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. :

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, 2007
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, , 2007
31. .,
Dr. Hwang
, 2, 2006
32. .,
, 4, 2007

126


1. ., . 3089/2002
/2003
2. ,
8-9, 2002
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11.12.2005
.
4. .,

2000
5. .,

, , 2, 3,
2000
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8. . :
1988 ()
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127

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:

. 3089/2002 5 2005
15. - ., ,
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, . 1998
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Perruche (Cour de Cassation), 27, 2001
18. ., , ,
39 1998
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, 41/2000
20. ,
2/2005
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, , 35, 1994
22. ., Oviedo
. 3089/2002 /2006
23. .,
, , 1987
128

24.

X.,

,
()
, , . 193, - 2006
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1075/2000, , 2000
26. ., ()
, , 2000
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, , . 191, 2006
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(no fault) , , . 192 2006
29. ., , . 53/2006
30. , (

) 10/2002
31. , ,
10/2002
32. . (
), 1993
33. . ,
, , 2007

129

. :
1. D. M. Bruce, .

, 2006
2. F. Schenfield, Cloning : reproductive (crime?), therapeutic (panacea?),
whereto now ? 2
2006
3. J. Harris, Is cloning an attack on human dignity?, in Nature, 1997
4. Gilling Smith, / :
,

5. Guido Pennings, :
,
2, 2006
6. Gutmann T., Auf der Suche nach einem Revhtsgut : Zur Strafbarkeit des
Klonens von Menschen, Medizinstrafrecht, Hrsg C. Roxin/U. Schroth, 2
Aufl. 2001
7. Merry Alan and McCall Smith Alexander, Errors, Medicine and the Law,
Cambridge University Press
8. National Bioethics Advisory Commission (USA), Cloning Human Beings,
1997 2002
9. Weil

E,

Psychological

evaluation

in

gamete

donation.

Human

Reproduction, 1998

130

. :
1. www.google.gr
2. http://lawdb.intrasoftnet.com
3. http://europa.eu.int/comm/europeangroup_ethics/index eu.html
4. www.unborn.gr
5. www.hiniadis.com
6. www.elawyer.blogspot.com
7. www.dsanet.gr
8. www.alopsis.gr
9. www.idkaramanlis.gr/html/publis/pdf/EMFASH-14-pdf
10. www.progenetiki.gr?daniki_mitra.html
11. www.oke.gr/gnomes/GNOMI-EXOSOMATIKI-TELIKO.doc
12. www.greekmeds.gr
13. www.eugonia.com
14. www.bioethics.gr
15. www.lib.dsa.gr
16. www.kathimerini.gr
17. http://en.wikipedia.org
18. www.disabled.gr
19. www.iatronomiki.eu/iatrikodikaio/prologos.html
20. www.iatrikionline.gr/DermXeir_04_05/8.html
21. www.oncology.gr/1/1503.html
22. www.radiology.upatras.gr

131


'. 2619 '132/19/6/98


: .
..0546/1/ 723/.4898 '244 29/10/1998
(
').

:

, 28 . 1 ,


-
- 4 1997 viedo ,

:


:

, 4.IV.1997

132

- ,
.

10 1948

() 4 1950.
18
1961

,
16 1966.

28 1981.
20
1989




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in vitro
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VII

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................................................................. 2

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140

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...................................................................................... 42
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1.

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. 3089/2002.................................................................................... 48

2. . 3305/2005........ 51

.............................................................. 57
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141

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............................................................................... 81

142

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.............. 88
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...........................................................................................132

144




. .

.


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...



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. .


..
..
.
.


. .
.
.

145

ABSTRACT
GENETIC TECHNOLOGY AND MEDICAL RESPONSIBILITY
AS FOR ITS APPLICATION
For the last years theres been a flurry of technological evolution of
biology and biomedicine which produced international and national legislative
mobilization in order to regulate these issues.
Part of this development is the artificial insemination which was taking
place before the requisite legal frame even existed.
For that reason, Greek legislation trying to follow up the continuous and
rapid developments regarding genetics as well us the perspectives and the
hazards that this evolution creates, seek to regulate, within a period of just two
years, matters touching upon medically assisted reproduction, introducing laws
3089/2002 and 3305/2005.
Both statutes regarding medically assisted reproduction have been
formulated within the framework of the principles and values endorsed by the
Greek Constitution, the European Convention on Human Rights and
Biomedicine and the additional protocol, which have been incorporated into
Greek law. The interests of the child are also protected by the international
Convention on the Rights of the Child and the Charter of Fundamental Rights
of the European Union.
The first law, 3089/2002, resolved basic questions regarding Medically
Assisted Human Reproduction and regulated the ensuing consequences for the
institutions of kinship and inheritance.
The second law 3305/2005 provided solutions to issues regarding the
preconditions for using methods of medically assisted reproduction, the
availability and handling of genetic material, insurance coverage and the
establishment and operation of Medically Assisted Reproduction Clinics and
Cryopreservation Banks. Furthermore, law 3305/2005 provides for the creation
of an independent national administrative authority with jurisdiction over

146

biolaw. Finally, provides for administrative penalties and for penal sanctions in
the event that its provisions are violated.
The basic concept though and the most important element in the field of
penal law is the concept of vested rights (goods) and the insult of them
legalizes a drastic social reaction in the form of penalty. For this reason in
every penal provision a clear and lucid definition of the vested right that is
being protected is needed in order to avoid the penal law becoming the means
of appeasement of every fear and prejudice.
The rather strict sanctions that the law provides for, in case of breaking
the law, lead to the thought that the legislators will was to establish the genetic
material as a vested right which has a separate existence and in order to
transmit a sense of security to the people for the new methods use. The
question that arises is the following: is the genetic material protected as a thing
or as a potential human being?
Although this particular law has tried to offer a solution in the direction
of penal protection of genetic material on the other hand, widens the field of
medical responsibility, which is analyzed in civil, penal and administrative.
Despite the fact that the above laws regulate in great detail the procedure
of medical assisted reproduction and the limits on accepted doctors
participation in it, they also create insecurity because of the strict penal
sanctions which at some point are disproportionate to the action.
Furthermore, the penal trials are accompanied by civil ones, which are
followed by the award of enormous indemnities when the application of the
methods of medical assisted reproduction appears to have even more
significant difficulties and complications compared to other categories of
medical services.
A fear is created, that the rather strict penal provisions will become an
obstacle to the biogenetic progress in our country and that they, for sure, will
not prevent the application of these methods either illegally or in other
countries with a more tolerant legal frame.

147

In conclusion, the law has to succeed in compromising the technological


advances in genetic material manipulation made by biology and biomedicine
and the principles of bioethics by creating rules which are reflecting the general
and collective will.
The law has to protect the patient but also must not disorient the doctor
who instead of trying to succeed in protecting the patient, will try to protect
himself from possible charges and lawsuits.
Besides, what is never going to change is the substance of the special
relationship between the doctor and the patient and the only desirable is this
relationship to remain founded in true confidence and mutual respect which
secures the truly consensus.

148