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Mary Catherine Perryman Instructor: Malcolm Campbell English 1102 September 24, 2013 Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder Effects on Survivors hat comes to min! "hen you hear the "or! #olocaust, concentration camps, abuse, star$ation an! orl! ar II% &he #olocaust can be !escribe! as a brutal catastrophe, mass

mur!er, an! genoci!e put together by the 'a(i lea!er, )!ol* #itler, to eliminate +e"s throughout ,ermany an! ,erman-occupie! territories. hen thin/ing about the #olocaust, most o* the time

people try to imagine "hat the concentration camps "ere li/e an! the e**ects they ha! on the in!i$i!uals "hile they "ere in the camps. 0or the sur$i$ors, ho" !i! Post-&raumatic Stress 1isor!er a**ect each in!i$i!ual an! "hat "ere they *orce! to li$e "ith *or the rest o* their li$es% P&S1, other psychological e**ects, an! comparing an! contrasting P&S1 !uring the #olocaust an! !uring !i**erent "ars help to gi$e a better un!erstan!ing o* "hat the #olocaust sur$i$ors "ere going through an! those ali$e still are to this !ay. Post-traumatic stress !isor!er, also /no"n as P&S1, is a common psychological !isor!er that can be !e$elope! a*ter a terri*ying or!eal that may ha$e in$ol$e! physical harm or the threat o* physical harm state! by the article 2NIMH-Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD)3. P&S1 "as *irst brought to the public attention "hen sol!iers returne! home *rom II. ,ary 4aplan "rote an

article calle! 2PTSD & The Brain: How TM Can Hel 3 an! create! the image to right to !emonstrate

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the areas in the brain that are a**ecte! by P&S1. P&S1 a**ects 3 areas o* the brain hippocampus, amyg!ala, an! pre*rontal corte5. &he hippocampus is /no"n as the 2gate"ay to memory3 an! in many P&S1 patients the si(e o* the hippocampus is re!uce!, "hich lea!s to memory impairment an! amnesia. &he amyg!ala is the ne5t structure o* the brain that !eals "ith memories an! emotion an! is abnormally acti$ate! by P&S1. &he pre*rontal corte5 plays a role in counterbalancing the amyg!ala an! is also negati$ely a**ecte! by P&S1 64aplan7. )ll in!i$i!uals that e5perience P&S1 ha$e !i**erent symptoms. &he symptoms o* P&S1 are groupe! into 3 categories /no"n as re-e5periencing, a$oi!ance, an! hyper-arousal. 0lashbac/s, ba! !reams, an! *rightening thoughts are a part o* re-e5periencing symptoms. Staying a"ay *rom certain areas, *eeling emotionally numb, guilt, !epression, "orry, an! ha$ing trouble remembering the traumatic e$ent are all e5amples o* some o* the symptoms that the #olocaust sur$i$ors "itnesse!. &he hyper-arousal symptoms are /no"n as being easily startle!, *eeling on e!ge or tense, !i**iculty sleeping, an! ha$ing su!!en outbursts 68NIMH-PostTraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD787. )ppro5imately 900,000 sur$i$ors remain *rom the #olocaust an! in 2011 an estimate o* 12:,000 sur$i$ors "ere ali$e in the ;nite! States. )ccor!ing to researcher )n!y 1ouillar! most sur$i$ors o* the !i**erent concentration camps ha! common symptoms such as numbness, !eath imprint, sur$i$ors< guilt, an! the search *or the meaning. 1eath imprint is the i!ea o* !eath itsel*, all *orms o* torture, an! gruesome images o* !eath. Sur$i$ors< guilt is /no"n to be a mental con!ition that occurs "hen people percei$e themsel$es to ha$e !one "rong by sur$i$ing a traumatic e$ent "hen others !i! not. &he search *or meaning re*ers to the sur$i$ors trying to comprehen! the meaning behin! the traumatic e$ents.

