B.E./B.Tech. DEGREE EXAMINATION, MAY/JUNE 2007.

Eighth Semester Civil Engineering GE 406 — 'TOTAL QUALITY MANAGEMENT (Common to all branches) ‘ Time : Three hours Maximum 100 marks ` Answer ALL questions. PART A —— (10 >< 2 = 20 marks) 1. What are the activities of quality planning?

1. setting Quality targets 2. deploying customer requirements 3. Having design reviews 4. working with suppliers production facilities for getting right materials in time. 5. process FMEA and Process capability studies
2. What is the philosophy behind ‘l\/Ianagement by Wandering Around’ (MBWA)?

This is the practical way of getting to know the status of the system and to get the feedback without relying on intermediaries. CEO and the Top management people themselves go around the plant or customer office to learn the progress of several initiatives.
3.What are the important factors that influence purchase?

Obviously, price does govern but in TQM there are several others which precede this. 1. Supplier capability to supply the product conssitenly. 2. Location of the supplier 3. His factory systems to ensure trouble free delivery 4. the motivation level of his workers 5. response of the company to the needs of customers. 6. Quality management systems to ISO 9001 4.Is cleanliness the only benefit of implementing ‘5 S’ practices? No 5S is helpful in 1. having an orderly way of working and less waste 2. safe workplace 3. less movement in locating things 4. visual control of material 5. easy supervision 6. motivated workers
5. W hat is the purpose of Pareto Diagrams?

1. Pareto diagram follows 80/20 rule and helps us to prioritse the causes/factors we need to work on. 2. Pareto helps us to set targets for improving quality by choosing the first one or two major causes.
6. How are the measures of central tendency used in quality analysis?

They are used in predicting the population mean from sample mean. They are used to compare two samples and decide whether there is any significant difference.
7. What are the reasons for benchmarking?

1. Benchmarking helps us to learn from the best of the best. 2. Benchmarking helps us to improve our process. 3. Benchmarking helps us to have breakthroughs in quality.

8. What are the losses reduced by TPM?

Six losses are 1. waiting 2. overproduction 3. defectives 4. over and inappropriate processing 5. movement 6. transport
9. What is the purpose of ISO 9000 quality system?

To be able to consistently provide a product that meets customer and applicable regulatory requirements. To enhance customer satisfaction through the application of the system.
10. How does the conceptual approach to ISO 14001 differ from ISO 9001?

Conceptually both believe in process approach and in a systematic way to achieve the goals. ISO 9001 is focused on customer whereas ISO 14001 is focused on protecting the society from adverse environmental impacts. PART B —— (5 X16 : 80 marks) 11. (a) (i) 'What are the dimensions of quality? Discuss eight of them. (8) Garvin found the following eight dimensions of Quality. They are • • • • • • • • Performance Features Reliability Conformance Durability Serviceability Aesthetics Perceived Quality

(ii) What are the duties of quality council? (8) ' Or The duties of Quality Council are as follows 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. To make the Annual Business improvement plan To cascade the Quality goals of the management. to form teams of interested managers to lead the efforts. to train people in Quality tools. to sponsor improvement projects. to recognize the improvements done by suppliers and employees to assess the status of TQM implementation by diagnostic audit. (b) (i). What are the steps in strategic planning? l (8) 1, Top Management first defines the long term vision, mission and the values of the company. 2. Once the vision is clear, the directions for the company become clear to the team of the managers. For example, Motorola’s vision is to be the ‘most trusted integrator of complex information and communication systems for the government and private sector”. Here it is very clear that Motorola management wishes the company to proceed in the following direction. 1. Trust of the

