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KAIST


KAIST 1988
.
, ,
KAIST Cyber .
MathLetter ,
2003 (M 2 )
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. , xMO
(http://cafe.naver.com/xmo) `MO '
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.

2008 3,

1.1

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

1.2

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30

61

2.1

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 61

2.2

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 88

119

3.1

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 119

3.2

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 146

177

4.1

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 177

4.2

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 207

243

5.1

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 243

5.2

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 263

| xMO (http://cafe.naver.com/xmo) `MO ' . xMO


,
.

1.1

1. .

2. n 100(n) 21(n) n .
(KAIST Cyber 2003 )

3. a b (gcd) d .
a; 2a; 3a; : : : ; (b 1)a; ba
d b .

( 1901-3)

4. .

5. .

( 2002-J2)

11, 111, 1111, : : :


22, 222, 2222, : : :
33, 333, 3333, : : :
..
..
.
.
88, 888, 8888, : : :
99, 999, 9999, : : :

6. A, B, C, D A5 = B 4 , C 3 = D2 , C = A + 19 . D B
?

(AIME 1985-7)

7. n .
(i) n 2004 0 2004 1 .
(ii) n 2004 .

( 2004 2-2)

8. 1987 b xyz . x + y + z = 1 + 9 + 8 + 7 , x, y,
z, b .

( 1987-2)

9. 2 3
A . 11 2 1011 3
31 A(11) = 31 . A(A(A(n))) > 2006 n
?

(IT 2006 1)

1.1

10. n , 22n+1
.

( 2003-J1)

11. 5 p , p2 1 24 .
(1997 )

12. 10000
? (, .)

( 2004 1-J2)

13. fan g, fbn g


an = 3an1 + 2bn1 ;

a0 = 1

bn = an1 + 2bn1 ;

b0 = 2

.
(KAIST Cyber 2002 )

14. 1/35
.

15.

n4

n3 + 2n
n .
+ 3n2 + 1

( 1970-4b)

()

16. n2 0 m
. m ?

( 1989-4)

17. ` '
. 10 .

(AIME 1987-3)

18.
10 ?

(Towns 1998 JA1)

19. abcabc 24 () a, b, c . abc


.

(1998 )

20. fan g a0 = a1 = 1, an+1 = an + an1 (n 1) .


.

( 1991-3-4)

21. n > 1 , 3n + 1 2n .
( 1911-3)

1.1

22. .
( 2.1.1)

23.
.

24. n , n2 + 2n + 12 121 .

( 1971-6)

25. k 311 , k ?
(AIME 1987-11)

26. .

27. 11p + 9 p .

28. n , 8 .
An = 5n + 2 3n1 + 1

(2000 -)

( 1912-2)

10

29. m, n , a .
m2 n2 6n 14
=a
m+n+2

( 2004 1-J13)

30. 1, 2, 3, ..., 9 .
( 2.1.4a)

31. 10201 3 .

( 1972-3a)

32. n = 1; 2; 3; : : : , 100 + n2 100 + (n + 1)2 f (n)


. f (n) ?

(AIME 1985-13)

33. a, b, c , abc + ab + bc + ca + a + b + c = 1000 . a + b + c


.

34.

( 1993 )

1 1
1
+ =
(a; b) ?
a b
2004

( 2004-J4)

1.1

11

35. n, n + 1 m ,
.
(1) n 4 .
(2) n, n + 1, m .

36. p4 5p2 + 9 p ?

(1991 )

( 2004 1-S2)

37. m, n 3 5 , m4 n4 15
.

( 2.3.1 )

38. n 3 , n7 n 27 2 .
(1998 )

39. p p + 2 3 6 p + 1 .

( 1973-3)

40. n an 1 (mod m) . ak 1 (mod m) n j k


.

12

41. a + b + c = 1998 0 < a < b c < 2a a, b, c a, b, c


g . ,
.

( 1998-1)

42. n = 1; 2; 3; : : : ; 1992 , m! n 0 m
n ?

(AIME 1992-15)

43. 9997 9997


.

(IMTS R2-1)

44. .
( 1926-2)

45. (m2 + n)(m + n2 ) = (m + n)3 (m; n) .


( 2003-1)

46. a1 ; a2 ; a3 ; : : : a1 = 2, n 2 an a1 a2 an1 + 1
. 5 .

( 1982-5)

47. 1; 2; 3; : : : ; n Mn . , M1 = 1, M2 = 2, M3 = 6,
M4 = 12, M5 = 60, M6 = 60 . Mn1 = Mn n ?
.

( 1991-2)

1.1

13

48. f (x) = x2 + x . a, b 4f (a) = f (b)


.

( 1977-1)

49. P 5 . p 2 P p8 1
.

( 1996-2)

50. k Ak . A9 \ A10 \ A11


.

51. 2005

(AIME 1993-6)

9
.
25
( 2005-J1)

52. a, b, c ab = c2 , t, u, v a = tu2 , b = tv 2
.

53.

x+1 y+1
,
x, y .
y
x
( 1994/1995 1-1 )

54. p(q r) = q + r (p; q; r) .

( 2003-1)

14

55. 3k + 1 A . n 2 A n 1
A n A- . , A
A- A- . ,
A- ?

56. m n 1 1 (n >
m), .
.

( 1995/1996 1)

57. n2 n! n .

( 1964-8)

58. m, n m2 + 3m2 n2 = 30n2 + 517 . 3m2 n2 ?


(AIME 1987-5)

59.
.

60. .
(1999 KAIST . 2)

1.1

15

61. 6m + 2n + 2 (m; n) .
( 2004-5)

62. abc . acb + bca + bac + cab + cba = 3194 , abc .


