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Lauren Marks Professor Leslie Wolcott ENC 1102 November 15, 2013 Literature Review In order for readers

to clearly understand the purpose of the study, researchers provided answers that demonstrated the reading abilities of children with Down syndrome. Down syndrome is a genetic disorder caused by the presence of all or part of a third copy of chromosome. Valid sources in my annotated bibliography include the studies of reading in children with Down syndrome. The study of children with Down syndrome pertaining to reading abilities is vital because with research and interventions, further investigations will be possible and more accurate. Anyone interested in the background and research of reading in children with Down syndrome would benefit, especially future teachers, parents of children with Down syndrome and children themselves. Educators such as special education teachers are discussing and writing about the issue of how to teach and cooperate with children with DS. While others such as medical doctors are investigating and composing the issue of typically developed children compared to children with DS. A major part of reading abilities within Down syndrome children is called Phonological awareness, which is the ability to recognize that words are made up of a variety of sound units is a main process utilized in the study of Down syndrome. A cause for this conversation would be to further findings on reading and phonological awareness in children with DS through various interventions. By gaining knowledge on the reading capability of children with DS, readers will be able to benefit from the study and understand the studys results.

Many of the studies discuss the reading abilities between children with Down syndrome and typically developed children. Evaluating both types of development allows researchers to pin point the childrens different reading levels. Contradictory, other specialists had their own attitude on the aptitude of teaching, responding and interacting on a reading level in children with Down syndrome. Typically developed children versus children with Down syndrome With regards to reading skills, researchers found competitiveness between children with DS and typically developed children (Alma, 2012; Byrne, 2002; Roch, 2013). As suggested, children with DS are limited to learning how to read because they do not have as much access as typically developed children. Solveig-Alma Halaas Lyster (2012) utilized methods such as inclusion criteria and meta-analysis plan- the methods included studies that compared children with Down syndrome to typically developed children who matched on word recognition. He focused on contrasting and combining results from different studies, in the hope of identifying patterns among study results. Eventually, he concluded that children with Down syndrome perform in line with TD children at the same word recognition level but a weakness in vocabulary and phonological awareness. On the contrary, Angela Byrne (2002) conducted a study that depicted the concept that cognitive abilities correlated between both developmental groups. She also stated that children with DS advanced in single word reading. Ms. Byrne (2002) states that it is clear from the data and results presented that children with Down syndrome are not a group of slow readers. An investigation done by Maja Roch (2013) involved 24 Down syndrome individuals and 24 typically developed children who were matched one-by one as they were tested in order to further steps in the study and extend new literature findings. The study found that both DS and TD children were able to recognize unknown words and that DS children

benefitted more from context than TD children matched for receptive vocabulary. Although some believe children with DS are at an advantage, it is proven that they are able to succeed in some aspects of reading skills just as well as children with TD. How to interact with children with Down syndrome On a reading point, educators share their opinions and studies on how to operate with children with DS (Cologon, 2011; Karmiloff-Smith, 2013; Lemons, 2010). In Kathy Cologons (2011) study, children with DS were assessed on four occasions including initially, preintervention, postintervention and delayed postintervention. The tests were utilized to assess reading skills, Phonological awareness and letter-sound knowledge. The assessments responses suggested methods on how to instruct, interact and respond to children with DS in order to increase their reading abilities. The results from this study suggest that children with DS may develop alphabetic reading skills and higher levels of PA, therefore improve their phonic decoding ability. Annette Karmiloff-Smith (2013) executed a study that reveals that letter knowledge, vocabulary and phonological awareness have been found to support reading development in children with Down syndrome. Most children with DS go unnoticed at a young age affecting their future, making early reading development less understood. Since children with DS are not taught correctly at a young age, they suffer poor performance on reading precursors. If given the correct attention and teacher-student interaction, children with DS may have more of an advantage in reading skills than they currently enclose. Professional Christopher Lemons (2010) explain that his studies purpose was to explore reading issues by identifying characteristics of children with DS and projecting different growth in targeting reading skills. According to his article, teachers are now expected to provide reading instruction to students with intellectual disabilities to help them become literate. Children in this study were proven to