customer should be won not profit or share of wallet 2. the need is to take up the challenge of being the known for the most complex work like supplying to space craft 3. to be able to work for private and public sector. 3. In the second step, management conducts a SWOT analysis ie evaluates the strengths weaknesses opportunities and threats to find the possible ways in which the company can take the way forward. Inputs are taken from different agencies at this point of time as follows. 1. Market segmentation and changes in the segments 2. Competitor activity 3. Global economic indicators 4. Supplier capacity and abilities 5. Human resources 6. Legal scenarios In the second stage, the goals or strategic objectives are arrived at and released with a time plan or calendar. They could be as follows: 1. Entry into small car market in 2010. 2. Become a market leader in Africa by 2012. 3. be the leader in India by 2013 The strategic objectives need to be cascaded to every function and even to dealers and suppliers. This III stage is enabled by adopting techniques like Policy Deployment or MBO. Some companies recently have started Balance score Card. In the IV stage the management needs to review the progress of action plans and modify the plans due to certain changes happening in the environment.

(ii) What are the barriers to TQM., implementation? How are they eliminated?(8) 1. Lack of commitment from Top management. This is dealt with by organizing visits by TQM experts to the company or the top management people visiting other advanced companies in India and abroad. 2. Lack of cooperation from Middle management: Dept Heads do not support TQM as they are afraid of losing their power. This should be dealt with by showing that TQM is beneficial to every one and not following it is detrimental to the survival. 3. Functional Barriers: Traditional way of working has built vertical silos around the functions and this should be broken by Process approach. 4. Lack of Team work : teams are the basic necessities for TQM implementation. Teasn should be formed and they should be recognized by the top management. Quality circles and Cross functional teams should be fully supported by the top management. 5. Subjective decisions: TQM requires analysis of problems. But some people tend to be subjective about problems, Data collection should be made mandatory and judgements and intuitive way of solving problems should be discouraged. 6. No knowledge of tools: Ishikawa said “TQM starts with education” . Full time programmes should be run to teach problem solving tools to every one. 7. No customer focus: Whatever we do , we need to ask what value is this to customer? But some times it is not so. We should encourage process audits to find out how customer requirements are translated into products. 8. Fatigue: People tend to expect too much in a short time and if the goals are not achieved, they tend to become frustrated. To avoid this, frequent communications and some fun gatherings should be organized.

12. (a) (i) What is the concern of most consumer? Is it price of the product or • service? Explain in detail.(4) Customer expects to have the value form money whether it is for product or service. However, there is a difference. Product price is the cost of acquisition and if it is low, he would like to get the product without fully estimating the need for service. Eg in buying a car, he may not expect the need to change the lighting after one year. Suppose it is required and the service is not available or costly, the customer feels cheated. The concern of customer is for the price of product if it is non durable or something he can manage to do. (like cooker) however, in a car or a TV the customer has concern for the cost service as he may have to incur it repeatedly. (ii) _ What are the different ways of receiving customer feedback? How are the feedback used? (12) • 1. Interviews with customers; Executives can actually visit customers at their places and conduct interviews. Incase the cost is more, tel interviews are possible. 2. Focus Groups: Customers in groups are invited to a common place and asked to discuss about their experiences about the products and services. 3. Listening Posts: marketing agencies and journals can be used to collect data and bring the data to the company. 4. Complaints: Complaints themselves are good sources of customer information. 5. Customer satisfaction surveys; Surveys are conducted at regular intervals to get customer feedback in a quantified manner. 6. Visits: visits of customers can be arranged to the company wherein they can see the facilites and comment about the problems. or (b)(i) What are the types of teams formed in industries? Discuss the functions of any four of them(8) 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. Quality Control circles Self Directed Teams Cross functional teams QFD teams Task Forces six sigma teams Kaizen teams

1. QC circles: QC circles originated in Japan in 1950s to involve workers and operators in improvement activities. QC circle is a local work place based team having 4-5 members who are full time workers of the department. QC circle has a leader and meets every week outside the office hours. Each QC circle takes up a specific problem and solves the problem by following a structured problem solving process. 2. Self Directed Teams: These teams are also work place based teams. They are not problem solving teams. They plan and carryout the work in the shop. For instance, they meet in the morning and decide which machines are to be run or which tools are to be loaded. The SDTs are highly empowered teams and they can take such decisions without the management. 3. Kaizen teams: Kaizen teams are improvement teams but many times they are not fixed to a location. They are teams which come together and plan an improvement activity and carry it out in a weekend. They are not problem solvers but solution implementers. They have high energy levels and create drastic changes in a short period of time. 4. Six sigma teams: They are problem solving teams. However, they follow a rigorous problem solving methodology and they take six months to solve a problem. The problems are complex and need statistical tools and software to process the data.