(AIME 1986-10)

63. abcdef a 6
= 0, d 6
= 0 6 abcdef = (def )2 .
.

( 1999-1)

64.
.

( 1999/2000 2)

65. 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9 2
. ?

(IMTS R4-1)

66. 1 n n! . abc = a! + b! + c!
abc .

67. k 1 . .
y k = x2 + x

(Towns 1981-J1)

16

68. 9
.

( 1992-5-4)

69. n 1n + 2n + 3n + 4n ,
0 f (n) . f (n) ?
(KMC 2002 1)

70. n + 10 n3 + 100 n .

(AIME 1986-5)

71. 888 .
(AIME 1988-9)

72. ( )( )( )( ) ( )( )% 2000. 1 9
.

( 1999/2000 1)

73. n! 1 n . , 5! = 5 4 3 2 1 = 120
. 1! + 2! + 3! + + n! n .
( 2000/2001 2)

1.1

17

74. M = ab N = cde . 9M N = abcde , M ,


N .

(AIME 1997-3)

x1
x
, g(x) = . A f , g
2
2
( ) 1 .

75. A . f (x) =

A ?

(2007 IT )

76. n 2n
.

( 1938-1)

77. 39 11
.

( 1961-3)

78. 1 cm 42
. 18 cm .
?

( )

79. a1 ; a2 ; : : : ; a2006 1; 2; : : : ; 2006 . ,


j(a21 1)(a22 2) (a22006 2006)j 3 .

( 2006-J1)

18

80. 1 12 f5; 6; 7; 8g f9; 10; 11; 12; 1; 2; 3; 4g


.

.

? (, .)
(IT 2006 1)

81. 0 < a < b < c < d < 500, a + d = b + c, bc ad = 93 (a; b; c; d)


?

(AIME 1993-4)

82. 2000 , 1, 2, 3, ..., 1993


: 1 , 2
. 3 3 , .
. 1993
?

(AIME 1993-9)

83. 10 n s(n) .
n=s(n) : (i) 10 n 99 (ii) 100 n 999 (iii) 1000 n
9999 (iv) 10000 n 99999

(IMTS R1-1)

1.1

19

84. 6 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6 11
.

85. 2006 2005 2004 1004 0


. 0 ?

(IT 2006 1)

86. 7 10
. , 51 7 102 .
.

(AIME 2001 1-8)

87. 1999 A, B ?: `B
A , A + B 9.' ,
2000 ?

( 1967-2a)

88. n , 2 . n
.

(IT 2006 1)

a2 b + 2ab2 5
.
ab + 1
Q(a; b) (a; b) (a1 ; b1 ), (a2 ; b2 ), (a3 ; b3 ), : : : ;

89. (a; b) Q(a; b) =

(an ; bn ) , a1 + a2 + + an .

( 2006 1-J14)

20

90. 1, 1, 1, 1, 2
.
?

( 2003-8)

91. m, n m(5m + 4n) 2006


?

( 2006 1-J18)

92. 1, 2, 3, ..., 1000 ?


(AIME 1997-1)

93.

(2m + n)!(m + 2n)!


.
(m!)2 (n!)2 (m + n)!

94. 50000 . 2
. 3 . , 12
13 . ,
, .
?

(IMTS R12-1)

95. 10 1000 , 5 .
.

(BW 1973 1-1)

1.1

21

96. a, b, c, d ab = cd . , a2 + b2 + c2 + d2
.

97. 3 .

(BW 1971 2-1a)

(Towns 1987 J1)

98. a, b, c a = b + c . a4 + b4 + c4 2
.

(Towns 1988 JA1)

99. : 12
.

(Towns 1989 SA1)

100. p + q = 198 x2 + px + q = 0 .
( 1989 4-y8-2)

101. 1 2 3 2001 + 2002 2003 4002 4003 .


( 1989 4-y9-1)

102. xy = 19951996 x, y , x + y 1996


.

( 1996 -y8-5)

22

103. .
1 2 1 3 2 1 4 3 2 1 5 4 3 2 1
; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ;:::
1 1 2 1 2 3 1 2 3 4 1 2 3 4 5
23 9; 42; : : : .
(a)

1
2

(b)

2
3

n .

(c) p, q p < q ,

p
q

( 1983-1)

104. n 2 n , n (1 n ) P (n) .
P (n) = n10 n .

105. 2n ! 2 .

(IMTS R18-2)

( 1939-2)

106. n1 ; n2 ; : : : ; n1998 .
n21 + n22 + + n21997 = n21998
.

( 1997-5)

107. n , n(n + 1)(2n + 1) d


.

( 1997 -y7-1)

1.1

23

p p
108. ( 2; 3 ) ( )
.

( 1986-4)

109. x 3x5 + 5x3 8x 120 .

( 1987-1)

110. 9 1; 11; 111; 1111; : : : ,


m

m(m+1)

( 1988-4)

111. ,
.

112. p 2 . p2 x > y x, y

( 1966 3-1)

1
x

1
y

113. m! n! = k! 1 .


( 1931-1)

(Towns 1982 J3)

114. a, b, c 1 , a, b, c
, (a; b; c) . a = 96
, b c .

(IMTS R19-2)

24

115. . ,
.

(IMTS R21-2)

5, 16, 27, 38, 49, 60, 71, : : :


7, 20, 33, 46, 59, 72, 85, : : :
8, 22, 36, 50, 64, 78, 92, : : :

116. (a1 ; a2 ; a3 )
(, a1 a2 a3 ).

( 1993-3)

117. 2n + 1 3n + 1 n . 5n + 3
?

