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Mary Kate McNulty Special Education Manual Types of Disabilities and Implications for Learning The Individuals with

Disabilities Education Act (IDEA) is a law that ensures that children with disabilities get appropriate and necessary educational and other related services IDEA identi!ies "# di!!erent disabilities that allow !or a child to receive special education services Disability Autis$ Characteristics of Disability A develop$ental disability that a!!ects verbal and nonverbal co$$unication and social interaction Develop$ental delays are signi!icant enough they are usually noticed by the age o! three Si$ultaneous hearing and visual i$pair$ents A severe hearing i$pair$ent where the child is i$paired in processing linguistic in!or$ation through hearing A delay in one or $ore o! the !ollowing& cognitive' physical' social' or e$otional develop$ent( co$$unication( or behavior There are develop$ental e)pectations !or children !ro$ birth to age three and then !ro$ age three to age nine *ne or $ore o! the !ollowing characteristics $ust adversely a!!ect a child+s education& an inability to learn that cannot be e)plained through health' sensory' or intellectual !actors( an inability to create or $aintain interpersonal relationships with adults and peers( inappropriate behaviors or !eelings under nor$al circu$stances( !re,uent $oods or depression( develop$ent o! !ears or physical sy$pto$s lin-ed with people or school proble$s An i$pair$ent in hearing' either per$anent or te$porary Signi!icantly below average intellectual !unctioning Si$ultaneous i$pair$ents that cannot be acco$$odated !or through an education progra$ speci!ically !or one i$pair$ent A severe orthopedic i$pair$ent which can be caused by a congenital ano$aly' disease' or other causes An i$pair$ent due to a chronic or acute health proble$ that causes li$ited strength' vitality' or alertness This

Dea!%blindness Dea!ness Develop$ental delay

E$otional disturbance

.earing i$pair$ent Intellectual disability Multiple disabilities *rthopedic i$pair$ent *ther health i$pair$ent

Speci!ic learning disability

Speech or language i$pair$ent Trau$atic brain in/ury 0isual i$pair$ent' including blindness http&11nichcy org1disability1categories

also includes a -een alertness to environ$ental sti$uli A disorder in one or $ore o! the basic psychological processes which allows one to understand and use language' both spo-en and written' and results in a di!!iculty with thin-ing' reading' writing' spea-ing' listening' spelling' or $athe$atical calculations A co$$unication disorder that a!!ects articulation' voice' and language An in/ury to the brain by an e)ternal !orce that results in total or partial dys!unction o! the brain An i$pair$ent in vision

Support for Cognitive, Non-cognitive, Social, Behavioral, Language, and hysical S!ills Students in the classroo$ do not all learn in the sa$e way .oward 2ardner+s theory identi!ies seven speci!ic intelligences Students+ strengths in these intelligences varies so it is i$portant to incorporate as $any intelligences as possible into learning and the classroo$

Intelligence 0isual%Spatial

Characteristics of Intelligence Aware o! environ$ent( !re,uently daydrea$s( en/oys drawing' pu33les' $aps


Keen sense o! body awareness( en/oys $ove$ent' $a-ing1e)ploring things' use o! touch to e)plore' tactile e)periences


Sensitivity to rhyth$ and sound( en/oys $usic


7earn through interaction( a natural leader( very social( 8street s$art(9 en/oys

Tools for Teaching 4se o! $odels' graphics' charts' photos' video' videocon!erencing' $ulti$edia' te)ts with pictures1graphs1charts' visual arts' optical illusions' visual awareness activities 6hysical activity' hands%on learning' acting out' role playing' use o! $anipulatives' and -inesthetic i$agery' virtual reality so!tware' tactile $aterials' !ield trips 5ac-ground $usic' use o! lyrics' spea-ing rhyth$ically' tapping out ti$e' $usical instru$ents' $ulti$edia' group singing' $usic appreciation' creating new $usic :ooperative group activities' con!erencing' peer teaching'

teaching others( en/oys ga$es Intrapersonal 4nderstand personal goals and interests( highly $otivated' strong will' con!idence' and opinions


