ood.s I\UY. Tha, is. lhe
e>.p""",ion t.o" nO"' appli.... \0 .av. the question is: in WMI liCfISt: isQv in
the th<-sOs O;l.cw? Th i. i"""-'d to"" Go Hence it is """.
no longer. matter 01 fv and iW as 6,{pjl01Q bu. a nullet of elucid.l;ng.he
r:.:,'he one. ""iry. onelU.'56, since the 6).0" is a rnndc of the lv. Ti lit;
16 Ow.., tttpov toil 0"'00; l'i tcrirt... toUtll'; (d. 244dUf.l. "Is the liM'IV.
in which ..... is "",anl--<i,' which for ils pari a5 fv-i.It"sli;..o",
.o.s a charnCl<':r of !IOtT1e1hingother than the ..... b or the ...
"H"", co..ld they l\OI 5aY II is Ih.' 5amt'; the). c<'1'!.linly rkly &0 in the t.... ..s'"
((>1). Ih.t whal sort of concl'J'l of li;..o" is \)ei"S US('(! In this regard,
is flOW 10 a fragmml of tt... didaclloC 1'0'-'''' of I'annffikles
himself:
nW.'ToWv EU,.,;..;..o1l ooalpn; (;yo."lf/,
llEooOOtv 1<6>'''!I' '0 y(jp 0(,,,,
outt 11 1\a,6ttpov !tcl.b'Ql XP<W Ion til f\ tfi j2.we)if.).
From this It isdear thill 0.' is understood in lhe..,nscofa o6oip<t. a sphere,
and il'ldeo.>d a comparable th"SlOa ...ellru..nd;>d "phen:',
a ...hoIe (li'p."1fl h"'" meam Ihe same.os (;}.,pl, which I'lOO6Qr:v, "from the
"going Inll11 din."'llom." is <'<llMlly >Irons; "'I '" inda"<l
nol pCIIlSiblt' for it hl be in anr """"" swaler or slronger M'''' or there."
lO'oilt...... yr. /<>6). """"""hing hlu> the meaning of 6),ov in
Pannenides. A,a tOloUtO" 6;..0, it has 3 and (etil. from lhe
middle OIll. in all up It) lhe outer limilS 01 lhe 5pho.>n>. 6" is
uniform, Now if1sofar as the 6Mn' has a "'iddle ""d "",,,,,,,illes,'t is SOlI.....
thing Ihal .... (en. "parts." Th..sil isa mall.,.,.of an mhrely ",.nkular
... a whok which has parts. and this wholffieS6 eM bo;> ..nderstood
35 "nity in a special sense, 'Aut. T6'1t: l'lJ'CP."\'b"',' Jt6:9o.; IJh- tOU
0-0.; l'):E'" bI, tol<; I'tptQl !tO,owo\>llt" <'vro..",... 0;:(11 tau'TIli" ltlrv tf: 60,'
"cd {wwb- 1\..., (245.>lff.). Tlw- Ol..o,' is Ihllt' a 1U"1'EPICJllh'\IV, or, as AtislQlle
'"
",ill say 1.l1i'r, "something that can boe taken What is
,".S""'I)' SC\'n in this noticm of ttw:- 6Mv IlfllfP10\ltVQV Aristotle L,\C,
ur>(/(orstood rlgo"",uslr in the mn<:epl 0/ ClV\'Q;t;,O St>dl. 61.0",,, olw" in
th<> of thl' can then>/"", lid,... toil t\"6.;. i..... ;1
can ha"e th<> det<.>nnin:>tene16 of the one; in suo:h" 61.ov as I'fI'PUJI.ll''Ov
the lv is ill liOnlC S<.'nst> presellt. But tllis tv is <juile partirolar; il is. tv lh.ill
is und...rstood bri I'IPl'OI "u.n". on the b.>sis of parts. w,lh "1}1rd 10
part" tv .... Tlw;,rdoro, the 6)Jw as lii..cw IS mdCl'd a tv, but this
tMov, which as {M.o,' is" pouticuln l\", " one (w.. do not ha,'" K!rm5 for
these disti",,"ons. i.e.. for ,..... S('r>5(' of the unit.,. of a whole composed of
parts)--this 0).0" or one is not tQ tv aim) (H5a5f.), "the one in
For (tlw.>ugh no! ""id ho!re. this IS ....h.' is mNntJ un;ly In the """'...
of who"'-'f\eS& is ;OS such 31"'")'11 still _r"u.g else. Iw.....I) oroeness. II is
refened 10 a mo", original one. Prior 10 it then> is a",se of tv bJ' which
it i$ ilSelf determIned as unity. lhis tv. which is prior 10 !he tv 61..ov, is
.... (d. as). withoul parts; it is the w,'l6ci>; l\'
(ibid.). .. uU,,""t.'I} discl<l6<.'d of lIS Cl.:lSoi. Thus if wc follo..' up th<'
of tv. we ultimdlelr find tv Ujiptc;. or, in the
aliullpno\'. Hcn<t' the can sa}" thai Ihis tv, the tv u rooovrov---hmcc
not the bI M'l9U>; but the tv as auvqt.;--to.: IIpoiJI' ov (bl), "is of
many pam." and exists only 011 !he b.JsiB of them and /or them. !.luI. iIS
Olt <nlf'$oWl\ofl ).Qyljl (blf.), "Ihis tv does not coincide wilh the
genu;,w J;('n5e of t>'-if I address it pmperlr" And 11'I this wa), " fll'6l
distinction arises within the coRCl'f'1 of tv: 1.) lhe rn cUfl8ci>,; and 2.) the tv
as Ilfpcm: the one as unll)' of parIS
No..' lhe int>:rlo<:uto<s again ask.: in whal is the 6v "'O:v or
Either II Is "".ov In the..,...., of lIMo.; tou tro., tIov (d. or cl"" il is 1'1'1
61..ov. As'iuming WI 6v is a tv in lhE- 5e\St' of" den"ed tv. as ..'h<>1"...... -.s.
tv ""'" (d. b6). then the tv is a Itli9oJ.,;; rou But if so, then ov or 6l..ov
is noIlhe Solme as I.... t.. in lhe proprr 5enS<! (ba). Aocordingty. lhe liAuv is
a tlI;l'O" over and .galnst ltv. iMofar .os Ihc latter is under.<tood in t.............
of lhe tv as tv w,ljllollo.:;, But If t ..... lil..ov is something oIher lhan 6v. lhe result
is ",;;.mvo. mwV'" ;"'o(,.;ld. baf.). there issom<.'lhlng mon' lhan this tv. the
l\' ",,"lied in th"I3t"'c;. if!h" llt<ru; Itself says: tv 6v 61..ov. But if. accordingly,
liv h;wing the Kl'dIo<; ,oil ;""6<;,-is not Itsorlf the lJl.ov (elf.). and
lhe liAo.. ;s pther lhan 6v. lhen this is somelhmg ltv as ltv is
no\. Const<l"""lly. the", is ,;omNhlng "'hick li,';" nol, which faUs outside
of li\'. but which r,,,.......m..J..... is, Th"",fo... <w is taurou (d. cli,). it
IS in ItseJll'Iftdful in ovIatlon 10 Itself: -''<.'In.lng is Jacl:.ing to it. something
3.AIt< lJ.llQlo7li
" 1Nd,. crupb1T:I<>. lreJtrJlff
'"
is still outsideof it, 5<)ffil,'lhing which (("0";15 p.or1 II is nolo II is thro WI/TO\'
(Iup6$lcvm' (cll. it 0", thus depriut;on from 'bell', ""..,.,1,
disllrw:t from thc64>v, while t1wQi.o\' lS$<'<llething. i.e., br
In!; 1lpp(lSt'd, u 6,' f,' in the proper 5l'I\S<'. !othi' 6),,0,- as av 10, being in
wm" or od>cr. This ,."Ii", ron..<id<'rntion Ix'('(m\i$ kasl
I...nsparmt. if ".., "re de... a' lhe ....'}. oulS<', about the ""0 """Rings vi"
tv: h in the cbri"l'<! Sol'f\S(', the f\' Q;.ov. and fv in the the "
itS this is ascri"'-'d 10 Q\' ol!' b! ......",ti.>l Bu' if lw is
ttrVt<W. then the ,"",,,It I, tht oil..: m' tOTOt tlllw (<6). 0\'
is nOl tW. i ...., <>01 all being>!;;1 OS 001 ,Ill' bMW.
The """"ld"""t>nn .. fun"'-... <k'r Tho> h<o<' 10 """''''''And til ..
finol a'S"'........, is '" grasp II from ""'lund. Th<.> 0;""" has now tx..., f""it..-d
as l!Omething tl\;\t d<><.'S nol bclong 10 "" as <'Iv; 11 is 'nd,'Oi l\:&J.;. ,t is a
tttp(lv. roOUwty n/ltvtu(d5f,). But iF the6l.m' is nol p<J!!i!t.'d
lind.... WI wh>c:h ili.1hen neithe. "umil nor)'O>m; can be posi'd a.. belns-
then neither "or oUolo. a.... for ro 6.El ytyovv..
"e....rylhi"g Ihlll bomes. and MS bclm'. I\.1s rome to bea whole." He'"
"whole," 6}.oy. mOOns the s>.me as "f!r1islwd; a f!r1ishl..,J Ihll\& Il
complete lh'r1& one. lhe rot\cepI of tv as 0"" roinri<Jes, ,,ith
,I", "I 1v.., ..,.....1", uni'). If, ,he 1\.\.0" oul."-t,,
oIlle:ing, is 10 lttpm' O\e. ar>d agooll'<;1 0. and if Il>>refore t"\'en 'j't\"t:<n" and
oUola carmo\"", th,.., 6" can""" be l'lIl\(>,. And in Ihls wal' d,'u' of
W (2450$1) ames, and f"rtlwm1on' 11>>", is no bemming: oVtt oVOiq;v o\itt
If\"f;<Jt\'w.; ooo.:.v/l(i KpoG(r"/'Ol)(:iiftv (citf.). In "",n,,",;on with thIS
'ion, lhe ",fers 108",n 10 lhe 11'- in lhe sense of 11006\' (d9), !he
qu.onlity of b.>ings, and ""l's lhal infm.il..ly many difficulhe5 "'ill n",,'
.""",.
Il\;l\"e "head) <.'1Tlph."tii200 if lheso! things a.... I\'ad unp....p..:-edl}' and
,,'ithout Ih" ,,,,reet ontologiclll ba.1s they Me cornpl<'l\'ly roniu!!oing. tn
anticipation I want 10 note bridly Ihallh....,. Ilr(' Ih"", <,:"""",,,I
in Ihls whole ronsid"ralion_und"ntics und.'O'SlO<>d nol In a crllical ",-""",
as llliSl3kes Plait) "'-"do.. but in lhe senseof difficulti... ""iding in tho.' maller
i\Sdf and in IIH1 tr.1dition.ol war of <:llf\('E'j\";ng these things:
1.1 The uocbrHy In !he <"Orl<:<.'pl of lhe """"N: if 0" "dilInguW\ed I"""
1I.\.o\".lht-n to >a}' lhat Ihe 0........ is not <W is Ilt Ihe ..me l'llle 10 soy lhal "".
is noI .soml'thing; lhe'" is something "hieh is not included in 1Iv. This is
po!i8ibll' only on lhe bas;, of an <SS('tlli.1 uncL'rill' in lhe "nol."
2.) The unc... nty wllh regard 10 the <fu;lloction betw<'OII\ 1I".os Bel'\'l and
II" as bcin8'" This difflC\llty is e,,,,,,,mated in the C""rlIC of lhe subsl.1nlk"
1 Plato'
dlsCWis:i n
characie:rs
that
)
the ut'br
m a mut p ak f: a) th
must difftia
in f
6 {461-4 -J
ance
variou
inre
Plato i
7. H. nitz, Plaforrisdll! ludien,3. ufl., rlin, 1 , p. 1 .
31
d, can
E,
respts: xOOo. n: Koial!anv(Uk'6}, regard 10 nOOu, "how
and ,,'uh rq;ard to lIOia.."how a", ro...titulNl.
N
Bonil:z wants to l.lke
thes<' t,,o tI.'SptS "i sisnHying the "rticuLatlon of dialogue. He s>ys
the first group olthinlo:.ers (the ones Wf' hIa,'e dO!lCU-.:l up 10 now)
with lI6<Ja, q"""lity, and the -..rId gro"p with 1win. Nq".li!)'," This di5-
tinction is oot n"''e5S.lI)' "' fa' as the is COnll'mcd, For, in the critical
dil'CUSSion we hIa"e folluwed. "'hat Is at not S<) much" qUl.'Stion of
mainl.l,ning the bo as tv 0"'" and against a plurality or, rom'""..,)y, main-
taining a plurality 0""" and against a tv; whal i5 e58enl1al i5 thaI PL.11O
ronsideno the fv a dtterminatiun of 0" in the somse of the diale<:'ri<:al
ouvuy<tl'(l\, such lhat. "'i this ont, it ;6 CCJl\Sl.lntly arpl'l'5ftll in nch of the
Kol)A Hl."f'IO': the is.;",< ill nOl whethe1'Ov i5 only ""eor is mon" Ih.on <lII('---,lS
ilthe number of the principles "",re uniquely or primarily dtdsiw--oul
itl.'ile"<l ,I is a maHer of 0" Of lhe tv being >'p1'\'Sl't11 in the IIOU(; in the
sense of lCOt\'(oW!U.
n. The Oi.........,;sion of lhe COOlt'mp'lfal}' Doctri"'-", <>f 6\'. 1M
1l)'U\'101luXln ....pl 0001",,' (2ol6a-25Oo!)
67. Cn,,.,,,1 ChoT<I<1,.,..o,licn of 1M Cunl"""...."ry dlldnrti'S ofOv
rif$l /Iwsis: oOOln" oWjlu. olimn.
l;&l.;. prop<"T IItSk of lilt Y1)'l.lvtOI'<Il'n ><tpl Di>GIOl;,; 1M
rludowrt of lilt brinss C'PTrt$poMmS 101Msuidi"S 5nlSt J/fl<"lng
Stin!f" prrsnlf. UOllI II,. brings art mrountl"tOl: 1./
2.1 doo.;; ,O(iv. l..6y<x,.
!lefo'" l'l.>lo cnlkally ex.lmin('S tnQI';.' pteci!lel}' the ,wo o,h... posihons, he
gi,",'S preview of the Oppon<-'I'IlS in lhe Y11OvtOj.lOZ(0 upl ni<; oOOfo..;
(246;J./f.). 1\0,,,, f3('liOl\!l d'" in opp<>5ilion. Oi jIt\' Y'lV oUpa\w 0:01 mil
UopGwu mvtu lAllUOl, loi; IEpoI\' utQ.\W; Jtttpo<; >:(1\ lIpi.:;
... too\, 10lI ta'oVi"", /:ooJIt6Il""" ,wVtuIV &'Dz"",rl";o'"lO'
tolita 1l000v lll<llPhll "f"l<JIX>1..1\" "01 ErICl(Il\" 11\"0,. toirtllv mil\In
"aI oootav tliJy lrt 1i.lJ.<d\. d rt.; <n.> 41o\Ol'l Ill\ oWp.Qqo" rl'V:l,
to KapWrQV >:0:.1 OOOf>' t\ltwl"m; 6Mo a"OIil',,' (246..1fO,
"'The ones \V:I toU 60p6tou nUvICl &r<o\IOJ'. dr.og down
Y'lv. It> earth, from hl':.:wen and "'\'('T}'lhing 'Ml CAnr\O' be.,......
with sensible eye. and grasp "'ilh hands for rocks and
They Ny: toUIO [;\'0" IlOvtw lll<Q/lQ<l "I"OOflo;,I\,' "01 blOO\lv. lha'
is "'hid> olfel'll and ca" be en<:ounll'"n.'d, in such a "'ar lho' i'l"'nnl's
being pressed upol'l.1<pOO{k>;'1\. being ","",ulled like" cit>dd or ba,.,;e.,dEo.
or being lOUChed. Only "'M' can be O'nC1lun'......-e! in It>is "'a}', CAn
be gr;>$fXd. and can. as il be assaulted and IOtlched. genuinely is. W"
could SIlyquile'briefly 'ha' rn, this posi,ion wha' is is
'hrough l'1."Sistam:e. according to "'" guiding hneof 'his"""'i't
of oliolo aOO Bring. >;(II oOOIa'I' wUWv "They delimi'
body, """ ...ial 'hing. .nod g.."'u;"" Being.. p"""l>C<', ui><riu. as ,he .... n,.,.
OUolo.. pre;ence. """"unco'S ibi'lf. ""d ccrtifi.. ", fOt ,hem prill1.:lrily
dnd solely through bodily ...sisIanC\". Any'hing .... , cannni t>.. ..
by way of It>is n-sis.. is not. l1\,l, is how we are 10 und""''''nd this
posi'ion. If we call U- f"'OPle ma...rialis!S thai could mean like
Vog'.' and Buchner.' That, ho",'nr. has ",o'hing 10 do wilt> it

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thi> is e.ther it(J..., touching, f""ling, sense pemoption. or ebe


"ociv, ,.e. l.6ro<;. This question of the mod... of atte5Il III whal most properly
Being .. nOl ON: lhe CI'<'Cks lhemsch'''''' a> sitJru;t1J.
they do i'. insofar as lhey ask what ...lse still belongs 10 ,he Ilcing of
""ings. whether, i....., ''0\0;; would belong In beings. This remarkable
qut'5lion. which ari;;es Liter,' n..... ns nothing lI\dn Ihis if that
which 's. slHl,1Ie m....ning of Being .... p""""",an .. kgililT\oKY
onl)' if ,he.... " something in attenda""... on ,hem. The rne.>ning of 1lo:ing is
lh"" dep;:n.ckn' on ,I>;, possibility ,hal beingscan be """"nte.w by ablS,,&
which ....thing lik.. !he p"""""l in g I. This dot'S not alall
hO<oo.,....... 'Mt bcings ". beings "'ould in SOffi(' ....nse be
on [)o"';n or on ron9Ci0usnes6 Or the like. This is t"AQugh /or an initial
o";""La';on. l..lt>1"r we will deal with the question in more".....:ise
We will requirt' bo,h opponents III answer tlwql.Ol:Stion: 1191:\"1UI
til; olio'ta.:; *what do they res.pern,eJy posil as 6cing.?* The CJne5
who interpret oUo\u as tilin<; are rll.lp(jiu:po, (<:9), more
..bl....- i..... In(lrc ... since they nlll weddallo an ""''''''''' p<>SI-
lion. lIS al"<' lhe OIhel"S, "'i,h whorn il is almost imp08Slble '0 dNL It Is hardly
ptlSSible 10 ha,... any dealings with the ones who!;ly o\.o<riu 0IiIpu. ben"",
tho:y den}' the elli$len<:'l' 01. ""'l'f)1hing not sensible and visible. and bee .....
for them lhen> i. basicall)" no which inda'<llies in principle tq d
mel'\' 1lflOCJP<'>i..... and t",. Thus it " ......""lIy impcoo;ible to 're. 1< with tho.'m
.., all. This is the thought implicitly lying at t..... foundn,ion In order
thlY('fo", to be able 10 d"al with tht.-m at all. 10 lake them "";ousI)" as
opponents. PlIo,o approaches them as il tlK'y we... more l"<'a.iOr\olble and
kn.."W the "'MI'-"'" at be{t..., thion they aetuillly do. thereb)"
;>d,'anlage 01 now ha,'ing, in a ceruin _. mo", serious opponent
means a ".. 0f"!'0"""1--(he stn.>r>&cr positi<ln. lhe bettl."l'-in
scientific di.<;n,t!;Sion can help one to get hold of lhe mane, and attain lruth.
for w, not ronremed with t..... opponent hlms<'!f. Q)J.A tM'Iet:;
t'l'oilju;v (2016dSf.). but a ... concerned onl)" with th... mott"'r at i... uc; U",t
all we seek. And so w... a..,ume ,he oUoio. '" 0I1l\l(t hio\"... become
better th.>n they ",all)" "'" and. in a certain seM<'. fil to be with. I'k
...,..' want to asl< them and ha,'.. them tell u. how they ac1uaJly inkrprel
the "',,"ningol llein/;. Theaeletus 10 inronn him whal
is said <,h: til l.xllt.\" lWp' aUt"''' t't4otW"'vtllt (cl).
.. to inform in the """'.... of making int>1"lIig.bl.... mal<ing p<$ible an