( 1993 -y9-1)

118. x, y, z (x y)(y z)(z x) = x + y + z . x + y + z 27


.

119. x2 + 3x + 24 x .

( 1993 -y9-5)

( 1980 2-1)

120. n n ( ,
) n . 4k + 1 4l(l 2)
.

( 1995-2)

1.1

25

121. n an = 20 + n2 dn = gcd(an ; an+1 ) . dn


, .
( 1997-2)

122. n p1 ; p2 ; p3 ; : : : ; pn n 5 p21 + p22 + p23 + + p2n


6 . n 6 .
( 1998-2)

123. y 3 = x3 + 8x2 6x + 8 x, y .
( 2000-2)

124. (m; n) :
(m n)2 =

( 1999-6)

4mn
m+n1

125. 99 , 99
1 . .
( 1997 -y11-1)

126. 13( ) . ,
9, 10, 7 , 5, 7,
. , , .
.
( 1998 -y7/8-3)

26

127. 1 a , a a
M . M ( ) a , a
.

( 1997 -y9-2)

128. 0:a1 a2 a3 , a1 a2
10 . .
( 1997 -y9-6)

129. 10 1029 , 1
9 .

( 1995-1)

130. n , n! + 1 (n + 1)! f (n) .


( 1996-1)

131. 19971997 .
( 1997 -y10-2)

132. 1 .
(Towns 1983 J2)

133. a1 ; a2 ; a3 ; : : : . k aak = 3k
, a100 .

(Towns 1983 J4)

1.1

27

134. n () (1 n ) 2n n .
n 1 n + 1 n .

( 2006-3)

135. 13 10
.
( ).
, ?

( 1997 -y10-6)

136. 1; 2; : : : ; 1998 1998 . n


. n = 2; 3; 4; 5 .
( 1998 -y9-6)

137. n . A 4 2n , B 8
n . A + 2B + 4 .

138. x, y .

( 2003-1)

( 2005-1)

9(x2 + y 2 + 1) + 2(3xy + 2) = 2005

139. a, b, c a + c, b + c . ab + c
ab + a + b + c .

( 1981 1-1)

28

140. .
2n + 7 = x2
, n x .

(Towns 1984 JO3)

141. n 2 n n 1
. 1 , 123456
?

(Towns 1985 JO5)

142. n 3 2 5 . n
.

143. a2000 1 10 a .

( 2000 -y7-6)

( 2000 -y8-1)

144. m; n 2 m + n 1 m2 + n2 1 . m + n 1
.

( 2000 -y8-3)

145. N !! N N (N 2)(N 4) 5 3 1 , N N (N
2)(N 4) 6 4 2 . 8!! = 8 6 4 2 9!! = 9 7 5 3 1
. 1986!! + 1985!! 1987 .

(Towns 1986 S4)

1.1

29

146. n a, b, c, d .
(i) a + c = d
(ii) a(a + b + c + d) = c(d b)
(iii) 1 + bc + d = bd
n .

( 2002-7)

147. 1, 2, 5, 10, 20, 50 1 . B A


. A B .

148. x2 + xy + y 2 = 2 (x; y) .

( 1987-20)

( 1989-1)

149. x x2 + 5x + 16 169 .
( 1990-5)

150. 462n+1 + 296 132n+1 1947 .

( 1947-1)

| xMO (http://cafe.naver.com/xmo) `MO ' .

30

1.2

1. 10101 .

( 1972-3b)

2. a, b, c, d (a b c d) ,
1 .
(a; b; c; d) .

( 2003-J5)

3. (a; b; c) .
(2a + b)(2b + a) = 2c

( 2003-9)

4. f1; 16; 27g 9 . n + 9,


16n + 9, 27n + 9 n .
(IMTS R3-1)

5. 17 3 .
.
10 .
. 1000 ?
.

( 1990-1-6)

1.2

31

6. 1 n , (n 1)2 nn1 1 .
( 2001-1)

7. n > 1 , n p(n) .
x, y, z .
(i) x, y, z .
(ii) p(xyz) 3.

( 2003 2-1)

8. 2
.

( 1976-5)

9. 1990 `
'. , 419904 = 6482 . 1991
, 1991 . , yx1991d
d; x; y; : : : .

10. p p2 + 8 p3 + 4 .

(IMTS R3-2)

( 1993-7-20)

32

11. m1 ; m2 ; : : : ; ms . [mi ; mj ] mi , mj , (mi ; mj )


mi , mj .

( 1991-3-6)

[(m1 ; ms ); (m2 ; ms ); : : : ; (ms1 ; ms )] = ([m1 ; m2 ; : : : ; ms1 ]; ms )

12. x2 + y x + y 2 x y
.

( 1966-3)

13. n n3 (n2 1)(n2 4)


.

(1989 )

14. w! = x! + y! + z! w, x, y, z .

( 1983-1)

15. .
c
c a a b
b
+ + + + +
a a b
b
c
c
, a, b, c (, gcd(a; b) = gcd(b; c) = gcd(c; a) = 1)
.

( 2006-J2)

1.2

33

16. a, b, c, d d 5 . m
am3 + bm2 + cm + d
5 .
dn3 + cn2 + bn + a
5 n .

( 1900-1)

17.
. 24378 ! 1344 ! 48 ! 32 ! 6 24378
6. 1 1 .
( 1992-7)

18. an 13 + 23 + + n3 . , 0:a1 a2 an
.

( 2.3.4)

19. (1) x2 + y 2 + 1 = z 2 .
(2) a x2 + y 2 + a = z 2
.

( 2.3.2 , 1974-5 )

20. pp+1 + q q+1 p, q .