7ogical% Mathe$atical

.ave highly developed auditory s-ills and thin- through words( strong vocabulary( good $e$ory !or na$es o! places' people' dates' and events( en/oy reading' playing word ga$es' listening to spo-en words' and writing Thin- conceptually and abstractly( able to E)peri$ents' pu33les' logic see patterns' categories' and relationships ga$es' investigations' easily( strong sense o! arith$etic( en/oys $athe$atical proble$s logical ga$es and brain teasers

con!lict $ediation' ga$es' peer sharing Independent study' use o! boo-s' diary1/ournal' independent pro/ects and ga$es' personal connections' choice activities' goal setting activities1con!erencing ;eading' lectures' debates' writing' sharing ti$e' word ga$es' storytelling' publishing writing

<ith the use o! technology' teachers can engage students and touch a nu$ber o! $ultiple intelligences at one ti$e Technology brings or enhances the !ollowing in the classroo$& S$art5oards' docu$ent ca$eras' audio recordings' photographs' graphics' $aps' interactive ga$es' virtual reality so!tware' use o! photography and videography' online $anipulatives' publishing' word processing' online libraries' and so $any $ore There are so $any resources available !or teachers to use but !re,uently educators are unaware o! the$ or they are not properly trained =or technology to be use to its !ullest potential' teachers $ust attend trainings that show not only how to use the technology but also how to i$ple$ent it into the curriculu$ Teachers need to -now how to e!!ectively use this tool at their students+ current instructional level http"##$$$%tec$eb%org#styles#gardner%html http"##$$$%spann&%org#Basic'ights#appendi()b%htm Technology-Based *ethods of +ssessment Assess$ents are what educators use to drive instruction The data that is collected !ro$ various assess$ents allows educators to identi!y the speci!ic needs !or each student and direct the !ocus o! instruction There are !or$al assess$ents such as MA6 testing (Measures o! Acade$ic 6rogress) that schools are using several ti$es a year MA6 is a co$puteri3ed adaptive assess$ent in Math' ;eading' and 7anguage The test adapts based on the student+s answer so that the

student is challenged but not co$pletely !rustrated when every ,uestion is too di!!icult This can be -ey !or special education students who are below grade level They are given an assess$ent the sa$e as everyone else but ,uestions are di!!erentiated The data !ro$ the results o! MA6 testing are presented to teachers in a variety o! brea-downs that allow teachers to $anipulate the data and really !ocus on each student+s needs The test is ta-en >%? ti$es a year to $onitor the growth o! each student in each area o! testing This is help!ul !or educators who are $onitoring goals !or each student with an IE6 Ad$inistrators can use the data to see the e!!ectiveness o! teachers in their school There are less !or$al $ethods o! assess$ent that can also be used as a response to intervention such as Study Island Study Island is a web%based so!tware that provides standard% based instruction' practice' and assess$ent !or students in grades K%"> in $ath' reading' language arts' social studies' and science This progra$ $onitors students+ progress and provides data to educators that allow the$ to plan e!!ective teaching Ad$inistrators can $onitor the data and teachers+ instruction to be sure the needs o! students are being $et An ongoing $ethod o! assess$ent would be an online port!olio This allows students to showcase what was learned over a span o! ti$e This is an assess$ent that wor-s well !or students who do not test well or have test an)iety Students have a product that they can be proud o! Available in the $a/ority o! school districts now are electronic gradeboo-s This gives parents and students constant accessibility to a student+s grades at ho$e This allows !or ,uic-er !eedbac-' a greater connection between ho$e and school' and a chance !or students to closely $onitor their own success The I, rocess An Individuali3ed Education 6rogra$ (IE6) is the plan or $ap to a child+s education