"AH.Cf I'.., ",,..,,,,," Ed..."... .-e.. -" w,.."*,, G"'_
(SOlt ..-..w.ln 8d "ll'l" 12J-I75tJ' llJ2.[f.nsfioh ..", loy I.........
..Ii<... ""e-,"!_E,........ _u"'......m-"'-.t_.p...,.._T 1
1'1.>10', I
what lhen will 5.0)'1 N<>Ihing eI!Ie t.......: 16liu,...mv'\jl
oro. t'nrI.ryryvro6o:u (d. "Sf.). n.ey lho.... will sa)'_nd ",e nl1l51 consider Ihis
""'1""'" wry ca",fuUr_'h>1 is det\.'fl11ir>ed by the t6 bu,at&\'. i...
lhe 5Cnie 01 in .he SoCn!il' of "bPing able
p""""', ....... ln "-,,_.,boenl." nv{(t<p). in ",!Ali"" .., ............hinij;
elw, in ,",'''')' case s<>methillg or oth."." II i:; something or olher thruugh
lhe possibilily of its in n-Ltlion l<l S()mcthing cl".. .hal is. Ileing
Ihus means he",: 10 be (dpable of pl"t'5O.'l'ln' with Whal i5 deter
miMd by the ability to clH.'Xisl w,th SClrnE'lhlng. i.e., whol has this ability.
is. In .nticip.ltion.1ct lIS poinl out I""'t thill of Ilcing aht'ady
Include 1.) pnscnce. oUo{o:, 2.) lhe "C\>'," OVI'.v.oICll. "",,..,vla,. and 1.)
ability.
If lhcn'fo.., ep6v<jcn;,. "nd tN! lik" .md theM>Y also the
'l'v.tn i" "'hich they"'" p""""l-if"II .....,." Eking. ho,,' "'ill they thm
speak about th<.'TT1? A", lhese beings6pa.'t/lY I<U' unOv n (d.
they be """" with .he ...yes and be touched? An: they acce5oSibk-' to_
p""'eption? Or is all this in\'isibk-' bu. yl'l pR'SCnt? Whal lhen is the ca;l<'
conttming the p"""""e oIt ..... soul and of Ih... other things? !XdiOv oU6tv
"'"......' '11' 6pa.mv M). Sul\"l) none ue "isibk> wilh lhe sensible e)'<5,.
ThlSletetus sal'S. Will the:-' It>m want to 5.Oy I'Wv n IOxt,., (el. b61.
that lhe5e Ihings ha"" a bod)'. bo."C,>usc they indeed are? n.e"",,",us answers
Ihat Ihey "'ill nPl an5wer /Ill the p,>rt.'I of Ihi1 question KIl'':' .trir<it
io%o0l'l''OVf(I, (bn, in lhe ... me way. They will fighl shy of m wl.jlilv
(ell. "I..... 01 eitl",. laking alllhese. I..... soul, t!l6"'l<llc;. and lhe lik<>.
as nonbeings Or thai each i! C<Ilpo:. Bul iJ t.I\Iry' Iwsllale to
all this ... on the basis of their theory. to say. IOf
"""mplehal if ,;onlelhing is, a body ml.l5t be co-p...,...,t with
ii, lhen they inlimale in doing !Ill lhal 'hel' are prudenl in ",&"rtf 10.he:Ie
gh'm.s; lho.')' "ill not risk a decision. n=slrainl aln.'ady makfS them
beiter. For 1""1 ill the prq>et rornpottmerol to ti'll' mattns. the proper respect
fill' th<m, .........Iy not to intrude upon them p"""pitously with lhO'Orlcs
but 10 keep !ilcm if one cannot So'y anything about In Ihis 5;1.....,., lhe
malll'r is in ""err case 3Ckno...ll'dgOO llS il i! ghen. """....HI then t>o.
pnodent. bUI at lhe samc Ii"'" ther will not t>o. able to de'emunc anylhing
about the otho.'r m<><!<' of gi'c,u,css. WII.>' ",...... ins ope" hell"-...hid> ...c
must take up--is lhe 'f)6\'tlcn<;.and the like. In a rer1ain sen!W'the}'
cOflOl'<!<> vux'1; il is. BtH they cannol say anYlhing aboul the Ik'ing of
oP6'o"l"'';' That is irnport.onl, bec.use the discussion of the opposite la<:lion
wlUlal." ti'll'matize this phen<nnenon again.' This nlak", it dear lII.>t.he
I p.)JO,;
o8un..4iJ/ 321
whole discussion of two oppo.... h"5 "'"",u'\'ileal b.lcl:ground
In .....tter.J bctt"r ones. therdo<\', restrain
when aslu.'<l about 11K> Bo,oing of ij,1<O."x.o,,'1. etc lVith to
!he Ilcinll of these and the like. they hesitlte
to 5a}' an)thirg at aiL They 3'" un"'iUlng to uplain them ncn-bc!ings,
J\Or w;wl to 3pP",,1 to thelr thro'l' of Ik'ing and in a ren.>in """'"
fo..... all this II) a ocilIJo. On the olher hand, aIi16):&o\G
1241cS). the original olthi5 pclSillon. i..... the who 3.... "'"ui.....ly
inf3Iuatt'd. will not ab.lndon tMr thall).. TlIt-y will conl,nue to m.olntl'n
that anylhing lhey connol grasp with Ihoir hands is not Alt"" ..me 11mI',
.1><- W3Y f'Iatod"3ls w;.h o,;mo """,n mob,,, il rlo.>, tM'
In the r.....ld of such fundam('nlal consod"",Iions e"m 1M greatest dlSpla)'
of scie:ntificily. in the..,...., of p"""b and .. rgummts. fa'ls. Tb< only worl:
to be petform! h.'", is tllMof OJ!"IIing th....yrs of o.....s opponmlor giving
him "Yes 10""" in the first pLxe.""'" bener one; .. ,,' thus not distinguished
fftlm Ihe infaluatd by "'",ing bctll"r but only by keeping 3""" a
""'der>c:')' row.rd objectivity.
Insofar.., t"" po6$eSS this ""nd...,)' "cUl\' Id. 2Hc9). we
will amtinue" put our questions,o th2m. For if they nuinra", this oi:lj-
,klly. II;, pooo;bk ,h... II>." .. Ill InJ..."J fi, .. llr ,:C "I,... d,ludUy ,,,,,iJ,.,,
in .hat "bout ...h,ch 1I,,'y sp<'ak. ri r6P n ,",I O).l",p(1Y ffltAo""" tWv 6,'10)\'
avrllllllO\' llooiltJurov. t!,up1Cci "If they ronn'<le I t th.... u. ....".,.
ot....r, ....", ,f trifl.-. "'hich ",ecan chararl<'1ize
11"'1 ...adyeno"gI>. maior.in Ihi5 sertously and 51... it.then tho.')'
must "")" ro yap tltl tt tourou; ""U orl Uou tzt. O<iijJ.(lC'"",ovt.;
dO; lllli.tJlclVtt:; (;q.Io6ttpCI riv.., Uyo""" (247d:!l.). I will !.InJ<...el
Ih.. statemenl in 6uch a way lhal !'QU .. lhe 1m-
mrdi.ltely- t6 """,NO; YQO\'6<;. thaI whirh for both SolITll'
'imL"," <ijJ.a. -for "both", j.e.. for lhe lJpuTi)v as "'ell as lor the
IMI 1;0 IUlKo'-tr... ..-hirh they loot." and CW'lhebasis
of "'hid\ (;''01 Urou<n. add"-.... both a....i$ting." Thus
..." find her<: ""'.. "gain same son of consideration i>a..-d on ).6yo.r the
bpclt6\' and MputoV which arc said In U1I:l\' an.' JddK'S>o<ld as ""mcthing
"'hlch 1$, ci".... n"$ dV(n is d\llr""l.".;z"tl M <7\lJJOvt.; 'r"l'O\'O.;. 4>U<n; U
tMt ...hlCh i5 al.....dy p""Setll at the "err outre!. t\ijJ- means for both
loget"'-'r. for lhl" ";sible ,:md the invi5ibll'. r!:YO''l'l<; (perf"", lense) means il
is already the1<', befQ... lhem. This rrfO\'6>;; is lO)'tv<><;: that oul of
...hich lhey .... ,... their ""1"logkal p..,......;tnC'!!. And 0"1'0\>. ... is lty\
which for both al lhe sam<' lime. 1m lheO"", and lhe other. is lhert'.
and il alread)" includes lhe 1lf!6l::;u;. i,e. the "","""';u row "(rve..... It i5
pre<:;"'ly here lh81 we must S('C lhe "'hol" OIl""""ural ConnedJOn of "'hat
Plal<) "'ill loll.'!' I 8t""" ,hi" exp-Hci.ly. !><.'ora..,... i, eUSlOn\,:tr')' to
Pia' 'I'll' t [4; . i4]
eith
b d t,ermjn lion of t
E1't ri
.er"i it
I'
. i
itself, i
0'6 a,.u
I p. : "livin-
pllist45aff. Cf. p. ] .
of lhe laSI posilion. p,ocffds 10 Ihe decis",'e Sleps in the determiNoII'''' "f
0.', d0e5 so sp<'Cifia,.Uy try. n>tuming to ...hat he di!IC\Js.sed earlier, all
Ihe way to Ihe point ,,'hkh hi' carri.'<! OIJI IhI' criliqu.. of th..
He sa)"!!: ...e ",HI I\Ol simply repcm "'lmt we diSt'USSCd Ihen:-, bul
..... want to deal wilh II In such "'ay Iva lijIg n "gI1ljlOt"'l'E" (l5Oa5f.j,
"thai we lhel'\'l>y taka Slep furward allh.. s-ame Ii""," This is nothing
Ihan I"'" Votl'/Xlv tttp(lV. Unless we """ lhal dearl)', Ihe whole d,alog""
be a great <:onfl.l5i<m.
Now I"" ml,que p.>sses o"er 10 II>.: opposite side. I'a!' on'"
more to the results of lhecrit,,!ue of Ihe fiTS! f.<:I,on: tlx're is gi"en not emly
the op<:ltl'), bul also lhe G6pwov ""d. priDf to buth of lhem, the """.ut;;
lQO\'(j.,;. lholt is as
II The ,nlerprelll'on of the phenomenon of knowledge
l"rouS" Ihe conl'epl of tM >:o,,lDVla.
gj K""wlodg<las "o"'oMu of the "'ilh oUalu IdOO;;J.
lbc"PJ'Ol'ite side "'YO: oUoia.. d&], What is i5 wholl ohow!I 'I!lelf in l.tyI:w
and v06". in pure di!iCoun;i,'" ""igt>1 lin' "';"m bespMhntdtn /-linMMn/:
""mel)'. lhe OUlward look of beings "'hlell conws to in pure pe'-
cei,lng. "Pure" means h....., "non.,;ensible." Those who now Soly nol thai
oi>lJla _ a6ljJ.nor '1t'"W1.;. bul that ouma ... ml1i insuch a way thai
th<')' at lho- sa...... time poo;.il oVolo xOJP!;;. and Indt'Jl'l"'ldentll'
from ytvan,;. 1'l'\'Ecnv, tf)... 1St oi>ala'" IIOU
This 'mplies lholt whal is characterized .... m...1be 6v; fo.lhe
dli", ""'lusi"el)', are oala. Th<> "'ar the criticism of this position boogin<
is ag.>in It'Ihng.1 wilh regard IOlhecritique ollhe posilion
thol" <><CU15 in a relum to lh,,!Mo" (j."''''X<>'', and lhe llcing of
....malne<:! pf'Oblem:>tic.' Now th... criticism takes pla.ce in a to the
same pkenl:Jf1\l"r\OlogkaJ state or or '!"'XI) and explicitly in relation
10 tWl6V'lcnc;. i ...... YJ.'l''Ulo>:IY. 1\11.; lit' ato9t'lcn'wo:; 1>1WD\'Ei",liIQ
l..<ma"ou &" t1'I" oOOfav (cf. 24&101.). This cooslatatlnn is Initially
quil" u..... but ,,'e mUSI k""P in mind the ......lt of lhe <m1icr d ....
cussion, thee.p:'S8;On appears fo.the Hrst time. KOI''''''Ei"
m.... ns"to \h.>re in wmethins"' IrtlUl< mir.m,b",/. "We, as I<n",,ers.
shan.';n beroming. by "'.y of "'e. ,,"04. in otia'Ia
I Cf.p..\."7
91. '-479) 1
Th
f
SChCJOI
up
Tl&!:: W YI)'\'liJa"l:IV 1\ til 'l'lY"<iJO>..o9o:1 oau: KO(l\Jlnll K6:tk!<; II a,.tOtrIl'OV;
" W ",tv K6:9r]I' .... W St fl(irrllO"; 1\ O(t\'tWrtwlV cOOftt'pov
roUfW" (d4ff.). So.1)' th.t YI'f\-MI"l:lV, boo"'ng.
or 'l'lY''ti'loo:l:<rlkll. "",ng known.. is llOhll'<l or O. th.>t the (IJl1'
ItQ{ll"'u .nd IbI' OIher Or ..W tocy d",,)" th.1 lhe!;\' antologlcal
dt"tCtrninalioN, Ka'Eiv and JUiaxn\', appl}' 10 this 6\>, "fl1VOOo:l:l\',
0fllMl<n<;? Obviously dwy "'i11 dl'fl)" it n...y "'W dmy. in shott, thot 'f\'illm..
And lhl)' must da 50 if they ..."t to Jd..... w to
their fUillon and do not "'ant to spe.1k againsl themseh'15. If th"Y ron-
'<led thalllllo ooo,vwvl(1 Can be- i"t.,rpn.-t,..:t as W\',,,,,,;. the)"
wo"t<l .... uy..g ,.... ,,(,l"""itP of ,,h., ,two)' m.in'.;1W'<! 1'n....;"...I) Why?
They i""-l .I>Oy: oiloia l<llp"; p-tO...... ....h.1 ScnuIllcly ii halIl'OIh,ng 10
do with n'\()\'('\'I\(lt\\' is fM' of all clu"gi'_ If, 1I0>H,,er. as lhey ind.....-d ron-
<"fdej .co.'\', 'l"'X" m:",{(1 "fl'f\'tiIo-I<t(l.. otioio: is thcn..ofo....
"kno\o'n: (d. <'2),.s object, then th.It in'pli", 0\J<r((l. de-
twmined.>s JUl:l'llwa; it is in some "'.y.affected by knowkdg<'
.., oiloio. is known and Il\ereby.ffe<:>d, il ilself <:onl.lins lhe ""'In\'1l1 of
"h"lm.,. But according to toorawn po!iilion. tl\"l is not po:tiible.
Something lik. lh.1t t:l\nnot be lll'pi ro fJpqloi", (Mf.). in the f>eld of what
r<'5t." Th.. ",1"'1'''''''' Un'O ..."", ..... indiGot..... llhc end 24&;'0
""""in <:onWU1tly in a d<1<.".,.,in.t., self..".mc.-.' fn.", of all chang<'. To
rono.<Ie th.It oimo. is known and knn".blc impl"'S il is coMl<'r:ni",-'" 1'
lttifllll"land c"''"'''l"""U)' b" Sinn!, for them. d"'l<'l'; has no pLo""
in ... must n:'jcct thls posilion. Y"'II\", is 1\01 lC'r\o1blc! ",tt,,:r, this
has now --.. in principle.
III Thr KCtpOuoillOf .\'fl"';' \'0..... """, and d"'l<'l; in
Ih<' 6v.
be<:ornes excited, 8y z..us, we can SC3..wy b!:'1""'1' O),flOWo;
id,'floW Mv "'0.\ 't'Ux/lv "til tp6vrpl\' tljlxo.\-wl..ri><;Cwn ,,"
aiI'm "'flOt 4po\'t;v, <illU 0[1''lilv "Ill (ry>1W. vow QU'C hoy.
ndVllWV to-W:;ci <u; (d. 248<06ff.). n.r f"b""lI" is the cm"-"- and ;.
for un<!e1sl.ndlnll "'Imil' ontological di5clL....ion. We..an sc..Kdy be!;':"'t
in "'h.>' is in what compl.'e1y. scnuincly is. in borinss in
m06l pl'Op<'r 9<"n5e. lhe", ...><lld not.15o bt> presmt mo.'crncnl. Ilk.
knowledge," Not\' well thai it isa maIMof the X"lltivnl of !JO<nl'l1Ung.
r""".i<!o'r>n' ni """""hin&- n.,mely of 'If1'll\. in ... h.>, l:"""inol)';S_ \'k
Glr'l thcrdo... "",,=Iy beli",'" llut and kn",,'ledl!i" do not p.-rtain to
toe;nll' In u.... m.lItIt P"'I"'" _; .. Can 5L.On"'Y bclie>'e thaI beirlgs $l.nd
c) The qu Hon of Plato' confrontation .th
th oung Ari totle.
)Th
, . Bd.
of /YoNo;jl,; originat<!d "'ith bulthe n:"'('fS(>: 1'I.,to 10 take il
,nlO account With Ihis aim. one cn,,1d ,",'l.'fI. as il; often lhe
f"'l thol in the ontological an Aristotle appea... asOOE'
of tho> aUI. as "'''$aid, .... only surmises and dono!".,tIe
anything subslanti\"e1y. I only bring them "p h...... 10 clarify the b.1s.ic dif_
In the of tt1t' onlOlogic<ol conc.-pl of
o....n 501"t'(I<1. I'mil"f'l((' the ""sic """mi"s of
J;eing in IhI: tw... pn:ding positions. Plato's conccpt of
Being: 1tup:'loofu "01,......1;-
We 1:JIo,.. IMI Plato p""'upf'O"CS ","0 posilions fnr his <m'Tl oof<)logic.>1
soI"tiron: n.., one says that ill is "'Mt manifests its ..... """" by
....ans of r'\'SOstancc; the otl>;" Sill'S "'!'wt is is whal sho..... 1\S('lf ,n },tye"IV.
i..... in "orl" as p"re Thc first <.'nJ1('<'pl of Being. Ilcmg as
rane... gil'.,. riS<' to tl>;, subst..lnli"c q,,,,,,tion of whcthrr this of
llei"g Can b' undl""'ood detachOld from Ih.. mOl'O<.""t of being'presenl, Le.
whetht,>r I....... is II which is. according l<! its ""'Y_. non'pn5"
""t 0' ,,hether e,"C!TY """"" of ,,,,Iud,,, the moment 01 bcing
P..:'Sent. Thc S<'\nd COO1Ct'pt of ljeing. whal .."';"ts Is ... ""1 III p""""lln pu....
pen:eh ing. eng<>ndcl'S I.... coroll.lry questil)ll 01 wh"'....r !his Ileing ,n II>;,
,;<........ of P"-"SC"OCC be undl'l'Stuud ",ith""l thc moment of _istane.... i.c..
whether Ihe.... is an il'TllSist1ll11 P"""eT'''''. ThC!iE' a.... lho.> 1"'0 sub!;"'''I'''e
'lucstion!l ee.ulli"g from the two posihons or> lho.> int<''P<>1ation of Ik'ing
llci"ll then.....iIl .....an f..... l'IalO, if .... is l<! both 1'-posil;ons
,nlelligibk-. m,l'<ljl',;, as lhe poossibilily 01 ro-p""""'C'e wllh <omcthing. in
sh.....t m".UjllC; ''Ol'"owio.;. 0' in a fulieT d('!('tmin.1!km.
>;nt\'0\'i..... factual OCCUI'1'C<lC'l' of the possibility 01 b<:lng ,,;th one another.
In ail formulalions, we say Being;s "'mgp........ l. bull.... 1 may not
be IU.........:! j"lO in the sense tMI we might bc aeeuse<! of making
of lhe meaning 0/ Ileing we trying to clarify in the fiBt pL>c'e. wilh
Ihe result th.u .. ... p",,"uppos;nglhal ........ning. For "being" in m.. ex-
pteSSion "being-pn.'SeTlt" has an formal "..."..,. Thi. as...nion
about Being. in the sense of so.....thing formal lhal appl;.-s to ",'erythi"g
ult<>R"d 1lI1d ...id "" such, does not ,;gnily anything rq;ards subst"""""
ron""'l. in lhe _ of lhe 51ruc1u", oIllcing This 01
"',,\"tJVICl<;. a. Ihe po8Sibility of being wllh on<' another, i'J I.... Ion;,; of
l'l.tlo's enlin.' msuing discus6ion.
70. 1M at."" Ov uirk "Sarti 10 IN
pMu>mmon of blmtWsr. ThI' Sting of anJ OTOOt"
fond";"" of of
It is impoft>nr to notr how Plato pl'OCffds from the lwo P""'ious!y men-
tioned positions and whi<:h p....'I1om('l'l()n he draws upoll to m.>.l:t the' two
positions llltlla,iJy thematic. Th;' phenom'-'fI<lI' is Y1l'.........rlV. knowledge,
lI!l a quite partiruLor ,"OlVlI>VI. KOlV<lJ>''V in the
an 6Y,a som''ihing. This 0;0"'"",(;", ".dudes, in lhe first place. Conn'<110n.
a companionship. of 'f"l", 01 voi>;. with tIw ((6", Le., a 01
with the lttl 6".. II lhe... IS a "(Il'..ootG;tv, il it itself i6 an 0", lhen
th<-re t1Ost:'! a oro"wvla bctw<.'m yt\'O\.; and 6:r1 0"., bi>tw""" 1C'i"'l<1l" and
OTUa'<;" We ha"e here thus a grouping of phenomena lhat ro..."'ponds quite
w"lIlo lhe case lhL"n' it WaS a manet of a t>et"'ren
Being and roon-being.!>en: it iu man." of a "olvwviobclw",," and
GW(Il'" The ;s ....""'" whether 'O'\IX". and belong
to Ov and whether, the determInation of Being
into aero"nt lhcsc bcing:'l, M. ,->tc. But when pL,lo s.o}''S and
''Oi>; belong to 0"., he is nol daiming-lct US .."...,t-lh.ltth... Ide," them-
sel ... think and li,.... I'1.l.Io now IndiR.'ct1) the the Being
of lhis 1<OI\I)'a: .l:"",j}o:lvfl S' ""V u"""'1\'''l\' 0\lTh)V va"v 1''100'1 upI
IIljlitW<> ri"a, 1I1j/!ajlof> (d. A51wming e,erything"'-;U unmon-d,
a56uming no mo"emcnt cxi"cd, then ,oil<;.nd l;lI>l'i, .nd thus ....."''Y _iv.
would be imfK.ll"Sible. YI't lhis Iswhal fQIlow, if 0"""'y5: oOOfu .. t[lS'l, and
the d&ll a",dftermined a5 n'5ting in th_IH"S, and is ...:mrdinslr
...x<:ludcd from Ik1ng. (( ",et}thinll is dt lhen voi c.nnot be; is
then al!1O no \'OI'i", nn knowlL-dge of oum..... oIlhe tllS'l.
Kat J.lo'l" toW uu tEPOl'f\'Ol wI .,""'t:.,.evo. K((,t r;V<I'
tOut", fIil Ul)'ljl tnlitiw mi/to t" tWv 6vTtllV "On
I}", 01"", hand, pm"""iti",, IMt "'Cl)thing is in moti"n .j.... uduJes
fmm being tuVtOv TOiow, namely '"Oil<;." To cL:>im ,...'erylhing is in motion
is also lC depri\'e vOO<; and l;W1\ 01 the poibiHly of being. This t.;u,p"o<lI'V
makes il d"ar thai 't is not .1 all matter of the ([OTt tt".m.-'.d"""
pos;;e5ing w." b"t is simply m.:ltlc, 01 rotlnl,ng va\>; .,nd l;lI>l'i among
beings. For ""'''''''y ""erything is in motion, then lhe", dOC'S not e>Osllh.,
...hich was est.Iblished 31 248.112 as 3 possible oo;oci 0( <to> Ud
muro. ril<muu..; Q.nv. lth.31 ...hich) """nt.,iM itself ,n 3 dL'l\'f-
minale If Is in molion. this seI/....menesIl does
not e"ISI. i.e.. the discloSilbitlty of Ix'ings in a 'uiv is imJlOS6ibk>.
Accordingly. IMOW must be In m:l <1v in ordtt for ''Oi>:; to be' what it is
supposl to be. and lhe", mUSI hl<t>wlse be a o.iV'lot; in O<dCt fur voi.-l; to
be what it I" a Il"Ing disclosul\', the cM'ying out of the uncm"eringof beings
thems<l'!,'l'S- We mu,1 therl'fOR' Sin\".. with all our means aga.in," the 0....
who IUlll nvo; Ortj\O\1V (24'k7f.). m., <me who ""anls l() pres6
ahead lU something. to 3SISl:n something. show so"""hin", ah.bit s0me-
thing. about beings while voin-' (c7). allowing voi.ot; ((t).'1El1.'io:,v)
..nd M IOdisappear. i.e. romlderin& U...m non-b..-ing>. For ".hoc\".". ...)'5
anything a' all about an existing thing is lhe....'b,' all\'ady _ins: il is
mO""nlMI and it is ioel "V. In lhis way the ph;.>nr:>rrw:non of TlY''OOICE,,",
und",. the tille of a deI...."'inat.. ':ol\'<Il\'iv. becom.s the '11U<11 phenome-
n<m, in reLloon to which both the:5e int('rprclat1ons of them.'lekes
bomc "isibl(' and intelligible in their nen>ssity. On the olher hand. each
im"'pn.'1alion, o.:.ola GliJI,lu. yt.'tn.;. ."" oi>ola '" dOll. lio.i'''lt<l. is. by
ibell, im-ufficient. Neither one. ,..kon as an absoluk' lhoory. can IMl<e in-
IClligibk' the Bcing of 'Xl&;.. of)"'lilcn.;. of Ylyv.:OO:1a"l\'. If lhere is inde<:<i lU
be somcthing lik<. OtJ.oootlu, ... auvup06tlOpIl {249<"llff.),
we .... compelled to count "both togetheo". the m(l\'<"d and the unmoved,
as bei"t;5. to ....dl'\'S6 both of I""'" ;>s ...isting.
Thus Ih.. exemplary phenomenon of 1OOl,'UlVIo. which allows the
to be introduced inlo the discu,sion 01 all. is
IIyv<iicn.nv is dctermiM<! in its &-ing acrording 10 its two aspects: I.) as
.w:wmplishing, td"'\O';; and 2.) regan! to "'hat is known
on",'hing lh.1I. in the..,..,.., of IhO' C..,..k con'PIion 01 I<nowll'dg.-. must
W, (It<w1:;. This th... p"""jdes I'lato the two ron-
ClIpts of "",v'llfl; and (Itlltn.;. both of "'hieh a........ Iatl'd to a unitary pile-
nommCln. yvWcn';' as Of><' and t .......m.. 6y setting in rehel" and
m<itn... P!;Ito acquires two basic COI\pl5 IIlh'(' in the pll6itions of ,he
p.....:1:'ding ontologOl'S. th.. mlltn.. of l'armenides and the of
HCfaditus. and he docsiOspec'ficalll' in such a ""ay that .... can all.... .......
hme un,te "'\'SO' po5itions in lhe phenomenon of
[ ~ 911
1. The di Cl ion tll til 1: 1'101 and otlim ~
a) Charact .riz tion of the ituation. Re ersion to the
o ition of the ancient the i : "v = BUo. Y yvOHl n (<.1tf1.
b Th olution of the diffjcu]ty b mean of the co c pt of
the 15 ~ K01 J)
) b
m
vi
allljl.o'" (d, 25O.l8f.), lOON' ... "And yet)'OlJ 5'11"
cijlt6u:pa airto: toro.npov Ei,!Xl (d. 2S00111.', ""both in them
"",I ...", and each for ,tself would be in lhe Oiln..- ....ay." Th<:rclore bodl, and
IQl" illlelf,an: in tlw sa,me "'a)'_ il dear thall'lalQdOl.'S
not mean Ihal th<><e tx>ing" which in an eminent __
from Ihl' slitndpoinl of lhe opponents. the dlirt-....oukl lhI'lI\5elvtS be
dct..-rmincd by lJl the SI'Me of l,re and 'ov;. i,e,. thai !he Ideas
Ihemsd,'''S would be ali,'" and knowing. butlhal d"'1c"" and o'do>.. e.>d>.
t ..ltttp<.>v, Q"". Ap(t ",,"tio9t:c. 'i.J:(ow cijlf6ttpa "..:rl b,ltttpov. 6tCIY dv(U
ovrx<09fi.;; (b21.'. llul if now both al\'. lhen aT(' not both in m<>tion' Or.
t<m:!:vu' o.uro. ......f6u:pa (d. b5/.). if both ""'. then not both at
d ......n in rq;ard to ,,1,'l}O1.; .nd <'ltmn.; c;on be
made dear b), ",,''''"oS of so""'lhi"lllik<l a s)'llogism
d"'1cn; 6v
"tlimS 6Y
"Then>Iore d"'l"''' "ffiou;
Mot,on IS at l\.'5t.
Or, con,ersely. 01lt<:n.; is, ><Ivllm.. ito, and lherclon> 'Hmn; is in motion.
'\/hal if. of this kind of is thai il alwaY51ool<.s
.t "-tv",,,; and oTlttru; In s"ch a "'ay that Vv funclions in a certain s<:nse
only a;; lln and IJ; not nl all d.,..1t w,thlhemol;o,lly,
TherclQre the que;tior\ ariSeli: Tplt""lipu t\ 1WPO- mim:r. 6v tv q\ 'I'Vlll
till{.. (1:>7). or "do you lhen posil in thi' md something liu a Ihird thing.
to 1ri""l<7'.; and "tlime,. ..... meIy 6vr This t\8I; tv t1\ 'I'Vlll is only a
p.:>l3phra"'" lor l..tyt:"" in the _ I ha"e al",ady ",n"n>d to: Itw soul'.
CQIw....".tion 11",lf abo", somcthlns.' Thus Ihe is as.king: in tl\('
end, when you Sol)' o;jvl\m.; i. and (Tn'un.. is.- alT yo... add_ing thi'
a5 a thin;!. and specifically .... UK tlCJ;lViW njv Tl: tmiolV >mi tilv dVllmv
I<l'PlXOj1tVI\v (bBI, "in such a wa)' thai tt'N"by IliVl}lll; and ot6cl...r\:
Mld"""""t "" in it: <ruUojlli>v llu\ OOtt1iocilv nutli>v IlpOo; n'lv
n'I.; oOOlo;; <t11,'W\'lnv, oiru<;ri\'W. KpootiKU<; {qI06n:pa; (b9f.). In thl5 final
cia....... Plalo pro\'id"" a short. f"l"Idament.lL analY5i5 of Itw TpiTIW
l.t'tfl\'; I.e. he offe<l; her\: for the first lim" the strucl"lT of
and of lMuUyo:G6a. Because 1'Ia"'5 theme AOW
specifically ontological, he can dcl('M\in,' more pn.'(i...ly the st.....cture of
WMI ",,,IIot,,. in the P/1MJ",., he could only char.>cleriZ<! with. gcn...... 1
orien...tion.
I Cfp.:713.


71lf95-496/
kno"'lt'<lh.... of the, 'SS<.'l1n'. Ph<'.",,,,,,,,oklgy toda}' Slill the h.>si, '"sk
0/ "aTifying the methodologjell moment 0/ eidctk koowle<:lj:\e, which ha..'<
nolhing wh.llsol.'.cr to do with the e1detio: "typt'H in psydl<'logy TllIseidcti,
knowlof'dge ill ('fll'll'e<:ted h> the gencral problem 0/ tleins. to the que:sliUfl
of """,.....nwthinll in gen.,,,,1 un bl' prior 1(1 s<>m"'hing ..15o> and wlul this
pe<'Ulia. Qrderof priority meAnS. The Groeks rod no tXClS'On h> relIt'd on
all this, they lei t"" whole ('Ol"Ite>;t 0/ "nil lIeing play nut,
from the ' ....r ""1Sel. in the And h<-'flCC il was noOIdifn.:ull lor
10 eIltTact, in !ii.'eing, I",m !he f",m o;l>.,,<J,,", and atWn;.. third
Ihing.. and 10 posil it .... 6Y for ,t:;clf.
To be ,t .. nO! Ih., PI"',, ".,.. "1'1.''''''''' nf <I'llk"lri... h.'no, "'It
insl....d he ",,10.'<1: hnw an <Offi<"lhing Ix> whi(h is neil"'-..., nst nor in
motion. and "'" ne-.crlt>ckss;'? This q"""tion is, fo. I'loln and It>c Gn:..oks,
" "CT)' ,,'t"lght)' 01"'. if w.. ""liz.. that
",tI,er mo,'of'd o' at n.'Sl. And nOW tt"''''lSfiuppose<! 10 somI'thing "'hick
residl':'l b<>yond bolh .",i yet i!I, and nOI onI)' i, bul ronstiMcsllein,.
i1\ the P"'f".'" sens<'. Thi. qU'-'5tioning. lIS il occurs he... in the Sof:hlSl. l.ltcr
bec.omc for the N,'Opl.to"ists a locus Theydcri"!'d from il thdd....
0/ the tJ;t1Cl'.t'-'l.l, lJf what n.'S,d"li IIl'yond all roncrl"le beings: thI' idea of lho'
d. vi lv, d Th., Nevpl.lQnic rnmmcnla.;"".b<>v" aU th< """" un
the PIl1ftll'fl"hs. LIke lhooiT orimLllion from this pass;tge ,,, the
Sopl",'.
d Tn.. k..ight.. ning of ,h" diffiult)' of Ih.... Iucidal;on of 0\'
th.-nug;k Ih.. positing of 6" as IpIIOl. Th.. ,imi!.ri,)' nf tM
dimeully in ",laI;on 10 61' and in ",l"tion to Ill' On til..
question 01 th.. int"'P...I;oI;on "f ,h" ,.ansil'on.
The fU$1 resull I'l tillS' It\o> tme1lLltion to,,-anl l.o>yt>; 01' ,,\!;Ible
third thin,. booide ..-Iv"Ol'; Jnd alUm;. And llJnMv M" to
be Iilkm thl' mlJde lJr in wh,eh, from whllt is p.....
IV"en, he-r-e from I".., presi""ns, ..-1"'10'-; and a tv, ""mr'ly ov, ..,.
eocomp.>ssing both, i.. ClfI... in an "",in,.. Ii..;
lll.'1!lW<; Ipflov tI .0) "''''1(1\'' "..,<1 mdmv riv<U
(250d f.). "In this wily"... ka..... ,um... inlo the ,.;t....lio"''' Theae-I.:1,,'
Sill"', "of ..nnO\lncing B""'g as 5i>rO<'thing Ilk . thin:!
means In annuur>o:e "",,,ething as ",isling. 10 I." ....m...
thing bEo known. The ..,,1Wf.: a('(l)f<:lingly, it is nO! '$ 'imrle .. ,OU
beliel'e<! belore namel)' thai we would be alltw en<! 01 0'"
d,ff>('ulties simply by that the o...-I'"IOV and lho' \ll""''ll'h'OV
lSul pn.'cisely .... the d,fIlculty. bo.ornu"", IIll' Ik>'ng of
boIh of p.-nl"" to be th,rd Ihing lind acoordingl)' is uln'iOU!'ly a
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73 [ 04- 05J
b) 011<; in Aristotle. 6yo as "deception,"
e distinction between two forms of ')..6yo in
Mote; 6)'0<; ax; Ei and A6yo no).,>... LThe synthetic
structure of as a condition of the po ibility of A' yo
\) r;. ntisthenes' denial of }6 r u " .
f
all han
J i J in the
for
Pl to'
31506-50 J
b li ed Ae-fR09at 1) rep oi. {ep }.J)yO), "n thing can b addresSEQ
e t in the"A6y proper to it," i .. in th Myo * jetforth 6p1<Jl.l0
E "'v (b), the on self-same thing p ited in reJati n to i If:
n 9pc.o1tO -d epro1t othing el can b .d at all-that' the trine
Antisth and th circl f hi f 11 \' e . Th nsequ c.e h
, a : J.111 a al ), "it' imp . ible to utt r a contracti ti n,"
in d m re eneralJ : eu cram (b34), "thre' no decepti n \ hat-
er'" r A,6'r as A6yo , is tru ,This P ition' perfectl co . tent.
That . , if n "),oyo' pure am of a Ev' E 6 if th
P 'bili of a AeyElV lCa'ta nvo e,e "addr in of m thing m
thing," is Iud d, then the ery 0 ibili of dec ption is undermined.
Thu au that Afyy ruch is no becoming thematic in PIa '
opll' t, includ in' If the phenomenon f 0 , of 'l'eur) AOyO and
henc indud the qu lion f ho in J.i:'/El i elf ucha cruJ..l: '}, crl f
and ov could be po ible, t the arne tim ther lur in the back r und
the till further qu tion .f hm A,oyoC; as A,oyo can and in a p . ibl
01 coia \' 'th th QV it is upp d to xhibit.
c) Prospect: the synthetic structure of AO"/O in Plato.
The double O'UJl1tloJdl.
In th interpretation f My in Plato' Soplz' t, two U I therefi rei
are at' u:
1. ] \-vIlat tent is a tdl f 6 and Jlll (} ible in the structure
f ).,oyo such?
2.) ']j ",hat tent' a O'UJl1tAOKTl orOlVOO ia AOyoc;
and the 0 it addresses.
Th 0 qu n parated onI-flater, b Aristotl; for Plat th
are till ugh 1 b und t gether. Put dill Tentl f and ticat d furth I Plat
enid "A.6y in twoc :
.) in far a there reside , in 'A6yo itself, a (JUJ.l1tA.otdl: in dd in
omethin SOD'l thing is addressed as m thin. th ugh Plat did not
t ha an plidt co usn f the tructure of thi addr in h .
till a\' are fa C iJllP 'ti n
,
a <nJJ.urAOKrl, f A.oyo<; ut of () and piill '
This distinction' th origin of an articuJation found in the later 10'c and
abo e all in grammar: n un and erb.
2 My is consider 'th ped t th fa t that a chr th tho
tructure resi ent in it, it till h a reJati n to th 0 I the bin, ab ut hich
it P . This' a ond otvo>via. t that Plato d not cone iv th
relation hetw thayin and hat is said in a phenomenologi al nse-
ith gard to the mom t f graspin and une erin -but purel ont;-
cally, His po 'tion is that peaking of som thing h that all p akin
f'O""'S'I"" in its Being in g<'ncral a ,owud 50me IN, It n>lales to
som<'1hingel",. And Plato does nol make a dislinctiorl within the OOOlY"",ICl
,"" 000,,,,",,1 of l.6'l'J'O loward 6\' "ersus a of, e.g.
rlV'l<n; 'o"'ard I"" dctcrmi"",lon of tvortw. In ,his way it boml'S clear
Ih;ol he cla...lfi", l..6yo.; uan 0" among "",ny o,hers in the unkersa] realm
of i. in S""C1"al, and tM'the re!.>t1on of """"king about som<'I.hing i.
by no mNOS d pri"ik'gro ",la,1on bu, tanb in lhe same order as
the residing within l.6'yo.; Ilself and as ,he ",lalion in general of
""" thIng to ."",her. It we do lUl' h,we tIlil c1....r, ,he en,l", following
c>;pllCa,lon of AOroc; will be ,ncomp",hensiblc
This consldera'ion of),{,yo.; marks;m <'$6Cfl,lal ad,anc.' b<:)"ond.he tra-
di,ional OnC (I.adilional lor I'la'o). '" AntiSllwne5 and 'h...
M\,garians. in 'Ju.>irdnrtri...... of still hOld no crplici' conKiousness of
'h... ,truet"", of the .ddressing of sonwthing as but instead
und.'<S1OOd U'yrlY in the sense 016vOj.luV;1\', calling b)" name. In t","calling
by name. which ",", thecharacterofa "Mngle-rayed intention." a.phenorn_
",,<:>log}' "'ould say, il is always th." which is caUf<! as such, and onl)" ii,
lhat un be intended. Ther'efore t"\',"Y l..t)yo.; is rel,"f<! to " h. such that
onJ}' Ihi!; tv ilself "'n be :;.aid about Itsdl. Anlisthenes did not see
a richer structu", In l.O",o;. in t"" sense of lH<tAtytW and W.O}.tl'":W, lor
him an (i"nAt-tt"', contradiction, i. structurally impossib"'. This is pre-
did)" w","1 is in II", prup<.>siri"" handoo down from Anlistheno.-s:
0"... tnt", uvnAtyn" tTap. I. cMpler II. IQ..lb2Ol,), "ltJ,,, is no rounterlo-
culion. no coolra-diclion. no Ij'ri>/io.;. no deption (Ml'I" Book V, chap'er
29, 1024b20-34).
dl The ",,"ili"e meaning of Anti.then... doctrine of l.lrJu,;
10' "ri'Wlle', dioco"ery 01 'he K..e (I\n(t.
T"" of the -yt\'Oo; and fls presupposition.
A final p.>sl'olgt' we shall ..."., from Atislotk-'. Mr!IIloIrysn:s. llook VIII, chapte.
3. 1Q..l3b2,j.-:!8, ",fers to lhe difficulty of the dOClri"" of Uryo.; in Antislhe1_
Aristolle points OUI lhat ltJe difficult)' u... M.,..ria"" Le" Anristhenes and
his 101"",'''''. found in l.lryu..;-Ih;ot there is no irvni.t}'t',v bu' only a tnC...
""mng by conlains something ""'.... " .uopla,. "" 01
A......o/lItvt'm Kol 01 o\r<0; flIIO:USt'vro, "ll6po...... qt nm (bNff.):
w""lth<' follow.,.,. ..f Mlisthenesand others hi<t' I""m with t\tl idea about
!J(1t:'tKt: dealt ..'ith qt'" ","s. m'(z "ttlp6\', Thi. i. al first ,';ew a rt'ma"""bil!
USC of The o.:pl"CS'iion mt'''tlIl nothing ..be than what w.. t"day
would ""II wmellting de<is;"e, sr>n"'1hing signlfKam.
on 0"" 10 'If ton" 6plno:mktl (tOv yt)p 6pov l.6yov riva, l'a..
a.ua 1'& t/ t"n" hatxr.ttI 4fIl"'fXlv. 'If I'tv ttJ1W.
7J fSOf-S1QI
Illl. I'm 5' olov omuln;po.; (d. b251LI, "that it ;s nol P'O"Sible 10 delimit,
<lplouo(lw. ... hat is. t '-""""""" 01. thinK." I..... to<ll'l"""i",, il
in l.tyuv,and 5pl.'CiIKaUy not 1x'C' Sl" thel'lpo.; "Q...ld be.
a ''''''g "i.... a compos<'<! of 5('""",1 words and th<.T<'fon> in a
"""'" a16yo<; thai daims to ""1're!05 ""'"eral things .bollt one ..... tI'-'T.
Th;s delimiLitiOR i5 still imP'J!i05ibl... oKl;tX'ding to the- lhesis of Anlisthcnian5.
They""y: one cannot de'rmin.. a rl (Otl in AJho:;; at most on.. can dl.'lt"t<
min<" a lIO;O\'. For cx:omple, it ;s nO! po66iblo. to dl.'ll.>nnine silv... in
in i:s 'what; by of one can only say: looks like
lin. nmw"bblc that A'istoll" ..ml'hasizes ..... U..,t the theoii of
t........... n'",hmv ItvnUyr"',allhnugb it in.....,,""" a< c.lling
by name, still contains decisl'... '.....ns i5
pnxeeding when he d'-'I\ies that lhel11 can be a <kfinilion. A
6po<, is pn.'risely suPf'05"d to eludd.'" a thing lMX1ln:ling to its 5Ubstantiw
OOIllenl: L.... il is supp<ll5"'d to offer something substantively fIOm....
thing Re\'o, about t"" thing in question. On I....' oth.., hand. lhis l,.6yo<; as
6po<;..;OS dcl ninol\. must be iuch thai it does not !,"methirlg arbi,
t...", abon! tl", bfing. e_g., how il is rel.lted '0 ot""," be;IlglI, but
must l"<p.- determi""nons ""';ding in lhe being it!O.'l/. Ari5l.OIIe " ...... the-
Ii,." to """ lhi
a
problem of the edd..,.,InS 0' """",thinS M I,,,,,lf, ""'l.,.,d
the mere po<iting of lis identity with itsclf....d he set II furth in his 1I1rlr>-
p/rJlSlcs, -l. Hell' h.. m:.kes the flln,l3m"n.al dise',,''''Y lhal is
U'rl'w as i.tyl:w tl -<0&' Qirr6. -an .ddf1'SSin& "' _tiling fu, "'/'1.11 il
ilI,- and spedfocolly such thaI tlus is nol simply an empty
t.ulology. as is the calling by name of Anli$then<'s, bul sum .Itd! Illisl.tyrw
n w&' <rirro allhe lI'IlR<' tin,e di1lClose!lthe Illing addl\'S5Cd for wlmt It is.
This disco""')' of I"" genui"'! the original l..&yo<;. was possible onl)"
bea...... Ati5totle had P"l"'re<l his doctrine of l,.6yo<; tllrous!' a romspond
log doct11nc of bFIngs and 1""1. f'O""lble detcTmll'lo,bUlty. for ,,"""I tills
addl"eSSt'S suml.'lhinjl;;os thaI whktl It is. e"l">S"'!' .bolll .he
booing is it! ontologic.1 p""-"""RCl'. r.meI)" ttl.t wtlich already R5id." in
ii, what it it""lf in .......t.>in SCRS<';s. although this i. indee<! prior to,\ llself.
This theory of ),{ryoc;.. wtlich ,<Tif..... in a posili'-e 5Cn5C pn.'Ci5eIy "'l\;It
mainlain<"<! onl)" in a "-'lIlh "'"y. thOI-' p"-- ....PP"S'" thtodi.......
err of the ')'tvoc,. And this disc",,"), was made possible only by the
'act that a l'1a.o prt.dl.'ll Aristulle, 11 is preci,;ely INs conne<:lion thal "'e
will v;plo", in lhe followins lee"' ...... The impot"t.om point-lhe """"'" I
refem'd 10 theso! passage. about Ami<th<.>nes-i< to....., how the lh<!ory of
},6yoi; cannot be sep.,... ted from Ihe GlIl.'StiOl'l of IX-ing
Plato hi""",l! cites Antislhenes "'""" m"", often. but I will nol no'"
.,"'borat.. I...... P"S""ges. since tl'lcy do not add anything f"'mculariy ....b-
stantial. citAtions OCCllr in lhe OQ/ylus. .h" ('dhy.kmW>. :!8Jc.
74. Tit' di CL ion 0 tJre ftmdan
wit/lin b in (
tvcmria.
89'-l. lColUlIJU1S:ZS38--2515.
On ~ m a r l 15.
N/511-5H1
OlbIf., ho.'urrie!;oul di.alectial in,e5tig.>l;on. with ",gard 10
llW! b<lsk ronreplS of IloSnl': and i-t'{t,y. Wh,' he d>CKl!l('5 lhesE-
nn:q>t5 will bt'oc<mW! inU'lUgibk: on basis of ,he ",1l(U(\en1 (hllrao:\('T-
iuriun "f di.3le<tic, which ..... a.... aoou' 10 ]Nm
If. in dioJcUS6C!l u.. ,,,rioWi f""'5ibilllies of ,,,,..,,,,,In.
IW! doe" O bKaUM lh.... of lhe "",....,vto. Mnp" for him
lho:' foundillion upon which he builds his idea of dialectic. IV.. can
lhis liS the 'MI guides lhe following in'estig.>llons.' To
und('fS{and lhe dialectic. w.. ",ali1.. lh.>l lho:' 0r01\wvlu is 1M prf':SUp-
posilion of its pus.sibilit)' and thai lherefo it is not di.a!tk which fi ...t
tlpm.......'''''... Ihp 1M"'fIMrJ Tn""... ""r lic In g<"l"'AI " .. I)' if I..... I",,i.
billl)' of lhe oro""""t\...... ists in il. own right Th...do.... .os will "" ...n.
Ih<- ('()I'I'p1 of the Id. 2S2d2f.) ll; funda"",nl3l.llefore
carrying oul a detenninall' PlaliO a!t<'mpls 10
if)' th.. id.... of d..lectic on the basis of lhis l<OI\wvlu.and dOl'!l50 from quill:'
diff..""", ,i<k'sancl f""" ""er n..w starting poinl'" 1lecaklSf' il Ihi!' ""'\"UI\"(a
,hoi ....talns the dialectic: 'tself, Plato must ....hausli'..ly discuss the posoi
bililies 'n,..,and in ,hoIl ide.,
Th_ a.... l!we p<>S50bl.. wars 10 int..-rrogat.. lhe o;0'VUI\1a.
I.) ....... <:<>uld mAin in .... 3i.va1". it"\" _V<I>VI....
t,:; Il'lliof.v (251c8).. th.l, no Ix>ing h... the p<>SiIibility of h-l'P,ng cornp.lny
wilh another I'.y c1e>se llt!mliw I" tho! lM'O+l':; in this
formulation
2.) w.vw.c1:; 0\t\6yl:,.\d.l51uS). II is possible reduceeo.,,'Y
thing 10 the 5/.m... ...<h IMI aJilhinp lilA'om
(d9I. "suncl in !he po$Sihililrofbeing ",ith one another." There-
10.... ei!he'r no being .....lh dnothe.(the first possibility). 0. -aU thinS"
wllh <me dnoll>er: ..6wtu uu.l\i.o1:; (252<12), (the sand f'065,bi6ryl.
3.) 1(llI'tV, m Ili (2!lld9), In part a 0r01\'UI\hl.. in part ""'.
Th..... are lhe lhtl.'l' possibilili"!i of oroo\wvla now to be diSoCussed.
b) T.... <..ryin!! out of t .... diocu!OSlon.
0) Fi ...t tl1<......, lh....""I u.s".... of """'1' """,,,,,,1
The ,,"tffidbilily of Th.. of the
Antislh<'nians.
The fifSt thesis is; 1''1&''; l''1Iir1'IQ'' m,,tljm hn\' ....ia; rl.;
lJ.'1lltv 12511"!1). J\:oIe how slrikingly thi! inlensifies !he ..arlier e>:f'l"e!6ions
for "",VDl\ia: (d. 252121.) ...>Vt" (15ld). If this
thesis held. lhool no l>elng, no "SCIn>C'lhing. could ....1" kcepromrany "'ith
1 s.r ""'0f'I""'l'"
74/515-516/
him,;elf, ......... thotJgto throughout the whal., dialog"" he h..,; not partkuL>rly
3ompli1;I,,'d ""I'}' much. He ",,)'s Uuutho.s lMsis would allow uS e.'en 10
take motion togetl1er with rest and =1 logeth..... with mohoo; 300 lhiot i1;
eerlainly quite imjlO!>'lible, for motion in re!Jltu"" to re;., !too>
..,.....,Wn<W (d'. 2Sl.b71. llw fu.\ho.<. <>Pro-!. .... ,he d...ino:!i"" i. ck-ar
botIvern tl>t- e5SeflhaUv still onticaJ treatment 01 motion and "'5' in Plato
"eTSUS the <.>ntological tl\'alrnent in Aristotle. Altltough Plalo lal<'r says
(256b6ff.) that the", il; a certain "0"..,\'1.... t>ctw""" I({vnlJl; aoo <JTUcw;-i.e.
insofar as tht'ya",diffe"",I, de1<>rmmal by I"" cW<-s not
.he genuine connection, lhe poculiarsuktanth"<1""",,cwlo.betwern motion
and order to understand thilt "U1'w'!u. ,,'" may not take motion.
as l'1IIlo dOl'S, putely onlicllly. Only il we ask alxlutth" !leinS 01 being-in
motion and about the !leing of being-.olres! will we 1><- able 10 und.'I'6'and
it. If we ....y lhat what is at rest is nol what is in mol;"'" tlwn we can in facl
...y .hat wNt IS in motIOn is """Iuded from wha' is", .... t, and that, in a
pure sens<'. whill is at teSl is not what is in motion. On the other hand, m
the ije;ng of res', i.e_, in the onlQlogicaJ meaniog of "'5t. being-inmotion is
predsely ro-posiled, inwfar as onl)' Ot1W'1.htnS that has the possibility of
motion can be a' "'Sl. That is to sa}". =1 ioI, as Aristotle disco,ered. not an
oovrtov in ....Jalion to motion. some'hing opposed to motion" bul, on the
OOfllra'Y, plt'<isl'ly "'quires motion Rest OS nothlt'g ciS<' than a determina.e
Jim,t Ca'le 0/ motion. an emin"nt poss,bility 01 ",holt is in motion with regard
to Its possible !leing. But this anal)'sis 01 nlotion <:an be carriro out onl)' if
the !leing of motion i:5 S('O;'t'l and explicated. something fur which PL>to had
""';U",r the m""no nor the
y) Third thesis, ronditioned Ko",.,,,ia. Its recogn,tion u the
only tenable thesis. The pres<''''ahoo of knowledge.
Thus, in .;e... of the imf'OliSibi1it)' of the first on1)' the third
to. j.t/;v t;(u" /i1M;ql,v '''''''''''fu;;. to. at I'll (d. 2:>1<191. or. wm b<!
$aid Iatl'r. to I'N tOO,nv, to lit I'll ""l'lJ.dywo9m (25211. "Iholl thc one
tet41, i:5 for a ......1a, tI,e other i:5 not." Thc",f"", the "(Q,,-uMo
within beings is in gcncrnl a conditioned one and i:5 ronditinnl.'<i brthc rresd1t
on.oIogkal 3I1d subslam",,ronsti,uuon of tJw bd"l;" ,ha, are hJ t-.rombirwd.
This ......,vaMa is conditioned /"!lr-dinSn in a quite p<'CuHar """"'" ,t is
groundal in the things 10i"S""J, in the malletS themscl<'fS, and is prt"-
delineated by them. Only this lasl possoibility of K01\"M'l.... can be sustained.
whem>s both the odters suln<'l1 the po;sibility 01 knowl,'dgt'".
.....to. 5op/n>I
is. fu,rl"..rdQrijil.lJlion o!riu'rowJlli.!,ttI/ oro,vwv!uoj"bf'lngs
12331>-15Jlp).
aJ Illustration of ,,:0l\"tlI\10 mUllS of
Th" sp",i.J position of th" "o,,d. as an illustration
of spe<:ial position of th" (undam""taJ of
bo:ing5' lif..oIlh.; n&'1"".
This p<'<'tJI..., /act of " ronditiooned "(Ot"wvlu is now fitst illu;;t,ated by
m,,,ns of (25301). "k!1I""',w And t86'f'1Ol (ef. bI6), HlIOW1<b."
<TtElj6\, oio\' to: ltrMv66t' li\' till (232e'lf.); IhlS n>lation I)f a
conditioned among ""tu is almost lhe s"mc as the one
"'llhin YP(CP1'(l1ll. 1'1"'" oft..............'" 10 let",", or 9Ound. to ilIustr.11' anti('-
unlologicol II'lations: TIlN<'trlll5, 202elf.; Ill.
-W2b; Philtbus. J8bff. h is significMt thai Jett....... arc I.'II'Iplo)"e<J for ,II<' s"u
of lllu,tr.'tLon in th<'se 131{' dialogu,," al the scientific Ic,"l!l. II isof
rou..... no accident that pr:isel}' "II' introduel. it is no .
whim on Plato's p.art, but is grounded in the fact lholt -ery Uryo.;, I'T}'
Uyo". is a d<'lemtinate manifold of 5Oundstrudull'$. In "\'1)' i..6.,o.:;. how-
....<'I",;n .....I'T}' Alyl\'. then> is a !..l:y6j.lf;VOV. somclhing In ",hoot
is IS p""""\"ed; the being dosdOfl<'d in it is. so IosfX'ak. ""'<!Stoo.
In th......y. "'hIIt is ""id .\IId, in a funher """"", I"" ""uAds arc.... it Wl'1\'".
the 01 tIw beings themsek<'S.
This "",nifold of """lids in tIK- hnguistk is et",raetcTize<! by
the fact that the", is among them a special clas" lhe "owels ('5),04). Plato
Solys ,,f them that they fuuocp(wtm.; tUW <iIJ.ID\' they al"<' distinct in
terms of th";r bdIa"ior in """tion In the """,""" 0(0" lI6:\'t"",
"as. b<lnd the)' II",,) 011'1' eo.''''Y'
whel"<'. u, cwry cone"'''' sound...truo;lu...., in "'Y word, .J\\"ays "l",ady
thCJ'l1, {pft ler\St'D.li,'U 1"'0.; VUlt,)", Min'O:tO" ttllll6rn:,"
><0.1 tWo 6:llm.lu'IlO"htP'+'(aSf.): HWitlmut tiwm It impossi.
blodor the otbersounds. the to ktE'p comp.a.n)' "'ith cach other."
They a", the Hbond," throughout "n the other./.. TI..,y function, In
borrow an imag..- from physics, li\;;: the nucleus in cf)'Stlllli7... t1on; around
them " ...ord, as a sound...truo:tu...., precipitates. T1w.'se OUWlltvto,
Ihe "owels, wlOCh a", the bond in aU words. a..... upJ"'Sl"d 10 suggl'Sl thaI
there may also be with R'g.,rd tolwro. som<'lhing "'hich
"(QliJp'l'''', l'l alw,,}"!! al",,,d!' in all beings. These an' nOlhing else
than the origi""l deumn,nations "I Being: It,,. lv. luU$. ltfpov. This
.'Rollog) had lhem in mind all along. II ,mph... there a", among uVUl, and
in ....<'f)lhing "ubject to a p<l56ible Ko""",,,lo. privH<'ged dl.'lermiRoloons
"'hi<;h can be lound ....-erywhere.
",me of tlles<' ""'"l' birds a", (qtM.<.; l<llpl; fOIlv (lJ..l.mv (el. d7), "galh
in flocks. aparl from the others. 5eJ'<'rah'd"; again.",
Ul.1"(Q.; (d7f.), l<>goM;,-r ....ith f(>w oth<'f!j in """,II gNl.lp""; tvlo:;
(dS), "sorn<'. I\o"''''er, are alone," 6ftl1 liv ruX<OO\
..etQjl/vo:; (ibid.). "tho:-J.. fly. cach for ill;<>lf, among "II the ot!w1'S, wht:r('\'cr
these h.lpp'n to be: Th... ..."".. of thern r"n be <"flOO\Jnten-'d ",l.'ry....here.
Ihey ha,.., n.. d"',nite d"'elling pl.1, bUI aJ\" &6 1\.llCWv. p""""'l "''''Y'
WhM 15 inlended heft.u "'-'gdrds b:IOnll''l. as resard5 "'hilt is
kno:",m, WMI is appropriah,d agaIn !he 1\1.6 mo<il\' is Sl.'l in relit'f,
rorresponding to the &6 _a\"'tOW in th<' is the Smn., ronnection:
a"",nl; the knowables. i..... amOllg beinlP. there are ,,-hich h.:>,' .. the
fundamo.'lltal pri\11ege of unj,'ersal The SopIu$1 illustrate; pre-
ctsdy """" ,,->btions by mea.u of "fP6tlllo.la. \\'hm is essenlial to this
analog)' in tilt> Soph'$1 is lholt. as in the ras<1 01 the manifold of yp(qljWta,
'" also. among beinS", there are """toin QvlU which. as Qvto. are pre-emi'
nent in thci, tk'ing.lf 6eing is intcrp",k<l as P""'"'<:l:'. then thllt means that
are det("rtninations which .'" "I""Y" in ad".""", present in
all beings. Thll!i offer. pn'5enre. In Ihe TMlrtrt,.". tIu5
""".ruble fart of a privileged rank of certain b;,>;ng>l, and of <:l:'rtain onto-
I<)gical is illustrall'd from anoth<-r side; at iSSIJe the", a", not
",'t as sum but rathe, OvlU imoofar as they a .... known. For, presumabll',
this larl 01 a prh'il..-ged rank of certain beings must abo be "''''\';lnt for tilt>
Imowl""ge which d;,-,IOloe! be;ngs. The analogy sho"'S Ih", in that lhe",
art'. among the multiplicity of birds dwelling in the of the ",ul.
0IleS whirh ran be found I uonot here ,'rUrf into" closer
of in with this imag<' flllt that is not
bee"US<' the ...'13tion of as I'Iat" it in the
So,I/Iisl. ill f.r rn<>n' Mlvantvd than the on.. in the 7"l>n>rI,1"'. Coosequmtl),
I.... of ,," Qv and Mro; in the So,JlrI5I settles the que!>-
tiuns rai5cd in the Tht<>rtrtU$
d The of leiters and ""..nd, as "object'" of a !h:\"T],
Referente 10 a rorraponding tt):VIl regarding Ihe
conditioned ""l\'tIW! of beinp.
JUSI as now with 'G,.rd 10 thell" is ttx'''l (Sqllusl. 253aSff,), a
kn",,how in ",l.>tion to the po::>s<;ibt.. combinations of k.1te.., !lO there is
.1,;0 a tt'l'" in ",I.>lion Jo the rombination of of tont'!. with n:spt'ct
to thei, height.md depth. The and tOlilllty-t>INClul'I."!l of the m,tIl
ifolds of ton"" are not arbitrary. The one who hils kn",,"how with "-'S"rd
to t......... with '<'l;ard to their poMibl.. rombi....ti<vu. is "ouo:nl>; (t\3I .
..-he",,,. 11'< ............, who ,," ""v,d.;. isdpouoo.; {ibid.l. In this "'ar, pn!SUrn-
761522-5!J1