(ii) How is PDSA cycle used? Discuss with a case study. • (8) Plan DO Study Act was found by W A Schewart but propagated by De Deming in Japan to codify the implementation of an improvement cycle in the organization. Let us demonstrate it with a case study. Company providing Air services wants to improve customer satisfaction with its services. First it took up the activities related to Plan. The company studied the customer segments and found that predominant segment was business men. It formed a team to collect data on the preferences of the travelers. The team came to the conclusion that providing a pick up at airport would satisfy many travelers and this fare can be added in their air ticket. In DO part of cycle the Delhi to Mumbai sector was taken and two morning flights were earmarked for this facility. For one month the travelers were told that this trial offer was available. Data was collected by the team about the number of travelers who preferred this service and took their feedback on their reaching the destination. During study or check phase the satisfaction scores of travelers who availed this facility was compared with those who traveled in other flights. The comparison showed that there was a significant difference proving that the air travelers did like to be picked up and dropped. The Action phase started. The company extended this to Delhi to Chennai and Delhi to Kolkata also. Secondly. Some travelers complained that the driver did not know English and in action phase this was sought to be corrected with deploying English speaking drivers. It was decided to kep this facility only to the two morning flights which are mostly used by business travelers. 13. (a) (i) Draw cause and effect diagram for an engineering problem. A (8) . People Low skill Storage poor Poor Quality of spares Dusty shop floor Voltage low Life of machine Frequent breakdown of Machine

Materials

Environment

Machine

(ii) What are the interpretations of different shapes of histograms? (8) . `

SL

a)

SU

This shape shows the variation small and there is a single peak with symmetrical decline on both sides. This shows capable and stable process.
120 10 0 8 0 6 0 4 2 0

127 The histogram is bimodal and it has two peaks. This means that the process may have two groups of data which do not belong to the same population. 30 2 5 2 0 1 1 5
3 4.5 6 7.5 9 10.5 12 13.5 15 16.5

10

23

36

49

62

75

88 101 114

Shape is not symmetrical . On the left side it is suddenly truncated. This could indicate a manual inspection and filtering of data to give within the limits. (b) (i) An industrial product was subjected to inspection with a batch size of 5-00 for ten consecutive days- The number of defective pieces found are 33, 42, 44, 56, 60, 43, 55, 42, 28.and 70. Draw a p-chart and discuss. (12) The defectives per lot of the products produced follows a binomial distribution and hence p chart is suitable. Proportion=defectives/lot The p chart is drawn as follows: each proportion is calculated . Mean p bar = 0.0946 Upper Control limit= pbar+ 3* ( sq root (pbar * 1-pbar/n)) and\ Lower Control Limiit=pbar-3*(sq root(pbar*1-pbar/n)) We see the chart and observe that the process has gone out of statistical control on the last day. There are some assignable causes for this variation and other cariations are due to chance causes.

0.141 0.131 0.121 0.111 P - Reject 0.101 0.091 0.081 0.071 0.061 0.051

0.1339

0.0946

0.0553

(ii) How is Process Decision Program Chart (.PDPC) used? Give an example. (4)
The Process Decision Program Chart (commonly abbreviated to the less unwieldy PDPC) provides a simple method to help in identifying both risks and countermeasures. Quite simply, if the plan is displayed diagrammatically (typically in a Tree Diagram), then identified risks and countermeasures are added in subsequent boxes, as below. This may appear to be quite trivial, but as with many other tools, the construction and thought involved is as important as the final diagram. The PDPC is one of the second seven tools.