(2000 . 2)

34

21. n , d0 ; d1 ; : : : ; dn 0, 1, 2 . d0 + 3d1 +
+ 3k dk + + 3n dn , di = 1 i (1 i n)
.

( 1989-5)

22. 1984 .
( 1984-1)

23.

x+y p
+ xy = 40 fx; yg
2
( 2005-y7-3b)
.

24. .
m2 + 20mn + n2
m3 + n3
, m, n .

( 2006-J5)

25. 20052 2 ()
.

( 2005-J3/S3)

1.2

35

26. a, b, c , a + n, b + n, c + n
n ?

27. n

( 2.2.2 )

(2n)!
.
(n + 1)! n!

28. 1 4 9 : : : n2 .
. ( , 3 = 1 + 4, 8 = 1 4 9 + 16 + 25 36 49 + 64 .)
( 1991-3)

1 1
1
+ = 1 . (a + b)
a
b
c
( 1992-2)
.

29. a, b, c

30. 2
.

( 1985-2)

36

31.

p
p
n + n + 2005 n .

( 2005-4)

32. . .

\ !"
.
.
5, 9, 12 3.
.
\ 3
?"
?

( 2.2.2)

33. 1; 2; 4; 8; : : : 2
. 30 35 ,
.
1=5 . ?
(1994 )

34. 7 j 3n + n3 7 j 3n n3 + 1 .
( 1997-14-2, 1996 -y9-5 )

1.2

37

35. x a (mod n), x b (mod m) gcd(n; m) j


(a b) . , , lcm(n; m)
.

( 1993-7-3)

36. n D(n) :
8
< n;
1n9
D(n) =
: D(a + a + + a ); n > 9
0
1
m

, a0 ; a1 ; : : : ; am n . , D(989) =

D(26) = D(8) = 8 .
n = 1; 2; 3; : : :
D(1234 n) = D(n)
.

( 2.4.3)

37. a2 + b2 = n! a, b, n . , a b n < 14 .
( 1987-1)

38. m, n, k . , rm + sn k
r, s .

( 1961-9)

38

39. a, b, c .

1
1
1
1+
1+
1+
=3
a
b
c

( 1996-2)

40. 2000 3.
. .

( 2.2.2)

41. m = 3; 4; 5 6 , m
.

42. a1 , a2 , b1 , b2 a1 b2 a2 b1 = 1
.

43.

( 1991-6a)

a1 + a2

b1 + b2
( 1995-11-1)

1 1 1
1
+ + = p, q, r n .
p q
r
n
( 1994 2a)

44. m, n . m + n m2 + n2 1 2
.

( 1963-4)

1.2

39

45. m = pq p q . (a; m) = 1 a am1 1


(mod m) . p 6
= q .

( 1995-10-3 )

46. P (x) . n P (n)


.

( 1995-11-3)

47. .
, 6 = 1 + 2 + 3, 28 = 1 + 2 + 4 + 7 + 14 6 28 . 2p 1

2p1 (2p 1) , .

( 1990/1991)

48. n = ab . n = a2 + b3 n .
(1999 )

49. k 1335 + 1105 + 845 + 275 = k 5 . k ?

(AIME 1989-9)

50. x3 + 5y 3 = 9z 3 (x; y; z) .
( 1994 2b)

40

51. x3 + y 3 + z 3 = 2002 (x; y; z) .


( 1995-11-20)

52. 1 +

1 1
1
+ + + . (n 2)
2 3
n

53. k .
.
0:243243243 =

9
37

.
.
0:011363636 =

1
88

p
q , q 2 5,

( 1988-1)

54. x2 + ax 66a = 0 , . , a
.

(1995 )

55. 0 7 9
.

(Towns 1981 S3)

1.2

41

56. 94000 3817 9 . 0 n 4000


9n 9 ?

(AIME 1990-13)

57. 2 1 0, 0 1
. , 2 .
, 2 11010010 101101 1001011
. ,
(1) 387 0 ? ,
(2) 5 0
?

(IT 2006 1)

58. 7 . 25
34, 25 34
. 25 34 9. ,
.

(KAIST Cyber 2005 )

59. n N (n) .
, 24 1, 3 N (24) = 2 . N (1) + N (2) +
+ N (1989) .

60. 1 + p + p2 + p3 + p4 p .

( 1989-1 )

( 1995-4)

42

61. n a1 ; a2 ; : : : ; an .
n ( ) ?
(BW 1973 1-3)

62. 21917 + 1 21991 1 .


(Towns 1992 SA1)

63. n 1 1 + 2n + 4n , n 3 .
( 1981 3-4 )

64. 2 2
? , 0 .

(Towns 1988 SO1)

65. .
(a) n = 4k + 1 n .
(b) n .

(Towns 1990 SO2)

1.2

43

66. 21989 51989 10 . ?


(Towns 1989 SO4)

67. N . N 1
N , N N .
(Towns 1991 JO1)

68. n x, y (x 6
= y) .
n

x + x2 + x4 + + x2 = y + y 2 + y 4 + + y 2

(Towns 1991 SO1)

69. ( ) 5
. .
(a) 4 .
(b) .

70. 4545 + 5454 .

(Towns 1991 JA3)

( 1989 4-y8-5)

44

71. 20052005 .
( 2005-1)

72. m, k, n n > 1 . m(m + 1) = k n .


( 1964-2)

73. x4 + 131 = 3y 4 (x; y) .


( 1984-1)

74. n f (n)
.
(i) m, n f (mn) = f (m) + f (n).
(ii) n 3 f (n) = 0.
(iii) f (10) = 0.
f .

( 1984-6 )

75. . 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8
, 1980 .
(- 1980-1)

1.2

45

76. 1991 ?