abJf, also in relation to n,anifold 01 lJ.,inl9l, of ...hich
(b91. "have cor><:I.odcd" tMt In part th..-y haw" "Ul\w<.11.l, and in part nQl.
a n'lV'l mUllt "",isl which has the task, and whid> pTl':5<'f'\','S the po56'hilitj'.
of bringing 10 light the lrol\W\iu and oonntions among ind"'iduaJ brings.
76. Tht'id,." of Jrol/k I25Jl1-2S4bJ.
al F'rst d.ua<leriution of diaIKti<. O,aledi< ""
Mjll:Ul:06cu mit n:iw rt,vu<; and cillo.;. The di""losure
of the history 01 the provenan.... of N<on<me- a!I
task of diaIKti<. The fh'e prindpal mo....nts of
di.IKtk I:uvC<yl>1yl\ and &oipcm:;. OialKtl< as uniquely
lree ",ien<". philosophy.
The idl"a of Ihis u'):V'l. the one that duddJtes the .vtVif",lo oI6vm. ,",'cell'''''
its /irst detomnination at2S3b8-<:J. Th<-ch",acteriZl'lion is ushcn.od in by an
exprell!iion we M..... alrc<Mly met. at the oi tilt' dialogue, and "'e
c.lIl'd ."......lion to 1t al th,1I tim",' m yb.., (bBl. that lrum which belnlliS
origin:>le 'n t....'it lIeing. tl Is ,igniflcanl that this explic.>lion of the It):'''l
related to the I<QlV.llvi(IQf llvta begin. with the term to. ytv'l.
For thP moot part. <'5f"'dally in the o:-arlier dialogues, /'lato exdusi"cly
t"" cxpn:ssion dll'l. Now, how<"\,,,. this term )'t\.., appealS. and il
<:lCI:\01'lI in PI.,o only In the Llte in the pa5S3g,.. just ITlt'I1tioned.
as ,,cll in the Pll""""i4rs (IJ5bl. the Phl1</1u, (12cl, and .Iso in t"" Uno<
and the Trm-s. l'ho" U5C of ytvo.; .trengtheJ>5 the ronjecIUI\' thaI Arisl<ltle
IS in the background C.mpbell' 011", within
l'Iato'. terminology the ,,'Ord does "'" Qlherwi!il' an <'1Tlp.... ric func-
tion. -\V!t"""er _limes the lin' 1d}J.o'"lO Iil:t;t<l\' (d. blOl.l,
"of in "or<! with tho:- rnal"'fS !Wi"".
(d. bIl). "which SI""'" h.>rmoni"U', .:1 win fiUnl.a 0(, 6t]:cml
(bllf.), ""nd ...hkh do nut"-notle" in this og.'in the III the
'OOlV<ll,iro;!-and. whew"N ","nts to sho,,' .\
Arm /loll fd. eI), " .......>1...... lhe", on' .'ems "'hieh huld
together, and .1'(' ptcS<.:'nt throughout. ""crything," 100' crul'l'fi.,...'IJ06ut
I!m=ll I'ivo.' (c2\, such that they l!m'(lrO.-dg.in 6UI'<lI";;!-
"""1id.,...'''J6cll. "SIMI<! "ithin the possibility of On and unee-
5lricl..-d rombinat,on," thus whether Ih..r.. IS one thing fl.,...,,,,,,,i]y
761522-5!J1

abJf, also in relation to n,anifold 01 lJ.,inl9l, of ...hich
(b91. "have cor><:I.odcd" tMt In part th..-y haw" "Ul\w<.11.l, and in part nQl.
a n'lV'l mUllt "",isl which has the task, and whid> pTl':5<'f'\','S the po56'hilitj'.
of bringing 10 light the lrol\W\iu and oonntions among ind"'iduaJ brings.
76. Tht'id,." of Jrol/k I25Jl1-2S4bJ.
al F'rst d.ua<leriution of diaIKti<. O,aledi< ""
Mjll:Ul:06cu mit n:iw rt,vu<; and cillo.;. The di""losure
of the history 01 the provenan.... of N<on<me- a!I
task of diaIKti<. The fh'e prindpal mo....nts of
di.IKtk I:uvC<yl>1yl\ and &oipcm:;. OialKtl< as uniquely
lree ",ien<". philosophy.
The idl"a of Ihis u'):V'l. the one that duddJtes the .vtVif",lo oI6vm. ,",'cell'''''
its /irst detomnination at2S3b8-<:J. Th<-ch",acteriZl'lion is ushcn.od in by an
exprell!iion we M..... alrc<Mly met. at the oi tilt' dialogue, and "'e
c.lIl'd ."......lion to 1t al th,1I tim",' m yb.., (bBl. that lrum which belnlliS
origin:>le 'n t....'it lIeing. tl Is ,igniflcanl that this explic.>lion of the It):'''l
related to the I<QlV.llvi(IQf llvta begin. with the term to. ytv'l.
For thP moot part. <'5f"'dally in the o:-arlier dialogues, /'lato exdusi"cly
t"" cxpn:ssion dll'l. Now, how<"\,,,. this term )'t\.., appealS. and il
<:lCI:\01'lI in PI.,o only In the Llte in the pa5S3g,.. just ITlt'I1tioned.
as ,,cll in the Pll""""i4rs (IJ5bl. the Phl1</1u, (12cl, and .Iso in t"" Uno<
and the Trm-s. l'ho" U5C of ytvo.; .trengtheJ>5 the ronjecIUI\' thaI Arisl<ltle
IS in the background C.mpbell' 011", within
l'Iato'. terminology the ,,'Ord does "'" Qlherwi!il' an <'1Tlp.... ric func-
tion. -\V!t"""er _limes the lin' 1d}J.o'"lO Iil:t;t<l\' (d. blOl.l,
"of in "or<! with tho:- rnal"'fS !Wi"".
(d. bIl). "which SI""'" h.>rmoni"U', .:1 win fiUnl.a 0(, 6t]:cml
(bllf.), ""nd ...hkh do nut"-notle" in this og.'in the III the
'OOlV<ll,iro;!-and. whew"N ","nts to sho,,' .\
Arm /loll fd. eI), " .......>1...... lhe", on' .'ems "'hieh huld
together, and .1'(' ptcS<.:'nt throughout. ""crything," 100' crul'l'fi.,...'IJ06ut
I!m=ll I'ivo.' (c2\, such that they l!m'(lrO.-dg.in 6UI'<lI";;!-
"""1id.,...'''J6cll. "SIMI<! "ithin the possibility of On and unee-
5lricl..-d rombinat,on," thus whether Ih..r.. IS one thing fl.,...,,,,,,,i]y
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tual and, p"""""r "s.ruch, is rwt a s"ffic..mt basis for s"ining elM,ty
concerning 1he Being <n the Id"as as a ronn-pt perla",ing
to th" gi"et\MSS ofbo>;ngs. basicall)' says nothing about the l3ei,,& '" these
bl>;ng:s,Ix-)-nnd e:q>ressing the On<' tMt bl>;ngs to b<> grasped
pnrnarilr in tl\eir out...ard look. i.e.. in their pre5CfICI', and spedlkAlly in
tl\ei, IQ a st,a,ghthm,'ard looking up"" thern.'Sinc>' it is preci!leJr
tltis cOfl<.'\"Pl <n d&o.; tMt gUldC'i l'l.,tos on10logical at the
beginning and Mlullily throughoul its entire COUTSl::, he docs not riseabo...
""",in diffICUlties In onlOlogicalres'an."h,
Fmm the passage q.....tw. ",hich ...,..(Ie"" tho: usk "f dialectic in a "e<}'
",ay, we can now ",,1rael ,"OOu. moments of diak-ctic:
1.) What i fund.>m"""'l is th.lt o''ta-oong-.-.'''' gr....p<"'! as /..l:'fOI.IC\"Cl.
I ...., a.s in l,hyo.;;,'
!o) II "'e ",I:.) yt."T\ and ri6T] tog<:'ther as determinations of beings
foilowinS from the war beings an! thematic in di3lectic, then w... h.>,.... 11)
Soly tho,1 dialectic grasps onC!---b<>inS-In l<'rm.'I of ...1\.,1 w3!l 01"''')11 al
ready then.- in them, and this .ho".. itself only in pure p<'''"i';ng. In a
""",In Sft\S(', this is tied 10 the first dl'1C'tmination.lnsof.>r YOfiv.
and l.6yo.;. Uyr,v. an: of"'" id""tifit"d: l."I'Cl'I Aristotle 5Iill posits.-ill<>; ..
"""
3.) T"he,e beings, in l.6yoc; ,'nd now l\> Ix- grasped in tOOr
ytVl\, inlem.>galed n'gdrdlf'llthcir .,olv(.wlu.;. rq;arding their
a..,.<tul\'l!tv, I.e.. as <J\!ill'l(l''tI<l8ClL
4,) \\"thin this l<U,wov(a. th....., .", sorne. liuC!, a fe.... which an.' pn.'Sent
lfQ.vt""'. e.....rywhere. np""'ading ther an!
b)' "ni,""""J
5.) n..... mod" of discJ""ing tho.- "-0"-.0-'(0 of beings 'ndud"" redllCing thl:-
multiplicltr of bo:ings '" one, mJ\u'J'I''''. and also in<lud<'s. at the $0""" time.
the "pposite mO"ement, takIng them "p"rt, mOIllOl,>- in a <:er't3;n
runs through lil<' history.>1 \he pro."",,1lC<" of" being forward. up lU
its ani"al at the nithE' roncn.'l<' Ix-Ing, out of whal is al",ady then-.
i,e.. out of f..'"" t.... gmo;pinS of tlu-' f,,11 COfl<.'"n.'Mn of a loelng.. as
Aristotle L>ter rnar.\t> .....plieitl}, thol'matic. is a matl<'r of a rn()(\e of enroun
bo:ings ",I\jeh i. The abiding qucst"'" i. t....,,-Io"""
ho'" is something p"""",ta. 'r.t6J.u;'-n"? In,;.,far as it is al"''')'5'' malter of
an enrounl.... '" ).yt:lv, "'...., as "'Sard5 the concretion of th.. faclUdlly
..J<isnng thing hen! ond no",. the OOl'I<:,ete pl"CSt'nC<' ,,1"'Ol'5 an (;/io.;; .nd
P""<'isoeJ)" this, 'n the full history of its pn:...."".nc>'. makes ;ntcllisibi>! t....
of the nthi. which is all that count. That, hovo...'er, is
Atttn__._.wilh_b_lJ-..,.,..

SophW ISl6-S!7]
Aristotle'. Ialcr ..'plicil qucsHoning. Plalo deliberalel)' pl.o<:es malpl:QU;
Ihin:! i.. I!>(' enumeration of tho.' "arious lasl<s of lhe bo'lo:.ausc
lioo:riP"iO is grounded in Henc<- it Is not ",1m. Is p.i"",'Y in
dialcctic. Accordingl). a fundamenlal mislake plagues !he in".."tiga
lions 01 S!enul! In IMI he dialrttic Ciln be mIlde inldligible 00
Ih<- basis of 61alpl:Ol;;" lhnt, how('\('f. is an e>.trinsic a'\:56, 5i....,.. olOlprOl;
,s foundoo on lhe lJIj"O'YWY'\ in and
This ,s the ,d<-a of II admiltl'dly lea,'", much tobe desired with
rt'gard I" a .....1 ..lurid.lion of both the slruclu,"" of kno....ledge and !he
S1ructu", of "'hat is Iu'own. This deflci<-ncy is betrayed pr<'Cist'ly br l""fact
thai, in ",lut Iollo",s. PLlloagain and again all""'p1s 10 undersland diak'Clic
more ad<-qualely. But we will 5e'.' thai. foe uS bX41' al any ra.... !hi: de\lI>r".
m,,,,,hOno lhat follow an! still more obs<:u.... Ih.,n lhi<! Ii",t on<'.
Ilpi); tJ.66ollf;\ d; '''Y uiIv tlflQ'tljI''1''
l25X?f.): #By Zeus.. ...... hoI"e in end. hidden 10 come 3O'1\l$O
Ihe sdcntt' of f"", men: and h.wel;.'1toil"n:; To" "'*""',,
U"'lIlp'1nvu, TOY (dll.), in S<'d:ing lhe sopIli>t. Iound lho.' p"i-
1000000her lirst.# This t",,,n'tI''1. 1.......10"'. lheO,,", characte1i2oo as diale-ctW:.
is he.... as tIi"an'iIl'1 """ tl.\>iltp<:l\'. #Ihe scicrIu of I"", m<-n,"
i..... of those who. in Iheir aclionsand commitments. a", not in I>l't"d ofwlut
the m,lS501'5 O"Cqu,'" In al1lheir und....-tal<i"ttS, namel)" an .mmedia.... "!sible
g<)<l]. Sn\.>J1 and narrowminded people an;, 001 capable of sus",lning a tabor
in which 11w)' do ..01 allhe ,'cry oulSC! know w...."" il will carry' them. Bul
that is the pre-rondilion of lhe f"", "",n who ,,'OUld ,.",N", upon this
5('il'tK't'. This peculiar COrocepl of freedom, as used h= in connection w.lh
the higho.'!'! SlCier>', be ouod Iilhm up by ArislNle
in the po.....g"" we ,n our introduction. In lhe !t1el"J'hysu:>1. Book
l. chapter 2. Arislotle "Iso charaCkl"izes oatIl>. the firsl in thoosc
lerms, &141\' OUY &. oU&:l'fm' tttpnv, gu'
oo>U:p th'9p(llXO<" tjltv, t/..tUQrpo<; IJ ..111" liUou<iw. oitw
Ill "'Ut1l" ti>i 116'.''1'' oi>oov t.l.u(ltpov uiw hlOTTlIlW... 1'0'''1 yilp \in1
n\m\; h'tdv to", il is "nique among tM; mod... 0/ knowledge
are flt* in a "",I sef\Sl!; ot....r koowlcdge is
6. w.... "'<1$ this mode 0/ knowledg.. is the", simply "10< the .... ke of ibdf"
.,nd aCl:ordingll' posill!; t .... kno\\'\'1' 1'''....1)' upan himwl.
... J. ........... S,odro ,... >kT ploI......".,. "'" -.... ,.
1"11.
b) The second and third characterizations of dialectic.
ifE "p and -' 6 as guiding concepts of dialectic.
The ob curity of the third characterization.
d9), th dial-
n an ther.
u
uhr:a tl
oJJ...ci> tv Vi Q1) TlIlJlTl
in gathe d to th -r inti
o. th fall
Pia' phi t f' 29- 0]
c) Oro a mode of ace s to beings. Distinction in
the meaning of "by S." Co elusion of the ,third
characterization of dialectic.
adc1ressed a can
ed
hat' 'aid, th
dt rminati '11 f M:yEl a' an ddt.
mu n te that \ h t
mean:
comm' ): 1. a ref
l\-'06al.. aAll8eocl .
a 1 tet P .. (p. .
7,; (5JO-5Jl1
1.) it IS addl"<S6<.'d..,; n Iring, I..", WIth "1J:anl to a concrete ontological
determinatiotl (addres6ing as Ih(> uncowring of a delerminate obj<'<.1lW
'(I(Ik"" of a ""inlll.
2.1 In thl' addl'\'SSlng of 50nwlhing thl' "os"",,",ething' ,an
Icier 10 a '''''''<:1e< ollleing and not of t><-mg:".
The expre95ion is thus used for ontkal as ...,,11 as onrologic.ll
disrou".... Th3l the latt.".Of\f! is in bet in ,ie.. issh""'n by the formulation
litO. ni>v M1yw" (d. 253bIO), tu run through Ihe l.6yo"
whetdl)' ... hat is Ilwm'\dti, IS what is .\odid in !he ..ho..... of its ""yabliol).
Thus we ,an briefly <k>termm.. d ..I.:dk in the I'latonic il p .....
smb il...::lf "" this higllO'r 11",..,1 of Plato's me<!ilah'm-.lCrorthng 10 the
co"dusOO<l (25Jt'l-2) of t.... c\l.1r,'<1eri,.alioo gi"en abn,'("----35 the demo,,
suat;';" of the of ro-p"""""'" in beings, in",far as bciogs
rnco.",t<>R'd In /..&r<lt;.
dJ a ",aU", I,,, III" . Th" dw"lling
pix" of Ih" phil"""ph", and Ih.. of th" ...,phi.t: the
of !leing and Ih" obscurity 01 non!xing. The preaden""
""corded the them.lic d.nliul;"" of Ihe sopllisL
This dialKliral is p<.>s>ible only tu one ",ho is ""pable IE
ii".:c'!uI.;j.,S), of phil"""f'hizing "J'"",ly and h..'fWonJ)'
to(l(l" "'ho c.>n d"..,U in "OlE;I.', thus 10 0f1(' who sees the (Wpatn, \\,ho,;ees
prisely whal M-n5ibl" ,,}'es caon,,1 s<'<!. Oniy rom""ne who h.ts al his
disposal pure sa"ing con carry out di.oll'ct:ic. tv t0100ttp n,-\ OOlT<pOll..6oo6ov
/d. 25.'ldIf.l; onlr in this 1'1"".'. i..,.. when: one looks upon
beings in th"" lJeio!; bl' m""n5 01 ,'00,, "can Ih., phil"""l'h<>, be
Yet ""en here: Iiiri,' ptv (e9), "he IS d,ffi<:ult enough to s....: nu,
-difficulty'- lai-.t:ll6n,; (254a21. in """,ng the philO6OphcT and th.,difficull)'
in !ot.'l'iog lhe sophisl are quit... diff<:n.>nl. h,,"'....,'. The sophist n'-".'!' 1; til"
tOU II" 6\'t.... "I<otr:",(ItT\T (254.1-If.), inlo Ihe d..,kne.... of non-OOnp."
and he plies lhere his dark trade. &tn til "lOOtt1\oU" In\, t61<00
IW.1!t'l.; jaSf.l; "H... is diWcult to set' on account of the obscurity of his
d"'elling plac<-: The philo.;orher. on tho,' con"'..y. til ,"U "''t.... fu;l
/jllll M)-.<I;II;,., llit''''ld. allf.), is wholly sJ''ffi o,e. 10
insufa. as lhi.') are purely 5>ghl'-"Cllt is di/fi.oJlt 10....., him 0)Il'! to) M:tjl1<p<)'-
ltilpo..:; (d. a9), "bt. .......use 01 Iht' brightness of tit(' in wluch h.' It.-.s
to dwdl. for this brightn..... blinds. in such a way that," II "" distinctions
are ,-iSible to the and unworthy eJ"e. Thl' cyesofthl.' multilUde,
Plato an.- inapabko t6 9l'iO\' I<04lWP;V (d. hI), "of
lusL>ining fo' long" regard ,ast "pan I"" di,'in"." COOCtorning tl\o., philos-
ophe., WXa f1l10nv6\J9<r o,*oU'llO". 6:\' in Ill'il.' 1\ (t>Jf.),
77/5ll-5J.l1
toward the fact thdt it is thereby a m.lte. of interr"ll"tons this ).q6jlVllY
was nogoords the o:o1\'{Iwla<;. .nd spocifical1y in such way IMt
thoc ronnoctioos of thE- ontologic.'l structUI'l.'S, as in Ihis <;>rient.
tion, art' nOl simply judaposed arbit.arilr. On the mnlra'Y, tht> t;l5k IS
ah".Y" to rt'duce them to OIle, ri; b; owliyEtv, such that from Ihis one lhe
enti", ontologIcal history of a reng can b<- pursu<.>d up 10 its conewtion.
The:se.re the f'SSl'ntial mon'l""ts of lhE- baSIC """lhodoiOSical structu", of
diak'<:tic in Plalo', IieRSC
The basic pl\.'Supposition for Ihis dialectkal lask and 10. its ma5t<''Y is
WNtt Plato pre,'ious!r all.lllyzed in the mo.1hodological discussions of the
ontologies: th.t !leing mean,; nothing cl5<' thon 6iNojlu., 3(j,'{qlU; af
0:0"'("':0"; ;('" lll'ing perlains 10 lhe possibilily of bcinglogt.'ther jdas
Miigljdt-srin Zu;;a"",,..,,-S<'in/" This ontological ronn>pt of Uw 6""Uj.lU;
o:ow<JJVla.; is the gmuinc ilft6Ell:Olo;. th"t which is .,Ire.>dy posited in "",.nre
and which n,usl be und<'1Stood if Of\(" w.nls to t.lk ,.,."" th(' smalle6t step
within diallXtic. This OIll<)logic3l coor:ept is rool somelhing pl\)"isional but,
on th.. contrary, is p....:is('ly lor PlalO lhe basic presupposition inr lhe ac
ti"ity of dialectlc. When PlalO puts forlh thi. nolion of m,vCljl':, "" an
inlcrpn>lation 0/ the g>'flulnc meaning of 1ll"inl\. he olwiou"lr has CleM
('(lfI,.;ious..- 0/ the presuppositlOnal chact.... of this ontological ronc.-pt.
1lIat dear in the diak"Cti<al in"cstil>"tioo itself. To hoc 5UI'('. I'lalO
dOllS I\Ol lurthor !\ofl,"Ct on whal IS genuinely in the
An inlt'Tmg.,lion of it did no! lie wllhin lhe horiZQl\ of his
<M1tology or of ontology 10 g'-"'....'1. Wh., I'L>to o.f'O'i"'d with the
6io''{qlU; >OOlV<ll\'Itl.; as u1t6et:m<; is, in a certain the 1051 maUN al
which C.....k ontolog}' can am"e ...hile "",i"taining the gmund of its .....
.....n:h.1lIa1 does nol mpan this would nol il!\Clf .Ilow
atKI requi", a lunhcr clarification of its """"..,1.
i7. Tht ftmMmnllDI o;m;idmllwtl of Jill[",,!iL'
Th.' d../mic r! IllI' jlt"fI<nU yt'"lJ
a)lntn><l ..<I<>ry ...,m.rla. ground, and
intention of the ensuing di.l...,ti<.l .n.ly51.
Abo"" .11, ....e mUSI keep in mind, in the ensuinS dlale<:tical a"al)'sis, th..t.
along ....ith the ...bl;t.nnve ","ults of the indi"ldua) slepl', the ontologiaJ
9 01;... ', "t,'." ThD /omouil""" ou'" only in '''''''''''pc
to. All T_ l;f.<llio:t.".,.,. .1>0".3$4 {_ p JIoZl.
I n... t-...,j .... .... r)801
PLot,,', SorJIt.. j5J.4-5J5j
co""'!'l af the m.vo;q.l1; 1<01""""<;<'; is mani/l$! as tl\(> ground of
the dlsc'u5liion, llwot is why Mato on<l" aga,n brWfly ""'phasl:te5. prior to
the UWeslig.tlion tht' ml'anlng of this aOO of all t!\at II
In u... idea 01 the "OIVWV!U" th.-'re resk!<'S:
I.) ta IIh ttiIv 1f''liiv 1<O"........;v ffltl.,,' (d. 25-lb7f,).
2.) tti lit lb8)
3.) tU I't'o' tK' 6l.11'O" (bS)
Td 6' tK; ROW (b9). Tht: thin:! and fourth determi""tions underlioo
a mo", or less b,..",achlng sub!;tant"'e kinship of tho! ontulogi(';01 Slructun!S.
S,) Td lit liIu lt6vuov oi>&rv ,'UM.6lv iWm ttlCl)'VUJVllttvtll (d. b9l.).
n...", are ontological sttuetu:s pl'\":5ent "thlOughoul ",erythlng, and
"nothing pJe\'ents lhem from being al"'ady thi're (tIOle again the perfoo
n'nSe) common 10 ...l'1)Ihing. TIIey;ore pre-eninl'lltly present""" in the
preosent, StIch that notlting ,,'ould If tho:se Wel'l' not
al",adl' ....presentlilu my,,,,,,
For Ihe consideration al hand. Plato It is Imporlant that we
<a...-iv> KEpi "{,,,row ttiIv rt/ioiw, r>OI unden""" to in'...tigate all
p<>O'e'lble ,,'a I'll (dr.), !esl "'e r""fu9rd by
Ihe mulilplicity of lhe;<> structures. Ifl5te.od, TIilv l'"fIatT1lV
una (c3f.l. "we will ""tract some of u... """ addrw.sed in the
high<-st do:g_: I.e.. some of the ones INt a", always addrw.sed in ""ely
/.trl'lV. Thus Illsa "",rt('Tof a CllrTalll k'k'dion, and nat an arbitrary
one, but an ""ttaction OUt of "'hat is proper lO ....<'1)' being"" a being.
Accordingly, what this will e!<p<'!Se, within the limits of the
ensuing di.llerliral ronsid('Tarion. mUSt obviously h.1,'c t..... dMrorlC'r oftl>c
61u """'11)\', The structures and results Il>al an to Iw ""III l\a,'<,
unin.,.,..I-on",logiGol Th..... utraeted jIlyIata 'tf\'11 will be
illtl.'l'l'Ugatal in two 1.1 ""'U hno.6 ton,- (ctl, 1>0,,' e;orh in ilself
Io%:s as)..q6jlt\'ov. and 2.) lUi>; \iU1\I.- (d. 0).
"how it Slands witl> regard l<.tlhi'possibllit)ofbcing "'Itl> otl>f'rI,"
!t is """".., a matler of c<"nSiderinll thi' "">logICal dlar;,rtrfl; In '"leW of; 1.)
llOia. 110,,- lheJI 1001< in thcm>l'l\'es .cocording to their proper calegorial
2.) ,,-hirh call.'gorial function is po!6lble lot them ""ilhln the
I<OlvoMa of beings.
1'L1l0 explicitly th.>t this in\'fNfigalion doe> not aim
potiII'bk transp<l.rffK')' tt>.Jt a diak'dkot consideration rould a""ln. but In-
stead wc dl'Sire only much cL1nty as will make inlelliglble our genuine
themotic inlcrest: til;; trmv 1'i\'TOJ<; Ill' 6v (dl), "th.>t in r""t "",,-beings are."
In tltis \\'a)' I'\aLO ..0'" rc!IlmS. ftom tho;- scncral onLOlogical lIiKu)/iion;m1l
from the critique of the onlologies. back to the qU<."!ltinn
by IhcsophL>t. "Ilhe samctimc "'C can now srerlo>arly lhe melhodoJogkaJ
horizon within which this question is to be rai""", it muSl be n"'$O!\'!'d
lil5J6-5J7/
within a duk'<.1kal of what is ..,id m"",l prop.'rly and primor-
diall)' in \"'o'er)' of thing'! as such. Acrordingly. I .... reooluti<m of
lhe q"","ion 0/ the !l<>ing 01 non-beings must aoo be un""'rslood in ..