Eg

10

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

9

Gear box life low

High temp causes problem

Develop coolants

Power train Improvement Shaft and coupling life low

Use superior material

14. (a) Draw the house of quality for an industrial product. Explain various 4 stages. . (16)
The four stages required for a full QFD are: • Product planning - the House of Quality o wishes of customer transferred to product o evaluation of competitor products o identification of important properties Product design - parts deployment o choose best design to fulfil targets o identify critical parts and components o further R&D if needed Process design - process planning o critical parameters identified o process control/improvement methods set Production design - production planning o design instructions for production o define measurements, frequency and tools to be used attractive styling 4 Low price 3 Theft free 4 Fast 4 Travel in all roads 4 Carry a lot 3 Frame Not rusty 2 Seat height adjusting 1 Colours 2 Brakes powerful 5 Mintenance low 1 Speed indicating 1 Tyres good grip 4 at par superior Inferiror at par at par Inferior Inferior at par inferior inferior superior at par at par

• •

HOUSE OF QUALITY

Relations: Strong 9 Medium 6 Weak 3

+ -

Correlation: Positive Negative

Engineering characteristics

Customer Requirements
attractive styling Low price Theft free Fast Travel in all roads Carry a lot 4 3 4 4 4 3

Frame Not rusty 2 Seat height adjusting 1 Colours 2 Brakes powerful 5 Mintenance low 1 Speed indicating 1 Tyres good grip 4

Relative importance
The house of Quality is constructed as follows: The table shows Quality ie what customer wants on one side and Function ie what our designers provide on the other side. By making a matrix let us study both and see how they are matching. The table shows Quality ie what customer wants on one side and Function ie what our designers provide on the other side. By making a matrix let us study both and see how they are matching. 9 shows the maximum correlation of characteristic to the want. 6 shows medium correlation. 3 shows minimum correlation. 0 shows no correlation. The table is interpreted as follows: Among customer wants “travel on all roads” is addressed by our designers comprehensively but still we are inferior to the competitor. Since arrow marks indicate the efforts going on, we will take credit for the efforts and accelerate them. Least score is for attractive styling no technical feature is addressing this and let us say we are at par as per the comparison. We can be overtaken soon as we

Tyre width Instruments in cycle Colours to be 3 Paint thk to 75 DFT min Material to be rust proof give free service Gears system Locking system FM Radio free king club membershio Basket bigger Price

Weigt Pedal power

are not putting any efforts. Customer has given the second highest importance score to attractive styling and so we may lose out. We need to put in efforts in this direction and designers need to correct their development models to offer more attractive styling.. We are not clear that the company is serious about this. So Designers should come out with not only good lock but theft free design. ) There could be contradictions as we improve attractive styling it may become less fast due to air drag or weight. This is called technical contradiction in QFD. This has to be resolved by innovation only. (b) How is FMEA performed? Discuss with an example; Draw the table and give details. (16) Objectives of FMEA 1. 2. 3. 4. To identify failure modes and the corresponding risks. To quantify the risks of failures. To prioritise the risks. to take countermeasures for the prioritized risks.

Process of Design FMEA; 1. The CFT is formed for performing the design FMEA. 2. The individual items are listed and the function of each item is listed. 3. The failure mode by which the item will not perform its function is identified. Say a tube will leak This is a failure mode of the tube. 4. the failure mode is extended to its consequence eg the leak will cause damage to the machine then the severity of such an occurrence is rated in a scale of 1-10. 5. the potential causes for such a failure mode are identified eg a leak is caused because of impurities in the liquid. 6. The probability of this cause ocurring is rated in a scale of 1-10 I being rare and 10 being the number for very often occurring cause. 7. The Severity and Probability determine the risk however it is modified by detection mechanisms if something is available to detect the impurities in time. 8. Ths the risk priority number RPN is the product of Severity* probability* detection. Item Potential Potential S C Potential O Current Current D R. Recommended Responsi- Action results effect(s) e l cause(s) c Design Design e P. action(s) bility & Actions S O D R. failure of failure V a /mechanism(s) c controls Controls t N. target taken E C E P. mode s of failure u Prevention Detection e completion V C T N. F S R C date unction Tube Leak Damage 8 Impurity in oil 6 Nil Nil 10 480 Install warning B S Shah 24th Sep in machine for dirty oil

Process of process FMEA: 1. 2. 3. 4. CFT is formed. List all the operations one by one. Write the purpose of each operation. Eg cuttting Write the failure mode for each operation eg cut to wrong length

5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11.