Developing an IE6 is a long process that is bene!icial to learning what a child really needs to be success!ul It identi!ies a child+s strengths and wea-nesses and then a plan is designed !or the child+s education 6arents along with pro!essionals develop' $onitor' and evaluate the IE6 Step 1: Identify a Student Teacher identi!ies area o! need !or a speci!ic student' whether it be acade$ic' behavioral' social' e$otional' physical' or speech The teacher arranges a con!erence with parents1guardians

and a guidance counselor to discuss concern Teacher' guidance counselor' and parents collaborate to $a-e a plan o! action Step 2: Response to Intervention in the Classroom ;esponse to Intervention (;TI) is a rigorous co$bination o! 8high ,uality' culturally and linguistically responsive instructional assess$ent( and evidence%based intervention'9 (http&11www rti#success org1whatisrti) Instruction occurs and then a screening is conducted to identi!y students who $ay be struggling These screenings are typically short and universal Ne)t' the student+s growth through intervention is $onitored' which !ocuses on i$prove$ent and the rate o! e!!ectiveness o! the instruction 6rogress $onitoring can be done with an individual student or with an entire class These interventions are tiered Tier " interventions are within the classroo$ and o!!er di!!erentiation Tier > interventions can ta-e place within or outside the class roo$ setting These interventions re,uire $ore !re,uent $onitoring and typically have a student $eet in a s$all group or individually !or ?@ $inutes two to !our ti$es per wee- A Tier ? intervention is !or students who did not show su!!icient growth in Tier " or Tier > interventions These interventions are intense' !re,uent' and e)plicit and $ost o!ten happen outside o! the general education classroo$ I! a!ter several wee-s there is not a su!!icient response to the interventions provided' it is then that the child can be considered !or special education services Teachers $ust try at least ? strategies used as an intervention and $odi!ication within the classroo$ Each intervention $ust $onitor and docu$ent progress which will be used later by the IA;S tea$ to decide i! the student ,uali!ies !or testing This step is used as a screening process be!ore a $ore !or$al identi!ication process Step 3: Intervention and Referral Services (I&RS) The teacher gathers all necessary data and co$pletes a re!erral pac-et which is then sub$itted to the Intervention and ;e!erral Services Tea$ (IA;S) *nce the pac-et is in' the nurse co$pletes a !or$ and a ,uestionnaire gets sent ho$e to parents to be co$pleted *nce a $onth the IA;S tea$ $eets to review all re!erred students The tea$ develops an Action 6lan !or each student that is re!erred Step 4: ction !lan

The IA;S tea$ develops an Action 6lan which identi!ies $easurable progress1i$prove$ent that a teacher is to $onitor A 6athways Inventory is also created This strea$lines the planning process and develops changeable and achievable goals !or each student re!erred 5oth the Action 6lan and 6athways Inventory are returned to the teacher !or i$$ediate i$ple$entation A :ase Manager is assigned to each re!erred student and will chec-%up with the teacher within two wee-s o! the IA;S $eeting Each student is reviewed on an ongoing basis until i$prove$ent is observed Step ": Identification from I&RS I! i$prove$ent or growth is not shown through the Action 6lan and 6athways Inventory' the student is then re!erred !or evaluation by the :hild Study Tea$ The :hild Study Tea$ is $ade up a 7earning Disabilities Teacher :onsultant' 6sychologist' Social <or-er' and Speech Therapist

Step #: $valuation *nce a need !or evaluation is deter$ined by parents and the :hild Study Tea$' things need to be done in a ti$ely $anner <ithin B@ days' the school has to co$plete an evaluation' deter$ine eligibility' and develop and i$ple$ent an IE6' i! the child is eligible Evaluations are conducted by $ultidisciplinary tea$s $ade up o! pro!essionals that are e)perts in the child+s area o! concern The evaluations pinpoint areas o! strength and need Medical history' parent and teacher ,uestionnaires' in!or$al observations' and !or$al assess$ents are all used =re,uently an assess$ent that deter$ines a student+s learning styles is also given to help the :hild Study Tea$ !ind bene!icial $odi!ications I! a student is eligible !or services' these assess$ents are used as a baseline o! per!or$ance and guide !or the tea$ to develop a progra$ with reachable' $anageable goals Step %: &etermination of $li'i(ility Those $e$bers o! the :hild Study Tea$ who ad$inistered the assess$ents' co$pile the results into a detailed report and su$$ary There is then a $eeting with the :hild Study Tea$