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Sonia =eich is a +e"ish #olocaust Sur$i$or o* the ;/rainian-=ussian. She spent 9 years *leeing *rom the 'a(is an! no" resi!es in )ri(ona li$ing close by to her son. Sonia<s parents "ere /ille! so she "as *orce to sur$i$e alone as a chil!. Sonia =eich is a #olocaust sur$i$or that resi!es in )ri(ona. In 2001 Ms. =eich *le! *rom her home in )ri(ona claiming that someone "as trying to /ill her "hich shortly a*ter le! to the !iagnoses o* late-onset P&S1 6>ro"n7. ?ateonset P&S1, "hich means the symptoms are e5perience! @ months or later a*ter a traumatic e$ent an! in Ms. =eich<s case it "as years. Ms. =eich<s symptoms "ere so se$ere that her son #o"ar! =eich struggle! to *in! his mother help because she li$es constant *ear. 2She !oesn<t trust any !octors an! belie$es she is in imme!iate !anger. She e$en sees a yello" Star o* 1a$i! on her clothes, li/e the ones the 'a(is *orce! +e"s to "ear3 6>ro"n7. +u!ith #assan "as a !octor that speciali(e! in #olocaust sur$i$ors "ith P&S1. #assan state! that sur$i$ors that "ere traumati(e! in the camps or in hi!ing "ere least li/ely to see/ help !ue to their *ears o* "ea/ness an! $ulnerability to "hich as/ing *or help applies 6#assan 10A7. Shalom =obinson M.1. con!ucte! a stu!y that researche! #olocaust sur$i$ors "ho "ere orphane! in comparison "ith sur$i$ors that "ere "ith their parents. 2@ percent o* the sur$i$ors "hose parents sur$i$e! "ere members o* an aca!emic pro*ession "hile the #olocaust orphans !roppe! to 14 percent. =obinson pro$i!e! a graph that states the number o* sur$i$ors in

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each group "ho ha$e e5perience! P&S1 or sur$i$or guilt 6=obinson7. &he graph states that 4@ orphans e5perience! sur$i$or guilt "hile only 30 chil!ren "hose parents sur$i$e! e5perience! sur$i$or guilt. &he percentages bet"een the groups remain aroun! the same area, "hich states that e$en though some parents "ere /ille! !uring the holocaust it !i! not ha$e !rastic measures in the P&S1 symptoms 6=obinson7. Maya ?a(arus "or/s "ith people in$ol$e! in the #olocaust sur$i$or group through the ,ul* Coast +e"ish 0amily Ser$ices in #illsborough an! Pinellas Counties. She state! that 2&hey are reli$ing it *or the secon! time,3 an! 20or them, it is happening all o$er again3 64oehn7. &he in!i$i!uals that sur$i$e! the #olocaust are $ulnerable to the e**ects o* P&S1 in later years especially because people !i! not comprehen! the e5tent o* ho" !e$astating an! traumatic the e5periences coul! be in the long term. Many o* the clients that Maya ?a(arus sees are o*ten su**ering *rom poor health that is relate! to the past years o* se$ere star$ation an! !epri$ation "hile in the concentration camps or hi!ing. ?a(arus<s clients o*ten rely on one another *or support an! care by e5pressing emotion, sharing stories an! "eeping together through #olocaust mo$ies 64oehn7. Eric ,entry "or/s "ith Compassion ;nlimite! o* Sarasota an! is an e5pert o* late-onset P&S1 an! state!, 2&he nightmares, the *lashbac/s an! the physical an! psychological reactions are the system<s attempt to reintegrate an! heal itsel* but in P&S1, the person put tremen!ous energy into a$oi!ing that,3 64oehn7. ,entry also state! that most o* the sur$i$ors "ere a**ecte! "ith !epression an! sometimes agoraphobia. 2 ith the late-onset P&S1, the symptoms ha$e starte! brea/ing through the !epression an! they lose the ability to control it an! the thoughts are unbi!!en an! un"elcome,3 64oehn7.

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In or!er to /eep their min!s o** o* the traumatic past, most sur$i$ors trie! to /eep their li$es busy by mo$ing to the ;nite! States, Buic/ly marrying, starting a *amily, an! *in!ing "or/. P&S1 cause! the parents to be o$erly protecti$e o$er their chil!ren causing the chil!ren to gro" "ith guilt an! a nee! to shiel! their parents *rom more anguish. P&S1 has !rastic e**ects on sur$i$ors that "ent through the concentration camps an! hi!ing !uring the #olocaust. hile