l'1alQ now begins the proper dialeclkal (25kI4ff.). In oro......
lU und....-stand this cons'deration. "'f< must realiu thai il may inde<!d be
easily 'ntelligible in a rotlgh "erl>al ,......., and that It is not difficult lU
'ud in ""'Plaining I .... of tlw steps and a'Su.
m""lS, flul this does not at all S"'lranlrt' thai llw Propl'f p....""menal
C\lnle<>1 of what is her\' at stak" Ius been demOf\Slrall'd. If you you..,..I,"",;
try 10 lollow this discuSllion by carrying i! OtJI )"OI'r.;eI'..,.....'vhich of CO""",
you muSl do if }'ou an' to understand ;I-you will "'alize that you do 001
alwa)'l' and witf10ll1 ado 5<,,, tm- With the 5,lme Iran...
P"l'\.TOC)", Whal is nl.'<:ded i' a \wy la.'<:n d'sp<)Silion oflh" eye.
whi.ch we do not, a5 we mighl wish. tonSlantly ha"e at our dispos.ol. lienee
I Imng to }"(lur altention the difficulty 0/ this diSC\iS6ion, '10 that
you will no! dclude yourself with a ""nain mer"'ly '-elbalunderslanding.
bl The five "tb'l\: ..-
6\o--w.\iWv--#wpoY. Exposit;un of Ih";r aulunum)'.
0:) The pn'j;in",ness of
'Thcir rclaliomhip.
The begins by ""u,,",,,raling th'" "I the}t\'Tl al sul<e
hMe: ro iw a\it6, Being Gtlim.;.. and ..i"'lOlc;.. Th<5e Ih""" basic ron
'PIS. oW, TIi"'lOIc;.. and Ottimc;.. a.... They a.... lhe Sl\'Jt'lS around
"'hich th<- proc<ding crilical discussion of Ill<'onlOlogies was concentrated.
With lhem is lhe tolalhorizoo al issue in this dialogue. ,ns<:>far a.
liIV'lO\'; and determine Y')'\'U>o!<''v, u.., the (i),TJllt:; and
and, in unit)' ",ith lhem, lhe possible "bj<:<:t of Uti (1\'. At lhe
ti""', t!1q form tillc!; of the 'I"'-"'Iion ofllring "'hid> pR'OCCUP)'
ane;"...,! Grrek onlologk.oJ resNn:h. such !h,lt the ancient discussion. are
superseded in Illis """" diaJ."ticat c.....si<leralion.
",.. iniliaUy ''lnpha.;''.,. !hat IN: ",lation 1:. ..,,'....... ""d
1iI"'1(JU; " one of uclusion. K<ri I'l\v ttil)'l" IiVo lXq.ltv uV!oi, OIJl;hm,. "POe;
UAAI\Mil [dil.,. He S"y1 just as he said j25OaSf.), thai "'VTJm; and
0tl'.<0l<; on, twrvnruWUl, IhI' l\lrthest opposed to "ne anolher.' Kl,'Tl""O and
...,,_u a lotal mUlUoll ....dusi"". 1>0:", fllnnulalt.'d by ",ailing them
"unmi""ble." and OtUo',:; ..... tllus ""du<led from """
2.Cf.p.J5IJ
another. 0-. other lund, '0 Ill! y 6Y Iln....uw (dtO).
IS mi....J in "'ith bolh 01 i.e.. Being is P""SO'TIt in both. Forbolh
indr..od art In St""" ...ay or other. And an anal)l3isclarified the Being
01 Neh of them by mo.>oUlS of tile phcnom''nl)I\of )'l't"O:1lQ:.......hich. insofar
as it is.incl..des 1't"'l are fQ,.1he
di.ll<"Cticat discussion, and 5pt.'cilkalll' in a d<:tertninate ","",uS: "''''TjOI; and
0'6.01; In mutual ocJoWon. both. ho..-",er. in 4550Cid.tion ...ith 6....
til T\rr6... and hFpov as t/>eTne of furlher i,"'estiption.
Determination of the 1.051< and anticipation of the result.
At !he end of 15-kl. the raises tlw proper qU<.'!<1ion and tl>o:'reby
bro.>ches a ......... pt>enom.....al connecti"" ,,'itllin these ontological 5tructun.'$
0("00(,,' ",lilYt"CClOtO\' toi,' Iltv fn.,oi ... tttp6... ton..., aUro lr lmrl(jl taiot6v
(dl(f.): "Each of ll\em, !o;w:m." toi,- illY iuoi". ..-i"'l6\<; and ommc;.. is
ir><:lci. however. on lhe one """d. ftl'po.... ,1n other. lind. ,II the Silme time.
m'ltil (i OOulljl tu,;,ny." ilSl'lI: each is for itself. ..." T1...,(
0 ,f.,\" oino>; ip1j':Ill:\" t6 tt m\r!o", .:ul96:U:po",; (e2f.): "But what have
...., now in lhis ...aysaid whoon "..... sa...... and 'other'r"Th, q'-ion
makl!5 it dear how the 00.6: will r>ow actually boe
cam"" out: the ,,'ill boe a q..estioning back to whal "'5 said in the
pR.'C"ding """t<.1\ ---H\lIt ....ch of the two i, !ttpoy and m ttoy. Th.. is lhe
fi,.,. g...,'ui l}' d,alKllt1 '''-'P' And no'" ... h.l.t is oKlually said in this ....
''''PO''. 0 0 6'OOu<40 '0.....6y is to be Of. put wha,
was formul:Jtl.'d in the prep<lration of lhe a""I)'5is only as I7IJo OjlLln6l
("both art! .. nmi....od in ",!.>lion toON' is lObe said more
bn;lughl j"to 11",....,f"....,. ,,h.... "'y In.t 0<1 '10'0<; and omo.'O
4... diffe......t, cO"SoO)' in both, O<IY'l"'; and "tlim.;.. with to their
"PfJ'Ol'ilion, something p",,iow./y hidd.... 10 us, namel)' aIld
&uu:jIO". n.., lhen qU<'5li0fl5 "'he!he<r "'''''I is now Solid Ort thor b.1sis
of Ih", mOte pt'\,<:iloC consideration 01 the l.>;y6j!lVO\' It> wheth.... bolh
of 1'-', tmJ'6y and 9dlttpoy, a.., I"""-I\"<'S &6o:l.,t"'1 (<>3), "two Prop<""
""'" aJ'ld, f.. rth<'ml0re, ... neu...r IJwy tt1loY "tv tp,6w 6.Ub>leJ). "an>
each them;;o.--l'<$ something otller in ",!.>Iion to the first Ihn>e pl'l.'gi''<:''
yt''T\, and whether the)'lJ\IIl"l''f''tlI1!vm11((\10,'0 ar.( (d.
d), C\>n5laml)" aAd pr<'5Cn1 togt'lher with "'hellIer
tlw)' an:: lb"l which dC!l<'t"\... to be "5 /Mil "0.,'"",,,
or, speaking in an ,""'g.... whether lhey ha"e the character of ,o,,cls. This
qucstioni"8 is simpl}' lhe of w""l Wa5 f"rtnubled pn--
,'iou,l}': of lhe following W"l is to bo> interrogated "o'u-h<no,
3Cfp.J.l7I
17/$I1-$.l2/
11 Th" ...,omy of taut(h and hrptW"'.... and
agaln.sl and aluen.;,.
It i. indisput.lble, ..nd be .....ld fasl a-' I"" ph<no.......... 1poinl of
IU"" thaI 6j.t0<0 taiotou >(01 euttpou (255M1. "!\Mh olwlously
p.1r1au in .(ll)tov and OO",po",thelo1me dnd the "Ihe. "
ocl"'loiv i el\'(:n tavro, El6:n:Il'w 1111&' ou atUcn" (bSf,). Oul e do nol
wanl to 5o1y Ihal motion, a5 ono.' and Ih" Sol""', as something
,,'ookl bt'SiInu.\I'.6. or n:sl, as dllfcrrnllrom molion,
would be dl/f..,..,nl...".... Thus and dif!"""'flln<SS are ncit......
no.aTMI<;. "-,,say: "'\''len; is tam6\' and hqlo".
...." gain Ih;, milch, Ih.>l m\r10" and trrll"' an: inllially, .. and
and alii",:;. xmpl<;. ,;(Imelhing olh".,
But th" q.-ion has nol )"11"""1' ""rried through to Its end, I",,,,fu as
lheft' ""'" Q('ClIl"S t"" po56lbilily INI taiitlh' and l"trjlO\' art' pt'rl'Iap5 lden-
Ilcal ,,'1111 a Ihim. Ov,
1i)"J"he aulonomy of mum,' and hrjlOv (0\.'" and ag.llnslo\,_
TautOv and iw. "Etl;jIOv and (Iv. Tht> disp;trily bet "",,, 6,'
mIlO\'. Th" Itll"><; n pS /ourtding ,,""raCIer of t fu:pov,
Rt,sllliS and furllwt l;lSk
The question is thus wktl'lt'. roUtllv and f....fl\l,. an.' id'....tical .... llh lIv, M)."
6pa to <}t. oml to wUTllv Ii>.; h' Tl /lIa"olldo\' fJl'iv (25Sb8f.), In
t..... end Being ...d sa"",",-_ are 10 "" Ii>.; tv n. "" """." This
poa&ibUHy. hot,","" is N'l" 10 Und"""I""_ For If w" Id.... tify sam........ with
Being and, on the basi. 01 tllis assumption. Sil)' ",'''', we Ita," roald ., th.>
beginning. lhol dnd etMl; If", thai Being is In them, then " ...
would h,,,,, 10 "",)., assuming [he idenlity of Being and sa""""""" "''''1m"
and a.tlcn.; are mm6'o', lIul lhat is Impu;;sible, Thl."rclore C\'i'r\ s,"UTICI'M'!I&,
taUt6,', is dlff""--'1\t /min (Iv. T';I\,t6, u< the""""" jusl ., diff.......,1 foun
0<l"'lO\<,a1;t;, from OW01<, and also ftom 6'0'. Ao:cvrdingl), II;' a 'lt1upl\)\'
(0). a -founll,N alourth onlologkdl deiemunalieo', ...him fI'.l'!i'i"'S'itsown
onlologicoll rn.lracter and cannal be in tile pN'gi'.... th"",.
Tl/it; to (l(iu:povl.po. ;Vqtov "'" vem.p!l, [tim,
10 take Ille mpov as a fifth?" fJ Toum ..I tV ov Ii>.; W' ana: (h6l'o.ta to'
M ybn /lIa\'Qf;io9u, llri; ((8ft.);0. should ...e SO)' in tile end thai dl.lfurenl
....... falls, ... itll 0,', Into ON NoI" Illal Plato is nut simpl)' deriving
Ill", in t.... sense of. """,It, a formal conclusion: lIIdl t..... tmrmv is other
0'...... and olgalnst I..... thret: P"'l9" .... and thai acrordingly the is
autonomous and a fifth. On lhe etm1ra'Y. II;" again d"monsl,al<.'<! in single
SIl'pS. PL>1o displays, a 'P'..:ill) ...."tg). 11\ til" dclimlt,'IIOl1 "I lhe mpo" "'..".
&nd &g&insl IhI' four others.. in such &way NI hi' d<X'S Ant tnt'1eIy carry
out Ihis one.. but pursue!! it a s<'Cond time on a high<.,- "",.,l.
Whal is essenti,,1 in the consi(ll'f"ti<ln is procilll'l}' this dl'1nOf'lSlT"lion
of lhe diff""",Ct' bo>tw...... Ih" tnI'D\' and the now p"-"gi""" four. For Ihrough
the d.,rnonstration of thoe dif!ffmc.. bet......... tIPO" and IN. """'\Oll;.
"1001';" and Too.I6\,. the ronc<>pl of the lnpov wHi bK'ume Iransp.>""'I_
This plTl"ides" ........ c<:mcq'1 of of
and lhereby l.o)'lllhe foundalion lor a ",=W cuno:<.'pt ollW'garion. n... "'hole
a""lysis .,. orient'" toward t/w.> f:u;pov and >IS f'C""Sible, 01' not possible,
....'vw'io ,,ith the others.
WI"'t then is the relalion bet"'''"''' the ttq>o,. and I.... or, including
TOiot6v. the fwt? Is itl!flil<TO" N:.nfu\' rd. 25Sdl). to be 1>' a Afth?
Or is it in 0""' rtvo<; tog<.1h<'1" ",ith IN? For an und<!r.;tandinS of what follow,.
and abo uf the propel' delimitation of lhe 0... and ".!',i'inst t....
tvuvtiov. "',, must "",Iill" thall"ttpo\' is shll ambiguous fo< Plato here and
1""1 it..,,..... retains a certain ambiguity throughout the ...hole dialogu/:'. In
the fil'Sl pL-..:e. ttrjlO\' mt'ans an ocher. Scooodly, It means ro hl:po\', being-
otN>r-lhan; hence il is I ..... ontok>gica.l <i an other <ljl Olher, as
bring pn'd5<'I}' in the mod" of being"lher. And thirdry. it ""'.tf\!; tttpOtrl;.
othem...... lleau5" il is& maU.... h"'" for P1atoof a rtvo<; which isa, it "'en'
qu,te ""'pty. a highest ytvo.:;, "'hlCh fl<"1alns. as will ck'ar later. 10
purlIiiNe >OITW'Ihing, !ho.' dostinction is blurwd from the wry outset;
i.e., .... dOO\S not al all ,uocl't'd in distinguislling the mIlO" as other"
from !he t't>:po\' as "being-oth..," or 0>$ "othemess." This onlological consid
eration is specifically rL'tooic in the lnk'rtwining of throe ""'anings.
P1.,to inlrod\lCe!l the consKl"""t;oo of the fTl'jIOv In Its delimitation O\"ff
and "&liMt the lour-which Ar"" /lSin it. with the four-with
a g"",-"al <bse,,'at!oro he , in a C'O'rtain -"""ge, retract. niw .......6lv .....
lit\' o:\m'i o:ufj' uim:t. tU lit "PO; WJ..o l.tt\ here the
won1)q<79<u!-the Uytt" of ......to.;" such Htllat we alWAY' of ..... 1Jlv,
<'ertaln bclngti. .-0(1' <tUm. /n.om It>ern!oeh'es. til 60'. (OIhets. ho:m",,'er. "pO<;
a.ua. in relation to something ,,"e." InsofAr as pmp06it!oro C'OI'I<l'lTU lhe
t'cE1.;1 isa un;H'1sod and applies unl"eosall}IOC""'Y being. therefort',
is Ill""" here quite gen<-tally, "ither as a simpr" addres!ing nf somelhing in
i,*rl or <IS an oddressing of something in "io:w <i something dse, d!'l<!rmin'
ing something preSh''''' In rt'L'lion 10 something .-Ise. Thrs mc.:>ns that U.,.w_
i'ldtl,...,;sing bclngs. taken quite gen..,.,.lry, beingt; in two di...mons;
first, <ljl they themsekes .... in simplel""'S"""". and SO!t'O<ldry in the mode
01 the n. in tmn.s of a rewlion-to. Cvnt1.:l1i'c 10 l,'rQ; bctngs c;m
be chara.ct".uoo in lhe-i' p;miblfO pn.-sence eilher as simply lhere
in tltem,..l...."> or .os ItI""><; n. in-tl'lation--Io. In )qn\" .. do""r" p"""""''' of
bt'ings graspab!t.; "in t....msehcs" and "In """hon to."
On NSis en this g,..",r31 Pl;>to Sot)'!,: Til Iil 1 tu:po" Cu'1
Ilpb.; ttrpov (25.5<11). mpo, is in itself Itp&;. Hence there residC!i in
the Sln>l'tul'l' of ttw tn:po" it:;<>lf a mon> original char3Clt'r, one ",hich
1'1.110 no! e'!lablish finnlr. the n. In eWl)' '.!le. the OIher is
possible nnlr as In other there -.i<l... pl'I'Ciselr the Iql6.;;.
the "relation to..
It is remarbbll'. and ;, pn'Ciso'ly one of the clear witnoes1lC1i 10 lhc i!U'ler
limiution 01 C"",k ontology. lhat he." in the analysis 01 the mpo" Matu
01 the JpO.;. the phrnomc"","of tl", relalion-to.
but is not pn.'Ciscl)' in vi....' of hisO\\'n d,alectic and
lask, of making this I<pQ.; n as a un"'...-sal """'ar as th..
Iljl6.:; n i:lI alia an apriori structural moment 01 the a\rt(>. En" sam.,..
I\CSS, lhe "inirs-I(" includes the momenl of the Itp6<; n; il is just thatl1t'te
the reLttionto poinlli bad:; to ,tself. This thcn.:fore documents a .....
ffail'!! oftl'n ,*"",..-<1 in such ,n"",tigati"". Ihat in a c\'TtO;n a pI\.,..
non>mOn wilhin 'Nm and is to "rlain deg..... e><plicil, butt,,"t
I..... l'\'Se;l.d>e. is incapable of nplicitly raising lhe
non i\5C1f 10 I <:onceplualle"el and 3S6igning il its cat"S0rial fun<:tion.
Fo l'Lllo he arm in t.... "'t,. dialOb"UeS as "'ell, doo.'s nOl allo"' ....... 1tp6<;
n 10 alla,n the fundament,,1 and un,,'CIS'lI .ignif"""", ",hich ,hould prop-
I'rl), and substanhVCl)' to it,n ....lation b> toolt"" and tupov. In the
e.g., il is C"'". lholl Plait) is indC'l'd a",ol\' of lhe JpU.; n bill ,'\ors
not genuinel)' S('(' il in its catl.1,-uria1 funetico, and in ils p.imal'}' posilion
prior lQ the mpov. H", ';''S lho.= TiJm rU4l ,j,'g, n {UJ,'
Ott roM mAti (d. 51ct>f1. -thcsoJ beings are not beallliiul
i..,,, beautiful in "ie><' of _thing "but al1' ah.,.)'5
beautiful In in ,t... Sopki.l. PlalOclaims the n onl),
fIX th",lttpo" .tself. as a roncept",,1 dctl..'Tm;nati"" of it, and does not"",
the Ilp6.; n off ag.oinst thehtpcw"".n origi....l apriori. pr>or '0 lheh:pcw
ilself
00 the NSis of this distinction bel......." hei"lll' in tho.'1TL"""'e; and beings
in the mar,ocler of the tq>6;:; tl, P1.to now atlcmpl!i 10 delimit Ih., tu:po"
"'..". and against ilV. If tn.. tupo,- is oll>e<.lhan, i.e., il the
slrucl"", of lhe t1>:pu" n.,c.,...rilr includes rrp4:; n, ,ho.... 'ho'''' "",odell
bI>n<.'",,n wand Mttpo\' a/i,o!pU. for, rlllp MU'pcw (.ql90'" Ill:trilt. to.\,
ri&',v /iicrup til lW. lev lIQtt n ...n uil\' tttpllJV oU lfpQ;
(25.5<I4ff.). II theR' oIl\<"I1lCSS. in .......... 0111", "P<l<; n. 'n the fidd
of oW. "" in tn.. ftdd of the" the", would b.,
,,'hich arc nol wholt ...... ""mel!, 1lp6.;. Tl\at is 10 if fttpov
and D\' Iud tho,> same field, al'd if lho.'rl" are D"lCl.....wrthe\ess.. a, we ha"e
heard, ndI' (linn. !hen lh<.>re ....ould bt- ..... hich are not other in
characler of I"" od...Nhan. No...... ho "'"r, the .... SOl)'S. ,t is for us
perfO<C1ly ck,ar lh.>t ....t.:., is cNr=erizoo Ollie'. I, ..... hat It is
In ","'lion 10 an Olher. Dtutf:p li\' ttq>ov n. (FI)l'lltll'll(fV tWpoll
lOino OIQ"P t"rt\' i""" Id6l.). Wha'e,..,r 15 a, t:u:pov is SQ as
Th"" O\' "nd tttpov du not Insoln ItS lhe.., are ,....1(1 which do n<lt
ha,'" lhe CMrxl.... of !he n. is only In allmlloo firid:
",he", lhe {npov doml....t6. The nororolnci<k-nct' of 6v ..1'd ftl"pov. Ilcing
..I'd means BPing is dlffenm' from Olher'1'>ei5. That in tum """"M
'he lu:pov is I'self, as something Olher m..n DV and IS, a<:'l:'Qlti_
;ngl)'." fjllh, ...."'1 to 1<rinOv. -.1"""':;' (Jfwm;.. and o\'. The idl>a here is that
;n """')' fttpOV lhere is ,ndet'd an 6v, bu'lhere is nclt;n ""'""')' Qv D lttpov.
And so a distlnctiort muM bE' made t>nw""", !he of a Ttvo.;. (that
which II lIself already is aa:ortllng 10 Its prop categoriaJ ron,...I: Being.
ottleme!os, SIImcn"5"l)--betw""", 0\001; and lhe ytvo.; insofar as it is
insola' as another is CO'p""5en1 ..'Ith it. At the 5<lme
'I....... il must t>o> nDI00 for ...h.>, follow. tha, Ihe dislinction """'. brough,
out bot......,..., Bring and distinction conceming the calC'&oriaJ
ronl,...t both these 'fb'll--does nol e>:c1lKk the f"l'IiSibilil)' tN, precisely
""N)' beIng, as something. is an olher. This is 'he remarkable unclarily ....."
still lind here in PlalO: he indeed operates with Ihili dl.tlnct,,,,, but dOl'li
fIlIt go....u,,.,.,lye>:1"JII" it. Hen-. at this poinl. Plalo
of ,he ca'ogori.>l rontent "f oW and ftl:pov; later. how""er. he lries to show
precisely thai ""I'f)' 6v ill lttpov. The of <:at&>gorial
ron,,,,,l does I'I{)t ronlrJdlcl t ....rolnddence oIlhe 01 <:alrgori.ll pre-
ena!, of Ihat which is d"""mi.-:l by these CJlegories HC'nOt there ;,
dislinction l>elwcer> tke noncoinridenct' of lhe call'S'","l contenl and lhe
roi",klenc:e oIlhe re.>lm of the pm;ence of u... c..olegorie hich are under
dlSCus.Oun h...., a"" which as such are ,f('i\'T!IlV, presc. l th"""ghoout
("\crylhing. In e''Cf)" DV. the.... Is th"" also u... nq,.,v.
In 'his .....ay. I'\alo c"f'OS<lS ""e 'ftv'l as ntllIttO\' &l n')v
9uttpau.-&mv ).(.'ttov tv WU; fl&m\" oUoo," (2S5d9f.). He designates lhem
Iwi'''' as rillT]. This clearly snows thaI PloIO ""'lees no ,listi"'tion betw""'"
'(tv<>.; and ei&.; Thus ....t'f\ In "1?M 10 tlwi' carl;"., paMagc ,,-..-.or .,Ie;ut
l--dismi>IIcJ J9 i"""plimb!c." Iiwi' interpreti1110n rna)' not enlis! lhe later
dislinction beIw""'" genus and "f'l'des.
n- he..... no,," tv 0;; 1lpOCf'l"'Wcllo{2SSeI), thai ....c ....iII
IT>U''f 10 ""'1' OUt Ill" ensuing irt''nlisaLion. People hal'e altemptl.'d to
c) of the htp .
11 1m f
,in
ow:s....-:it
preosel..
I
thus we walll h) set in reli.ef. in Ihisdiall.'<:1ical5oef\5e. whal is said "in
10 thes<' fin>. ar><! .p<'cifically in such d "'ay lhal we p('fC1el"<' c"""" of lho!
fi,-e singly lot lho!m;;('kes: All(>, t,,"'inl> established tht' Ih'" in lhdt dil.
f"rt:ntnes5. I"" gnal of lhe ensUing ronsideraMn is 10 d""""".I,al/: Itwo
pen'ash'" of It\<' tttpo, in lhem.
Q) roinl 0' d'1'a,lure: laking up "gain Ihe ...... Iion
1".1... rl"'ltll;;-<JTUmc,--lw-tm'ro...
AI Ilrst I'lato wk<:s up something said ""li.e" rl'''la\\'. 0>;; fan
turpov otWl<oi; (255ellf.). "'as initIally distinguished
'""', and against atoo.;;; w" said, il are tvo\'t\(lrmto. lho.'" rl'''l''''' is
N>t aTti<:I.;. il i. fUr1ho.'m\OI'\'. " ... already dairnl'd: I:<JT\
Ilt yr.lio6. ro I'f-ttll"lV Too 6\'1<><; (256.11). rl"""", is. Thus. in thr firs! pl.>oc.
ur6:ol .. is 001 p.e;ent;n rl"'la,,;. bul on Ihecoot... ryOv is. We Sitid further:
T,.';miI (d. il31. is also dislioel from lo.(mk
This;s an nolh"'ll new; It is jU5t lhal W!\al !\ad all"l'l\dy been :;;lid is taken
togeth.,.. fo, the following considetalion. i'\k>t(, wdllh.lt whal is set in relkof
as n'&'rds ,i'-ll<J1;; ow' rind against <JT6<n;; is boI!'ing-diffetenl. and
againSlOvro-e><islenn'. and onrand againsl again being-diff<:renL
The mOi"l' pl'\.'cise eq>li<:alion bo>gins at l5607. and specifkaJly in the
'oIlowi,,& order. Plato In.'ilts 1.) rovt6v. 2.) "1601';' 3.lltte ttEpov. and
6>1. and does SO specifically wilh Itwo int''IlliOll 01 I.... t Itwo fu:pov
is p.-nt in Itw.m as w<il as is lCXU16v. Pbto ttw.reby adds on ..........,tial
supplemct1t towhal ,,-as p..... l>C'lui,....l n-gardingamm.... Ov. tt<irt6v.
He I.) 0"1" and again511he complete difl.......,.,.. ...f ....
in "'lalion to (lT6m;;.. that a "lain tauT6v of rlv'1l7U; and <rr6<'n; IS in<Wed
possible. 2., Me, "nd against the ro-<.->:1steoce of Ov, thai 0:1""".; is" 1111
Ov. "nd 3.) o"","and againsr!he dille..,......, in n:gard to tmJfO,., that tnuft'"
is aloo co-prc5en1 in ,1,"l<JI:;' In the fifth and f.nn.",ds. Plotin.... la.I....
look up thIS f\O.....llealxlul tM fi...,.rtv'land seC it into a 8""1'... 1mctaph).'1-
leal 'yoMm with lhe "id 01 Anst<elian cal<gones
Illli first stage: -.1"'10\; and
The first question the Conn<'<:liOll be\Y.'o:en and 'nVt6'o'.
'ADA 1111" aim] i 1\,- ,nun'IV SIlo to au a\'{' cx\rt(ni (a7). II .......
abo"e t!\at aUttt. rlVT)<7l;;.;" tairtoN_ ""If.....me with itself.-li,,\
to arJvt" autoil. "bo.ocause ('<''TYIhin15 in.clred partiopates in
is liu'. W-tW"_ Now. however. il must be stn:ssed.
''''11iUS the ,amenC$S uf 1d''11'''''i and mirt6v. thatlhe)';ue different in t.Tll\S
7.TI....
i7