and parents to discuss the !indings and $a-e decisions and reco$$endations I! a student does not ,uali!y !or services' parents can appeal this decision Step ): &evelopment of I$! A!ter a student is deter$ined eligible !or an Individual Education 6lan (IE6)' parents and the :hild Study Tea$ decide on appropriate education' services' and place$ent !or the student The goal is to $a-e $odi!ications and a plan !or a student so he can be success!ul in the least restrictive environ$ent possible 4sing the results and reports provided by the :hild Study Tea$' the tea$ and parents together identi!y resources needed !or the student to be success!ul learning the curriculu$ and deter$ine appropriate and $anageable goals These are put together and an IE6 is created Step *: Implementation of the I$! *nce the IE6 has been created' it beco$es a legal docu$ent stating what the student needs in school All teachers !or that student need to get a copy o! the IE6 and $a-e sure they i$ple$ent all necessary $odi!ications and supports Step 1+: ,onitorin' the I$! Teachers need to $onitor student progress and indicate growth in the Cuarterly 6rogress that goes ho$e with report cards each $ar-ing period The purpose o! $onitoring progress is to help the teacher guide instruction and be sure interventions planned in the IE6 are being e!!ective Step 11: nnual Revie- and.or 3/0ear Reevaluation Each year' the student+s IE6 is reviewed This happens at a $eeting with the :hild Study Tea$' classroo$ teacher' special education teacher' and parents As students get older' they are also invited to the $eeting At this $eeting' everyone involved reviews progress $ade that year and $a-e plans !or the !ollowing school year Every three years' a student can be up !or reevaluation At this ti$e' i! the tea$ does not thin- the student need services any longer' they can reevaluate and $a-e decisions then Depending on a student+s needs' $odi!ications' and services deter$ined in the IE6' students could be in a general education classroo$ with $odi!ications' in a general education

classroo$ with an instructional aide or special education teacher' in a classroo$ that has a pull% out group' in a sel!%contained classroo$' or in a special education school It is i$perative that the :hild Study Tea$ !inds an environ$ent !or the student that is the least restrictive possible' $eaning that the student spends as $uch ti$e in the general education classroo$ as possible The IE6 is a legally binding docu$ent Every acco$$odation listed in the IE6' $ust be done !or the student <hile so$e $ay !ind it un!air that all students aren+t treated e,ually' it is i$portant to -eep in $ind that all students do not learn the sa$e way and do not have the sa$e strengths =air is not everyone having the sa$e thing' it+s everyone having what they need to be success!ul I! that $eans a student needs a $ore detailed study guide' a copy o! notes' or $anipulatives to assist with $ath proble$s' it doesn+t $atter that+s not what every student is getting It is helping that student be success!ul As one can i$agine' the special education process is a long' tedious /ourney There is !re,uently a debate whether this process is to reduce the nu$ber o! IE6+s or i! it is actually bene!icial It is i$portant that teachers try a variety o! interventions be!ore re!erring a student to the :hild Study Tea$ Dust because a student is struggling in one area doesn+t $ean they need special education services =re,uently a little e)tra help goes a long way' especially when it+s in s$all groups and presented in a variety o! ways There are instances when this process does not I had a student two years bac- that in #th grade' was unable to add or subtract one digit nu$bers I wor-ed with this student in s$all groups and individually I tried several interventions and tried the use o! $anipluatives' such as nu$ber lines' counter cubes' and !lash cards No $atter what we tried' the student still did not $a-e process A!ter several $onths' I had enough data to present the student to the :hild Study Tea$ The student went through the evaluation process and the results showed she did not ,uali!y !or special education services by only > points So$e o! the assess$ents used were ob/ective and i! so$eone else tested the student she $ay have ,uali!ied Now two years later' the student still struggles in $ath and is not $a-ing $uch progress I wonder i! the process was a little di!!erent how the outco$e o! testing would have changed and she would $ost li-ely get the services she needs to be $ore success!ul in school http&11www spann/ org15asic;ights1whatEisEiep ht$ http&11www education co$1re!erence1article1steps%ndividuali3ed%education%progra$%IE61FpageGH Literacy +c-uisition There are $any technological resources available !or students who are learning to read

