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:

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, 2009

Copyright , 2009.
. All rights reserved.
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:
:
ID: (Index of Dissimilarity)
WE: Moir and Selby-Smith
IP: Karmel and MacLachlam
IS: (Index of Segregation)


.

.

.
.

.

, , ,
.

10

I.
II.

11
12

1:

13

1.1

13

1.2

13

1.2.1

13

1.2.2

15

1.2.3

19

1.3

22

1.3.1

22

1.3.2

23

1.3.3

26

2:

30

2.1

30

2.2

32

2.2.1

32

2.2.2

35

2.2.3

38

2.2.4

40

2.2.5
2000 2008

44

50

53

55

ABSTRACT / key words

58


1 (
2008) .......32
2
......34
3
.....35
4 ..
...37
5
.39
6 ,
41
7 ..43
8 ( 2000
2008) 44
9 ( 2000
2008) .46
10 (
2008) ...... 48
1 (
2008) ........56


(
)

.
2000 2008.
, ,
.
,
.

,
.
45% , 38%
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,
2008
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,

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10

a.


:
1.

2.

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;

3.

4.




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11


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,

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,
.

,
.

()
() 2000
2008.
.

.

b.

,

( 1).

( 2). ,

12

1

1.1

,
.
.

.
.
.
. ,
.
.
1.2
1.2.1

:

,


.1

Rumberger , 1981 , .,
, . ()
: ,
(Gutenberg) 2003.

13

,
Rumberger.
:
1.
,
.

2. ,
,

.

3. ,

,
. 2

...


( )

( ). , ...
,


3.

...
2

.,
, . ()
: , (Gutenberg) 2003, 74.
3

Brennan et al, 1996 .,


, (), 2008, 39.

14

,
4
5
.
.
-.

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.
. ,
, ,

,
/
, . ,
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,
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1.2.2

. ,

4

.,
, . ()
: , (Gutenberg) ,2003.
5

., (2008), ,
().

15



. ,
,



6
-

. Spence
(1973)7
.
, .
( )
. Thurow (1975)8

.
:

.
Kiker .9

6

.,
, . ()
: , (Gutenberg) ,2003, 71.
7

Spence A.M. (1973), Market Signaling: Informational Transfer in Hiring and Related Processes,
Cambridge: Harvard University Press.
8

Thurow L.C. (1975), Generating Inequality: Mechanisms of Distribution in U.S. Economy, Basic
Books.
9

.,
, . ()
: , (Gutenberg), 2003.

16

. ,

.


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-



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,

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,
.

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.10

10

., ,
: , , 1993.

17

, 11

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.13.

11



, Watson, T., , , . .
, (), 2005, .184.
12

.,
, : , , 1993, .19.
13

., ,
: , , 1993, .19.

18

1.2.3

14
.

12%

18% . ,



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14

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19

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16

15

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16

.,
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: , (Gutenberg), 2003, 71.

20

. ,

,
( ) (
)

.


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,

, ..
.
. , , ..,

.

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,
, .17
, (
)

( ) 5-7
.
17

.,
, . ()
: , (Gutenberg) 2003, 111.

21


. : 5-7
84% ,
, 43% .18

, ,
,
2004 2006.
116 . 13.617
22,3%
5-7 .
5-7
- ,
, , - , ,
, - - .
1.3
1.3.1


( )
( ) .
. ,

,
,
. 19
18

., , ()
2008,39.

22

1.3.2

. 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27
,

.
,


.
,


.
19

Hakim, C., (1993), Segregated and integrated occupations: new framework for analyzing social
change, European Sociological Review 9, 3, 289-314.
20

Beechey, V., (1977), Some notes on female wage labour in capitalist production,
Capital and Class 3: 45-66.

21

Crompton, R., and Sanderson, K., (1990), Gendered Jobw and Social Change. London : Unwin Hyman.

22

Rees, T., (1998), Mainstreaming Equality in the European Union. London Routlege.