some are coping an! !ealing "ith the e**ects o* P&S1, most in!i$i!uals are struggling to *in! the "illpo"er to get the help an! care they truly nee!. 'ightmares, sleepless nights, !eath imprints an! many more are all e**ects o* P&S1. Post-&raumatic Stress 1isor!er is a !isor!er that o**ers some *orms o* treatment in or!er to help the sur$i$ors cope an! !eal "ith the e**ects the #olocaust has ha! on each one o* them. ?ate onset P&S1 can be success*ully treate!. In or!er to treat this !isor!er the sur$i$or must be in a supporti$e relationship "ith someone "ho is "illing to care, support, an! listen to the in!i$i!uals stories 68PTSD: National Center !or PTSD 87. &his relationship can be "ith a therapist, a spouse, or e$en a *rien!. In or!er to cancel out the physical tension that is throughout the bo!y, rela5ation is an important tas/. )lso, creating narrati$es or stories !escribing the traumatic e5periences helps to allo" the in!i$i!uals to re*lect an! ac/no"le!ge the e$ents in the past. Support groups are o*ten a common *orm o* treatment that is o**ere! in !i**erent languages such as in English, =ussian, an! Polish. Cogniti$e beha$ioral therapy is a$ailable an! is !escribe! as a "ay o* helping you comprehen! an! change the "ay you thin/ about the trauma an! its a*termath. &he goal o* this therapy is to un!erstan! certain thoughts about the e$ent that lea!s to stress an! "orsen the symptoms 68PTSD: National Center !or PTSD87. )nother *orm o* therapy is /no"n as e5posure therapy "here the goal is to ha$e less *ear about the memories an! is base! on the i!ea that people learn to *ear thoughts, *eelings, an! situations that remin! them o* the

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trauma they e5perience! in the past. &he !octors help to create programs *or the patient by stea!ily ta/ing small steps to"ar!s eliminating the *ear o* the traumatic e$ent. EM1=, or also /no"n as eye mo$ement !esensiti(ation an! reprocessing, is also use! to treat P&S1. ?i/e most *orms o* treatment in$ol$e! "ith counseling, it helps to change ho" you react to memories o* the traumatic e$ent. &his process re!uces the lingering e**ects by allo"ing the patient to recall the e$ents "hile they recei$e a type o* bilateral sensory input. Stu!ies ha$e been con!ucte! an! state! that it helps to lessen P&S1 symptoms. 0inally, me!ication is another option that is a$ailable as treatment. Selecti$e Serotonin =eupta/e Inhibitors are /no"n as a type o* anti!epressant me!ication that helps "ith sa!ness an! "orry. Some o* the common prescriptions are /no"n as citalopram 6Cele5a7, *luo5etine 6Pro(ac7, an! paro5etine 6Pa5il7 68PTSD: National Center !or PTSD87. &he !uration o* treatment ranges throughout each in!i$i!ualC some last 3 to @ months an! some can last longer than 2 years. hile P&S1 is a !e$astating !isor!er that

shoul! not be brought upon anyone, it o**ers a $ariety o* treatments that can help any in!i$i!ual that is going through a tough time "ith $ery positi$e e**ects. Post &raumatic Stress 1isor!er is o*ten *oun! in sol!iers that are returning home *rom "ar. In or!er to connect the P&S1 that the #olocaust sur$i$ors ha$e an! "ar $eterans Dietnam an! IraB, I<m going to !iscuss the symptoms that sur$i$ors su**er "ith on a !aily basis. 1uring "ars many o* the $eterans ha$e certain soun!s li/e bombs, gunshots, or e$en $isions o* seeing someone getting shot that run through their hea! that ma/es them uneasy or ner$ous. &he sur$i$ors o* the #olocaust also "itnesse! some o* the same e$ents, "hich coul! lea! to the same e**ects an! symptoms. Some o* the symptoms that $eterans ha$e are !i**iculty concentrating, lac/ o* interest or apathy, *eelings o* !etachment, an! loss o* appetite 68Post Traumatic Stress Disorder87. 'atasha Eoung "as a Marine that "as !iagnose! "ith P&S1 an! "as me!ically