( 1991 4-y9-5)

77. 2x+1 + y 2 = z 2 (x; y; z) .

( 1992 4-y9-6)

78. x3 + y 5 = z 7 (x; y; z) .
(IMTS R13-4)

79. 2 3 .
, a b (a = b ) ab a b
. .
(1999 KAIST . 2 )

80. c , x(x2 1)(x2 10) = c


.

( 1989 4-y10-5)

46

81. x3 + y 3 = 4(x2 y + xy 2 + 1) .
( 1993 4-y9-5)

82. e1 > e2 > > er n = 2e1 + 2e2 + + 2er .


n! = n(n 1) 2 1 , n!=2nr .

( 1988-3)

83. n 0 P (n)
. P (n) n , n `(prodigitious)' . 14
.

(IMTS R16-2)

84. 1 n p(n) 1
p ?

( 1994 4-y9-3)

85. a . x + 12 (x + y 1)(x + y 2) = a x,
y .

( 1936-3)

1.2

47

86. (a1 ; a2 ; : : : ; an ) (b1 ; b2 ; : : : ; bn ) 1; 2; : : : ; n . n ,


ai + bi (i = 1; 2; : : : ; n) n .
( 1997 -y8-5)

87. n! 9 n .

88. .

( 1979 1-4)

( 1966 3-2)

x4 + 4y 4 = 2(z 4 + 4u4 )

89. xy = y xy (x; y) .

( 1998-3)

90. n An = 23n +36n+2 +56n+2 . A0 ; A1 ; : : : ; A1999


.

( 1999-2)

48

91. n2 + 3n n .

( 2000-2)

92. x, y 3x + 4y, 4x + 3y x y 7
.

( 2004-3)

93. m n , 22 + 1 22 + 1 .
( 1940-2)

94. x, y .
x, y .
(a) x, y .
(b) 10 , 12 .
(c) .
(BW 1972 2-3)

95. p 7p + 3p 4 .

( 2007-4)

1.2

49

96. n , x (1 x < n) .
x3 bx3 c = (x bxc)3
(, bxc x .)

( 1992-2)

97. K L . M , M n
n
n

1
1
+ L+
K+
2
2
.

( 1992-4)

98. (x; y) .

( 1993-5)

(x + 2)4 x4 = y 3

99. a, b , xa+b + y = xa y b x, y
.

( 1983-5)

100. 1; 12; 123; 1234; : : : ; 1234567890; 12345678901; : : : 1981


.

( 1980 1-2)

50

101. (a; b; c; d) .
a2 + b2 + c2 + d2 = a2 b2 c2

( 1986-1)

102. q , x2 + 7x 14(q 2 + 1) = 0 .
( 1995-4)

103. (n; m) .

(- 1982-1)

gcd((n + 1)m n; (n + 1)m+3 n) > 1

104. a2 + b2 = c2 , a, b, c 1 (a; b; c)
. (rs)2 + (st)2 = (tr)2 , r, s, t 1
(r; s; t) .

(IMTS R41-2)

105. n . 2n + 1 3n + 1 n + 1
, 2
.

( 1994-6)

1.2

51

106. p2 + 7pq + q 2 p, q .

( 2001-2)

107. , p2 + qs p2 + qr p, q, r, s
.

( 1994 4-y9-7)

108. x2 + x = y 4 + y 3 + y 2 + y x, y .

( 1967-6)

109. x , x
Q(x) P (x) . ,
n
Q(Q(x)) + P (Q(x)) + Q(P (x)) + P (P (x)) = n
x .

( 1983-1)

110. 9 .
n

9 99 9999 (102 1)
(n ) .

( 1992-1)

52

111. a, b, c, d (x; y; z)
z .
(i) xy = ab = cd x > a > c.
(ii) z = ab = cd.
(iii) x + y = a + b.

(- 1982-7)

112. xyxy (, , , ...)


. , b xyxy
b > 1 .

( 1998-3 )

113. 16 1 = d1 < d2 < < d15 < d16 = n , d6 = 18, d9 d8 = 17


n .

( 1998-6)

114. 7x 3 2y = 1 x, y .

115. n an =
an = 2 + an1

hni

hni

++

1
2
.

hni
n

( 1990 4-y11-5)

. n ,
( 1997 -y10-8)

1.2

53

116. (x; y) .

( 1981 2-3)

y 4 x(x + 1)(x + 2)(x + 3) = 1

117. a .
x2 + axy + y 2 = 1
(x; y) a
.

( 1995-2)

118. n S(n) . n
.
S(2n) 2S(n) 10S(2n)
, S(n) = 1996S(3n) n .

( 1996-2)

119. .
( 1999-9)

120. F0 = F1 = 1, n 0 Fn+2 = Fn+1 + Fn


. 2000
.

( 2000 -y7-7)

54

121. (a; b; c; n) .

( 2001-1)

2n = a! + b! + c!

122. 0 3 .
( 2001-3)

123. a1 = A, an+1 = an + d(an ) a1 ; a2 ; a3 ; : : : . , d(m)


m . 2002
A > 1 ?

( 2002-3)

124. p x, y x5 y 5 ,
v .
r
4p + 1
v2 + 1
=
5
2

( 2001-3)

125. n 55n + a 32n 2001


a .

( 2001-6)

1.2

55

126. x .
q
q
p
p
3
3
13 + x + 13 x
( 2001-9)

127. (p; q; n) . , p q .
p(p + 3) + q(q + 3) = n(n + 3)

( 2002-3)

128. a2 b2 + b2 c2 + 3b2 c2 a2 = 2005 .


( 2005-2)

129. n , d 2n2 . n2 + d
.