of tlw-ir <1OQ'gorial cootent. rl\" (if) mirto'- t' tiw.n ...I laUrov
6ll0AorrlTto" oru\ ou OOoxl:p(lVttov (.101.). "IV" m1l51 theTdon.-l'b.""jse "")'
and nol 1>0.- troubk...l about ii," i..,,, "'" musl simply.>m"pl il ... lhe: w"y!he
maner <I.lnd$: d''T\Ol'' 1(Il)IOv I' ;"(J.l orull1f) t(tlitUv, To beSU"', in speaking
lhl.l.'i: u\m')I' lOirtOv ",,,1111'1 m\rn;", out 0llolw.; ;P1\'"'IJC'o' (d, "nl.), "w"
are not sp<"Oking abotH d\'7llll<, in lhe So"'''' l'I'$f"'d.' Hertel' lhe'" t!;, as was
a1reodr indic:alt'd, "'!larding I..... Wd)' :9Om1"lhing m<' be:>ddn'SW in ,iyol',
the possibility of differing re;pt.'Ctl': J(lfl'O'1hing prq;r.""'.IS prt'St'll' can be
:>ddressed In 5f'<"'Ch as Ih.. or ttldt, i...., it c.>n be 1<110.." in diHerenI
In the biKl<ground >.pin ""'" is lhe /Kr.'>l<':' I(\)II'l1lv\a.;; the difl'.'ml<'eS in
respul, ;md in 8....."'1 'IOfll<.'lhing Ilk a ""'f"'(1 dl all, a ..... b.lsed on lhe
orol\1D\ill<;. on lhe possibllllr lhou lhe m..'Ojll<, 1<\>1\'\0110.;
SliMes the Ilcing 01 something and ill; pll'l'llC\' in '!.Ctt'\'. (lll.' (lKUWV iiJ;\'
mUt6Y, lito 'rill.' mUto\> Itpi),; roll'ril\, oiittll (aI210; if w..
say d"'lO'l<, wirtOv, "'('a"'Spol'aking .boull miotoii
"i!li participation, u;/h rtgtlfJ 10 1I;;rl/, in So' I.'S6... Insof.r as il is 011'1)0'<'
with lhis utegorial CUrtIi:TlI, as 011"l<n.;. it is as I..... sa...... Out 'f
w.. say 1111 wUl6'; fb2), "molioo .. not SdIl"oCf'lCS6," we ..y this full ""'v
"(M''lIIYluv uu t::Iuttpou (b2), "in l'icw of its I<\>I"'Jl\'fu wilh I..... tttpo"": " ...
SOIy it ><pO; ht:pov. Min I'it'" "r Olr.m- By !lIl" pl\.'SffiCe "f ot!'lernes8, i.e..
lit' II" mirtoU yt'toI1:\' oil" h:e,,,o au' !1F.pol' (b2f,). b)' lhe
of the f;u:po" in in d certain S('fbt' ..
from s.>menes6. SO thaI il is 1'- 0"'" tlOCil'O,
notlheSolme. not t<nit6\', but And Ihus ",,,Cdn also justifiably
n''T]a!.; as ou 10"1(>,-_ Here in Tlwrov lhl"'" 'PP"'B as"in the
f"!C"liar dUllI ""'dnlng' and -11M: !lOme." K("'I'Jl<, IS indeed lhe
sa"'" and hmce unJtQv. but aox"rding 10 its c.>1l'gOrial ('()fItet'll, 11 is
Sdrncr><.'M it5elf.nd the",fo'" i5 tttpo", diff""",t. from tu1Jrol', and thll5 1s
"" roUt6v. Hena: thisOrtl"")tvoc, is, ..';th "'S"rd to mUro". both IDtUv .nd,
t:qllally, 1\01 tmit6,. KiVlllll; is mUw' and 0.:. IcNl(\,',
The ..,,,"" mslde:ralion, a Jus jusl carril'd out ...-go"d to I....
rdation betwl'<'rt d"TJ<ru; "nd tairtm', is no", I\.'l"'"tl'd wilh "'S"-rd 10
n"'la'<, and a.doI;
TYI Se<:und Sl.:Ige: d"'llll<; dnd all\o',,<,.'
Up to no,,' " .... h,,,,,, "P"akinll 01 d'''lOl<,and OtOOl; a; t\uvt"....ruw.
lwo which stand opposl.'d 100.....nother in theIr substantil'" ron-
Iml. which exclude one anoth...... This WdY of spedking is justifil'd, PIOl;dl"d
....e limil ou!licl"cs to till" M)'Oo; 4S the onl)' possible
one: it is possibl<, '0 speak of soml:'thing only as rrgards;15 O...n sell.,;."ml'-
.-. Then ..-!''l'l1; is ..-!"'lOl;' and "mo.; "wen<;.- Bul no... lhe
qu<:slion Qilo:ui>\' r(rv rlltll Cl'IittI 0;I,'Tl"';
olitlb' U\" {fro"o\" oWOtjlOV \rn'l" (b6f.). Mis il lhen SO
,,Itollr ,nappropri,,\(' to addl"C:56 u,jtl\v. nam<'ly ..-!\"Tjen... a" n!St. as
atOOtjlov. as sianding ,till. in th.. sense of thus
in the sense of IIt.c n>n<:epl oIlleing ..... a", no wring at the foundalion:
&\0\"111; Thm pcrItaP" xn. in some ar. 'H<i<no; is in<ke<! co-
presoenl with And this Jlt'tl'l6j.lE'W,)\". this r.C1POooiu. Ih,s co-p.......
ence of (lt6.ot; in ..-!\"Tj<l'; would ju>tify saying Ihal o;IVI\Ot; and 0't6.a,; a...
not sh...... tyu\'tlo bul a.... in a CO'IUin _ t'mit<;v. Indeed. loa)" 1'1.110 ..
how.. p,,-,,'ioUJJy' al....ady faclu.,lly <:sIAblishN ill<; lon o\JGw ttWtyI
(256c2(.I. Mlhnl Ihe !kolng of 0.1\""",; is 01 itself Ilk IIt.'t: i.e" in il om.cn.;
is c:o-presenl. il ,,'as sho...n II\dI the onlologicoll of lhe
COIl<'n.': ...o"",non of 'l'I'l'I'<OO"fl\" includes its bt'ing!nO' """"'I, and. as
'l'Iyvoil<fttt\' toi. ,",\"to.;. it is al th<> loa"'" lime mo,"",,,,,t to"'ard the things
to II<- krt(n,.... T'I>e UIl\ or the IS d\"Tjou;a"d, "" in a cerlain
5<.'fl.it' l<\\''llI'I; 1; n... s<>u1 is lhe beins in ...hkh ..... can see lhal in fael
01001:; OS e","present ... ilh mo".......nt. llto> SOIJI is m",.. menl in the ........ of
and. as !'btosho...s in the 5ympos,um. till" sou, does not """"'y Ilol"..
deli", "" among nuny othor lh'oo .-xperi<'nces. hul illSlCad the soul is
<h.'Sin: aIId nothing ........ TIte soul is , .... jlnn.;v. thc betwl""'- ...hich is
direcl.'d 10 lhe 0.1, I.. 10 (ltoo.;. In lhe soul, as des...., lhe t'a:f i5 c:o-presenl.
Acrordingly, od\"Jl(ll; is related 10 jusl as il is ...laled to tmh6v. II
is not ult....l)" distinct from OtOO1; but is itself Min n-ruin ....nse:.m (bbl,
aJ<n;' Min a !lain 0/ Ihls -cerlain is darif>t.'d
by lhe CO'preliCnt ... ,th "'hal is mo,.-ed. lhe
'l">J:l\, is lho:'od. This remork.:lble ""d r"" objecti"elygruunded demoostra
lion of the _ ....)V(O: of o.1\"Tjot; and (lt6m; mu" nol bl' confu<'<! will. lhe
AnslOI"'''n aMI}".... which loafS that ASI is ilSt.'lf motion. as t.... l;mil case
of molion. For Plalo is not al all concerned wlth making mot,on .os such
tltcmalic. On I..... ronlTilJ)'. he is spe.>klng of "'hal is in motion or. mo""
of lhe ""lallon bo.'Iw....... whal is in molion and whal is unmo"ed.
This m",,'oo being in its relation 10 tl'>c u""'O'o'ed OS he", simply grasped
diak.'dic.,IJ)-6t!l'l;C:a!Jy ,n Ihc of r.l:&!J, Thw; PIaIO is not hen'invesli
galing 0.1''f\(Il<; "S dvljOt; but o;I"l\(Il; as u "" u\' among othNS.
Answtledueidaleslhe l"'-"sis lhal re;t is motion from ,'''' ......aning
of motion itself. Plato doe; nol al all inqui"" into this "",aning .......,. Th\OS
(553-5 ' J
and (Tram._ Ith ard b th i ha
\ U "CQmov.
pmlnn""tration " -th gard (11,0'l and
10
e i e ~ e l r s man. .pt.
_. r' man 'pt.
w.. h.>," from the '<nyoulset lh<'matically d..limilllhi> "OtWlMlllhmugh-
ou' tht' Ii,... n... ""eo 0;I''Tl<Rt;. ro.\it6v. <mi<n.;. fupov. and 6\", are lhel>asis
of the dlaJe.:ric;Il consideration....hich aims at !he hl:pov and ...ho8e goal
Ilw l.'Iabo.... ti<)n of ils structure. These fi,'" .............hibiled in adWIlC'l';IS
>;Q:<JJCl,ollt\"o:, i..... as a"tono""".. rl&]nd, .>5 thesf' ",.... they .....re
5101jl16:, lak('n .part from 00(' .nother ,100 held fasl as 5IJ(h. Tim basi>;
.lion.. make possible the "",pl;ution "'hleh alms at delimiting ocl"TJ(Jl<; not
only ,n oppos,tion In ro.uro", In "Pf'O"ihon tn orom.;. "00 in opf>Oition to
the hrpov, but ...''''' in oppositiM to \'i\".
We must darifJ' Ih.. ,elation of o;I\ITlm.. to Ov, 'A&&; 6;>0: .
olo(ljlUX6\lfVQI ..... mU51 ,",,,,e struggle throush without
I".. 0' he5it.uion" 10 the proposition: n)v dV'l<RV fttpov EiVUI wit OVTOl;
(dS). "that motion IS also diff"""'t from Being." And h""" PlalO the
53me train of thought: motion is; ..." al",ady 53'" tho,t dVllOl., ..ettIE' in
6\' insol'a' as II ill al all." In this respt, it Is.wrov .. lw. The question
os no...... lwther it can alson be ttl<pm' In I""-'case of dvTio".. Plato
already demonstrak'<l the of the ftqXl\' in relation to """ thlft
ea,Ii<." yb'T]. i<lSOfJ' as marion in il5elf al",;>tiy has lhe hrpov
pre.;ent in it, and insofar;lS 6\' is for ils part as a fifth. lhereby
..ivl\(n" is als<> fttpo\" tOO 6\'t0t;. W.. must say here that motion, or, mOR'
Jl'TtlO:i!l<'ly, mo..."ner>'. is from fleing. 0'. more .,,,,,,,,Iy. from 6eing-
"'-"'6 0:1,,'1"'-' is 0.:." lw "'l)llw (d. d8f.), Oil 19. in its
mod" of fk>lng. not 0". and it is Ov."
1ben'b1'''''' ha"('shewn: ro 1''' 0... tri n: .....""""... Ei\,{11 ,,!rllttlt\'i\"t{l
to 'ltV'! (dllO. thai ,n c.aSl" of d"IIm.;. TO 1''' 6v t1li1t in all
di_lions-,n l\'L>tioo 10 t;", fou' <>thers-ll1"'ltn.; IS "'" lhe i.e.. it
h;u in reL>tion 10 "lIlh.. othe", the eh.>racl'" of ,he hcpov, insofar as lhe
fttpov is 510 ftl'l\'tlll\". Hen(\'" 00 the basis of 1""-' un;"er5a1 presomn> of lhe
fu:po". d''I}<n.;'' allhe ......... lime a 11110.... Bur th.,t ml"an'illfl Ov is presmt
if"! 0;I,'Tl0'-. \\"i'h fl'Ko'nllU ,he "ol\'!lWlu of d\lTl<R-' ...i,h ailihe others. This
<k!mnnslr,lIes, within in the c, .....it of lhe (j,.... the ol'l<rfu I'll 6vro<;. the
presence of non-being. on Ihe Elt'ing of ..1,"l<JU;.. Notice lhal IhlS 's not
""'t"" of" conclusion from the Ih"'" to th.. fourth bu.t ifl$ted<l is a demon
stralioll wilhin ttHo fi".:' !ht.om,;ekes. with a lhemati(' on"""'lion toward
0.1"'\0'''' in which the pl\'!\"1'lCl: of the fu'pov was all\'ady made clur. Inl;Ofar
IS the ftl:pov is al....d)' f""'S""1 on dvTiOIt;. bul also insofar as Iht' IOO,VU/V[U
"I the fi,'" aln>.KI)' ""isis, d"'i"'-' is a. such diftnml from 6>1. ThUll this
ronsid""'tion h.>s not demonstrated 5Ofl'Iething about d\lTl"'-' bUI inotead
l.J.l.'I6o' Cf P 3lIO.
77/5S6-5571
sho""fllhe p"""""" of the hrpov in lhe ..1,'ll0l;
toward all other tim,.
In.abr as Ihis consideralion is a fann.lLlni'"..... 1""", ,n""far as lhe
enjo)'S Ihis perwIsive pre5enC(', this n'Suh ;5 ,'alid "ith01.l' further
ado 1lTU 1W;vtn.
III The unin'f'!.lll prtSence of Ihe brpov In all (wIn in ...>ner"t.
Th" uni"e"",1 pre".,n", of "",,-being.
llTO ll6:""u .,up " ij.ntpou tapov tOU
oin< .w Kou;, (d12f.), lhe per"asin' of lhe hrpo, in all things
""",lilul"" lhooir being different from 6v; i.e. tIw> P"->sence' of the ttl'pov
the non-bcing of ""ery being' h:rt<'ltOv ou" OV KOlri, "it m.lkes
everylhing inlO a non.being," 11<,<:..11 th" ItQIFiv. whkh Wi'Ito,..
enrounh;'1'ed ....rlil.'f': xou:\v '" <i-p:", ri;oUolav."lhe presenc.. of the fn:pov
Ihus in .. renain brings the 1/,,6" in,o being, inlo "':"J1av111
o:o.tlt mi/lli 0"" llvTu tpoilJlev, "cd nlUl", en, 1'CTt;(l'1 rou ovme;.
civul TO; 0:\ 0""1] (d. cU.). F.,crything. as we ha"ccurrir:-d
",u' Ihe demonSlration on somrth,ng .rol is 5"" K...... OUI< 6\orll o:u\
1<lU,,' Ovm; all beings ..'" and, ..s bO'lngst ,he sam.. tim........ nO!. H""""
Iht-.... """",;1\5 h, ,he bilckgmund w.... , la,er will be sllo""fl "'plkitly_ WI
here non-bdng means ttl'POV. This fn:pov nOl onl}' p" ...id"" tl\" demon
strallon of lhe constitution of nonbeings bul .llho:: &:U"e lime ....,...ls
lhe ground for und,,,slanding this proper "non. whas<' pn,,"""" ronc<'al
menl w..... made po5Sible in Il"""'al b}' .he thesis of Parmo.'f\ides. H""""
insofa, "" Ih" has an allpervash.., p""""",e, '1IU""" ....eryhe'ng into
nonbeing.
And indl'Cd 1\0'" lhe mod."oIlleing of the 01"'" is dHfe"."t. EW1'}' dlioi;.
Mato says. is ma"y. lOO;"" (e5), i.e.. concrel" bt-;ng. laken in "" """'""'''"',
still rontains a manifold of ",her objecti"e delenninations. which.", lhere
polenli.U}' and can be !>""'ghl 0'1'. E"e'}' concr<'l<' bei"S h.,." m.>nifold
of essl.'ntial con,ents ,,'hieh ,'''' d,.,Ilic,,1 con.>id"rarOon can demon..<l"ll"
in the ).i:l>:"'l>f Ihis 0,- BS lhey = in pun' '-00"; and pree""l}'
this co-p"""""" de1<'1'1nine'l Ihe 0,- in its essence. This is a, !he same lime
the ba,i, for whal A,islOlil.' later ...hibill.'d AS IhI> 6po.;, Ihe
tf;oxfiv. Hcnc<! e,""Y is man!' and is.' Ihe ..,m" lime W<npQ\' (.--6).
"hm'll!," In wh.'l it is nolo ,"(tIl/) 0,- ailt'" 1257.1). "and the being itself'"
is whal il is in such a wal' lhal " ooUlll'p tan rU roauiIto
l<mv (dr.); "i"",faras il is.he "'h<'l'$.lo , .... , "'tenl il preo:OOy i1 JIJ;II." Thai
medIU being OIhe, is 1M n"",ing of 6", or. con'"I'S<.'l}'. nonb\.'lng isd'o"<ll
14 Ct Sopb'21_1.s...p.lll6If.
mlllJ.a, "brTng the others: This Sl<Ite of affairs ",ith", beings muSl simply
1)0, 3S!SU t'd, tW><ql q ... I<Otw.Mcn' II (a8l.).
sitl<:1" o.'T)' p...",.,. eonloml ....el)' ytV<JooO. as a f'Gcn", has a K(I'vlI,lV(o ",ilh
lheQth=l. He", it is'lu;l<!cIea.tn..1 ttl.. of non-brinl;!lcan bedarif.oo
only"" the b.>sls ollhe ICOtvtll'l'fu..
And SCl""<' h.>,'" gun<' Ihl\)ugh the fundamenl.ol di.>1lkal('l)rlSjd;,rariun
in the S<>p/!rsl. "'him is """'II)" lak..... .os th.. P"'f'C'" m",,1 <>f the dl.log.....,
"'...."'.u; thor tn"'lmer>t of lho.' .'lOphisl himself is as d'l<'
sI>cll. In this [undam<'ll",1 consideration, "'him .n.alY7J!5 the d"'ltlcill
n>lalions of 0,. <:ttW:n... oc!,"TlOl<;. lo'rirtlWnd .." 0.... 01" tttpov. it is
thaI the ronsiOOr.llion. 1 want 10 emph.lsiu optic'll)' """" mor..,
hDw"'et", tNt LS ootthe pri""'f}' and proper themo.'. Whal is prop-
erly supf'<ll"'d 10 be i' thaI lhe tttpov. being.()lhc. is In ....eh
of U", poseiblc th.t it c.n be p"""",t "'ith theln. i.e.. thai it ha' a
(ol ....)\"!a ""ilh them all J t ....phasi7'<c thaI ills r>Ot in prindpl<' for
misdiltlticool ('t)(ISideration to b;,carrit'd QuI upon .I:tiicn", or (y".
Qr tairnlv. could just as ""1111 sene to guid<' pruper <'OIUider.ltion. I.....
willlal<" __ why new,dll'Kss Ills precisely riV'l""; lhal is themalic: <lt1d
why lhe poee;ible pte!l<"l\Ce of the I;tq'H:>v i, pn'cisody in rela-
tion 10 ..1''tl<1\'"
J"'" as the presml di.>ledkal ronsid<'ritl1on aims al the miX'" in order
10 delimn it "'C' and .gili"'1 lhe n-.xo."[{ov. SO the ne", pftenomlOtl of the
tt:po,. "'al<l.'!l "i,ible di.l\et:Ik.J field <>f lhe flpov; in other words, it
ronctptu.llly eh,";wucs lhe structure 01 lhe ht:pov itself, l"ht> C<>nCt'f'I of 1"'\
0... Ih.... l:>fol:omes de!.....,..;n.blt,-.
lB. 1M if lito <lnI<'1urr t!,1ti>
ht.,..",,""liom <'11"" COM'J'I 6" 12S7l>-lS9d).
11 'lruet".... of
lu:pov. TM 'haru.... of Mnot
M
u
discl""ing 1M
aJ",. di!JinctOon be!,,',_ 01 -"..,t
M
, tv<l..nO' and
(emply ""I'posi"'" and subs"'nti,(' other),
'O!tOIOV ro II",,':;'" . Ii>;. foIlC\'. Q1j" 4vnvl'iov m\i 6vtlJ,,;
W' fu:pov 1'000'I2S7b3[.). "\'/ho.on .....e 5"",,1< of II"" /Iv we a", not talking
.boul SClmrlhing 11k<- an t.ro--tfov, which. In ,ts opposition 10 beings_
is si..... pl!' b"t .athe. tttpov I'Omv; .... m""n by 1''1 0... only
something lIlh.....,.. This "01\1)'." f!l>O"IIQ.VV, ",.."",tholl 6v """ai.... pre-
llet'o',.,j, Putting il wTJlI}", Ih.. Being Qf lhe "oot" (Ihe "Tl(In."). "". is
i'8/S58-5S"I
Mlhing else than ,he of the ltp6c; fl, lhe pl'l";el>Ce Qf lhe Ilo.'lngin
I'\.'latio:-HO. Qrlly mo.... pn..:i...." fQ""ubt'<K1 Kin'" to "". ;n"-"'P""
talion of the The Ileing oIlhe lhe ,,1\ in I .....
of the is lhe of 1M JIpO.; to. 1'("", d""" """ ""hi!>it Ihis ....
sum. bu, il .. implicit in Ihc idea of I<l,I;VfOVla.
Oio\,Qt(lvblu' fl ,," "tyol. tUn: tl 00' OOl\'6JldI'p: W",,'''POW
" to k1l.ai1\' ui> /1l\JlUfl; (b6f.). M" I-tra Ihus """ans not simp!)' sman
H
in the oIlhe minimum of j.Itya, but inslead \l can mean nal bigg"r,"
umc.
H
And ,t is cleor ag3,n llut 1'\.>10 d,d ind<.'<'d Mt ntt.;n per!,...:t
"'S"niing!he which playa rule h,,",. For him
il .. "mpl)' irn,',o..Llnl l"->lth., fYptJv "n "". IhM II...""..........m..thing <1;11
in bcmg.. and Ihal the lucp()\' dO<'S not ""t.il an ulM'
",I"';on. A<:<:ordinglr,o,,6<Mw,.:; m3Y nO! be interprctcd as" deni;ll me""t
the "opp<Jlli1t'." in lhe _ of l'lCdus,on. bul itlSle.1d den;;'l only m,'ans
th.at the pter",o?d 00", Of 1.11\, to", n Jl'l'oUn, shows somcth,ngof lhe
othcn. in ...I.tion towhieh II", 1.11\ os""id. OU" Op',tvuvno" 6TUYW<6ou0l':;
).tyqt(ll O'l"Cd\'tlV. rooOlr<U,lit W<<1)....w ri
Jl'lvUn til ,," "al til au w., t:n6V'!1\' 6,'()JlUtwo'.
t<iw 1lflUYII4mv lIf9\ /in' 6,\' "MIt... til: ixmpov rI't.:;
o'f6I'Gm (Ihff.). Th" d><>"Cl<'ri""", ""pli<iUy u tl
11>\\'00, as -!b.:>",ing II<lmeth'ng." anod ,1'I(\e(od Tliw ''IXlYIUl.u.w, Holihe ""'1-
tCD U"''''''''I'.... ' The Jl>\vUr.l\' of oo.6W.ol; is >a;pi TO. 1ljlQ;yj.!U'f<l: i.... the
,,1\ has the dur,letc. nf k1l.ow, il ",,e.1s, it lets sonl<'lhing be l"('fl. Thi3
denial is presentifying. it brings so'""thing into";.,,,,: """",ly
of I.... which as such ate en<Qun,cl'\:d in a pr<!gi.....'n .......iwn of
'Ubsl""ti,-.. """'''''-'5. nil lhoo as the t't\lpty oppo:site; III diffi-r-
enllt.;,n the subst""ti,c
JI)""'" "nol" in l.6)'(><r Nq;ari'", ... bt >rI. nw p01-
Ii'.. 01 ""S"ti<K1 ill p"'-'""""cnoillgy.
The distinctinn 1M /;v(r,tlO\', I.... ('mply "oppnaile,H And lhe
lttp;', th.c sub!;l.lnti\'e ot...... ... predclincal\'S a more ,;rn'f' 0'
l..6l""r 0...... and a blind of SQrnt'thing in mo.rely I\kn.
llfyin.g il by .... Ih....., is u dlocloo.i\'e """,ng 01 il in it. ""'p""""",e with
QIhers. And in opposilion to Nind l'1Clusion .lut corresponds to
Ihi!; br nilme, t....... i!;, jf our intcrpmation of a..6oa01; is
rorl\'Cl, a denial which di!lCloo;cs, which 1t.'lS somcthilljl; be"""", pll"Ci5cly in
,'''' IMII"", dtnied. H"",e PlalO understands Ihe "nol" and ncgah<K1 as
disclosi"e, 'Tht denying in UyrlV, th... ,,),ing "no,";" a letting 1>('-. und
l..d........ r..-..",."''"'l'.....,'"''''''''''''_..
--
1"LolO', S<JpIr>It 156J-56.11
",Iation to ttIvT\. He... PlIIto u.... th.... II>e 4U("" of
th.. 11'1"""" h;os 1'6p,0. Th.. qu<:stion is: ii1l'[l &fl Ul"'I'c" [<:16),
a", we n(m'lo undersland" that the ."""; of Ihempo.. can bc ...
into single part,? This particulari.alion 01 th.. OW,; llun'PQ\I must be
grasped mOl\' pr&'lr in th... smse of a roncrvtion of Ike initially emptl'
idea of odl('mess. For Pl.110. this r>ot d matter of
making langible as ;ndh'Id""ls, hen> and rIDW, but '''''lead is a
mall.... of. simple concretion of Ihe emp')'
roncr<'1ion, Ih" quesllon now arises All 10 how ,he 1'611'u. the parts.
the sm.ll coins. are: ron.tiluIN. 'Eon tlj\ n 8ottpou 1'l'lp'O\'
OVtlt'lltl'f"OV: Id7): t.....'" for thoe oocU,6.. 1'6p,clv tl a part which Is
counl....pos<.'d?.. question makes;' f""" that I'lato is the (0<-
pression .m1l'0>' here in a ',,...fold in the fil'Sl pl""e, In Ihe SM!'t'
of a sman enl", i,e., the fOr>CTete particularization of something formal.
and. >econdly. in tke sense of an other (Wer and against the one within
othcrn.".". This double meaning of Jll'lp,o.. i. nol possible with lhe Image
of ttl"'\. i.e" in romparison with dX"'1. Therefore the comparison with
IfF'! the mark regard. whal IS <:kci.I'.... Ttx"'1 in itllClf doe
not IhespeciflCchact.... of 1M lttpo\', i.e. of the "pel.; n.ll! that
;, under discU5'SKm he.... By lhe fac' that othemesa Is in ,tself chardCler_
ized by 1m. ",Iation to something other, e"ery concrnlion of otherness is
as such a.nd a, the some time a speciflCatio" ofa detemulUlleothe. Along
,,itk ,'''' ((''''''''lion, Ih....... i. al lhe "'""'" Ii"'" a conCT\'1e oth.... of
a det... rmlnate Olherncss, S<> tlut 11611'ov _ans ""m('thing two-fold:
firsl, pure and simple concretion \'Cf\iu' the ytv(l<; "Dlhc"",",,: and _-
ondly, and I"I"-"<:ially. the concrell' ,'el'SWl lhe p.r1icularized