23

Reskin, B., and Roos, P., (1990), Job Queues, Gender Queues Q Explaining Womens, Inroads into
Male Occupations. Philadelphia: Temple University Press.
24
Rubberry, J., and Fagan, C., (1995), Comparative industrial relations research: towards reserving the
gender bias ,British Journal of Industrial Relations 33, 2: 209 236.
25

Rubery, J., Fagan, C., and Maier, F., (1996), Occupational segregation, discrimination and equal
opportunity in G., Schmid, J., O Reilly and K., Schomann, (eds) International handbook of Labour
Market Policy and Evaluation. Cheltenham: Edward Elgar.
26

Siltanen, J., (1994), Locating Gender: Occupational Segregation. Wages and Domestic
Responsibilities , UCL Press: London.
27

Walby, S., (1998), Gender Transformations , London: Routledge.

23

,

.

.28
Horrell .29
(skills)
.
(skills)
. ,


. 365
333 20 60 .
Horrell . . (1989)
(skills).
: , ,
( ) ,
, ( ) ,

.
, Horrell ..30

28

Bergmann, B., R., (1974), Occupational aggregation , wages and profits when employers discriminate
by race and sex, Eastern Economic Journal I: 1-2.
29

Horrell, S., Rubery, J., and Burchell, B., (1989), Gender and Skills in Skill and Occupational
Change, part of Social Change and Economic Life Initiative.
30

Horrell, S., Rubery, J., and Burchell , B., (1989), Gender and Skills in Skill and Occupational
Change part of Social Change and Economic Life Initiative.

24


.

. ,

.

.
31
.
,
, ,

.


.

, ,
. ,
.


.32
31

, .,
.. 2005, , ., , .,
, ., , ., .
32

., (2005),
.. 2005, , .,
, ., . .

25

1.3.3
.
: (index of dissimilarity, ID) Moir SelbySmith (WE), Karmel MacLachlan (IP),
( index of segregation, IS).
33 1993
2003 , -
IS (index of segregation).
29.5%
33.6%.
34 1997
2007 ID (index of dissimilarity) .
45.28% 47.16%.
.
.
1993 2003
1997 2007.

.

.
35
. 2000-2001
33

., (2005), , 3
.
34

., (2008), ,
().

26

75%
, . ,
49%
. ,
37%
, .
36
().

o (management) ,

. , ,
(32%),
(35%), (43%) (44%).
37

1995 2003. ,

.

.
35

., :
, , :
, 2003, 12-75
http://ww.kethi.gr/greek/ekpaidefsi/epeaek/meleti/ meleti_epeaek_11_03.pdf.
36

., :
, , :
, 2003, 12- 75
http://www.kethi.gr/greek/ekpaidefsi/epeaek/meleti/ meleti_epeaek_11_03.pdf.
37

.,
, , :
, 2003, 206-217
http://www.kethi.gr/greek/ekpaidefsi/epeaek/meleti/ meleti_epeaek_11_03.pdf

27


.
, ,
.
,

.
.
,
,
. ( 2002)38

, .
, 1990
, . ,

.

1999.

. ,
. , 68,6%
49,7%
.

.

38

.,
, 2002 ,
, , 2002.

28

1993 2003
,
.


.39
, 40


56,5%
50,4% .

:


.


.

39

Karamessini M., (2002), Wage hierarchy of occupations and occupational restructuring of wage
employment in Getimis et al., (eds.), Yearbook of Labour 2002, Athens: Institute of Human Resources
and Urban Environment. (G)
40

Karamessini M., and E., Ioakimoglou, (2007), Wage Determination and the Gender Pay Gap: a
Feminist Political Economy Analysis and Decomposition, Feminist Economics, 13(1), 31-66.

29

2
2 .
.
2.1

().

2000 2008.

.
.
1
,
,
60% 40% - 60%.


, .
2
.
.


.

30


.


, , .
3 .
.
( 1 )
, .
60%
. .
40% - 60%,
.
4
.
.