=ro$ an early age' when children are Early E$ergent ;eaders' it is i$perative that they understand the basic concepts o! boo-s and print :hildren can be introduced to audio boo-s 6arents can video or record the$selves reading boo-s so they child can listen or watch repetitively There are $any T0 shows and videos that children can watch to help aspiring readers Available to $any children are online or co$puter so!tware that read to the$' have the$ identi!y letters or sounds' or identi!y rhy$ing patterns *nce children beco$e e$ergent and !luent readers' they can still listen to an audio boo- or use co$puter so!tware or online ga$es to help the$ beco$e stronger' $ore !luent readers Now they can also use video' audio recordings' blogs' and various $ulti$edia resources to share their own reading 6arents also need to -now what technology is out there !or the$ to use as a resource at ho$e school Introducing parents to help!ul blogs' !ree online ga$es and libraries' use o! e;eaders' and audio boo-s' to na$e a !ew' helps parents to better prepare their students when they enter into

,ffective Instructional Strategies for Students in Inclusive Settings Special education students today are placed in the least restrictive environ$ent' $eaning they spend as $uch ti$e as they possibly can in a general education classroo$ with support !ro$ not only the general education teacher' but special education teachers' parapro!essionals' and other sta!! in the building I teach in an inclusion classroo$ that has a !ull%ti$e special education teacher In our classroo$ we have a goal o! universal design !or learning (4D7) in all we do 4D7 is a way o! teaching that allows !or all learners in the classroo$ to understand the in!or$ation presented It allows !or e,ual opportunities while o!!ering !le)ibility and $odi!ied instruction So $uch o! our planning is driven by di!!erentiated instruction *n a daily basis we thin- about our students+ readiness levels' bac-ground -nowledge' language' pre!erred learning styles' and interests be!ore i$ple$enting a lesson or assess$ent There are three basic principles o! 4D7& provide $ultiple $eans o! representations( provide $ultiple $eans o! action and e)pression( provide $ultiple $eans o! engage$ent

rovide *ultiple *eans of 'epresentation

0ariation o! how in!or$ation is displayed

rovide *ultiple *eans of +ction and ,(pression

Allow !or physical responses

rovide *ultiple *eans of ,ngagement

Allow !or student choice Ensure relevance and

0ariation o! how in!or$ation is presented through auditory 0ariation o! visual in!or$ation Multiple de!initions or sy$bols Decoding te)t or $athe$atical notations Illustrate -ey concepts through illustrations' graphs' or other te)t !eatures Activate prior -nowledge Draw attention to $ain idea and -ey details Ma-e connections

Allow and support assistive technologies :o$$unicate through various !or$s o! $edia 0ariation o! tools !or proble$ solving Sca!!olding o! instruction' practice' and assess$ent 6rovide support !or goal setting and planning Monitor progress

authenticity to students ;educe distractions to increase productiveness Di!!erentiate based on interest levels and readiness levels 6rovide support based on needs 6rovide an environ$ent that encourages collaboration 6rovide !eedbac- and give opportunity !or sel!% re!lection

The !ollowing are so$e e)a$ples within our classroo$ <e are sure to present in!or$ation to visual learners' auditory learners' and tactile learners <e give the students a visual whether it be a video clip' i$age' or so$ething on the board( we say in!or$ation orally or listen to a guest spea-er' or a clip on the co$puter( we have students e)plore through a hands%on tas- or have the$ write on the interactive white board' on an individual dry erase board' or in a noteboo- <e do all o! this within a lesson so that we are able to reach a greater nu$ber o! students <hen writing' we provide sca!!olding support !or those who need help developing ideas' we o!!er various organi3ers and chec- lists Throughout each writing unit or piece' we o!!er opportunities !or the students to share with one another Each day the students con!erence with a teacher to $onitor their progress and continue to grow <e di!!erentiate everything we do in our classroo$ <e thin- o! all types o! learners when we teach I auditory' visual' and tactile <e $eet with s$all' !le)ible groups that are deter$ined that day based on the understanding o! the $ath lesson or a student+s current reading level <e provide $anipulatives' place value charts' nu$ber lines' and $ultiplication charts to assist students with $ath concepts <e con!erence with students independently and o!!er !eedbac- and we have students con!erence with one another and have students give co$pli$ents