No,, it is to bc shown Ihat, juot as the tu:pov is p""""'l .......'Y"'.......... ..,
al.9o IhMe is posited along with Ike Ileing of the one the Ilclng of the other,
Th.. np""",iOll emerges hen> In piaa' of tttpov. i5 10 be
under.;tood as positing. not in the sense of establishins or producin..&- but
in lhe sense tlut alread}' there ;5 posited lIS there, thus in the
sense of "1ctting il prcsml IISclI ". there." This i. the Sol'Me of llt'm<; in lhl"
il'rm avriElEm<;. The qUl'S!k>n is Whl"t ....T the 4vflnlltllvov for the .:a.\6v
is" ti, _thing, an clv, Or "'helh..... it l.o\'tM-'VI'OV. Is
here '-"lui'.I""t 10 p<:lS'Ie5Sing no "ut>stanlh... ronte1t1 of its own and which
lhCnllorcaooqt' no tlW\'\ljlln.., ToiIr' .. tpo\lsll:\' fi tw' ..
tlll"""l'IU\'; -"ElO" (d9f,), "Does it h,,,,, II possibk: ""me," i.e" does il
pM'lde of itsr:lf, on th" t'tiuisof own sut't5t.rn!i,e a direction for
a I.In"ocal naming of itself7 "Ind<.'C<l," 6 II" .,nJ.6.. 0"" au.o-u n\..x;
rot,." tOO .,n).ou '10011.\; (d. dlOf), Fat the Jl" mAO", the
Ct\'t,n9tl't:''O'' 10 Ihl" is nothing else III.,n the il
;8/5D4-5t>5/
'"
is of'PO"'-'d to .. n Dlher.' Thill ......ich is posill'd In t.... In Ille
is not urlder.;tood in tl>' field of nn arbllrary r>oth"'gness but
is thdttj'>Ol' 6.Uou two.;. tile not
H
of an 01......... Thu,')"i,,/; "no:' the
In the is hmct' a bound one. Wh.>1
II) The >tructu", of 111'1 {,y as lIvtl6rmo;. The
content 01 JIll 0,.'. full dlgnily of 6eing (oOOlol. Mil 0,.'
as aut<m<>moU!i r;l\o.; ....hhin the row 1'tJI01O rtvrt.
We ha." -... tMI I.... 'no" in !he 1Nrlll<n; is r>ot amitra.y bUI is
bound. The'lU<'Slion arises: whal are the rorc'iO>'l,u..T>CeS?'A).MJ II t\ir.. O\'lWl'
llYO; ....oQt; yt\""", U:ooInolltY Iro1 _p6.; II Wv (n'WJ\' oi> l!(\:A.ly ovnn":lltv olitm
W Ill'l (,,:2ff.). The corueqllOl'llC'l'S ..... tMI t.... 1'1\
I<tlliIv iii: 1.) WJ.ll n; it is Itsclf bl" Itsdf "something DI""': dcl"nik'l1 on the
bilsis of a ddl'rmlnatr sub6tilnll.'r Sh.'m. 'ft\'O>; 0/ lhe lrI'tIlletl"'l'U\',
as so..... otf,(,,-. has a d.:term'''''1C Subslanril'r p!"O\'enan, ....hich is
prl!S('l'll in it. 2) h is!i<'l aparl, pl\'<:l!i<'ly as this delimill'd one, (lvl<@J.,,1Ip(lc;
n ttiw {n't\lJl' 6,'tItt:etv, "agooln bark" on tlut from which it !iI<'IJIS. II is not
only detem\inI'd in terms 0/ Its pro...""',,,.,. bm as ...dl, as originating from
this ytvo.; II is poslll'd in tht' of the .(........ and ag.>inst," oi the again
ba<:k to th.11 frum ,,'hieh it origi""re.." Otl the oois of ils prown..""" and il!l
back 10 Ito h;"tory, i, I<es ...b"'. in ",nain """"'. its own
sub6t.,nti,'(' conterot' A.)n:hnsly.l 1'1\ o;W.;l,' is U<'lIQro.; Ill\d spiflcall}'
avn6f:<n; 0\'"lOo; &!1<p6; 01'. lrI'1i9Ecn; .0/ SIJl'III'lhing P"'Sel11. factually ex,
i5ting. ""eo" and against 5Of\\l"Ihing fa('IWlly exl>ting. Here we milS! under-
..and 6vtr9E<n... just Ilk in a two-fold 5OI5e; ........ il """,ns
<iVtln9tJl.f."O", just as liryo.I<; 'w)' ofb...... ""-"1\5 Bul if '" thl! "-..y
the I'll stmI5 from 1"" oul 01 a -ytvo; (the o:cU.6vl, the" is
""" in !he end the from wkid< it stems, I'"V,DI' triIv Ovttll\, """.... of
is """ tl'o"jlll -...:Wlv litu/l' (d. e9f.)? 0i.0StY (ell). no m<'ans";
on 1he <'OI\lraJy, both are ""'olu>:; (258a Il; thc). h;\\"e lhe b.1.sic mode of
prest'l"l('\'. Ko.l tbllaIlo'\ w\rr!l (a7), and thus "'r can 3lso understand
dialoo;tk;ll1}' all other !>ein&" In which !he tttpov i> P'es<'nt, aU olher l'6pm
9o.'ttpov. in sud> a war that the UvtlIl9l'I'''OV Isan and !ipOCiflCaU}' ""'0(...;.
lik;, thaI 8&"lnst "k.ich " is p<)9"l.'d. This makes il c1t'ar tl\;lt. just as in !he
_ of otl1eTness as such. t..... Dlher is ",'er against ,hi" Qn('
tlu't>ugl\ t"" ltp6<; n,"" in "''''Y"",,1I.,nll"of
'n tlw substantl,,(' col"Cl't.'tions, lhe I'll 6v is an 6\'. Accord-
ingly. 1\ 9o.ttpou 1'000lou 11\ til; tOU UM'll.n
m SopIuJr[566-S67)
ri llt',u<; Miv. ailtoU m'Hivu;..;Wolo:
tonIv (alll.). n".. other in ot/><.>rnesti is no Ie56 prl':!'iml th:m lhm
against which it is Waf...
1'L110 empk..iz<'5 ""'" mo th.ol {rvtilll:tn; oli" tvavtl"lw
"0\100 (d. 1:03). dllfS 001 mean lhe "mpty and pUll' "not: o.ll11. TOOOvnw
,,6vl;/v. to<(,..,u (b3L but "simply 50 muth" of II><.> """'" Wt then'1n
it rom"" to appeAr pf'l'risdy "S "the "mer" <>I ...a.:h sing'" one. J.lji.ov 6n
to ,,1'1 6v. tl'lvGOO!(Itf1" . ...."t6 tOT. ToVtu (b61.).ln this wa)'
it has bt-com.d c whith " .... ....,.....1<'<1 to kon the basi!
01 the und....... bl betual pM:I Iy, and nothinK
clsc than,. whal we 11. .., now witk lhe namely the
Of" fwpov in l.tr,vas nl.'t""""'l)'
1N.>n.'by Plait> kas made ,he hl'pov llself ton.ccptually lrarnpar=1. 11<>
did so by otheme-;;s as Sl>th, insofar as i, is Pll'5l.'nt in a specific
<.VIlCR'1e being. irnplie!; that in ""'ery case II><.> (Ol\('....re utht'l' of otheme<i5.
and thus the t<merction. thell6p,O\' tttpou. is ..n 6v. a being. and ,hat
collS<.'<l"""tly the 0Pf""'ill" of 6\'. "" 6\' ilsrlf. is 10 be as "" IW.
and Sf".'('lfically as an 6\' which, as lhe Olh''f IWff and against the OAO'. is
not at all 6v.1e>s in ",&"rd to Being. but is 61'0(10); Ov.ln the field of
this newl)' distmcnxl iu:pov, in opposition to the """pty tw tiov, both.
th... one Ilr>d th... olhec, Ih(>r('fon' 11..."." lhoe fuJI dignity 01 pn'St'nC 01 Being.
This i,; a p<.'('Uliat modeof ,Jemonslr<Jti"";aetually it is nota dernonstration
but an hil>ilion of th... "",aning of the ooocretion of otkemess. Othemo!so
impli in""f"r 45 it enrompaS5e5 the on<' and th.. oilier in the mode of
d;ff.. tkal both are. Thu" PlatO acquires ,,1'1 6v .'s 6v.
lhe eQnsld,.. in tht' dialogue lhr'by ",ach lht'\r p",hrninary goal.
M1'I 6v i!llvtlEl"t<;: is th.. "NCt"", of ll><.>rnpov:.nd the lwpo\'
is/il& it is pen'asj"ely p""*,,,l il>f'\i't)!tling,hootQvoill.:6v xolci
(2S6eH.j. 6v is tWv 6Mc'I\' oWIa.;
(258b8f.j. "with reganJ to ooJo1a, p"'5'''''''. il OlX"pies 1>0 less a position
than the others." h'Op'9Ilov t<iw noU<;)v eihooo lv (c3), il IS ilg,clf
"""..thing properly w\isjbl..-" amoog beinS!', It can be l'(H;('('t\ in all bein&"
as and, "" th.. it is tv6j)t9;u:lv, "(Ounted" among
the manifold of Efll'l. and it OCtu"" in Ihe "OlvtllVlo. of beings, n1l'
"rounl<'<l: ",Lttes ""pliddy to th.. "Ave" anticipak'd in thoe
iln69l:<n<; abo...,. Hat' number rq>resmls nothing <!be than the ccmplete-
"'''SIJ and th<lroughlleli6of relations "'Hhin a dcto..'T1ninote, thematicaUy p<'lIi-
ik'd 1<0"......1(1, no"",ly !he' I<O'V<lWIo. of 0... 0;I,''lO':;' <mtm<;. ""d lo.UWV.
under which tt.,. arose as cillo;; lv.
Thus we ha'... I'O'q>ottpon;. HIQ a considerabl.. ""tenl; ttanscend<'<l the
llm'ljlp!)Ol; (d. e6f,), til<- wprohibitJon.
w
.... Parnwnide:s (to "-1> away 110m
the patk of in,..,tigation into ,," 6v); "'" ha,'" in a certain,;erose den;".d it
78/507-5081
OUr lrust. 1\'(0 ha"e tr,lf\SCft\dl.'d lhe prohibit,oo not only by darins ,n S"neral
to (w. "'hich l'arm'.... ldes prohibits. but Ell; to)
1\'\ \'It'l\<KwtE,, oimil (<91.), "we ha,'" gone furt"". and ha"e
<!emon:;l........ 'lQmelhing sub'ilanli"..ly n"'" abroul w .. h,o,... m;xl..
0.. Itself ,isible as an [ilSo<>-
y) I'L>to's ",h'anc<' 0'... dnctrine of
Ik A"t1&Ca..; and f\'uvtlwln...
Plato now has an explicil Ihis ........, funda tal di;;cu,I'r}
0... He d.... rly formulates "'halthis discO'o'e<)' hen he say'S:
.,.; to II" Ovro ';lo:,oo\'\,- (<l5/.). we h.we,,,oown not 001)'
I.... t 1''' {,v i5. but -..ndly..and abo,.., all. tillllio<; 1\ wrxava liv tOO 1'''
6\-'100; (d6i.l. "we ha,'" ""hibited ,0) lho> """,.td Ii......
alth;."" (w We h...... shown how "I) (w Itself 1001<5. This """ibili""
enromra- ""0 IIllnP' tilv llattpou oUo.v oiloaY til .:0:]
ht Itl'ivro ro./i,'ta au'll.o. (d. d1f.). Ilk ha,'"
pursut'd whal is properly visible In II Itself and 1.1 ha,'" tilv
6o.1tpou tum" as MOo by ",,!l<ing intelligible lIS SlnKtu", .osl'lYti9M1:;:
0.. is !lOmcthlng QoolltaElt\ (257..2). firsl againslM other. bul
a. th.... deUmited it i. at lhe sam.. lime JW).\\',"batk I<pl'J.:; \'\ (<'31.
l the OIheT: in rdollKm to ,,t.kh n is <k1;m;IOO. and belongs
wltt.;1 to the sam..' yt....... 10 t.... sam', stem. 2) \* ha,'" th..'fdly shown al
lhe sam.. rim.. lht: polIQibllity of tho!- exchange of 0Iherrtes:s throughoul all
bo.-lngs: e"ery concret.. ol/>er i, Whill it Is in Its d.-srenl OUI of a p;>rticular
yb'O;;. ,ud> that it ;,. opposed as lhe 10 I"" one. Th.... 6.. is
in theJm.M:
of dlang'inll /nOn<")': I"" L,'W" of 0Ihe-me5.s M ."eh h.ls b<'en
broken down inlo I"" f""'IIible conc.....ions of other beings. No... 1\0 can
say any tonl!"" that Inspeaking About Ill) ...... in mainl-<lining the /iv. I.... [i,"OI,
of ,," ....'......, A<\' IntM'lIng lhe nothing and a<\' try<ng 10 pro-'e the Ileing of
1""-' nottung. On the ronlrary, ",e k...... foWld Inr ,," ..... a det...-m;",,"" roo:w
COI"I"fIl." stru<:ture. lhe ","ti(lr(n... which is diff......"'1 from hrn't!nll:J",.
AI 259a-b. PlAI" Aga;n l"t'pt'ilt5 the rcr;ult by summarizing it And pL>cing
il wilhin Ihe t...k of dialectic. For only now, on th<- basis QI" Ih;" disci"""""
of "'v, wiU dialecli< JM. "islble in its pos!'ibilityas fundam,-",tal rese>n::h.
Thus dDC!ll'1ato first bring illo I"" concepluall..,..l.
cI M" 6v 'I"" lUpo, ground of tt.e possihllity of di.lectic.
fourth chu.cleriution of diilmi<.
Mil 6.. ItS lttpo.., .s ",ell ... Ihe f""'IIlbiHty of lhe ,,change r lhe lttpo,
ilself inlO concret.. beings. firsl make posoiblc di.>lcclical "",ma. This oci-
en is nol an idlo:' bul 50m('lhing 7(aA.eIIIW 6110: "w.6v (259Nf.),
yel at same beauliful" II is d,fiiroh because is
nol!lw.' ,,"o.kof emply and blond h.aiT"'Sphn'ng. On conlra')'.
the 8enuine -'<-'1I5l' of fuallytoikl' is axoooh'M9a., lU lei be _." WNII is
properly "isible, 'hedii".ofbeings 'hernsehf;'5. And 'hisl":."ience it; beaulit'ul
dialectu: as a.ulpt01,," as laking apan ber.ngs in 10 "'Nil is
mosl propt'rly 'I' lhem, "xf'O""S lhe limilS of b<-ings 'I' Bein8
and lhu6 fi........ hibilS beings in lhei. ,,"ordingl)',lhe fundamen
lal lasl< and bask ""lui........... ' of theliuv.I<n>."6.; is ).llOI'tVO';; oIm'
l' [i.en h0010V i1J:yxo"m hillCOW\lllf.i" (dlf.), "10 be capabk-,"
bo.'U/.ouQ[iv, of "pursu'ng. wk; ""'''''1 is a"d spt'df
icoll>, "."", is sai.d in ilS sapb.bly, pu.suing ,,...It is ro-said, in ,",-ery
i..q6jlf:v<l\', aboul 0,,,,(1, lhe dlloj, and t)J:rt.C1\', publicly:
eJ<hibitillg.. Iett,ng be,....." I"" (iii" not ;n some arbilrary conn<'d;on but
N""!llffii t""i,o (dl), in!lw.' presenl ""peel in ...hkh lhey an:"f'I>ken
ar>d in ",lation 10 lhal lo..'ar<! "'hieh ,'''' .spect leads. Onl)' lhUll is lhis
,su;u.n'TIrli bnOTt\Il'l an v..-rx"" (d. d51.). The genuine detrmni
Mt.. idm of di.1lectic, aII;1 afists here, would fim be po:'i6ible through
idea of I"" and lhmugh deI"""ina,;",, of the ta;pov '"
(wtI6ro,,> ""l.'1 and against Ihe h'Uvn<aOl;.
dl E.cursu", lhe "lheory'" of 'he in P1alo and
AmtDlle.' The "not";n Pannenid"", Anlislhenil'!'. and
Plalo IR,pu'Jlic, Symposi".... oVPKoming of
An!ilhe"6' laulologkallogic. Dialtotlk.llogi<.
Ari.10I1.,'5 II,,",,')' of opposition. Towntl the furtM'
articulalion of Ihe
Plato had al",ad)', long befo"'lhe SarJuo!. po-m..ps from th.. ,"')'
of hos g<mui....' philosr:>ph.U:ing. III.'('n lhoe distinction ""'....-en tnwri"",,;;.
..mpl), nt>gation. lh'n(lo;OI;;' III.- dioselo,;;"" "nol.
N
But he actuall)' mas-
lenod 'hi5 dislinction much Ia'er: i ...., he aclually SolW 1M ronc"f'l of lhe
ht:Pll" ""'ry ].".." Tho,; distinction silo"''; itsl'11 ,,00.'.., aU in lhe absurditiei
implicil,n the claim lha' is lhe one and ""Iy negalion and thaI
id""lifit"hon is the on,' and only w.tt6tno1;;. as Anlistho:nes held. n,..,
dishnCt;un is pl'\'cisel" meant 10 teak.. th"""" absunlilies. Plalo Soly",
...g, ill Bool< Vof ,..... 1UpuNr("; 1\ .w.o."poirv o:o:l h'U''1'lo: (d.
454<:2(,), of the bald and the ""iry is diff.......L On the b.>si' of
the ,he$is of Anlisthenian logic, namely tMl UrlO<; Can <mIl' ""press idro
nlies. "',, could rtain)y draw I"" roncluSlOn: t"",M,'
tyo."t!av th'tll, tiN (..:pol O...-utOTCI\100l", ,"'I til\' "OIlI1T.;. U...Ii flU
l<OIlil'(U.I'f) Ihe tf):"'l of 6hoemak
ing." If shocm.tking befits Ilwm, lhen "thusc- who hil\'c full Iwad; 01 hair"
canno! bo!ro"..,. PIaIO rhanNeri:res lhis "5 10110"'"
mt' c::r:Ulo) to 6VOfl(l mm...,,, roi:. J.qllbIo.:; n)v t\'avti"",,,". tpllK, oil
/jow.tTmilllpQ.; wJN.ov<; XPWllI:,Qt (a7ft.). ,I is saying lhe
Mying while iKlhering simply mutterances as such. to tho
idenlity and ""i'lumess of the "'ords.by reason of a concern ".itJ, d;spu
I.lIion alane,...:I nOI with" di!ICUssion of somc mlllt.... al issue. Thus PL,to
i!; lhe ..1<Q,;. 0' ,s,o..lJ-p:oQo,. 10 Ihe discussion of so......
mall..... al ...".\ llMI ......."'nL>y.offi.:;. ;P.. 'h"/I',nn.ro.;arwl /1"iJ'w.ln m ...
wordplay. But one callnot objo:t to Ihe dl"l';s above. so long AS <me ha. no!
mad" l..6yo.; tlBnsp.,......,t as sonwlh'ng otheT lhan a Uyf". 01 milO," Thos
ap,,"nmtl)' <mti",l}' formaJ logiOlllask ,,",s a Ihal firsl nukes pos.-
.ible dialectical science in general. Here for the fIrst Ii"", lhe p.,blem of
negation i!; J'O""'" and pUrslled ,n its first .teps.
l'hmommo1ogica1l}: thlSGln bedarifi<.d "ery briefly. E,..,'Y "not,' in",'CT)'
501}'ing of ""h('lher e>cplicitl}' e>;ptl'SSed 0' implicit. h.ts. as a speaking
""oul somelhillg.. lhe eMrarler of E"en lhe t.'mplr the P1Cf\l
e>od..,...... of """""hln,o; ."..". Bl;<'Uul _thinS "'-":>, bul i'
simply ""ow. that on wl>ich lhe rq;.otil" is fotlnded, whal, in "'ring
"no!: is a"",I\5t the noth'ng. This empty neg.lion dkccm
....'t1l. Md VOE'v, prim to lilt noIhins; it lets lhe nothing to.. ""-'" ....
founded by tho ""S"tro Thall!; lho:' m.'anmgofno:-g.1lion in P"-""C:'f1ld<"5, This
noegarion. plaCK! prior to lhe nolhing and pul'\'ly .".dusionary, has been
Uflro\"<'n'd for the fin;1 hn,e ,n lhe histol)' of lhe of our logic, in
.....r gr.>SP of should not sed"", us into thmking lhat th..
empt), exdus,m,;s the mosl immedi.ltE'one and the pnm.al)one(';lrried ou,
tn .. On the ('QI'1''''l)'he I]IiglnaJ negatlon IS precise!}' .he llOC PlalO
e>:po.;es ,1' and At+llolJe then. in a ""'laTk.lble l'C\'I-'f'SilJ of teTtM,
t\'(tvn(llO'.... The .""pO)' nl'gJtiort. at II dominated the un<JeTst,ndlng of
up 10 l'lato. did not spring from p"mtlrdiaJ stud}' of '-Uyo.; but from
lhe ground of a particuLu at>d o,'...... !t.>sty (Ihis is nnt l'I'\eanl as" n."roao:h)
lllo.'Ory of namr.ly Ihe tllco,)' 01 Bdng. ""'" un;"'etsal
d\'m, which l'am>midesw,,-su.., first lOsee, bt."",me
for hlm the ",,""!>Inti,... IWlm of beltlg! in geroernl. He Ihus i<!er.llfied lhe
ontulogicaf ......ning of Ileing will> Ihe""'i<:aJ lotality of beings. To ",lent.
fot """<'T)' ""')'ing t1lt're remained Wt ""C<>nIl" Iht- nothing.. indcl'd
n is notIting cl;e lhan the t\' AS 6,." This nu\:e; it de.lr lhat Itwo cL.rifirAltion
i9/57J-574/
doctri"" of opposilio;m in lloolc X of !tJtIJi/!Iry>J'G, J and 5,
Jummar>Zlng Book V, ChapiN 1O."H
Pll.1n'J characteri7.ation of d;"lectic oro I"" ba!Js 01 tl>;, newl)'
hl:pov linkPd at 25'ft. to the in"''l'l't'Iatian "f Specifw:allr, I'IdIO
oho>......, 25llo>-26lo why :I.6yo.; mU$' I><> d .... if'4ld ""pl;";lIy i" """"""'''or>
with the 0I1he The al\ollyJiJ of l.6yo<; occu,." at 261<-263d.
and thPat'lalysis of O(J\'1cw(I a' 263d-2{Hd. Notice thai t..... bltft
SUOseqUOI to lhe anal)"Silo of and is buill upon iL Whal f"lIQWs,
f10nl 26ld to !he end of thl! dialogue, is a cL,rif",at;on of the .arliN inler-
of 5Opbb;tic.o.l Ttl'''l''S tQ:V'l t'I\'nloyto;l\. now on t"" b"sisof lhe!
!1e">' m<'flning of "t'! {iv, Ul'(O<;. and lI6t,a.. Precisely Ihis rransition. frurn!he
!1e">'ly acquir..d ;d<-a of dialrctk and of r"ndan"mbl f\"5t<l'ch to
the analysis of i.byo<;,. is import.1nl for an "nderstandint; of lhe dialogue a,
... ""hole, TI\I' COOSla"t the""" of tilt dialogue is the dariflCatoon of thP
(');;stenee 01 tilt soph"t in Wi I ernpha)ize lhal in this
transitil;m .....e (an a"d mUSI rclIecl iundamen"'lIy on ""hal the b.lsic dial<'C'-
tical consideratioro has g;>ioed, how the a""lysis of I.6yo<; 51ands in nogard
to il, and how all this beloogs 10 the lhe""" of lhedialogut' iOOI. The basic
diak.octio:al ronskk'ration ..m Ihcreb)' pmvr 10 br no ste,ile o:nc'I"J'tual
l'1olr-splitting. "or II men! ""IV"""l.ltion of 1M docl,;n.ol emu""t of the
formalllCh"laJl;c diJ;clplil\e called "logic,' but 1m' cL",r.cation of !he NSie
Jlruclum> "'hieh mani!t,stl"""""'I,'l,"5 In 10 whal is actually at
hen:. "".....Iy hll"",n e.,ist"":l,'--lhal of I.... and, indin:ctly, .hol of
th<- philO5OJ>hoer.
79. TnmsilOm fro'" rltr Iw""'mmllJl dilt/<'Clil>l/ nmsidnrlliDtr to
,"" Qlra/ysi:; "'I l.6lo<; /259.--161(1. The 4'NSlimt <if IItr """,,/JIg If
,I", /ulldilm".IQ/ dil>lfYlU'lIl (MSjJ,;nIi<Jn.
al E>.h'bltion of th. nK6S'ty of Ih. anal)'$is of Th.
probl.m.tic <h. ,act... of th "\lIIMo.,-,j of;,v .nd ,," Uv with
re!lpKllO
n"., "";51"""'" ollhe sophist ;s .. romportml'nl within )J;yl:w Of
Thus we can mm.>c\("t"ll.<'" the ttz"'1 01 th.. sophist as tl&M.oI<Ollo;l\. and his
I.6yo<; asl.lryooi; .....ublI.. Plalo pr-escn15 a full porlra)al of I.lryo<; al
24Od- tjIl'Wf)" l)6l;u tatOt nw<n"!la to!" 0001 ld. 2-lOd6f,I. The
lh;:m{> olIM sophist's I.tytl" IS Ihus tvO\'tla. is concretely. in
50phislkal rornportm.ent, an ....Irllogiclll unWolioo of ,,'ith
with Ill' w. Thus 10 maintain thallhe sophist ;J, Ihdl th<'ll' fOKlUllly an>
""phists, is to roil ""'to.;. ""......Iy oll.tytw.
1111 w.
1
M I cmphotiizcd .,..lier.the sophist is the f",,1uiI1 of I'll
6" It:seIf. Th" ""Phisl, """''''...,r, ...ill dISpute Ihi!--on 1M baStS of the prin
ciple ol r.,mmid"". n.",,,,ly trol "II 0" doeoi not .,.W. The oophisl sa)'s
thm- is no 1''' 0" .nd l"""'fore no ronjuOClion of JIll 6\, "'ith
Le_. then> is nO ),6yo;,. Thus lhe sophlsl claims he c.>nnot.I.tI1 be
...hal "'e.KCU5e him of being. On the other hdnd,!t.. fund"",...,t..1dialec
tk.l c"luid"".lion has the <l\lI'1tA.olCl\ of IIv ... ith 1''' 6". We
h., ..... rnado.' ,'islbk- th., 6I}W'lIl; ol6" ,,'lIh I'll /I". i.e.. with the
htpo".lb.u m&lAS "-'" !\;n." .<:I....lIy poMibility of tt..
of!he wphist. Thereby tt.. btlh".rl< behind which 1Msophi5t
him.elf has coli.lpsed.
Yet I'1IIto had alroody indic,1ttd tMt the sophi.as ....... yI;v<:I<;
(d. UIa5l.l, a Slo.'m diffICUlt to hunt down.'1Mt is, this hunt ""lui"" proper
kno...howas "'llard. thai which is hunted. tn fOKl, the ...,phist ..... still not
let himself be C"ptured, He will 5.ly: flr>e, let it be granted, there.re 1'\00'
beings. Bul It I"'" sam{> nm{> he will ",mind US thai ...e 1\.0.,...
indred stressl'<l lhal w" cannot admit Kcl:V'tU 4ll!\1ou; Q\"
(el. 2S2dV,). Ilk oun;e,,",," h.we rept>d;,,!ed the poe6lbilityof
being .01>1" to be t"Seth... witlt ".....ry!hing ......ithout .".".,..
000. The 5I'J'hist "'i11 1260d061. tWv dliiitv, a kof!t..
things most propt>rly ...M bftngs "ill roil ,,"
wro.;.. U oil (d7). Wi!h many bciRg!! ,,"6v will b<: Pr<'$COl. COn bo' f"""'lC"t.
bul many n(lt. And.l.6y<>.; and belong to tN, I.U..., (d. d8). W..
1\.0.\", not mown. the sophist ... ill !<>y, that u.-,...;. as 6", un posoibly
1uI\", a Tffi'''<lIVkt with ,," 6".nd th.,t there can bt-son\l'thing like
a or a ttt''IJ in the ....,.,SO' of f(tVtOO't1lCl'i (d. d9). As long ..
lhat has 1\01 the poIlsilrility of the "xi5t'-""'" of I"" -IIOphist h..
not .>ctually b(>m P'O'ro. Thus _ M,C to undertake anew OUt assault on
the sophist,
In fact, If w... 1001< more clo5ely, "',, ...iII see IMt lhe fundamental dialec
tical ronoideration ha. "",,ro not in lhe field of """"" but ,,-ilhin the ftv.;:
rompletcly uni,'om<aI (61): <lv, o;l''lJolr;. otWn;. mVtOv, and tttpov. Bul
now, b.1use the lh;:m" of tM d;"log.... is the sophist in "'ll"rd to his
"'" have tOe<hibil tit<' ('OIlju.-.cnon of with ,," 6".

400
th
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Heic1egg;er o s s ~ t'JIJUl1Il" WIOrd tr. . tand ~
inth
thl'nulkally. !"'Iato inde<."d s,ow the phenomenon of Ihe as
but did not gr.sp il All the more must our ;ntcr
pret.lion,. proo:isol'ly !lM>. seru", tM phenomenon ;n orde.- 10 urde.-stand
the third and therewith lhe goal of lhe whrlle eoMideration within
the diale<:!:;cal """lysis
bl First stas,", Ihe uMbition of the on<lmalic and delOOc
basic .Iruct".... of )J;p;I".'
oj The point of dep.:lrt","", 6v<lIlaw as I.... mOf;! irT\lTW'di<1te
cJ. 1'fIC'()Urllfl'ing l.t"ytlv. The phenomenill ronll'nt of
l.tyftv in 1'I.at<>: ""
o'lUlltlltU. The connection I>eoIw-. 6v<i\law and by
me.ns of ST]),oi,v. The 10 Being-inlhe-world as
!he task of a inl""J""l"lion of
1'1.110" analysis of l.6JQo;.
"The lhe"'" of the lln;t SIaS"O! I.... a""Iy,;;'of /..ayo<; is thus !he <lxhibilion
of di!lCOUrse as sdf-<IXP"'""ion (Ihe Orlomalic, 6VOjlal and ... di.do."'" {tIwc
dclotk, &1.l.oWl. The exhibllion of tho:se two structural IDOl'nl!I'Il!;, which
phen"men;,lIy .'" one and the Solme, forth from lhe <....omalic. The
In dlscou_ pn'SCn1 firol of all in ilo be-ing In il:<
being spoken out loud, in its pl>Ofwtk d\i!l'l\ct('T. This_nd pn'5ents itself.
and IS l'nCounll'rOO by us, among the toeing. in the world. The WQrd
il is outside, on the 51",""", jusla. a wagon c",aks on the 1"",.....
IMI\I. Cl\'aking and sp"aking thus p...,;ml thenueI,... openly; a",
eonspicuous. But this first ",,,de of <noounbt:'finglJ'yrlV in the serwe
of !lp<"Ooking oul loud is nol 10 be understnod as implying thai what is
imrnroialdy .pp.mended phenolN'l1.lJJy is some li"i"i being that 1'......
noises with ils mouth. On lhe contrary. already, in ilS n"j' firsl aspt,
iii undentood a5 ,,It 1\C'I1 and is g,-",uine!y and primarily under-
stood as. 'pe<oking with ot "'."""1 _lung.' Tho,. f'I-Idk char""",," is
Al)t appre!><lnded as r'loOise-that is a ""...ly throlt'lical <:onstnx1-bul pri'
"",rily as a SJ"'.king wilh oIhe'" aboul SOfl'lI"Ihing. Without ""pliOtly_
toblW\'''i this phenomen.al 8""und of tile primary giVerll'lCSl5 of
;U a with other"!l aroul Plain "",erthelcs5 9l't5 out
from!his mund..... immed.. tc tn<l<k of encounlerintl diK'ourse ... speaking.
Wh.>l then ;!SIelf in thili phenomenal SUle of "Hai .... that disrou_
is 1i"'1 ...-.counteR'<! as WNI is encO\lnl<.'ll'd i" saying of word..
"- TIItobuod on 1_.... om<uIatioo '" .....ndJ_oIlbroo;. p.
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ilO 1587-588/
II) Tht' >:o,v",vll1 of Ike ov6IJ.aTCI ill Ur,o.;.
aal J1'1l.ow;" crilerion of 11>0.' of 6.-6j.lI1IU in),{,ytK;.
Rq<rtion of Ill<' ..... nf signs The
es6ma! of 6"'llJlCUCl (ito the scn5<');os
Thequestion """"C'OI\C1!'ms the m.....ifold of o,-6j.laTll: To Koi",' ow 3l'Inlll
row 6vO\l6.now IlmIOOI>I'lttov; is the outwaTd look of tkllt
wkick we proply ....,c t<:> in the: Field of linguistic e>:p"'5!lioll?"
What adUllUy is il lkat we mu,;t he>rkom It is tenni.
r>oIogicalJ)'-that l'tltu keno tIw.> np"""ion ilmICo!ol:ov, ...hcreas he
oth.,..,ifoo. Il5 is usual among tke GI\-eks. ""ploys !hc t<'1'Tn lu:u:o(l,::u, of
Opii.... fOt the dil\-:I grasp of tkings. Uul t... ..... il is a m,l!I<-'l' of a f""icuLar
pkcnoml.'n()R, sl'C"king. wkich primarily f"C"t1."i\'.blc nnly in hearing.
Alttt.,ecll.llpiIv.nd 6"0....,.......n the charilClu of ulalMol:;' 01 petrei\'o
iog, btlt not of g... ,ping by \\'A)' of The lJ.tter is a mattCl' of the
heArkening to I..... manifold of speken ...ortIs. in order I""""'y 10
what is at in this m;>Ilifoid with rt"SP'-'Ct lo its >:0IV<llVla.
yl({tl[O....v" p=isely doe!; n(ll m..an "mply to hear sounds bul inslc.d
properly signirlO!'li gmu"'" undel'Slanding w.... t is said. It Is a
man... 01 he.rkening 10 this. fitt lU'lvta rltt I''l''ilv.
fltt Ta I'h' miltI'll (dSf.). thai is again the "'".,.. queslion which
.. in theeas<: of the two th.. question of the th...'C
gt'I'Il'I'al f"Ml'ibilil;"" of roIlju""tilln ...ithill a domain ofmallifoldncss. He"".
tOO,.lS in both pI""ious ose, the thiTd pnssibitit)' will malnt.:lirwd, The
lask Is thlorefore to heafken to sucll manifolds. sud> of
words, that can co-v"""",t with one a""tl>o.'r and 1"'- lhal caN\Ot. Mol"
....e al1.'tO hearlu.... In what genuil'lcly ronstilul<:5 the l)e;ng with
0""' anothet '" the sequence of ....oTd. and dislinguishes lhe S.....ui"" from
the ungen,,1n<' being with one aoothe._ For the "ng....ui..... ,m,rnediatel)'
gi,...... l)e;ng with on<' anolhct of ,,Md. is tU or ro:
(d. de). I"'" speaking of wOl'd5ot\l' afll'r anoth{'f.llut nOl 'ery 0(
....onk one aj/r< th<- OIl>o.'r is it""lf a 8'",,,ill(' Sol)''''g of ortIs wrth one
anoth.....
What phenomenon men roflStit"to:$ t"" being with 0....' What
state of affa,rs in th<> 'l"'akin;; of c:rrdIi one aft the other ill
the cr;tCtlon fox t..... a h..,n,,;t>!' "OI' 'iu Within lhe n,f"Idn<'5S
of wonk? TO TOU;vlle lTrt<; IOU>.;. 6n m plv I
n O\l'oWJll6t'tl0. Tli <JIlIlo.hovtu Uvalll'ocm:i Id8ff,),
There is prelt.1'l1 a I:OII'flJY1U among OV6l'U1U (,,ordli. taken in the bl'01ldest
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other: .... ..... l&yov o\Kil'v ..
(262b5.), It> roo lhlJ, r>OI =""
IN" Unll)' of a pR'Smt bcing. Just as littl.. a. dOl'S: lito" 1J:yrJt<ll "Uwv"
.. . "om ''''';"1'- "'" t1'I,. crovt):lQV 0Ii0Cl" G1J'WnJ
(b9ff.). H....... t<x>. with "'S"rd to this "",'ll:Un. no),{,yo;; actually
OUtE ow>:; om" t""lnl>; "pi<;,v o;nj/i" 0'Wt
oumen' I'll ""'to<; 611'-0, to O<I)'"t1lltvm. "pi" 0... nc; to.;; o.'6j.lam
tu lIoW-um (d. (21f), Tlwessen,iaJ is that, in a m ....."'l6tvt...
"'" ullO'rar'l('l', rn., \<xulion. "I'e\'NIs" (and this fonnubtKm is l<n
portant for wh.1t will rom.. ldt""jo\lo1lo\6\to.; "ul
nf beings oror 00tl-b6"gs." ,)'lMri!v th'Tero", l'l a marte.of p........,lify,ng
bei"&,, ()t n.on-bl.'ings. Such a b<l1.ol>v. ,uch a di"dos'"'' pl'l:'Sef\tifo<:atiorl,
does notoccur. howC"er, ""til lIph' /htl;; toi;;,h-6jJam mpl'\J.tom lOCpUan.
"6v<IjIUt(l and i\ilam togelh'r," Onl>' then is t.... a nlltl>t1nr\'.
This slate of affairs, the r>ro!S5''Y of a """,,:..000'\ of tWOI'll and pij,,(l. must
not be und,,"tood a, if A.6yo.; ,n _11<."1\><" r..,m a of
6vQjIu and j)ijl'''- 011 cOI'Itra.)'. tho:' 6tll.oiw itself, the ",,"'aling. i!; the
pht..-nomeroon, prior to bod, of mew. Th.lt is why
tlolUill'um. And ""Jy insofar IIli mey are such, is thoc oro"'",,lo. possibl"
TheonJ,.,t oft..... de9Cription. in whi<h I'Jato hc'gi... with an iscllated Ih'Qjlo.
al\d j)ijJlll, is not idt'l'llirnl wilh stru<1Un! ollhe ph......."""", in itJll'lf. II
is not the ",,5(' tn.1 words fir.;t flun". abotlt in isolalion thm a", t.1knl
tog..>t.....r. whence: meMtl.o\>, ariSC'!. 011 theronlrnry. the futl.owis pri..... ..,..
II i!; lhe fundamenlal phmc>....""'n. And only wim ",f""""" 10 it does lhere
enst the J'O"ibilily. as & d"'id<:nt mode. of isnl.ltcd. mt"1ely ,,-,<il('(l words
The 6T\l.ouv. which hari>or.; the possibility or discourse. Is colIStllulh'"
dct\'fmin.ation of o"..,in it....lf. d"'.....minalion I wont to d""ign.>t.......
Being.in-ttw._o.1d Or !leing-in, .. oothing aOOulm;". bul "'e muSt
a,<old misunderstanding it as a ..... lll::r of" caliunction of "-1''''''''''131\0<\5.
ThaI of all extrinsic shm'ing still d()l'J\in:>t"" the ""tire ,,,,di.
liMa! callCgori.&J ma1<>rial of the grammar of the langual\';'S.
Thls matt-ri.lJ IS nol reducible to logic and is not anchored in it but in Cn",k
onlology. If "'e "'.nted \<) St'(' th<" and p...."l\OmeMI mntion
bo;otw"'!f1 'he ph""""""",n 01 IAngw8" and tIM: Bemg ur man, ..." ',;ould
h.we to rid. allh> "e<)' O\llSct. of proposition as thoc point of d ..-par-
tu", lorourorientalion tOYo'ard This d.."eloprncnt,as It has come
tobe today. pemaps ""tthe intention oftheCtwb. but" has for mem
se.-. si""" Myo.; and sf'NCh ....,'" for them giH'f\ initially io
this charKl......"
l'l.o",', Sopluu 1m-5951
Such a),6yoi;. which 1l,'OjIu and iiJJu, is the l.Oyo.; ltpliIt6<; tt
o;uI Ol'I1<p6tUto.; (d. 2626f.l. "the first. roosl orig'''''l, and the sm.llk-st.
H
1'hal th.ere be no l.&yo.;; compo;cd of .... ts than these;
fn'O\lu .ond /liillu d .... ronstiluth'c for l.t!tov. "Ql:lV is lherel>y dis/insuished
CS6'ntioll)' frum 6"O!'Ui;rlV116,,0>' (d. d5J, from ml're ""ming.. from the mere
redting of ....on:ls. .... "'-'... nothing is n",M ,-;sible. o.'O\lu.l;r!" dS slldl is not
disc","i\'c of thinp;" It is only l.6yo.; thaI n (eI, "finisheo
somel.hing off.
H
Onl)' in forth ""'thin spl"aking
.n tlw llCmt' of disroul"9l1': somdhing shows It:I<.'!'. t.... of so...... being
tx-ro""", presml. And only to lli..f:niu I(IVtO (db). Hthis of
and /liillo, liryov (<16), "do ...... call Myo.;.
The first "lag.' of the consid..... lion of l.6yo.; O<'ts out. as ....... "",'.. __,
from di!lCOUl$<' as sp<:>k ""pression. As SO ........ discourse shows itself
'niti.llly as a manifold of ords. Thecon5l<lcr.lti<.:.1, howl'...... from the """Y
oulSl'l does not simply allffilpt 1(1 mal' understand.,bk this manifold of
words in ;!>Ielf. isolated. so as .. manifold of 50"n,:I5;< but inste.:>d
the from the"er')' first lOWard ItI<' basicSlru<'lu.... oil.l'rov
in lhe scnseof &\1.olh. From this phenomenon of IiftAOOv.lhciw6l1otu a...
th,,,, sraspl as on that basis.. the simullanrous
toward , .... pos6ible th<,om.-s "fdisd(Jtiu"" ""'uls a funda"",ntal distinction
.... ithin ilwlpal. Th.... tho- crilerion for the B.;ng of ....ords in the unity 01
disroune is their dlSC""'i,.. <""racter. And the obledi\'1' criterion for d;"-
tinguishing I""",,, &ll.tilf.lal is the unity of the possible object of the d;"-
c1osul'\': "9Owa.KpO.;t;. I emphoslud lhal these terms al'\' t<> I;M, taken
in thor "idest SCf\!il'. We haw no rornospond'ng I'ither to cap-
ture the positi"e asl"-'ct of this discc,..cry or to ...press lhot .....h.,t is unrov-
..1'>'<1 hI'I>' is not rued appropriately by Ariuotle's late, to
do 50 In to thor mtl'rion nf time. Ml.ou., it!lelf is no.... Within
insofar as is a "UI'!WJI<T\ of ll!Il.r!ll<Ofo. not the n'Sult of thri. com
position, but. on thecootra')'. the ,:ol\'<.tWl"a of 6VO\l(t and /li\I'a is possible
at aU only because ),J;y1" In itself isa Nll.oiw.On this ba..i9. whol s",m"""
calls Ihe utegotial p,,-,pnsition can be designated thl' 1<plirrc>; and
"",.:p6wtO<; Thl'f'l"by Plato acquil'l'S. "e!'Sus lhc Cmty!1<i and The--
<>tt<'fus. ,hor possibility of dclimiting l.t'rn" ow, and against the
6vw6:t\\' 1'6''1)\' (d. .01 Naming.. til' addl\':S6ing of b<.'inSS by way of
naming.. make! "!sible- nothing oIthl' brings the..-I,...,.. C..mng by name
can "",e. dete,,,,i,,,,, what is named in its subs!.ntr.e ront\"'t. Naming thus
does not ha"e the cha.acll;>' of di!lclosul'\'. Instead. If anything.' all il; visible
in namill,l;, it the ....ay the na.med objt is, lIS It Wert, S\WIlJ>OOed:
UMt ""' ....m""""""...sv.... inA.......s.l
AH 1'>o< .......woId ot.-. bu., ....."m......b!l'.
3V /3<J6..S971
apf"'ILlIKm. ThoIt is indeed a dis<:!'l$uR' of SOfllO'thlng not kno"'n prior
to lhe calling by naIM, btlt the disdD5uR' of I..... appellation. the ""me. is
not an uneo'...,;ng of I"'" sull$lanti'... content of I..... thing itself." Naming
is th'" indt"Cd a disdosuR', in t..... so:'r>5t' of I ..... term. bul nnt a
substanti"e dixlosu'" in the strio:lef of a ...lalion I" the named thing
Plait> U!Ii'5 6voIl(cvlV in this d""ble ol ""mins. which ho!
delimIts against i.UY'X,. and !tis only tho! L>1tl.'r tlwt pnJpt'rl)' brings
thing Il) an end and that can properl)' be a 3ol:wv".
This firsl stage of t..... analysis "f i.6yo.; al th.e same lime ;m
insight ,nil) a parneillar o:(ItvW\'lu. namely the ""'VWV[(Z tlut l\Cl:urs as
IIAlnta t>f 6voIJ.a and (IIiI'll. This o:(IlVW\'ltllS '';'''''ed in t... rms t>f Ov6I'uua.
INt at the time it announce!' the d...lolk. lhe lurther a""lrsis of i.6yo.;
..00"", tMt the full phenom...rmn "f i.aI'yo.; still indudt5 three oth''r SIN(
tuR'S oI"",V(lJVlox. all of wlOCh Plaro "rasps uniformly and without distinc-
tion astriMloot; and not explicitly as IiUch. though they a...
th...... 1.lenUy. Thai ItI<> pn;rper strudu... t>f '.6)'0;; """"inS for him essen
tially unclarilll. Our inl\'rpR't.lrion must nplidtly """ in ",lid I"""" f"r'
t....., structures of _,,,,,,,Ill.
d s....:ond stage: the ellb<>r.tion of the srrurture of 1I'Ie
l.er61U:':0" I" 'I""
D) Tho: basic determin.ltion t>f i.Uyo;: l.6yu;. i.Uyo; n,V;. Its
in Ilusso:rl' "inl\'ntionality."
The SOnd stoge in t..... """Iys.is of has the lask t>f ""posing lhe
struduR' of t I.q6l11VQV as such. i ..... the gerouint' CQtl5lituti<m of the
po$Sible unCU' n!dnt'!i6 of so"""h,ng addl'l'S6O.'d. how it looks ou"".roly.
whal in genel'ill is said in a Myrw as !iOmcthing SIIid. F.... this "nal}'Sis 01
the in its ,;tructure. 1'L11o d.. ws upon a fundamental dt:t.......,i.
nation: l.6yo<; ill TI\v., (el. ('51. C"'"''Y IlddteS6ing it; an .ddressing of
1Om<1""'g. A&yov 6.'(l)'IC(liov.Qw''lIl'P!l. Tlvll<; ";"u' AOyuv.I''' at Tlffi.;.I'''
lit n\'\lo; (<:5f.). IYhene..-e' ),Oro; exists. It is moO<;; 1''' fit
n\'\lo;(ab(r,'DtOV, th('f'(' is no ),Oro; that would not be).Oyot; pertains
to the "ery o...;ng t>f u..,.:..;, l(> be "of 5DItlC'hi"8'" He,, PlaIO ""pteSSo.'il a
f,,!'Ida"""'t,,1 insIght into ('\'..... if 1'10' does not full us<' 1>1 it

io"'" yo< ..iiinl''rr<'g.''I "'"""",,oill"Coriploilanli""S" Ihfr,/Mlpu.
l6.AH: \\1\01 10 II"C.........,. '" "'$ ...... in""T"tU_ ond. ""'k"'lI_'1 To
--,1-.. fu>< 01 itIeoJ >lrU<nIJ'<of .... l""J""irian. Tl\o1 II tu<h Otlll
_ ......... WhoI .. . on .kfic><>\I-.s.-...
IlQ
w
do l'a01.UISondlOl....."'id... toll< l
:7 TI.... r_..... .... oIl.&,o.;.p,
8I'J IS!!!4/X)/
b)' the AAtnJn of the of lhe lwOJlu wilh lhe Pi!IIn.. n... ror>sll'
lution "I the t\ as STll.Q""VQv, as ).q6I''VV,;' Ihus..,,<rn.u m 1M malo' of
Therefon.> lhe i.Fy6j.It,ov, aa:ording to ""'Y S<-'f\S<). is
pnogi"\'f\ p.mscly as so",,"'hing to be dcalt "ilh. '""t pJ'Of"'fI)'
>tpiti;,;-ltpitnla. The dealing "';Ih solT\<'lhing is Ihus whal is pregi"en in
.....e1'). A.6'fO'; ""'OIding to its moo;t proper sense. l'\alo <ks'gn'"t'S Ihis by
l'I'Ieal'\S 0/ IhI' lenn ",pi 01. Tht:'" belongs 10 ....."'Y the Ittpl
0\1. 'The !.Uk is to this lttj'l\ 0(, .,. a strudural momL",t of the
and nOl lQ it. k<l astray by Ih< trad,tion.
as addl\'SSing something.. posst'SSCS, as preog;"en from lhe "elY the
unilary being. The", bekmgs 10 as a determinate mo-
menl, lho> c",akin" wagon on lhe .'rwl, for example. I do not I!<>ar noises
in an isolated way, as if I "'ere a .ubjKt in .In instilute of <'''f'''rimcnral
psychology. but J hear lhe wag"" on lhe Th<> f,t''O<;'"'''' Th""..-k1us
.ilting before him as" unitary ...m "'hole, is tl!<> n:tj'Ilo(,.
I-\'e can CoIll this the which" of the sp'-"king. In lhoe dn:uit of wNt
is thus pnogiven, now ...1s ""mething in ....lief. W1",1 IS l('1 In n.'licf
is In It, lhcrclo"'.ln the and being.
I.trtov will .... something in relief. spKifkall)' SO a. to rnake the being
unden;loodil$liOmelhingand Thus lho> "..oout which,"
lhe whole of wMt is pregiven, ".g. the c....aklng wagon. is Ih.cn grasp..'<I in
terms of lhe crealdng Itsclf: Ih,' w"8"n p.>j;Sjng by <m lhe is now
and <k-tl'nnincd cre.lking. ".., ""1"1 oil ,"""",,,,,, hJrI:x:t", a
double Slruc!u""
I.) It lMa,," the -about which, as a wlook'.of ,'''' discoul"Sl' In general.
lhe whol<>. p""""', "'ill unal1lCUlJted ""ing.
2.) Insobr as ttoesetling in ",I;"f is Olrr"od "ul llf"J" Ihis .(1"1 o\.. insofar
.... is "tlributed to it lIS" 5pecial dctermi""tion. the articulation of
the wagon itself p""'<!S 10 "" WhM is spokn about. The Kl'pl oil then means.
mme particularly, lhe tipecifoc ...hich" of lhe dis-coul'lll'.
We therd.,,,, distinguish: I.) the "aboul which" of Ihe dL...:uurs<', i.e., tho1
unilrticulatoo wholor, and 2.)lhe "of "hith." ,.... "'hat is thcmalic'aUy artie-
ulaeed aod sel in reliel: ",'''', grarn"",. ("[[5 the 01 the propos;lion.
Th>1S, clearly, 11>0 P"")"'" p"""""",,,.1 carrying oul 01 ., ...-llir>g in ",lief.
br ll'IloUvor iJ-ttl,., does not occur in su(h .. ""'r 1!\aII...O1'\'Pt15enl<llions
a", linkOO "'IIh one ...,other, bUI, inste"', oul of the of .." un-
-.bout "'hich, i.e.. a dCl''Tmi",'!e unill1iculaled Slat(> 01 affairs,"
il h"ppens, pre<:iscl)' llw sc-tlinll in .-clief of the -"s-whil:h." of the
c",aking or Ihe ,ilting. IMt 3.t the some lime lhe"of which: lhe "'Agon m