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!ischarge! *rom the Corps. She state! being ashame! o* hersel* an! not being able to *unction. 1ue to her *eelings, she "as *orce! to return home a*ter losing multiple *rien!s "ithin her group. Many o* the sol!iers that are returning *rom "ar are ha$ing e**ects o* combat trauma *ar beyon! tra!itional an! narro" clinical !iagnoses o* P&S1 6 oo!7. &he 2!o"n"ar! spiral3, "hich is /no"n as !epression can inclu!e substance abuse, an! sometimes can en! "ith suici!e. It is shoc/ing to /no" that 11-20 percent o* people that are in$ol$e! in IraB or )*ghanistan are !iagnose! "ith a mental health !isor!er. =)'1 CF=P., a group "ithin the Pentagon, con!ucte! a stu!y stating that 14 percent or about 33:,A20 o* the post GH11 $eterans ha$e signs o* hea!aches, sleeplessness, irritability, !epression an! many more symptoms o* P&S1, "hile another 14 percent su**er *rom maIor !epression 6 oo!7. )nother stu!y "as con!ucte! "hich *ocuse! speci*ically on Dietnam $eterans an! #olocaust sur$i$ors "ith P&S1. hen comparing

the t"o !i**erent sur$i$ors, 20 percent o* the $eterans appeare! to be more symptomatic. E5perts say that 30 percent o* Dietnam $eterans e5perience P&S1, "hile 40 to @9 percent o* #olocaust sur$i$ors are !iagnose! 6 oo!7. In conclusion, a*ter !oing research about the e**ects o* P&S1 on #olocaust sur$i$ors, it sa!!ens me /no"ing that people actually ha$e to e5perience these symptoms. 'ot only is it a**ecting the sur$i$ors, but also the sur$i$ors< *amily an! *rien!s. #olocaust sur$i$ors "ith P&S1 can be !rastically a**ecte! by the symptoms, but there are $arious treatments a$ailable *or those "ho are !iagnose!. )*ter comparing the #olocaust Sur$i$ors to the "ar $eterans, most sur$i$ors e5perience! the same symptoms, problems, an! recei$e! some o* the same treatment. >y con!ucting research on #olocaust sur$i$ors along "ith their chil!ren has helpe! to noti*y people ho" !i**icult P&S1 can be. It lets people /no" that once symptoms arise to reach out an! recei$e help *rom a therapist or !octor be*ore the symptoms become a lot "orse. E$en

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though P&S1 is a !isor!er that a**ects many people aroun! the "orl!, each person has an opportunity to *in! treatments an! put an en! to the traumatic e$ents o* their past.

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or/s Cite! >ro"n, 4aren. 8=ecogni(ing 1elaye! P&S1 in #olocaust Sur$i$ors.8 >oston.com. '.p., 10 +une 2012. eb. 30 'o$. 2013.:

1ouillar!, )n!y. 8P&S1 an! #olocaust Sur$i$ors, by )n!y 1ouillar!.8 PTSD and Holocaust Sur"i"ors# $% &nd% Douillard. '.p., 9 1ec. 2009. eb. 30 'o$. 2013.

4aplan, ,ary. 8P&S1 J &he >rain: #o" &M Can #elp.8 Transcendental Meditation TM Blo' (SS. '.p., 1@ )ug. 2011. eb. 30 'o$. 2013. eb. 30

4au*man, )!am. 8>eyon! the >attle*iel!: 'atasha Eoung.8 )imeo. '.p., +an. 2013. 'o$. 2013.

4oehn, 1onna. 8Many #olocaust Sur$i$ors ?i$e "ith P&S1.8 TB*+com. '.p., 30 )pr. 200G. eb. 30 'o$. 2013.

8Post &raumatic Stress 1isor!er.8 I&)&. '.p., n.!.

eb. 30 'o$. 2013. eb. 30 'o$. 2013. eb. 30

8Post-&raumatic Stress 1isor!er.8 NIMH (SS. '.p., n.!.

8P&S1: 'ational Center *or P&S1.8 ,+S+ De artment o! )eterans &!!airs . '.p., n.!. 'o$. 2013.

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=obinson, Shalom. 8Echoes o* the #olocaust.8 -choes o! the Holocaust. '.p., +uly 1GG:. 30 'o$. 2013.

eb.

oo!, 1a$i!. 8IraB, )*ghanistan

ar Deterans Struggle

ith Combat &rauma.8 The Hu!!in'ton

Post. &he#u**ingtonPost.com, 04 +uly 2012.

eb. 30 'o$. 2013.