( 1953-2)

130. y 2 = x3 + 16 .

( 1994-2)

131. x2 + 615 = 2y (x; y) .

( 1995-6)

56

132. 2x2 3x = 3y 2 , ,
.

(yMO 2008-1-42)

133. x, y, z (x y)5 + (y z)5 + (z x)5 5(x y)(y


z)(z x) .

( 1962-12)

134. (An ) A1 < 1987 i Ai + Ai+1 = Ai+2


. A1 An A2 + An1 1987 , n .
( 1987-48)

135. 3x2 px + q = 0 (p; q) .


( 1993-2)

136. n . xy + yz + zx = 3n2 1, x + y + z = 3n
x y z (x; y; z) = (n + 1; n; n 1) .

( 1977-3)

1.2

57

137. a3 + 3a2 + a a .
( 1991-2)

138. p . p j n2 n + 3 n p j m2 m + 25
m .

( 1994 2-6)

1 1 1
+ + , xyz (x; y; z)
x y z
( 1994 3-1)
.

139. x+y+z,

140. n () n
An . , An dn
, A1120 = f112; 121; : : : ; 2101; 2110g d1120 = 1 . n
, dn .
( 1997-5)

141.
.
(a) 4 .
(b) 2000 ?

( 2000-1)

58

142. n , m = 5n + 3n + 1 n 12 .
( 2002-5)

143. a, b 1 . a3 b3 , a b .
( 1994/1995 1-9)

144. P , P (5) 2 P (2) 5 . P (7) 10


.

( 1995 2-1)

145. m n .
(a) 500 (m; n) .
(b) k k
.

146. 20042005 ?

( 2003-5)

( 2004-3b)

1.2

59

147. pn + 144 = m2 (m; n; p) . , p .


( 2006-2)

148. a, b, c, d . a = b = c = 0 d , x
ax3 + bx2 + cx + d .

( 2001 -y7-5)

p
149. n , 2 + 2 28n2 + 1 , .
( 1969-1)

150. xx = y 3 + z 3 x; y; z .
( 1995/1996 1-10)

| xMO (http://cafe.naver.com/xmo) `MO ' .

60

2.1

1. f m; n 2 N
f (mn) = mf (n) + nf (m)
. f (12) = f (15) = f (20) = 60 f (8) .
(2002 )

2. x, y ma , mg . ma + mg = y x
x
. , 2 ,
y
( 2005 y7-3a)
.

3. 1 1! + 2 2! + 3 3! + + (n 1) (n 1)! + n n! . ,
n! = n(n 1)(n 2) 2 1 .

( 1969-6)

62

4. (x; y; z) .
8
>
>
xy = z x y
>
>
<
xz = y x z
>
>
>
>
: yz = x y z

( 2004-1)

5. x, y f : R ! R .
f (x)f (y) f (xy) = x + y

6. y =

p
p
p
p
2 + 2, z = 2 2 x = y + z .

( 1997-15-10)

( 1994 )

7. (x; y; z) :
2 .

8. a + b = 1 a, b

( 1970-1)

a
1
+
?
1+a 1+b
( 2004 1-J4)

9. , . 1
2 170 1 .
2004 , .

( 2004-2)

2.1

63

10. x, y, z a, b a + b + x + y + z = 2004 0 x a y b z
. x + y + z .

11. x4 + x3 + x2 + x + 1 = 0 ?

( 2004-2)

( 1991/1992)

12. .
x1 + 4x2 + 9x3 + 16x4 + 25x5 + 36x6 + 49x7 = 1
4x1 + 9x2 + 16x3 + 25x4 + 36x5 + 49x6 + 64x7 = 12
9x1 + 16x2 + 25x3 + 36x4 + 49x5 + 64x6 + 81x7 = 123
, 16x1 + 25x2 + 36x3 + 49x4 + 64x5 + 81x6 + 100x7 .
(AIME 1989-8)

13. f .
8
>
<n 3
(n 1000 )
f (n) =
>
:f (f (n + 6)) (n < 1000 )
f (1992) f (1) ?

( 1991/1992)

14. x y x + y = 1 .
.

( 1971-2)

1
1
1+
1+
9
x
y

15. x = (1 + n1 )n y = (1 + n1 )n+1 , y x = xy .

( 1974-1a)

64

2004
2004
= x2 + 2 1 a , a2 . (,
[x]
x
[x] x .)
( 2004 1-J15)

16. [x] +

17. S(n) = 1! + 2! + + n! , 3 1! + 4 2! + 5 3! + 6 4! +
+ (n + 2) n! S(n) .

18. x1 , x2 , x3 1=2 . .
(1 x1 )(1 x2 )(1 x3 )

1
2

( 2000-2)

19. x [x +0:19] + [x +0:20] + [x +0:21] + + [x +0:91] = 546 . [100x]


.

(AIME 1991-6)

p
91
19 + p
x
91
19 + p
91
19 + p
91
19 + p
91
19 +
x
(AIME 1991-7)
k . k 2 .

20. x =

21. n , .

( 1974-1b)

12 22 + 32 42 + + (1)n (n 1)2 + (1)n+1 n2 = (1)n+1 (1 + 2 + + n)

2.1

65

22. x, y, z ,
x+y+z =5
xy + yz + zx = 3
z .

( 1978-3)

23. (x2 x + 1)(x2 x + 2) = 12 ?


( 1995/1996 2)

24. f (x) x
f (1 + x) + xf (1 x) = x2 + x
. f (6) .

25. x , 3x3 [x] = 3 .

26. a, b, c, d , .