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modification. !he &]l.oiw duo:s not somehow co",... to r>olhing, the l..qrlV
10 a.l.J-rf;!v IlIl/ltv ' ....hkh it cannot be. by ilS '-ery -.se), to a 100al lack 01
diKlo!iu.... but 00e.0w;e the Attn" tl,.os a ill
,..rily f""lil'l'ved in ..... modification 0/ '-6yo<;. Uryo.:; can be modifiM into
a JJOn-disdosure only in lhoe s<:ns<I of COfl<:l:aling,. dislortiog. obSlructlr>g. n(>I
letting be5f"ef\. Evt'f}' I.6"toc.. thus .....en the 0"" modified in lhis way, lund
plt'Smts itsdf ;lS a l.tp:,v Tl. E".,.y ,,,,If..,xp'''5Sion. and "'""'Y speakinl,\
about 5Omelhing. is tak<.'n quite naturally al\ll primordially as a &11),,0\,\'.
Thus have. as:suming thai the 61\).0"" can undergo a modifICation, the
following \.) A14'"preents irsoelf,and is the.... as a discl(ll5u,,",
of somethi"ll_ 2.} This Uyrw. how<!\"cr,can in itself be it ,,on pasII
,;omeIhing off as 0111... than It is_ '"sofar as il p..".."..ts ;tself, and always
irsoelf, as l.t-p:w <I, but factually. in a p.1rl;ru!a, use,does 1\01 impart
the being. thil; U:ynv is a dl-ccption. Dton-ption is IhU'i pme;ib"'. and "n<t..r-
st.1ndabk in general, only in I..rmsof l.tl1W as l.t'r'" 1'1. flecause il is
IW6<;.l.6yo.:; in ,!!;elf can be falS(>. JUl'1 .05 we speak of -f.Jlse roon.ey,n ,,'t!icl\
1"""sHu g...,,,ine mCll\e)' bul is not,.w lh<> l./:rIv tMt distorts Klfl'Il'Ihing
presmb what il is not: the I.'tl"Y dislort!; II is in
E,''''Y l.6-,o.; is t""mol't', as Mr,o.;. a AtyE,v rt. But it nood not show that
a!>uul which It speaks; il ",n al!tO distort it. in sl>(h a ",ay. or routSf'. thot
this judgment p tend' 10 be tru... n..ception. Is thus
fOtlnded. a<>rding to Its I). in the intentional <:onstitution of
Uyf;ov. It )1yI:,v lIS >..ty,:w ri thilt can be a dislortion.
ThUl; II is dear thilll'\'ery f..6yo.;. on the basis of this C'tlI'I'titutiQn, a1wal'5
and o<:'('Ul'! in a certain "mode." It dlS(loses m 5udl and Sl/(h Q
""'y' it is";!her disdo,,;'.., Of distortive; I.., .. i..6yo.:; is aOl6<;. nOlo.. lit
yt n,'U tl;q.ic\' u''Uylliov llffiQtl;!\' (iv(u u;,y (26:\.011 f.. HWelOlY tMt
......ry Uryo.:; is 1lO'6<;. In one mode or anolher,n pnriseiy be<;aUS"
It is 1J:;tl\" ri. Like..iso>. n,'a tei>tl')Y ;Ylln liEi (262e8), "II is nooessary
tMt I..6To<; a,lways be In e.'t'<)' i1yl:,y. ttw1t'fo.... j"st iJlSOfat as it is,
a dl'<:ision I\as alwa}'ll aln:ady '-n mad.. n.-gan::hng ill; oS!J.I.m>v. 4lilivarov
I.6-,ov 6V1a IlI\OCvIlo.; h'a, u.-,ov (d. 263clllf.): '11 is imf'O'Sible that Al>yo.;
could at all be whot it is if It w",," of nothing. The r<-ible wa)'"
lot I.6yoc, 10 be ro'6.; 0"" none 0llw.>T dum I.(ryo.; 0Al\9t" lind 1.6yo.; ".,oolk.
p,) Plato's dialectical InterpMatiol1 of and UA!j9;. The
w,vwYla of 6\' <"lUI ",ith .a\/tl'l\'.nd hl:po,' ""
ground 01 the p<lI'ibilil)' of I.lryo.; aAnllo':; or l.6yoc; ...
The fourth 1OOl\"W\1Cl: in
"The dlsi,'" questl()ll is t"O(J\\' lot us: 110,,- docs !'lalo ;n'crprel or
Mn8/4 The ..""wet in blier is: purely diolcctkall); which """''''' b)' way
of exhibiting" "OLVUlyia. and one such as "" koo",. bul




81[60
1
1
M'PF.l'DIX
Supplements
From Heidewr's
{Remarks, Additions, AJ\JlOt>tiol'\S to the lectu..."j
l. Supplern""ts to the Introductory Pan
I. (In page 16)
f'ossibilily 01 Dascir>-dMermined in its Ilcing. WarS-.1 highest
OI><'-<J'OCI(Q. dl'6de in (a"or of this truth!
PlDro-hirnsell-1O g<l along the way for a disLlnce.
AsJ.. modeof research and mode 01 oOC!:css to !he
moners at L<II"o;>.
Z. (to p. oW)
Striking; unJmt""Jmg-togt'tht'T with and thill again with
tlncm\Jl'l.
NO! surprising ii Ttl"'l ;s held 10 be an (U.'l6EUl:l\',-llS s\'ch. lI\Ode 0/
componment in which the p<!Mibilit, of /lnng out witlld,,,,,,.
3. (to p. +I)
With "'l;ard to I'Iato', S<>phi5f, ",hOd> wildt a phil"""Pl>er is (ooolo),
an ""plidt prellmln"ry ronsi<kranon 01 o0oi...... (U.T\6l:iiw borornes nee-
fSSilry.
The philosopher. tJi lOU 6\"1<);, <tEl lilo. AurlG\lOO\' 150plt-
is!, :a54aSf.). lil'!i with, is occupied with. a looking upon brings. mSIKh
a w"!' indo.'ed that "" carries out a Sf"i'aking about
'"
It is I>eId thAt affinning i, <:11,.'9rol;. C'I;IIm<'ction; denial is &alflO'1;' 5<'pol-
"-
But, insread. the ""'-SC' abo,"........ 1-5;\ de.r: di>lclosun.' b)' way of affir-
mation And by way of dmial are bo,h
Or. tvlltXflOI lit 00; &n{p(ow f(i.v,u aovm r. 6.
""'lion and denial are to be inrerpreted as a taking ap.ort." Takif\ll
aporl is indet'd the ........-. pf corrymg QUI /""""$1111>", w<Xiv, i.e. d ka>ping
the f'I'. m.. who.... ,n .......... And a P"""O";ng mod... oflctt,ng
the ....holl> be"....... ;.('q I"" OIW' with the otlK'r.
and &'oip<n';<:onMitutelhe full rn<J<k> oflheearrying out 01 vorl";
and this lotte< insofar as the VQ(iv is that of ,"" Uryov 'IO\', be a
I<Utaoum.; and (u:*"':;'
Cf.' Mtf. I027b2H.
to liIlCl " to 1"'P\<; VQfh__ mode of J".'m.'i'ing. er><'<lUnlering."JIo and
1000l<;--i'fl m ....... aflt'r thcOlhcr"-lho:- !!land-
ing roe>,1 to ("<lor" othl'r of llw \'01\1101(1, But instead; tv t\ Y(l''(o6(u (bUlls
th <I<risi ..... reah,... of this "",,-iv,
6jl 'uiY-t6 ovy>;r!l'w" / 1"",1:; VOi-w &J1pI1l'tvov.
tv vot'v. lv vor,,,, as ""Yllfol.; al'd "" &;a{poo,,, 100. For '\'.,., 6jlo vOOv
un be llnderstood lI5lMalpl:<Jlc,. CIIM,iMil'rly. in terms ri Intentional df'o
l(:rmi""tion,
lbJ..I) this mod,' of Being of beings-IO be or 10 be
distorted In l.6YQ<;-il; ko.vulo..; n lbJ..II.). "_ beinll .. flted III
the Inso.l... a$ tM discernmenl enro""tcn W.... I is
<meounrerl is Itself disclo.sed. tU'lllt.. .and w" 6'll..oVotv
oioo... n'"(loliow ro\IOvw.;tl02&2). n.<.>y6<> nnI p",,'ide _df'!....mi ... ticm
",I the B<>;nll 01 bm>p which IhMn u being! in lhe1nseh'e bul
only imol... as tt-.r, .. rt mcount...ro.
til tU"et.. to. tTl $o.(tV<)(q. (el. ,,1tI. K, II, 10f>5,021/f.). 11'>0 ''''.
etml'lfl1n1NSS ofbeings Is !lOmeming llul affeelS the di5closul\',*
IJiKI-.J
"Iv $o.ow!q. dueo not m....n: Ap""""'"' of ttlought-filCtuill tXCUm.-o><:<', but
131""'" In be discemed-to be enrounle"-"<l. For: d"",loo;in' !'la"ing-Ihere.
Ilrinll_ of .. li,'lng
7. (In supplo.'rrn:nt6)
wii Clvto.; OY-I<'<.; {,pZa; Gnl<tlov (el. Mrt. 10'2&31..
dioclos<!d-dislo"ed: 0"" tv wi.; fLU' t...
k[lVO{q. (d. Mit. 102i'b26f1.). No Jrtnl<,i,.. rilm o/""",...,t--4ike o..,.:dl6Y-,
",
lionlo--shoold N in ....Lotion to ",,,I beings. Ilring-inrd.,tloro-to 115 ""lween
Iwo diffem>1 beings. Wl"..1> Ikmg!
What ' Sol'I\Slt' does the /Iv <ill; how. and whal doe!1 tl ",..,.Il?
It isl -only a how_tim II p,.",....,;nent one.
11. (to supplement 8)
1l"U5(' Bring .. nOl validi!)' and the lil:l1. lU bt> uJ'IOO'-ered ..
gtJ"uint presence.
Or "trulh- ill of btm,v, w..T\Bl'.; belongs to I'l"-"di.o-
IMia, '1ogk" in O"llIlogy.
TIv 1_ IS. Nut Ldeool;"tkally lind not ",,,l;s!io:a.lly but Greel<Jy. Ik>ing lind
truth. Truth and S...."i........."..
And ,,,,,mo... lNp,ltltgNv. "T",Ilh"-tor ptm'f'OOn-is lin oj}iJi, of brr"g$
tv lltuvol
ll. (10 5uppk'momt 8)
Why lUl\(l(,;,. Ii>;, OJ..'l0C0. as II """"01<;'''' of Ileingl
Pl'eSCn<'C'-unro"crod"""'--1he pr<III<'7 p,.,;(>ll-orio.'nl<'<1 toward ''Oilc;. rot,
WYrot" in lIS hig!>c'st poss;bilily.
1J. (10 5uppk'mmt 8)
s",."., 2.wf'./ ibid. b3. II"'" cl&><iy: UI..'l6l""";-"Of1tological."
w..'\6Eww with 6v. ljIt"U5o<; with 111') oW. T.anspal'mt OO'II)'lf dear: I.)
(Iv, 2.) w..'l6l:VcIv, 3,) i.e. e:xiSterl', Dasem. ''JIll.
Why "I""'" '" a preeminent clu",cter of beings?
--
7.(1 br""-1Il.I.Ulh21
14. (10 slIpplemenl 8)
cr. C""ylus dA'l.erlu. a di,'irn.- !'\>aming around. hence
p"",isely hllmorously f"",.formed inlo lheoppo6ile. In Gppoo;i!ion 10 ha,'
ing thm- as Uf\('O\'(>I'\'d.
IS. (5U<Id supplemenllo p. 129)
!ut[CI-fllSl of all as arod ;Koording 10 Nirol'U>(htvn l:ilhics K,
10. N,,' li1;" LuTP'...... bill Vyll:.1I, I.kUlg.'
OA'lElt(,(,...-t",,'h: j.ltTo Uryou (&(i\"(It{I)---Ih-.:u I..6roll.
"- ..,..
I.) in gcroecal not simply W<<:t"",,6.;.
2.) as ""\'6l:(Jt<;. lU'lllw.,v al ....ady as
JOmefhi"l; drrin",f. pas6ing throllgl't lhe p<l!I6ibi!ity of boeing fabe,
"M," O'- .... n. r,6
)./ ....fI.... said: a) as con!eltl. bl the brillS said. lite
...,...",ted, having beeRsaid by "lhem," rroposinon-!iI5t'l1inn--<'O<>-
noction of tqm.*f'L1lioRs. (Subj.,.;.-as 11(1 of Ihinkmg. AS""""ml!)
itA'l8t;,-un('(>\(>l"i.n.g. To " ..., in iR the .....
Af-.........-ru....-tho, of/o.tyl'l..-nooun'''ring in th.. whal .....""",...ro
in 5>lch. ""Y'
B. 0J.r\8tiI;,v-fruth-----cas 1lI\'t-i\." o..igi""lly-lrulh.
On lhe rontrary
(w ci); 6J.ll\l4. a. Mtt. la<,&","."
<NT'" "uI tlj> 6,,,,, Ii 6v l<:m n,-il. <tll'OJ<t'f'U(!lkxl> llil... "uI taut tonI
ttl'll toil OIloo6toutX.Oot'l'fl(l9o. Mtt. r.!. 10Q.1bl5f
6J.I\etl(l---<UlOOl\Cl'aledness.
TraMi'i",,; a.) tllK'O"rt'Illnlnt':!<i of _rh",S (;R Ihe mode of YOl'iv,
/ioa\'()f.;") b,)!he um;onMlW i1stI'J-what is most
that wl'tkh mOSI of aU ;., already lhe.... a. AUt. (I, 2"
C. pn.':SIi ahe.>d In "nco,'ering-dialuguoe.
Ta"" Irwpurr/y .Rd Le" to IIr>OO\'",", arod lhedisor....
CUSlling in tl.'ndm<y Ioward lhe proper. Whal is AI'SI <"iIrTied oul: ...
Bul iR lhis Ih<-", re;ides in the l\e;ng cJ th<: llIyo:iv,
NO: \'I.1J.I1......I.
Q "'" l\, 10, lOSlb!'
10. SooP. c;', _ I
II ....... lll .....::JI>::6If,
This is flO{ 3 special ,;OS(>. but con,<ef'5('ly-th.1l on<' improper mode (d.
""",,;--6lflv!M'iV). yt't in fdet lhe ol' th.-. Aimh]au;. To 6p("l1<-IIII>i.
('SIlly nnT.
I.l Aristotle does not not d<'grad<, dialectk5;
2.) he c.trv>Ol all degrade it beC:lll5e it must A'1Min below.
3.) he first 9f'C!Ithis. ill "'" proper 5ensl', in oppasiti<m to Pl.>IO.
16. (to supple""'"l 15)
l.).v.t\&'a p...... and simple
2.)liv <Do; QAO\llt;
1.) reliote to in the .. noon<:ealednes5 0/ their 1le"'3--of tho apl0l.
Thus, M'I8I'..;;-n.>pllllmtOV 01'------t<U'Illt; in MI
2.) 6v Ii>;, 0;.'1f:l(;-m qll4 Mr6ll"o.-......li"wooi>IJl:\1lv. As f:'nOOUnte'd arod
spoken of as such. The 1'''/'-,;15 Ills inilially and for the most p.ort and
;s paM<.'d On.
17. (10 SUprlemrot 15)
Formally unl\'<'tS.ll' ..... 1i>;, lU'lflt.;.
rrom Mn9l'Urw _tl(,01II1II><h' 0;.'191''61'. The aoolo.
The m<lOlt pl'O!",' 01'. lnJPuim;.tQ\'-...hy M'19t;? Ilau... &ing:
Bring undlSf,,"N-the mcounter-ed<harn<'!et. nocm;ltical!y. root
I"'ydliCll \leing. NO! a ....alm roe", loothers. but beinp in tho -how'" oflheir
B.>ing. of Bring difJn.... t in tllm rlumutm:lltiDn.
IS. (third s..pplement kl p. IN)
principle v'..........o:imh1al<;. Mnu ...
,icl-l..6yo;-ma.
QJJj9t"tu-llv 6v I
l..OyQ.;,-a5 the Immedl.1tt' form of <U'16l:tA:I\'-abo"" all, to to hold
<meself pl'Operly ;n ignoran<:e. A. rno<k of carrying out and mode of un-
CO\ering. significan" The "101101": that ....hi/:h iUCC'eS6ible
in speh and in spolo:en disroul'!le, constituting the Being of ....hatlS
sible;n this and present 35 such.
&af..tyta9a1: Justification in Aristotle "'.
enrdi", 10 t..'o directions. EJcampk-: lit) .h t- 'fIlUl'Jo.;) .os 6-.>npn.>a-
ckntl'd-.--Lt'.. spuming ttll' ...,\loll pr.ttl....
0......, anJ Bring
19. II<> supp"'............ t 181
If 6v-oMenu, then dlJ<U!'$i"" of ('jv in passi"8 t"-rQUgh the di5cus5i0n of
'fIlWo<;. in ('II!'!' lit) lw IS discul6N.
"''''y cU'l9(\iflY ...-I",..", for tilt l>n1IlItmalic llf &ins?
1.) as gmtlnd in
2.} 101' the C.......1<s.. a dw-acll'r of bo:ing, Ihftnwln'..."O:>"'l9t;.
Why ptmibJr? lUf)9E'Q-tne bt'inp. l'5ychologism!
20. {to suppleml'nt IS}
lit) 6v-<iJ,;; NlI'l--beings-that which S(Jmf'thing is noI. ThaI wl\idt
as such ill d,;:Iorl"'-,,hich. how",'er, it should not be. becdwoe the
should the of WhM is, ,,'I\ot II is no' supposed to
...
cU'l9t:;: bt'int;:S--wl\ich unco".", or is un.c<)\'er'l.'d. ''To be' ,....... ff
Ileings--in the sen!Il' of the
Non-btingt-in sense oi thO' con<'I'aled-not fer
It<'! IorinS'
11. Supplements to the Tr.nsition
<I. imp. 132)
The ....folding 0/ lhe problematic of Being----loirlnmnltll"lIlly_the >ncn.'te
e><islo:'f\ticll ...'ho:'rl't>l'" of the .",,"'OUn"'ring 0/ bcinS-IJ/Irm)""'i<1WgyDjIht'
l'r\CtHI"W of disrounl<' ff$ Iitt ground of tltt "Olf,ol"K!l" of The Sop1r.
1SI--1"\'"" if only a first pteSSing ahead-<f. Pann.....idO$: "Ori........nvol-yet
remanable if we grasp it originalJ)' enough in what was""" and could I'IOt
at all be
2L tlo p. 134)
4).1\&'0 and tm, proper ch.racl<'r of flci"ll and ,\S flnnS "'/!rinK' oiofla-
f':-lU"l
The uncm"';ng of beings is soml"lhing proper if it disclO!llt'S them in their
constitution i>5 OllX!\-ttl,o,; (proper
apX!\-tt'Mo;_ char.cters of flcing-the """ning of J<tpcu;: wh"""" and
whereby beings in what they ...-s finished. No "as !i1:>mC'-
Ihlns, Thertfore the chari><1cr of intend<'d"""".md of unco"erPd.-:

2J. (10 p. 1371
To discuS5lhornughly, IU le.><l on more and more to tit<, malt<:t'S thern;;eh'/5,
out of cYM)'wy lkrtov, to the t<1Xato", In order to III... 1Itp<;!
Oiall'Cli", CoIn only make an attempt, If)". tesl. It can nwet come to "
"""Iution, beclause It does not. """'rdins to the possibUilio.'Sof its e:'I<'CUlion,
.m," there. Tho,t is .".ilable onl)' tn pure Qr<Dpriv ... such.
IlllI it doe:! ha"e the direo:t<'d.-. it "'pres6<'S on "'''''1 ..
i><1uaUy the theme of oot(l,L irnu"djJ\'Ov.
T.ddmul1 ""YO t1"'t Ari><ut"'dq;rddl.'d di"lt.-<;1k in.u a ""'hni'l"". Tha. ,,'er

1.1 ttxvTlmeaJ\,; knowhow. 0Uvajl .... Cf: Rht'I"'*: porentiality al6t'",g. lis
uphtil p",,"upposes pfeC'lsel)' the understandinS of the
carrying 0tJ1 of ma.l.t"(to&aL l'ossibillty-to "nderstand-more tadi.
':-;llll': as ,mc<wering. F<:>r: realily. h) "'Produ'.IPa5sibilily:)' What _
thing can what il fliM>dy iii prior to ....""'}' ;>dUolHzalion
2.) he h.u not thereby d<'graded dialmic but h.u diico,<:''d an original
proper domain 01 tht ....'eT)-day posstl:>ihly of with OM an"
other. t.... pretltooretial dis<:'ourge abQul5Ofl\dhing. which. as .. <Ict<>r-
wal' of thorough diIlCu,sion. pre5!0e5 ahead 10
l""'lllli;l'w. Y''((ljllonlClj-and cLoims 1ft Ul el<plicil mode of pteS6ing
ahead and of gt-,,,,i,,,, q.....rioning.
AMotk- W;>S lhe flrot to be to un<!<:rst;I.nd dialectic p<.>5iti,"ly and to
appropria.re ;1. Supm.eding il in a prop"r1ydisclosh'f'origiNl ontology.Cf.
MI1. r, 2,
I'Ll.to cl\>arly Mlher tltr on" (oooln) nor It\E' other (llta),ty(o&a'j. Hili
result ooJT<':SPOnds, On the other hand, his ...., the unclarity of genius, and
it st;rlY<! "I' "Geni ..s this .. r,darity ... S""ui"" tOOlS
01 disclosu.... Not a f.ntastic un<larity blind to Ihe thJngs.
Tlw StJphi$l; a,nUyto&a,....... mode of Dasooin-.>nd p=isely a plctcndcd
hlghdl one-which is:. being-with. cognizing and i:noo'.\;ng bcinss.
To unco'"n a ;n , .... dialogue and tltet\'by ,he enli... phenornt'f\olol
residing zhen.>,n: beinr-Jloeing-I Bring"towa'" I the Being of the
e"""i,,& (!IOl,his,j i",...lf.
in tr.",ilion: Ls<i.......o:A'Ige<oE'v-Bt'ins... n. Phen"""",ologiml
basis In!('nllonality rightly understood.
1.) Henn.......... ,ical m.... ning 01 the di.logl.W',
2.) what bocomes ,hematic in it.
3.) how.
Intertwining of the th.... q..estiol'l5 W\(lo>arly and y<'t whcilly " malter of
principle.
To "eoifllhis of the dialogue by .......onsof AoiSlolle", dirtioons
of r and Tapia; (RheIo......)
Not 10 look for Int"itton and thinking. Thinking'" dia1tic pr<cisely only
insof.r as il is It\tuil;...... 1.'1 not somcthing.
I &!.",..."I'Ploommt-
...
"C"!IS," of the lilm'
oot Kala.
NO! for""'L nOlg.."'us bltl" rx/""llly n-jtdeJ), but instl'.m: JI"<l
simply 1/I1';WgIw." "F<:>"""lly," h<:m't'\'el", with an empkMis on 0",,1:
IlpI'Ittpov 1\ 0\i(rIn. in tt.... temporali!)' 01 the pure of tlell.g:;.. ,h-
whal i."""""" p<J5Ilnl. But IIlStNd: ...hat i< already
t!>l'te In the di"",mlng discloslJl'l? .,.. Uyr",. He!\' lhe irruption ot.l.Oyo.; into
ontology. cr. "itt. .
.:.v-as u"""" ..rod-in a b"",rl,, sen"": that which 15 spoken of.
al To what ""t<'Ot the al.....dr al lhe <l<Jtse!" in lhe In the
b..".d..... oV<nll-sheer p"""",<:P-that whkh is lhen' at the '''''Y
OUlS<:t_in concerns. Thi<. how'-"'...... is i.(rro.;!
b) Of whal..,., is the "Iogkal"? Ihal which is "I",ad, encounlered in
what is of as such. ro<onsritutlns pre;enre,
{(lnOl'minga): for Il>o::c In speaking aooul-thl'
wQf"ld.-,omr.'\hing--l>elngr-thetP---inlti.lUy and for lhe rn<>sl pari.
This inltially and lor mnst pari" isand ",mains In principle (.ItUt
u,yo.:;: tM boji<" "",.I, .fIkmS'" llSroming III ""hieh
pritno.rily is en('<,unlen'(! already "",,'''dlll'''O'. SpelIking re-
mains the p,ima,)' mode of 'a:ess and of appropriation of
beings. The bask mode 01disclo"h'" Bemg.... lth--<n" hfl!-"'ith
Even the {ow-u l.6yol>-is 5O<'I\eIlting-is still Sl'en in It'rms
bUllIc/ wilh the ":as..
"all' llirr6. But: by and In Uryo.;-",. a mode of aAl\lIUf:lv-<>lthc

(...J
ConCt-'rRing b): The "Iogic.>l" Is as such ont.,.log.cal' l'r""i""ly not, thinking
and "-odInlque of thinking. But inst.-ad: lhlIl which ... in
5fW'1king (uncovering) and discou",.,. The Being of the beingsenroun
lerW and !f'Ok<'n of In th;s ....al'. whallhus pt)S6ibl)' col1'\e!; to pre;mce.
ronstiluhng Its
32. (10 p. 15.'ij
indICated origin 01 the C"",k COrK:1.'J>I of Bo.'ing mak<osc.....r
tl"",. ho that the if ""ngs r"" ,,,.. ko$is of) Itllli',
Why? Boea """'Y ontulogy. 36 .n in'e'l''''13.i<m. i" 3 onod" of
llcing-in. Insofar as,he .......Id is 10 be <k>Icrmined In 115 Being. beings
mU5t be and thl> InterpN'ting must nddn.ss 1....'SC beings with
nogard to their Being. &peri""''''billty nnd of the orld
i""lud" in tl>o.'11\Sl'kes: Icttlng the inlcrpn.'1ing OMC,n along with the orld
Append
il5<1f. ,n whidl o..sein at""""r Os. mrounlen'd purely from them,
seh'l'S_ nw letting enrountell.'d is b35l.'d, in ilS possibilities.. on lhelleing
of Dase;n. BulIN" !king of Oasein Is lernpoulity. And the pu,," k-tling I""
w.....1d mrounll'nld ill a mak.ing p"'5"lll M sud!. il il; only lernpor.>lly
thai ;1 can express i'iitlfin approprial<.' speaking aboul ",..,rId,
l:leing of the ,,.....Id "' p_....ce. The domi"""", of Ihis nI)ti(In of Being rNIke
II d""r why inlO'rJ'rns itoclf on l>a..io of lho:"
"""""," Whal ill PI'\'5el'lI "' gmuine l:leing.. ar>d lhe Bt-ing .ID ionS" of lhe
past, as as 8elng r\ClI y<:l Qn de\.....runl'd on tM b.uill of il.. "
8ul if o.."""n ilSielf must ...'tI'd onlClk>gicaUy in ilS Being.. ..
...."e1 in ilS do."l<.'nn;nale temporality of pl'e'ffilifying /nm.
lhen """,ponJily in iill genuin...- mUSt
IlYllh.1t impli...: the beings which emersc in rn.:-onlOlogical int"'l'lt'IUion
of the Being of the ""otId c,,"rot determine tho> situation of
ontologi<:'al re;eardl whkh", supposoed h) the of o-in
Ral"""', il is pn><:ioo-Iy on basis 01 this lMttht of Being and
the origin of the forml'1" is f'O'!'ith'c1y clarifit'd ontologically. I.e.. ill In
thechataet1't of 1lei"5'" ronct"i"l'<! ;n!flms of imrrwdi.l'"
mearung of Ileing.
33. (10 suppll'Ir...... t 32)
Ileing-whal is alwa)'$ p""""'l 011 lis 0""11. 'J'h,.,re/o", "18" the
"""hat"-"essenao"-;ond il lhe genuir"l' obit'ct of proper
Ill. Supplements 10 the Main Part
3-I.(lop. 19I l
Ttz"'l in terms of two b.l5ic comportments. both oN'5 of lm"'ediaN:
e"eryday !)awln, pmdurtion-approprialion (trndffiCY toward Being). In
both. the b.l!olc phenoml"""" of!"m<wng Mln<'/j with ....,
om" _,.i"g-;n the/ll."rlS('m ....klng pml'l5wlJ. Temporali!) ... This ron-
(,,",_"pplyingorII'lI'!'lf ,;omro.ing in Abro.1d ;J!;(0lll'
"'''''''' w,lh !h(' immedloltely world. The
foun.ded on an al.....dy-be!ng;R-It, F<:>r this Ileingir\-as (OI"I(e'm-l<now-
how.
Tlzvli-;\s jl.ttO l.6you-il..,lf has thi> charact<:r 01 "1'1''''1'';'''
,.",. In all opcrariort!l-pmdllctian. and in a p"'"""',....... t ap-
propriarion-ol" the world Offl'II/ni-in its "th<:'n:"" .' ron::l'lTl <IS making

NB, n-phenommologkal nell'l5eI rK"o"c,S('('r>--t.lkn for p,imil"'(' and
naiye distin<:tioM---no mMch lor motk-m syslCmario:s. To be seen only when
thee phenorn<.'r\ol are in ad"ance aln-ady llM'O"erod originlllly aMI their
phen<Jrnenal ne._us is understood as a pri"",')' <11M' (Dasein----exist.......,.,J.
$y!tematic ...(11"1<........,.. in onkr to ronst"1d a system and history to
t...k from I"""'. bUI in order 10 let the pl1momma become "isibk for !hi.,
fT'S"lng ahud 1O...rd the (Jr\tol"gi<:al roots of our Dasein
35. Ito p. 195)
""'" pht:nommological inl"'l''''''.I;on pllJ'P""<'ly 100 b"",d-\'('Mt$ the
nah'e-ont;c uno:krstanding-aOOlll the ...
Th;" appllrl"IUn ""t fi"" arl..... by "'ay of a Shm'ing '<ll\<,ther of pill'-
,,;ously "",,"ted ronte<lts. It is an original OO\e. The only firm directi"e al
(om. To _ t!wl au whole. II it (the appllrt\'1\olJ\Cll!) issuPJ'OS'.'d
to be originalt""" 11 must b<' made "isible oul of a ......... ,miuuy fundanu:ntal
of the modeof lking of the phenomenal oont""II!5elf 18,>"'8'
i"', under the K"i<Jeli'''' vf tiX"'1 .....<k ...
OJ.l\6f:Io.--diso:<M!f'\'<l_lhe "It..-re"-tlw fl.N'b'ht) of ....ef}'
the pnJpl't !king_ Cf aOO,..,.-,
of a hmdaMft\tal1y in'oMig&tin. methodic .pproprilolion m thill
."