benefit greatly due to the techniques utilized by educators. It is important to reinforce the correct methods when collaborating, replying and instructing children with Down syndrome. Conclusion The review is organized by similar versus dissimilar opinions about reading abilities and the answers found within the studies, from the education professionals involved in the interventions. Although the outlook from the experts benefited the inquiry, they did not cover all aspects; even though the children were tested within the same ranges, their background information is the missing piece to the puzzle. The level of reading a child with Down syndrome is able to achieve depend on what they are being taught, how they are being taught, who is teaching them and when they are being taught. The studies conducted by the researches develop theories of how DS children are compared to TD children and how children with DS should be treated when referring to their reading skills. The evidence from the interventions address the pros and cons in the abilities of reading development in children with DS. Further into the study, researchers might be able to get a better grasp on DS childrens reading development, but they will never be able to crack the code because they are not fully informed. Much of the information about reading abilities in children with Down syndrome come from being uneducated on an individual childs background story. Past studies have not acknowledged the questioning of reading advances in DS children such as What is being taught?, When are they being taught?, How are they being taught?, and Who is teaching them? Being knowledgeable on an individual childrens background information, before being tested, would greatly benefit children with Down syndrome in the educational field.

Project Proposal This research gap proposes research such as an internet blog that allows teachers, parents and specialized doctors to communicate. A blog would benefit children with DS in reading development because interactions would be made between various people- communicators would be able to share experiences and beneficial methods of enduring children with DS to other participants of the website. The blog would allow special education doctors to give advice about different symptoms and answer

, and do one-on-one chat room sessions. Parents would enjoy a blog because it would suggest a place where others are in the same situations and could uphold as a comfort zone for them. Teachers may visit the blog to comprehend and learn more about how children with DS operate, in order to further their teaching abilities. From the blogs, I hope to gather effective information allowing me to progress my studies on the reading capability of children with Down syndrome in order to compare this to other studies and someday read more relevant, constructive information.

Work Cited Alma-Halaas Lyster, Solveig. Et al. Reading skills in children with Down syndrome: A metaanalytic review. Research In Developmental Disabilities 33.2 (2012): 737-747. Education Full Text (H.W.Wilson).Web. 16 Oct. 2013 Byrne, Angela, John MacDonald., Sue Buckley. "Reading, Language And Memory Skills: A Comparative Longitudinal Study Of Children With Down Syndrome And Their Mainstream Peers." British Journal Of Educational Psychology 72.4 (2002): 513529. Education Full Text (H.W.Wilson).Web. 16 Oct. 2013. Cologon, Kathy, Linda Cupples., Shirley Wyver. "Effects Of Targeted Reading Instruction On Phonological Awareness And Phonic Decoding In Children With Down Syndrome." American Journal On Intellectual & Developmental Disabilities 116.2 (2011): 111-129. Education Full Text (H.W. Wilson).Web. 16 Oct. 2013. Karmiloff-Smith, Annette et al. "Learning To Read In Williams Syndrome And Down Syndrome: Syndrome-Specific Precursors And Developmental Trajectories." Journal Of Child Psychology & Psychiatry 54.7 (2013): 754-762. Education Full Text (H.W.Wilson).Web. 16 Oct. 2013.

Lemons, Christopher J., and Douglas Fuchs. "Modeling Response To Reading Intervention In Children With Down Syndrome: An Examination Of Predictors Of Differential Growth." Reading Research Quarterly 45.2 (2010): 134-168. Education Full Text (H.W.Wilson).Web. 16 Oct. 2013. Roch, M., E, Florit., C, Levorato. (2013). The role of linguistic context in deriving word meanings in individuals with Down Syndrome. Research In Developmental Disabilities 34.1 (2013): 605-615. Education Full Text (H.W.Wilson).Web.16.Oct.2013.