( 2003 1-J6)

(IMO-LL 1989, )

( 1991-2)

a b c
d
+ + + 4
b c d a

27. x2 + bx + 6b = 0 b ?
(AIME 1991-8)

66

28. 1000, n, 1000 n, n (1000 n), : : : n n + 1 n + 2


.
. n .

(AIME 1998-8)

29. A B C (A + 2) (B + 2) (C + 2)
. A B C , C ?
(AIME 1998-14)

30. (3x2 2x 1)4 = a8 x8 + a7 x7 + + a1 x + a0 , a8 + a6 + a4 + a2 ?


( 1995/1996 2)

31. a b , (a; a3 ) (b; b3 ) y = x3


. y- ?
( 1996/1997 1)

32. f : R ! R f (x) + f (1 x) = 7 x + f ( x3 ) = 12 f (x) , f ( 19 )


? (, R .)

33. A .
(x + y)(x + y + z) = 18
(y + z)(x + y + z) = 30
(z + x)(x + y + z) = 2A

( 2005 1-J9)

( 1992-7)

2.1

67

34. f x f (x) + f (x 1) = x2 . f (19) = 94 , f (94)


.

(AIME 1994-3)

35. x, y f f (xy) = f (x) + f (y) .


f (0:5) + f (1) + f (2) ?

36. 0 < b < 106 ,


(2) 1

b
2

(3) 1 b2 (4) 1

37. x , x2 +

38.

( 1999/2000 2)

p
1 b ? (1) 1 b

b2
2

(5) 1

( 2000/2001 1)

16
.
x2 + 1

p
4
k f (k) .

( 2005 1-J11)

1
1
1
1
+
+
+ +
f (1) f (2) f (3)
f (1995)

(AIME 1995-13)

39. (x 1)(x 2) (x 99) , x98 .


(2000 . 1)

68

40. a b a 6
= b . k > 0 x
jx aj + jx bj = k .
.
(1) k .
(2) k .
(3) k .
(4) k .
(5) k .

41. x 2 R0
xf

( 1999/2000 2)



x
2
f
=1
2
x

f : R0 ! R . , R0 0
.

( 2002-2)

42. .

(KAIST Cyber 2002 )

p
1
1
1
1
+ p + p + + p n
1
n
2
3

43. a, b, c .
a
b
c
2 2 2
+
+
+
bc ca ab
a b
c
, a, b, c .

( 2002-1/J1)

2.1

69

44. t , [t] t . ,
[8] = 8, [] = 3, [5=2] = 3 . .
[x] + [2x] + [4x] + [8x] + [16x] + [32x] = 12345

( 1981-1)

45. a .

1
1
1
a + a + a =a
2
3
5
, [x] x .

46. 2 < x2 < 3 x ,

( 1998-1)

1
144
x2 . x12
x
x

(AIME 1997-9)

ax + b
47. a, b, c, d 0 f (x) =
. f (19) = 19, f (97) = 97 ,
cx + d
d
x6
= x f (f (x)) = x , f (x) = y x
c
y .
(AIME 1997-12)

48. a1 = 211, a2 = 375, a3 = 420, a4 = 523, an = an1 an2 + an3 an4


fan g . a531 + a753 + a975 .

(AIME 2001 2-3)

49. x f (x) = f (x) f , g(x) = g(x)


g . f , g , f g
0 . .
f g, g f , f f , g g, f + g.

( 2002 2)

70

50. f : Z ! Z n > 999 f (n) = n 3 n < 1000


f (n) = f (f (n + 5)) . f (84) .

(AIME 1984-7)

51. n > 0 an+2 = an+1 an a1 ; a2 ; a3 ; : : : .


1492 1985, 1985 1492 .
2001 .

52. n , .

(AIME 1985-5)

( 1998/1999 1)

1 + 3 + 5 + 7 + + (2n 1)
(2n + 1) + (2n + 3) + + (4n 1)

53. a a3 = a + 1 . . (1)
1
a4 = a2 + a (2) a4 = a5 1 (3) a4 = a3 + a2 1 (4) a4 =
a1

( 2000/2001 1)

54. x3 3x2 + 3x + 1 = 0 .

( 2002 2)

55. f (x) 4, 9, 7, 5, x g(x) 4, 9, 7, 5, x


. f (x) = g(x) x .
(IT 2006 1)

2.1

71

56. a, b, c , a < 5 . a2 a 2b 2c = 0, a + 2b 2c + 3 = 0
, a, b, c .

57.

(1995 )


4 1
1

= a a . (, 0 < a < 1, [x]


3 a
a
x )

58. xi 1 < xi < 1 jx1 j + jx2 j + + jxn j = 19 + jx1 + + xn j


. n ?

(AIME 1988-4)

59. f1 (x) = 1 jxj , n = 1; 2; 3; : : : fn+1 (x) = 1 jfn (x)j .


m , fk (m) = 0 k .
( 1998/1999 2 )

60. .
( 1999/2000 1)

1
1
1
1
1+
1+
1 +
1+
2
3
1999
2000

1
1 1
1
1
2
1
1
1
+ +
+
+ =
+
+
+
, 1 + +
4 9 16 25
6
9 25 49 81
( 2003 2)
.

61. 1 +

72

62. f (x) . f (1) = 1 m, n


f (m + n) = f (m) + f (n) 2f (mn) f (2005) f (2006)
.

(IT 2006 1)

63. f , g n
: f (0) = 4, f (1) = 12, g(n) = f (n + 1), f (n) = 2g(n + 1) 2g(n 1).
(1) f (2), g(2) .
(2) f (2n), g(2n) n .
(3) f (1995) + g(1995) .

(1995 )

64. .
13 = 1
23 = 3 + 5
33 = 7 + 9 + 11
43 = 13 + 15 + 17 + 19
..
.
503 = m + (m + 2) + (m + 4) + + n , (m; n)
.