Oea-ption-BrinS.._l.) a> 2.) aSliomething_ ad-
dNM, 3.) ba5ic phmoonwnon of the "Pn!H.J>O"S"'"i<m: To ha,'.. from
JOm<'Wh...... not simply 111m" "As -I" II>> an"SI". Care-inll>rpl'l"fation-
lIeingin-as whldlllt.-ing?
Den;mon........ror
Deaplion--ilpon gilling-to a.dd-. Error? upon formal OOOldusion? &1
11 erm' on tho> l'dl\6t:W'........-sh<ing oIlhe I.....
."" in l..6Yo<;. n.., "'Ikr (judgmentjslill ""till'ly dE-Iotic.
41. (Ii",. suppl"",,,,,' to p.31O)
To I'O!"" the question 0/ the meaning at nothing.,1so: INn IU
daborate lhe qUlSlj",,,,,S of pl>i'->phy.
1lw:' phm<lm('nOlogical thE- "q\.lO$noning ;,,10 the Iloeing of bo:-ing!r-
whal thai means and ,,'ha. 'asks il includes: Irnrnn_ti r{ Dasnn.
Qw.:toming.
Inltm>galmg 501"""""8 In 50_ rrgard. 1bI' ;nlenogalftl lbeinpl. the asked
aboulllleingl, the ",k.-d for (the ontologkal CM'ad<!rs of
al P"""'I)' allirud_Brtng.", of Ihr '1=1;"',', qUfSticning is disawerlng

Wha. is lhe mode"f a<'<'e>lllObeingl' in ontologiall quo$ioning? PLato
and Aristotle: J..6'ro;;-and indl'ed wllh a -rIal" only
this far,that ..... MI mun: "",oICJ8!1
"fktrrm,N'd I1y Iogir--<>l el5e one mUS! say ...hat Iogic ';gnir,." twre_
Not: ...ted 1O... /clgic and thE-rcby slill II>(- faun-
datiofl rt>o<:k'm untologa! concept, but oriented to-
ward
On t!l(' Ic<:tu<e: if frnm thf.- t>eginning, in the 8S ..,,,II as
in t.... interpn>tation of the dofinitioro 01 the sophist, ....., We'" <'flIUtantly
f\.f('!n'd to l.6yoo;.. il sh".. ld boot.-ro de.. , from the 1l\I_
pilth!;onlolog}' pLlYSll\lt. Only ""'end how
u..,o.; IL...lf "'ithln II><' ontological .. tk.
b) The posing uf 1M '1"""imt is tn.. rommunJated quetion. in
..hidl'.... inl<'rropted, tho.' ll!IW about,;md the asl<N for
dressed "'ithout the prin..."y of genuine' '1u('SIil)ning
bring simply the...,by. COluent of thl' I"" fm In
1M ;:m;:<'-aboul which. in whal respect. how fal the queslion
Tclotes.
Thus br on th" characlerizatioo of the 'lUCSIion: what do J''''' m"an when
yOll 5ily "llcing."
U I!ond supplement to p. 310)
Intention to dari!) in GI\'cl; ontology
Guidl'hn", making ptno.'IIt-as "",,"I. T".wdrr:ss. To addres6ltow? to let It be
in or to mak<- of it itself 3 I""... IVlwno::e oth
erwis<o th<" "'plical<'" H...... th" Mtt>l'n" i" ('On('lusion 0/
Being and nme. ThU!l systemalk and histori<lglaphical 3C'lu;'ltion.
...u ollhe situation 01 interpll.1atioo grows "'ith daril)'
about J.trt"'. To <><1<1,,_ beings a' beingo. No longer ;>5 bt-i"SS but
w.... t (le;ng No answer. But ontological rna"""",,, ,,""""""'. Un'
!q"lratl'dc Iormal and ""'t"';al omology.
43. (third supple''''''IIt to p, 310)'
I. TIlt qll<"$loor! <Jf IN AAdIUS$ s.ryobil,ly <Jf Qv t! 1"'" If 111I
<Jf6Y (244aSI.). t Qv oVlltv rU.op6mpov tlKti" roil ,," .... vro.; (d. 2*'aI).
Saidllm' genul disdosure of the meanIng!
ontology. b.t.o;ieaUy
Orientat;"" t"ward "logic." Is that surpns"'l!? But.l..Q'fll\; for
the G......eb the m<Jd. </....(<S$-rhe immediate.
Greek ontol<,)gy_not only world-olt,itrtit'ity--and what ... ft>COUn.
t<"ftd, the but abo the howof .uchl"g the immooiat"._nd
both in iIliIiffrrtnet!
A making "",lIoNlit!!. A IU"III",1 n",*,ng /'feffIt'.
Confirm.t ......: ).6yo;-lh.:lt it> whkh """Iyday s<l<."ing :md saying
<Jf sojourn <Jf &Ing.in.
In the tli"""' ......... rn6>', 1.1>-jn;., "...,..-l.. n/....-- i. n""",, i"""' tlut,
with "" regard tothelPllllt, IMtwhkh is a5Ju'd 101 ;s ..mpt) th" i,J ....
1.Cl."",p.""f .. _ .....
-I6.llo p. 36J}
fjmits uf Grtd <lIII""'sY- III its
as Not "Icog"."
(10 p. 377)
In the')' are disclO64:d in I...., directit>os; I.) in thetr
",bnt"-PI'\.'SOL"AI__ 11,<'l1lI1>",. 2.) DS n_ill ...
the """P"'"Hrdy." In the rl'lali","'".
In l..tyl:wa oiou,*lnrdmy '"",..rdJisdmurr. 1.I simple twingthere of some-
thing. l} 10 up in tiOme A:SpO.'ct. In io,tyf,v this possibility 01
enrounlerins bei"!\'.
Something prnoenl (i..... possible accordinf5 10 tho: orig'
inal ACllUS oll.J:rt.", I.) making present of the no..' here. 2.}ll\;Iking p...-srot
<I\It of and In lhe h,,.,ing of an antiocip>ltiooo_in Cl'1I>tqlU'l1C1' of ;t_oIInr<"r-
""""thl", poNibly p"'S"nt is add....-ssed. The p<,l<lII in lhe
preenl Ilemg..,...,/Or-from it-the imlMllil"
48. lin p. 391}
The <JPIX':Sition make .isibk> lhe ...... ot<:tiv;t}' of the neg.>1<!d. The
neg.tion in the Illl 01 tn.. tttpov is n(l'I only one bound in lhe
p"",.,nanr,e but II lite "'..... '".......... IJwI ,s r*Ji'r.rIy It ""hibits
.........u.ing determinate.
ronceming J.): with ...-g;>rd to l'Luo.
tvu"flov .rKl huvn0tllc; al times e.-en in Aristode an o''<lNe.och'''lI
fomIal tn'almenl. chapter 6. a15: tol1<00'I It om! n'w &llllw
t>ctVTl"", 6l<\0\I6v aM touWV t",,4O'ptlV' lit. y&.p ilii'HO\' liUll......'
&Lml..vIO (dist.iln<-e) Wv t>. tlil a\mil ytvn /vm'l'io . Thus
pandlgm.>ti<:a1Iy: t;v(lVt\ov Ilt(a t(lv WlW. This M'l:'<>fding 10 1I", 1'ItyfQ.
lion of som\'ll\ing in such ThI'n.'b).I\"w"... 6ltOA'l'IA" dJSlin("t from
"6'lm" tfUYula!ol": l)tllV IbIS).;1 witl\ us.
o' (b20Ho be of &pinion ,ilioul oom..'tl\ing.. II) lab> som<1hing for
!Qml'tlling-o"or t., tblO), it i$, by ils '"<'I)' i>I'f\SI.'. Ih<> unrowring Or
distorting of beings. (Di$tinctiom.: hlll"tftjllJ-M.;U---.p6v'l<l1" and:
tvllVrlll). In .........lo be beinll" lto..msel,"". in &l{n. to lat<.,
lIS bcing. -.um 4lID'moiw 1b23) on I..... contrary ind\.'ed $Omething lhe....,
bul beings faetu.3l1y co(l("led in Ih"" bodIly I let sho'"
itself to "'" in such 3 way. Not m,,*ing pll'5nll-n,wII.g lhc-r<--. but only
prtSnlliJicDfian if 5Orn<1""'S' NO! ovtlb.; 6v. bUI Wcmt:p tv YJ>OCIil (b24)-il
only oppNn lhilt way. to' ill'h' 1b18)-nol Iettmg bcings be "fIC'Ounlel'l'd
lrom lhrmsel,..", bUI the ",Ill ......
15 "'''''uolt;r. m,.vcq,u; of ocpfvm'?
ol<le'lcn.;;--<u'IJ9tiit:",-king._ hkwisor
IiIOVO"iy---{U"T\6iit:".-t...;nll" presenl. therein
!ltN(lu.... Ern, tavta<ria 1\;>5 IhlS--bl,t lho.l\'by pn!ciS<'ly nol .v.'l6(,[l\',
(lQiW';(l' lit. tl (428a7}-l\"CWl'O n Ji'f"(tm 1l00I>mV
Op(qJ.am (aI6l--1i'llil"ttpou 6n(q:lX"'''ll"<; t"'V oi<lln)tliIv
alwaY!' lhe'-""e in som" "'ay I<> It-i.<>., surrounding world
tto......, NUl SO tu,,,a<ria. Tfi t'o">:pyriq. not tQ nogud 10 the
mode of C\JrI5t;>ntly and ptop('l'ly fl/lishcd [)ascin nol the 113m".
....vma!a 00:1 M'l9l:iio1lOO il tS also "...1it is'5
'l'uOl\<; Or> th"ronl"'"" is no
BUI il'\dced &l{a-1U'l9l\<; oral 'l'f'J6ft" (aI9), In la dO'Tl; lalOr-taking
as-to beinll-.lS ..*ing pre;ntl!! .. rvro.oin. """'C\.....,not, and lhe.......
fo.... also not &l{a IIT' aiolMot;ll>; (a25). N";!her U.... of Ih....., nor ""t of
llIem. OW tv tl rowW"" TI>O:' (all.,.n",:
&&;0. on "iolh\t(i''-<JiI.. ti.U.ou tlWl<; 'O.!VE(I(ku ""ouW Ihen
be 6""p II-I<> have an Oflllion about """",,hing
which preci.scly docs stlow ilsell of it5Clf.
)---shift from pem.>ption, moJifia>limJ of lto..lrIrv-
ing-11Inr if 6110;0 t'1\ uiotWiooo' (ef bUr-is just aiolh\tn<;-
""'"'ZIi>m' of the ",,""-' cotUe:"I, bUI not ... ,,,,tipx"", Alo&r)m" ,n II\<' full
5en.."l" .:-.on alS<'> be (b17j. And 50 shift Uul 01 lhal-Io--only
pre5<.'nti/;,,"tion ...ise, 00l1\, .0.. OW; lighl. b)' which """
see--il is somrtlrlllK there. qOV1a d.....hed from it. boe<:ausot' voUi;
o/lsoIt't'5
..ti()n of tl\e Pn>pC1" prcscnlifying.
,",",,-
53. (to ....pplernent 52)
11M to"fo<l1a
CHAnin.. r,3
In ..... the about which, 50 that in it 5CmIcthinll for ,I.
&>;6:l;tlv-an "--tn II(, infroot (j. 10 "" <>f 'm opinion about
s",ml.'thing. Theal>out which in 5OIIU.' war ",..If lh.en.'--oi> oml
1\ alo&.)ol; 142&281.
from the Notes ofS,mon MOSol'r
1. 110 p.299)
T..lluition 10 the cLoss of the 26th se:ioo (February 10. 1925)'
In tM introductory consid...... tions 1 ..."pkM.ized the
imparlance of tho.' fact thilt ti<'S the discussion of Being 10 the factual
uistenee of the sophist.11>e sophist has l,e"n ""posed as the aClually
1''' (>y. Th.at implies: exists along w,th tho.. which implies
thai being:s rombine with non-bo>ings, a that thcquestiOll 01
how the Can bo> IS cmlc'red on the qllestioo 01 how. <7\lI.lModi of
be>ngs and non-btings is J"l'&'iblc and how a is poo.ible al all.
The ...hibihon of the "<;>tvc:n1a T<iN pci>\' p,,:... idl.'S the .IU...... II Ileing Can
In;'" "'ith nonfleing. then it is paWbk! Ih,>t l.Oyo.; 115 .n can combine
...,m vrU6ox. as 1''' 6". II this combirling is poso;'bw, there is II
th<", dllptiOll, llIlatTj. is pos6ible. And if ther.- is d<'<:ept;on, the
existmo:'e of II><' sophist is pos6;bll1 in UttQtTjnrll Ttl"'l. And if therE-IS thi.
possibilil). it gu.lr.m...... the """"bilit)' of the 1I"""i"" posili"e 4TfO<;.. i.e..
the possibility of pt,iJll9Oph)' as d.. icctk. Thus, in the whole.
the q"'-"!ltion 01 the pos.sibiloty 01 both the sophist and ph'kosoph}' .....'olves
amtlnd the quwioo 01 Being. The OWKw"" is tl><' prope< questiOll, On
which the rorn.id..... tion now """t...... und.... the title of Ihe question of <iv.
11,.. Jalter is up directly and ""pliciUy at 251a3, a dl'cisi,'l.' pasl'olge in
which Platoconsiders tl\e "llOOttyOpFurw This IT''''5ition lrom 6v
to a.' a det..rmiNte UV "'ads I'I.1to inlo confrontation w'th the
ancients ...
Edilor's
This Ie><I HO"idegg...." lectun:"rourse al!he Uni"el'Sity of
Marb\lrg during ,he winlCr semester 19101-25, II wa, a""",1l'Iad "" .. four
.... W\do,r!he title "s"pbjp." The locture beg.u' on Mon
d.ly, N()\'ember J, and were at first held four times "'cel<Iy (Mond.ly,
T.-Iay. Friday) in CJn('-\\our n;-guLarly until Friday. No-
28, \QtIIUng SI':'liions. Thl..... in !he six M'SISions
were C<lna'lcd, and In m.t munth t...... COl'''''' mel 011I,' t,,-o linws, 'lrI Thut!'
d.ly. t.... 11 th, .nd Frid.y. lho:: 12th. befo<e lhe break, wh;ch .1 thai
Ii,"" bo>gan on IS. manUKript ronl.iM lhe n::-m..l<:
"1l\uJS(l.j. I\, si> _ions car>n'lcd, 10 be "",dO' up during the
_:Acro!di"l5 to a n<:Jtic" in !he KD"IS'''''''''', the canceUat10M were
ocaosioncd by a lecture trip.' Aflt:.!he Ch';'tm., bmlk, tl...:" Ilu.... c:ourse
resumed on Thursd.y, January 8. 1925. and ronlinucd regularly (,,'e ti".,..,
per Wf'el< (\o\lldlll.'Sd<ly w"'" addl.'d) in .,.,...hour 5e56ions until Feb"",'}' 'lJ,
with t.... of I"" "'cd; of February I. in wl\ich Wol5 no cl.us
on Friday and thus only four!lt'5Sions. The included Ihll1)"
"'" afk-r the Ollistmas holiday, and, in all, Aftyfour
A!tl:, IIQmI' !"'"'lim.... '}COMidcr.\tions. Heidtgge.<;kv'ltl.'d t.....
plio. to Oui.tmaS to an intcrprct.>lion of ArislOIl... Thill first pa.t. which
Hridegger called "Intru<!lJoC'Iion,'" d<,als, abo,.. all. with Ihe
E/hn, Book VI and Book X, chaptcr:5 6--7, as wdl as with the
8ool< I, chap"''' 1-2 Ht.-idi>gge, re\all.'d other pam of tho:: /\riSCo-
Iclloon ro.pur.: in JUrticuLa., passages from 1"'-' Afn""itysin. II\(> r<1j"illl, lhe
Dr /."...."m"IWIl'. "nd the eat<'g<'rit:< Only in lhe .fl.... the
Christnu5 b....k. i ..... in I..... second part, !he",,""'1 INin part did
turn. afler a "I.amitior>." 10 the inll'fl'n.1aliCln of Plalo, Speoci&ally, he did
not. u originllily planntod. interpret "IVI'O later diaklgUl'$."' n.uncly, the
Sophist at>d Pbilrl>v$, but instead onl)' the !icJl>ll..t (&S ....\'11 ;U Ihe
in an and he al... brought in DIM parIS of Plalo'S "'Tirings.
from !he TlrnJl'Trtus and lhe "Sewnth
In P"1"'ring this volume I h3d a,'aiLable the following manuscriptS:
.........
r.=;::=..
$:"-".Ortc.

.ts..p.lll._t
.\ s.. .......,nI ..... lt<lure..p 1.on<l.- t ............U.. I' 13:2,'- t """"""
"""k,--_
6.) II p.1g5\pp. 9O-IUOoi tMpllolocopyl",ith labell'<!
and (pp. 90 and 92 ,,11M phl'llOt"Pyl .os well as
shet'tS, addenda, and many w,lh notes: .. ) on Ih.. Iruth
01 J.6'ro.; ,n Aristolk (MTCIn:li"g k) t:k c","pter 4,
t:k II. chapter 8: and Mf'lIlphJl"l" VI, ckolpten 2 4). whim we...
.. In the le<-tu'" ,'nnr 10 the ,n ron"""t;"n
"'ilh Niflmt,J(hM! X, eIYple. 7," 1>ut ....hich .hI<l roindd" w,th I"""
Silges from th.. "IT<lnsiti,,,,; and bl on th" questio" of the plMe of InIlh
:>oo>rding to Mf'lQ/Ih!f>"cs VI. chdpler 4. and dlap-
Ier 10. as well as on a critique of the of \'kmeo- ]:oeget, ..... hlCh "'as
nol ,am..d out in Ih.. krtures."
Th" 5l.'<'Ond fil.. of 1M manlrSCripl consists of 170 Of'golniloo .os
followS'
I.) 25 pages. w,th sheets 10<>Sely numbered X> I-X> 16. as ",,,lias addenda
and al\OOtalions.for t.... mosl pill'Ilabeled, with notes on I.... P1ak) p.11'1. up
k) I.... fifth dl."finLlion of th"l<lph"t, ind..,;i,,,;"
2.) 14 p.1g'" (pp. 26-29 of lhe pkotoropyJ with she.>ts Ioost'ly
numbe...-d 0:-'1. and p.1,d..llj' 1al>led add""da ar>d annotaliolU ronlaining
no4,,", on I.... PMnlrw: ",",cunus.""
3.) 94 pages (Pl" 42-IlS of the pholoropy) along with sho."E'lS
Si.I 16-Sn 69 and partiallj' labell.'d addenda wilh nole'l on I""
inlt'rpl\"t.tion of the Sopht!;/, "I' 10 U... t:nd of the
4.,35 pagt"l (pp. 136-J70 of the photoc,,!,y) .'ong with a few disparale
Iab<::led "So; ronlaining notes on I.... inlerpn't.>lion dIlle s.,m,."
as well asan .1>unclal\(\' of "nlabo-Ied ad<knda and wilh notes
on the Plato part b"t also on t .... Aristotle part and on the qlll'Stion
01 tho! lectures as a whole.
II. A Iypewrinen tMnscriplion of Hartmul Tietjen's deciphering of
h.:>ndwdtll'fl "",nus.:ript.
Ill. The foU""'ing not"" ralu'n do"'" b)' "'1\0 attel1dNl tht.-Iec

l.l a 1"lf\K';pl o. It>o. no''''' lah'l1 by lid...... \'kill, which
tr3<'l! enrire !C<'lurecoun;e. Th"tran5(ript was pnxtu<WI by and
amounts to 497 P.lgcs.
Z-j a typ('Wrillen tunscrip! (-147 p.>&") of ofSimoTl
. l1>ese begin only afle< Christmas and Ihus l>"I>der
Ifoctu"", fl'Ql'l'l IIw "!",osition on.. Le., the Pt"to p;!rt. Hcideggt>r hi,"",lf
r(">'iscd this lranscrip!; 11<> ernployfd il as a working baili. supplied i! wilh
marginal and authoriled it
).\ thr nott'S of Hans Jonas {6 nott'bool<s), which trare lhe enti.., rour.i<'
and on only one ocr....;on, the lw.... s<ssion (Janu.ary 21. 1m),
display a h.lndwriling th.3t is not his OWl\, and, finally, tN- note. of Fritz
S<Nlk (5 notebooks), whid>, with lhe "arepti"n of the beginning of tJ1<,
ninlh (No'..,mb<-r 17, 192-1). liknoll,.. ro,"". tho ....1'... OOU"'"". n-
two _ 04 noteli progressh,,,ly rome to 1J\.>1d> OI\<"another "",il they r"",Uy
rotT<'SpOnd word for word.
Following Heid"tlSeJ's dirtil'cs for the publkltion of his
OOU"",",, il was ml' task as editor IU from the philll8Opher's
"'rill..... ""'nusnipt al1<l from till' various trl1\.S(ripl:i, an <:onlin
"ous !eat. To thai ("nd, I compared, ",ord for word, Heidegge.'s
handwri!1m m.muo;cripl with the typed trilNCrip! 01 Toetjens deciphl'ring
of ii, and r com."<.'tedt..... pa""'g.-s thai " ...., iMccu.ateiy. In a
ftw cases of thorny problems with the reading. I had to _It the original
mMl.IOCf;PI. Furthermon'. I rotnpared Hcidegge.'s "",n"scrip! with the
sludcnll;' notes. l1>ef1oby ;1 thai H"idl-ggt'f I", the mOSI part
follo.voo his m.,nusaipt "'I>Ue deli"mng lhe 11:",", "",,,,Iy
the fonnul.otion. and ""l.>rg;ng, rallwr br()lldly, "pon tlw: ideMal",Mly
sketched out. Occ.uionally. 1>01".......... he w",,1 ""Ii rely beyond his note and
Mlde<! whole P"S5"8'5 obViously a /""1""". Such p.lS8o'ges. for whidlllwn!
a", nocordt only in th.. sludl'n15' nntes, are
1.) th.. l"lCUrsu> on om9'll<l;U:nov as well as on lhe way of
pIlilosophy in Aristotle. acrording to Mrtiiplry>ics V, 26: T.,,;<s V, ....d
PIry>ia I, I."
2,1 Ih" inlerpM"t,on of Aristolle> d;Sl;nction wilhin ",006>;
(<:I\IVqt> ""d &wp1O).ltvov), <:><dIng to the chapt 6,"
).\11w ;nterplt1.Jt,on of I"" priority of m..... ,)('('(lrdiog
10 Ninmwdomn EtIllQl VI, 13. 11+1.01...6.1'
the inll'rpl'l'lalion of ap<i>"'l in Ari$IOlIl', acrordint!; to Mtta
p/ty>u:$ IV, 1 'md 2. in t"" ...
In prep.oring the of 111<> keelu"", 1 lOOk mr g"idance, Iollo..-ing
Heidl'll8"'" <:speci.1Uy fmm the' idea of
_'1' manuscript and lho- "anous transcripts in such a way Ihal-.o. is said
in the to tho:> publication ',,-hich 10 and app""'edj
of his 1'>"'tburg II.'(IU", course. "T"" Elasir Problems-of
thoush'. whet"". al",;><I)" "'rillen down Of oonce,,-...:I "'h,le delivering
tho:> 1lUnlS.. would IosI. .. SiJl<" for the firtlt pa.rt 01 tl>(, l'ClUres the
aulhoriud tral\!o(ript of Mose.'sstenr:ographic ootesdid not .pply.lll;deg-
g",,'5 own manuscript was basicallr the st.nd.rd in p"'paring this pari of
the lext. y", the man,""ripl and the ...il.lil<> lran..<w:riptioou were i""O<J"O"
rate<! In such a "'ay Ihat. in tlw (<>Seo! ronvt",,1 uncbritifs in I..... former..
the priorif)' Waf aoo>tded to the lotter. p""'io;l,-d tho:>y "'8n,t'd .""""g thMn
..., and offCt!:'d a deaM'" formula Ii"". The ""'eli of WciB. due to thei.
re1>li,'e oomplctencl>S as lhe 10:1 of the Ieclul\l1i and in I<mn. of tho:>
Gn>ek Olalion!-. were an indi,peosabk aid. and. un lhe otlwr hand, the
unerring formulatJOflS of lhe noK-!' of jonas and Schalk
welrome in U", cas<' 01 ron.."t....,! difficulty. Sit\C'll! for the_on<!
part of the OOunl<' an aulhori.w<l trar&riJ'l of Moser'. stenographic n<llef
boca"", Ihe .Ia"dard, in su.<:h a way t!\al ailihe oth.... t""tu.1
llOUta:!I "",nUS<Ttp' and lhe other transcrip15j "....., .tm c0n-
sidered, and.. ,I' lhe "r coon-ptual unclarity, HoSdcsgo::r'. manuscript
.Iway' rKci,....-d the priority. pro"idN it w.os ""pt-";o. to the formulali""s
in the Inns<:ripll;. I d'Ci"",,"'>l and p""""t,'<I in footn"l...
marginalia 'which olwiously Slemn1<'d from "uious .toges on his p.>lh of
thinking) in the ty?"wrilten ,''-"'''S,on of Mll!ier's note. A. lot the paf$lgl:S
m<.... tioned the ones H<'id"88'" delil-cred "'...."po...'eo'.,ly. I p.....
pared Ih.-m in aOOlrd with Hdd<'gg<..-'. di"",Ii","-lo the ",,!'tnt tl\,,. this
"'as JIC'll'iblc-by .nd oomparing the ..u-denIS'
The Ir.msitiCJtu, whICh lot th.. most p.>rl dt:li,"Cl"t'd extern
at Ihe bl>ginn,ng of .....h _ion, though he om>sionaJl)' had
prepared k\o- k)' word In ....ith thedl't'O:lh'es, ,,'orke<! into
the ronlinuous le>ol of the k.'dut"<S. The in....rjections fX'<'ulidr tooral ddi ...
w"..... ag;>in If\ Il<'COrd with IhI:- dinx-tiH'5, stricken, all the whi'" """",r,ins.
the slrk> of lectu.....
IectUnlS', both in his "'riling ;md in hi. oral dcli\'ery, p","""l,
in large .........su.... a mixtul't' of Greek cilillion (;('rman
tl<'idegger quorro the Gn."('k tc:<t of P1.1!<> ....rding to thl" first o.rord
E'.dilionof Plato's \Vorks,edited br l. Burnet'" and th<>G"",k Aristotle
acron:hng to the edition p"blished by Teubner in ,".-ious
editors." Tho.' te,t I h.we prt5l'rltro hert' lik"""I.'Ie 6!('S Mato 3(.'(onling to
Ilumt1 ""d Ari,u,tk> a"OOfding to Heid"U"r's jU51namro cop)' When
l-kidegg<'1' fl'l't'ly "aned lhe GIt'cl< original for philosophical or pedagogical
rt'asons, I I'<.'t.lin"d Ills "'ay of quotiJ1g and pnmeed the oorrespond;ng
""tl! "0." Rather long ""i....... within the on81",,1 C"",k le><t
Wer\" markOO with sU5pCnsion points ( ). Orl aero"nt of lhe Jlffe"",ce
in the ci=mstanres 01 the .t",lents' ootCS for the IWO parts 01 tJuo ro.m;e.
1 look ",,,'r tl".' Cr\'Oek ",tations in the firsl part. where Heidegger's oral
qoot.atlons (anlV)! be "'CQI"I!itructed. either from Heidegger. manuscript or,
most olten. frum the noles taken by Weill, in wl!ich tJuo Crock te><ts were
int...-po!alo.'<I, 00\'1oos1y lat",., in mo6Il)' romplet<> !lcr\tenct'S. For th"
part, I n'tained Heideggcr'. oral quotarions, as fixed in tI>e transcript of
/>fQSt'r's notes. in ord..... to 1'1'.,;......... the lecture '1)'1. For the firsl pan, it
was rool dear which citalions H<>idegg..... had t... ""lated in ltiso 1deli,...!)',
and 50 1 included either !h. translation occa'lioNllty found in 'idcggt>,s
manuscript or. In thoe case of diflicult Greek when there was
nelth.,.,. a lf3n51ation no, an "'terp"""th" paraphras<" in thoe manuscripl or
the trMl!ICriplS, my own transl.tion, employing Heidcggerian le,.,,,s, as l"ng
as it did not d;sturb the flo'" of the It',,. In the S'OlId !",n. soch translations
rould bedlspensed with,slncealmost all of Heidegger'stranslations, para-
plu<>ses, and paraphrdSing interpretations arc pn.'SCI'It u\ M(>;<'r', Slt.'I'IO-
graphic notes and roukl be t,'ken from them. For I-kldcgger's translationi
the boundary bo.'tl'nliteraJ translahon and comrne1lLlry is
oiten fluid, I put In quotation markl; only lile'raJ mns"tio"" as well as
.,., ... pl!f35e5 Ih.ll Wft\., ....ady lranslations.
The ..yle of lho! tC:<t I am presenting mWI uRa.-oidably ,'al}'
bctw""", lhe first pari ....d the second, It ,,'as only MOIi<'I"" slc:n<>-
g...phic notes of the Ialler which permitted an apptOJrlrnate reproduction
of the Idilll;yno:ra!ic f<mnolations of Beidegget's oral
I supplil'd the rontinu<>us texl of the INlu....... for which no table 01
!lI.I'Io..... O"'" .....""'inI"".;tt__OIU>nIi
.... tlJ'l'lff
21.A_... __8.GT_l_
iIrio_1'!oo>I -.u, Cotolu\ Prontl upo>i< in oIO'dibu> 8. Go If'\bn<ri. 1m.
A..._ _ N.- Ft.on<'ll<U> SuormihI. tJpo>ao! ., -. II. G,
f tul>ntn. 1!182.
An>"""" 0. .... 1.biIII Gu.-.... _. ofi""ol.... OIroApol' In.
__8 G,Tnlb<J<ri"'r-,ml
A""_""_.t........
8 C.T-..rt.1911,
.."" ...... T"""" ...... _k"""''''''''_._.......... ...."...
Wall;..
Appendl.
al a critical ronfront.l"on ...i!h Ja.-ger's theses. I did not flr><l il possible 10
(>OJI lhese annOlations and incorporate them inlo the main lexi.
I lhem to the appendix as to tM end of the lim
p.ltl. ... appli"", to a """,,,of annot.lliortS On the "Iransitloo," ",'lIkh
k> a "nain e,lenl imer!ll."CI with !host' on the end of the first part. In lhe
transition," wturh also labels'W (. "R<><:apillllation. lntm-
ducti<mNJ,'"' he taholi up again the intl"lTUptOO rou"", of lhousht.'" but in
such ....ar thai he inrorporatol'S il inlO. PregeT1tation 01 O"cfall per.
spth'c gUIding Ibt' p"-""Oous Arisk>11e f"t1 and its ",lMion 10 the rldlo
pan. In doing !iO. Heidegge1" ob"ious1r modified and abndgo.'d in or.,1
<!chery the course of thought he h3d pl.>nroed for lhe Ira1\Sllion. He left
oUl the passage on tu.'let.;... 100, I!ll' m.1nusaipl contain, anllQlatiortS
gi"ing Ihe I:<.-y words on the ......lion of and _Vin il
...dS not possible for me k> filllhem OUI and place them into the .....in lexl.
I _ignro m{'m 10 lho.> appendix as ,upplemenrs.'" DlIring the wUllel" SO!-
""",Wr 1925-26, in hi5lcdu",,,,,,,rse al Marburg mtilled"logk: tht' 0.-
lion of Trulh." lOOk up avln and expf6Sly thematizro Ih..
problemalic which he drnfted sWchil)" "dlhin his Iluns on lho.>

In P""P"ring texl of Ibe Plato part of tht- roul'Sf'. 1 did nOi face these
diffkulli<'5. ,hanb 10 continuity of H.,.;d"SS....'s ."d thanks
to the lranscnpl of Moser's stenogrnphic notes. Here. too-this
timl.'b.sing myself primaril}'on the ..uthorized Ifanscripl-I inlegral<'d the
n,arluscripl and studenls' notes SO thai no thought ....s losl." I pl3<:ed In
th(> ap!",ndix. dS suppl(>m<.'flrs. tnl"I'l'Iy those a""mations whICh rontained
('Omm<.'fll.ori... or which W(>R' difficult to inrorp,mlle and would
haw disturbed the flow of lhe H....., bo>k>ng al!iO a""';,.. of ann<>-
talim,.. on Ihe hermeneulic of o..sein. which forms the for
in,.!",te",rion of Aristotlt< aAd PI.to irllb(> s",'hist rotJ ......
ll
To
Ix> SUR', Ibis .....'mo.'fU'utic doE'S nooIlwnd the irl"'",tI.'lahon in a d%'Tt\Olk
way bul is won pr<ris<-Iy lhrough a confrontation ",ith lhe renl",1 problcn'lS
rc-d in!h(> C.....k texis, ;,(>., in product;"e mutual ",tation.
Th(o basic lheme of Ibis """"'" on I/u: Sophlil is lhe
l'lIlation of truth (tU.1\6r.<al.md Being (livJ. lhc:sc kdure5 ,...ti/y. lIS do lhe
l) AJ'l""f"l<" "'W"","",,&--;'ll.
z,;,5o<!r lll.1IOOt1
17 r'-9!'>.r'1MI'
;)! ;..tt..._uflh<....tic>II.l...... oI ..... ""._ontt....I'J'C""I,. """"_v
Af'l't"d....
3O.1.<ltit- IN r,. ...... *'" W_. MMbutgft """""- 1<r'S-26.
c...."'.._ 1ld I>y Wol... _ h>nkfun._\t.. 1<m.. Eop<ri.oIIy pp. 16.. ....
Jl. A.,....... "'rrlo-mtnl>'" IN- ."......-. -.
pari, which I kad al"'ady p"'f'<'n.'d. and lhey proved a hdp for
my work on tIKo l'liolo
My N"'dwrilWfl "t'\'Slon of Ihe '''''1 of lhe Jt..ctu", (OUQe was typed by
the /l!i$I>t/mls d,p/6II<h wor1<.ing under"'" in !he philooophy <kp;Irlmcnl 01
lho- Unker.;ily QF .....USilnne. namdy Alel<and'" Schild. Mi",ille Ros.!ek>!.
up!. and Andtf )eanmrmod. WIth them. in a rornmon l'\'\Mling. my hand
"'riting "'itS against lhei, lranscrlplinn. M",. Ro:>ssel....-Capt
lie. k Irlll'('S in C"""k. undenool< ('!;pe<:iolly the "erific>tion of tIK' C"",k
ciLlri'lI>S. Oeu.. ray. "ipsa",! in lhe philo&ophy dep.>rtment .
.... pplied the Gn",k lellts with atteniS. since the rompuU,. pointer (Quid nol
rorrectly ",pn:.oduee them. Guido All>ertelli. althal ti"'" working under me
as ar> lmislJltll JipllJml. prepan.'d lhe prinled man-npl and the
bibliographic.ol data. FiMlly. Dr. TI<'tjen at'ld Michalskl (I'h.O. candi
Uni\'<:1Sity of Fteiburgl ......."'wed lhe printed manuocript wilh g....1
ca.....'enrol'<! lhe G"""k cital;on, in HPidogge,'scopyof the rexls, and added
the fmal bibliographical details In lK'COrd "'Ith lhe edllion!; a,'allable in
F,,itnl'l;. They .11 desen-e my sino>e... lhanks for lheir efforts on the printed
manuscript. Ilhanl< Dr. Chrisloph Fmr. "on Wolzagen (Offfonbachl fur lhe
ronfil1't\alior> of the solulion of a q..eslion.able .bb""';"lion. and for sup-
plemenl>ry' bibliographical details. the .,,, ,.,."""iQ'" hul
1':alorp."
My .pecialth.U\ks an: duo.' to Or. TIl'n for lhe typewrilb:n tra..,;cript of
the not"" of Helene Wei8 as _lias for deciphering Heklegger's hat'ld""II.
len '''i"iMl m.>l\uscript. and. funher. 10 Prof. FriedrichWilht:lm ,'On
Herrmann fo' his friendly cou"""l. on<l.laslly. lO Dr. Henna,m
for hI! pallen...... 0'...... my long-protracted editing of the Sophist.
8
IngWorg Schuille.
I.. USol""", Swll>:crland. August 19\1O