,
.
5
, (
) .
Pearson Correlation
coefficient . SPSS.
6o

) 2000

31

2008
.
2.2
2.2.1 .
1

.
1 :

20%
92%
0%
71%
56%
66.5%
37%

80%
8%
100%
29%
44%
33.5%
63%

100%
100%
100%
100%
100%
100%
100%

45%
20%
56%
29%

55%
80%
44%
71%

100%
100%
100%
100%

27%
64%
75%

73%
36%
25%

100%
100%
100%

68%

32%

100%

90%

10%

100%

47%
48%
58%

53%
52%
42%

100%
100%
100%



,
,

(,

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,

32

: ...., , 2008.

()
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40% 60%
. 40% - 60%
.

( , ).

33

2
,
.
2

3

6.5

3.4

8.2

6.7

0.3
, ,
0.9

8.5

11

2.4
(, 3.4
, )

6.4
&
8.9
, , 5.5
,
, 8.2

, , 0.7
,
,
,


5.5

0.8
, ,
9.3

100
: ...., , 2008.

12
8.3
4.3
22
5
0.5
0.7
10.2
15
5
4
1
1.3
5.6
0.4
0.3

0.8
0.7
2.5
100


45%, 28%
29%. 38%,
37% 25%.

34

2.2.2 ( 2008)
3
.
3 :

15%

31%

43%

11%

38%

34%

54%

28%

22%

34%

55%



, ,



(,
, )

31%

&
59%

, , 16%

,
, 49%


, , 31%

, , ,


28%

29%

, ,
5%

: ...., , 2008.

15%

36%

43%

64%

36%

23%

44%

26%

32%

30%

54%

31%
60%
15%

50%

30%

28%
29%
6%


: , ,
, , .
5% 55%.
,
, , ,
, , ,
, .
28% 43%.

35


5% 25%.

. :
, ,
. 50% 64%.
: ,
, , ,
, , , ,

, , , , ,
.
26% 44%.
.
6% 23%.

36

4
.
4 :


%
%
16%
14%
30%
49%
45%
11%
46%
39%
33%
33%
37%
16%
57%
29%
27%
44%
32%
29%
42%
48%
41%



, ,

(,

, )

46%
25%
&
59%
59%

, 17%
13%
, ,
, 49%
50%

, 72%
52%
,
,
,
,


26%
29%

47%
13%
, , 7%
3%
: ...., , 2008.

%
%
16%
15%
34%
64%
45%
56%
88%
33%
48%
23%
28%
21%
57%
30%
27%
40%
29%
27%
40%
50%
59%

46%
62%
15%

16%
60 %
14%

53%

51%

28%

52%

26%
46%
7%

30%
13%
3%


, , ,
, ( 72%).
, (7%).

, (57%)
- , (3%).

37


(62%)
, (7%).
(88%).
,
(3%).

2.2.3


,
.
24
, 6 14 . ( 1
)
,
.
5.

. (. )

38

5 :

3
89
10
100
92%

84
1
14
100
85%

100
100
100%

16
3
81
100
19%

5
2
93
100
7%

2
1
97
100
3%

,
45
0
55
45%
,

4
1
95
100
5%

3
4
93
100
7%

3
1
97
100
4%

9
91
100
9%

(,

,
)

13
18
69
100
31%

& 15
3
82
100
18%

7
1
92
100
8%
,
,
,

, 9
4
87
100
13%

33
2
65
100
35%
,
,
,
, ,

7
14
79
100
21%

23
6
71
100
29%

,
2
98
100
2%
,

: ...., , 2008.

( )
, ,

39


,
. ,
92%, 85% 100% ,

.
: ,

45% ,

, , 35% .

2.2.4


.
6
.

.

40

6 : ,
.



, ,



(,

,
)

&

,
, ,

,
,
28,
29,
6,
15

, ,


80%
8%
100%
29%
44%
33.5%
63%

15%
31%
43%
11%
38%
34%
54%

15%
36%
43%
64%
36%
64%
44%

%
92%
85%
100%
19%
7%
3%
45%

55%
80%

28%
22%

26%
32%

5%
7%

44%
71%

34%
55%

30%
54%

4%
9%

73%

31%

31%

31%

36%

59%

60%

18%

25%

16%

15%

8%

32%

49%

50%

13%

10%

31%

30%

35%

53%
52%
42%

28%
29%
5%

28%
29%
6%

21%
29%
2%

: ...., , 2008.