and suggestions <e have students wor- with partners % both ho$ogeneously leveled or high1low leveled <e o!!er choice within our class <e recently co$pleted a choice pro/ect at the end o! a novel study Students could choose to create a ti$eline' co$ic strip !ro$ a scene o! a boo-' scrapboo- !or the $ain character' or a board ga$e based on the novel During the pro/ect' we were able to sca!!old the help we provided and we challenged students who could use the e)tra push *ne student in the class has di!!iculty with writing That student chose to create a co$ic strip but then typed the words that went with the illustration <e provide additional study $aterials <e print out all notes ta-en in class <e teach students to create !lashcards to practice vocabulary and -ey concepts <e provide access to Study Island and en0ision' our $ath series' which have reteach and practice activities' as well as practice tests online <e $odi!y assess$ents !or students who have an IE6 or H@# I this $ay $ean giving a word ban-' writing out the nu$bers !or a $ath word proble$' giving a chec-list when writing' or reading ,uestions aloud to the$ Assistive technology' both devices and services' are available to students with special needs These devices or services are used to $aintain and i$prove a student+s !unctionality in the classroo$ These technologies can be bought' $odi!ied' or custo$i3ed and can range !ro$ low% tech tools' such as a pencil grip' to high%tech tools' such as aug$entative co$$unication devices <hen deter$ining what assistive technologies are needed !or a student' $any things are ta-en into consideration' such as age' interests' strengths' wea-nesses' the classroo$ environ$ent' and $aterials available Things used within our classroo$ are calculators' pencil grips' various types o! lined paper' diction so!tware' and stic-y notes <ithin our school we have $any types o! assistive technologies !or students such as special so!tware on a co$puter to help a child with autis$ co$$unicate' so!tware on a co$puter to write 5raille and assist a child who is blind' and classroo$ and personal a$pli!ication syste$s Consideration for ,SL and ,LL Students Another area where di!!erentiation is a necessary !or students to be success!ul is within the ES7 population <ith the growth o! technology' there are $any resources available !or these students' their parents' and educators There are $any online progra$s that o!!er English language instruction and translator progra$s This allows !or students to understand content presented while learning English =or students who are ES7 learners' it can be challenging to

pic- up both acade$ic and social language' these can be very di!!erent *nline resources can help students learn and practice this They can co$$unicate via the internet through te)t or conversation to practice their English language Students can use these resources at school or at ho$e They can begin to grow con!idence while they learn English in a setting that $ay not be as stress!ul as having a !ace%to%!ace conversation in the classroo$ <ithin the classroo$' having visuals' videos' and interactive white boards is bene!icial !or ES7 learners <hen presenting in!or$ation in ways other than through te)t or lecture' students are able to gain in!or$ation in a way that doesn+t rely on English 2ive these students the opportunity to $a-e choices when presenting in!or$ation I! students are not con!ident spea-ing in !ront o! the class' have the student practice rehearse what they will present and let the$ record it ahead o! ti$e This way they can record' listen' and $a-e changes Allow students to present with visuals Encourage ES7 students to share their cultures and traditions with the class <hile these are bene!icial !or ES7 students' they can be $ade available to all $e$bers o! the class in a 4D7 classroo$ *nline resources are available !or parents o! ES7 learners' as well Many o! these parents are also trying to learn English and the resources can be bene!icial to the$ !or the sa$e reasons Teachers can co$$unicate with parents via e$ail This allows !or use o! an online translator to assist parents and teachers with co$$unication