Identify the consequence of such a failure mode eg batch rejected. Write the severity of the failure eg 8 Identify the potential causes for such a failure eg wrong tool. Write the probability of such a cause occurring in na scale of 1-10 (1 rare 10 very often). Severity and Probability together constitute the risk but it is modified by the detection. Depending on the process control/ error proofing the detection score is given. Then RPN is calculated as Severity * probability* detection.

Operation Potential Potential S C Potential O Current Current D R. Recommended Responsi- Action results effect(s) e l cause(s) c Process Process e P. action(s) bility & Actions S O D R. failure of failure V a /mechanism(s) c controls Controls t N. target taken E C E P. mode s of failure u Prevention Detection e completion V C T N. S R C date Cutting Wrong Rejection 8 Mistake in tool 6 Nil Nil 10 480 Install checking B S Sanjay 24th Sep length for tool

15. (a) (What are the steps in the implementation of ISO 9000 quality system. Discuss in detail. A (16) The ISO 9001:2000 (now revised to 2008) needs be implemented in a planned way. For a big company this exercise may take about six to eight months and for a small company it may take 3 to 5 months time depending on the efforts put in continuously. The activities are detailed as follows. 1. Management should declare the intention to go for ISO standard QMS and nominate a team which will implement the standard. 2. The team meets and deliberates about the present status and decides the time required. 3. Management to declare the Quality Policy and objectives to all the people. 4. management will inform the functional Heads to study the requirements and understand the need to have processes which are cutting across the functions. 5. The team defines the key processes in the company they may be 5 to 10 depending on the complexity of the company’s operations. 6. The process maps are prepared and verified by all the managers. 7. thius constitutes the main implementation document. 8. The Quality manual is written with the process maps as guiding document. 9. The II level procedures are written by the dept heads with the assistance of all the employees. 10. The documentation is completed for all activities and the documents are released for all the employees. 11. the Internal auditors are trained for conducting the audits on all aspects of the company and its operations. 12. The internal audits are conducted and the flaws in the system are reported. 13. The management reviews the audit findings and takes the corrective actions. 14. After getting convinced that the system is stable, the management requests the certification agency to come and do an external audit. 15. The selected agency sends its team of auditors who come and do the audit and submit the report to the management. 16. In case there are no major discrepancies or non conformances the certificate is awarded to the company’s Quality management system which is valid for 3 years subject to an annual surveillance audit.

(b) (i) Discuss the environmental management system model with a block diagram.(10) EMS

Environment Policy of the company

Environment Objectives and goals Communication and Roles and Responsibilities Legal Requirements

EMS Planning Identifying environmental Aspects of processes. Resources allocation

.Making the procedures for monitoring of the aspects on a day to day basis Emergency Preparedness Training of people

Performance monitoring and Internal audits

Corrective actions on the non conformances and feedbacks

(ii) What are the global benefits of environmental management system? Discuss-in detail.(6) The global benefits of an environmental management system are as follows: 1. The community becomes a stakeholder in the business and its interests are kept in mind because the environment impacts are to be reduced. 2. The processes become environment friendly as environment aspects are monitored. 3. The improvement initiatives are taken up due to environment management programmes. 4. The suppliers are also included in the implementation by big companies and hence the awareness about pollution increases. 5. Due to energy conservation, the natural resources and non recyclable resources are used with caution. 6. These resources become available to the world for future generations also.

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