. : 80%
100%.
92% 100% .

41


.
.
, (8%)
(85%).
,
.

(45%) 63%.

. , , ,
, , ,

(45%)
60%.
,

. ,
.
80%. ,

.

6
.
1
. 2
.
3

. 4

42

. , 5
.
7 :
R
.125

- . 098

.289

.43

- - .087

R2
.016

P Value
0.610

.010

0.691

.084

0.230

.057

0.861

.051

0.724


. p Value
0.610, 0.691, 0.230, 0.861 0.724 7.
.

(
) .

.
.

.

43

2.2.5
2000 2008.
8
2000 2008
8 : (
2000 2008)



,
,

(,
, )

&

,
,
,

,
,
, ,
,

,
,

2000 - 2008
( )

2000

2008

25%
15%
52%
38%
17%
9%
7%

15%
31%
43%
11%
38%
34%
54%

- 10%
- 16%
- 9%
-27%
+28%
+25%
+47%

18%
17%
34%
68%

28%
22%
34%
55%

+10%
+5%
0%
-13%

52%
59%

31%
59%

-21%
0%

11%

16%

+ 5%

26%

49%

+23%

16%

31%

+ 15%

38%
23%
4%

28%
29%
5%

- 10%
+ 6%
+ 1%

: ...., , 2000 & 2008.

,

.

44

,
, , , ,
, , , ,
, , , ,
, , , , , ,
.
,
, , , ... .

.
,
, , , ,
.
,
.
2000
2008
: , , ,
, . ,
: ,
, , ,
. ,
.

45

9
2000 2008.
9 ( 2000
2008)

2000- 2008
%
(
)



,
,




(,
, )

&

,
,
,

,
, ,
,
,

,
,

2000

2008

24%

15%

- 9%

44%

36%

- 8%

57%

43%

- 14%

67%

64%

- 3%

46%

36%

- 10%

26%

23%

- 3%

35%

44%

+ 9%

34%

26%

- 8%

29%

32%

- 3%

68%

30%

- 38%

68%

54%

- 14%

52%

31%

- 21%

66%

60%

- 6%

22%

15%

- 7%

54%

50%

- 4%

46%

30%

- 16%

65%

28%

- 37%

45%

29%

- 16%

4%

6%

+ 2%

: ...., , 2000 & 2008.

,

.

46

, .
.
,
.

, , , ,
.
2000
2008
: .
.

: , , ,
.

47

10
2000 2008)
10 (
2000, 2008)

2000
2008
92%
6%
85%
84%
100%
63%
11%
19%
7%
7%
17%
3%
34%
45%

2000 2008

+ 86%

- 1%

+ 37%

+ 8%

0%

- 14%

,
,
+ 12%

0%
- 5%
5%

9%
- 2%
7%

4%
0%
4%

2%
+ 7%
9%
(,

, )
51%
- 20%
31%

23%
- 5%
18%
&

, 17%
- 9%
8%
,
,

,
19%
- 6%
13%

, 11%
+ 24%
35%
,
,
,
,

0%
+ 21%
21%

30%
- 1%
29%

,
, 4%
- 2%
2%

: ...., , 2000 & 2008.

,

.

48

,
, , , ,
, , , ,
.
,
.
.

, , , , ,

:
.

2000 2008
. ,
.

49

.


.
,
: , , ,
, ,
. :
, , ,
,

, ,

, ,
, , , , .
,
,
.
45% ,
38% 29%
25% .
.
.

.
(5%) , . ,

50

(59%) .

.



. (6%)
, . ,
(64%) .

.
,
.

. ,

. ,

. ,
. ,


. ,
.
,
.

. ,
.

51

,

, .

.

.
:
, ,
, , ,
. :
,
, , ,
, , ,
, ..
, , 45%
37% .
29% 25%
.


.
,
. ,
,
, .

.

52

1. ., (2003),
, (.),
:

http://www.kethi.gr/greek/ekpaidefsi/epeaek/meleti/ meleti_epeaek_11_03.pdf
2. ., (2002)
, 2002 ,
,
.
3. ., (2003),
, . ()
:
, (Gutenberg).
4. ., (2005),
.. 2005,
, ., , ., . .
5. . ., (2005), :

STAGE, 2005, , .,
, ., . .
6. ., (2006), :
,
, 1(1), . 67-84.
7. ., (2008),
, ().
8. ., (2003),
: , (.)
:
,
http://www.kethi.gr/greek/ekpaidefsi/epeaek/meleti/ meleti_epeaek_11_03.pdf.
9. ., (1993),
, : ,
.
10.
, ., (2005)
, 3 .

11. Beechey V., (1977) Some notes on female wage labour in capitalist production,
Capital and Class 3: 45-66.
12. Bergmann B., R., (1974) Occupational aggregation , wages and profits when
employers discriminate by race and sex Eastern Economic Journal I: 1-2.

53

13. Brennan J., M., Kogan and U., Teichler (1995), Higher Education and Work: a
Conceptual Framework, in: J. Brennan, M. Kogan and U. Teichler (eds.), Higher
Education and Work, London and Bristol, Pennsylvania: Jessica Kingsley Publishers.
14. Crompton R. and Sanderson K., (1990), Gendered Jobw and Social Change. London
: Unwin Hyman.
15. Karamessini M., (2002), Wage hierarchy of occupations and occupational
restructuring of wage employment in Getimis et al., (eds.), Yearbook of Labour
2002, Athens: Institute of Human Resources and Urban Environment. (G)
16. Karamessini M., (2008), Gender segregation in the labour market: roots,
implications and policy responses in Greece, Network of Experts on Employment
and Gender Equality Issues.
17.
Karamessini M. and Ioakimoglou E., (2007), Wage Determination and the
Gender Pay Gap: a Feminist Political Economy Analysis and Decomposition,
Feminist Economics, 13(1), 31-66.
18. Hakim C., (1993), Segregated and integrated occupations: new framework for
analyzing social change, European Sociological Review 9, 3, 289-314.
19. Horrell S., Rubery J. and Burchell , B. (1989 ) Gender and Skills in Skill and
Occupational Change part of Social Change and Economic Life Initiative.
20. Rees T., (1998), Mainstreaming Equality in the European Union. London Routlege.
21. Reskin B., and Roos, P., (1990), Job Queues, Gender Queues Q Explaining
Womens Inroads into Male Occupations. Philadelphia: Temple University Press.
22. Rubery J. and Fagan C., (1995), Comparative industrial relations research: towards
reserving the gender bias British Journal of Industrial Relations 33, 2: 209 236.
23. Rubery J., Fagan C., and Maier F., (1996), Occupational segregation,
discrimination and equal opportunity in G. Schmid, J. O Reilly and K. Schomann
(eds) International handbook of Labour Market Policy and Evaluation. Cheltenham:
Edward Elgar.
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28. Watson, T., (2005), , , . .
., ().

54

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57

Other-employment and occupational segregation among male and female


graduates in Greece
Georga Helen
ABSTRACT
The present study assesses the other-employment (overeducation, job mix-match) and
occupational segregation among male and female graduates in Greece through out all
the fields. he data was obtained from the National Statistics Services of Greece. The
data employed was for the second quarter of 2000 and 2008. The results pointed out that
even though men and women have their own preferences for selecting a field of study.
Furthermore, it was revealed that the education of graduates does not match with
their occupation as well as the scientific fields do not match with the occupations.
Moreover, it was revealed that the other-employment, the scientific field and the
occupational segregation are not related.
Key words : other-employment, overeducation, job mix-match, occupational
segregation by gender

58