( 2003 2)

65. a, b, c, d, e .
a2 + b2 + c2 + d2 + e2 a(b + c + d + e)

( 1998 -y9-1)

2.1

73

66. m
x = m2 ;

y = (m + 1)2 ;

z = 2(x + y + 1)

( 3.1.1)

(1) xy + x + y

(2) yz + y + z

(3) zx + z + x

(4) xy + z

(5) yz + x

(6) zx + y

67. 1, 2, 3, : : : ; 1000 x [2x] + [4x] + [6x] + [8x]


?

(AIME 1985-10)

68. 10 P (10) 24
P1 (x1 ), P2 (x2 ), P3 (x3 ), : : : ; P24 (x24 )
(jx1 1j + jx1 + 1j) + (jx2 1j + jx2 + 1j) + + (jx24 1j + jx24 + 1j)
.

( 2006 1-J15)

69. , 0 1, 0
.

(ML 136-2)

70. 1; 2; 4; 5; 10; 11; 22; 23; 46; 47; : : : : 1 1


2 , 2 2 4 ; 4 1 5 , 5 2 10 ; : : : ;
1 2 . 100
3 2k 1 . k .

(1989 )

74

71. A = (a1 ; a2 ; a3 ; : : : ) , A (a2 a1 ; a3 a2 ; a4


a3 ; : : : ) . (A) 1 a19 = a92 = 0 , a1 ?
(AIME 1992)

72. x6 x5 + x4 x3 + x2 x +

3
4

= 0 .
( 1986-1)

73. a b c a + b + c 1 a, b, c . a2 + 3b2 + 5c2 1


.

(Towns 1989 JO1)

74. a .
jx aj + jx + 3a 8j = 4

( 2001-4)

75. n n . (
) A .
?

(BW 1972 1-1)

76. .

(Towns 1991 JO3)

1
1

2+
4+

1
1
+
1991

=1

1+

3+

1+

3+
4+

1
+

1
1991

2.1

75

q
q
p
p
p
p
77. n, m m > n . n + m + n m + n + m
?

(Towns 1992 JA3 )

78. 2 . 4
.

79. 1 <

(Towns 1990 JO1)

p
3 < 2 , 6 < 3 3 < 7 .

(IMTS R10-2)

80. x [x] = [ 12 x 2] .

( 1996 -y8-6)

81. 1 n .

( 2002-6)

1
1
2
n
1
1
< 2
+
+ + 2
< +
2
n + 1 n2 + 2
n +n
2 2n

82. 1 K V 20 20 . 2
5 . K 5 V 4 , K 4
V 3 , K 3 V 2
, K 2 V 5 .
, K 2 ?

(Towns 1988 JO1)

76

83. a, b .

( 1993 4-y9-1)

a2 + ab + b2 3(a + b 1)

84. y = x2 y = x2 + bx + c
.

( 1991 4-y9-1)

85. ax5 + bx4 + c = 0 . cx5 + bx + a = 0


.

( 1994 4-y9-5)

86. .

( 2004 2-1)

(a + b)2 (b + c)2 (c + a)2 + abcf2(a + b)(b + c)(c + a) + abcg

87. a0 = > 0 an+1 =

an
(an ) .
1 + an
( 1986-2)

88. a, b, c, x, y a3 + ax + y = 0, b3 + bx + y = 0, c3 + cx + y = 0
. a, b, c 0 .

89. m; n 2 ,
.

( 1999-1)

p
p
p
n n m 3 3

( 1996 -y10-5)

2.1

77

90. .

( 1941-1)
k1

(1 + x)(1 + x2 )(1 + x4 )(1 + x8 ) (1 + x2

) = 1 + x + x2 + x3 + + x2

91. f .

2x + 29
2f (x) + 3f
= 100x + 80
x2
f (3) .

(IMTS R19-4)

92. x f : R ! R .
x2 f (x) + f (1 x) = 2x x4

( 1985-6)

93. x3 3px2 + 3q 2 x r3 = 0 p, q, r p = q = r
.

( 1999-4)

94. a, b, c, d (a + b + c + d)2 4(a2 + b2 + c2 + d2 ) ,


(a x)(b x) + (c x)(d x) = 0 .
( 1999 -y8/9-2)

95. a b . ,
, a b . 999

. a b a + b
.

( 1998 -y7/8-4)

78

96. x, y .

( 1995 4-y9-1)

x
y
1
+ 4

x4 + y 2
y + x2
xy

97. .

( 1994 -y9-5)

a1
a2
an
a2
a3
a1
+
+ +
=
+
+ +
a2 (a1 + a2 ) a3 (a2 + a3 )
a1 (an + a1 )
a1 (a1 + a2 ) a2 (a2 + a3 )
an (an + a1 )

98. n .

( 1996-7)
n

21=2 41=4 81=8 (2n )1=2 < 4

99. x1 ; x2 ; : : : ; x1999 .
1 + x21 = 2x2 ;

1 + x22 = 2x3 ;

:::;

( 1999 -y7-3)

1 + x21999 = 2x1

100. (x; y; z) .

( 1989-1)

x + y z = 1
x2 y 2 + z 2 = 1
x3 + y 3 + z 3 = 1

101. a, b, c .
b2
c2
a2
+
+
1
a2 + 2bc b2 + 2ca c2 + 2ab

( 1999 -y7-7)

2.1

102. (x +

79

p
p
x2 + 1 )(y + y 2 + 1 ) = 1 x + y = 0 .

( 1994 -y9-1)

103. a a3 = 6(a + 1) . x2 + ax + a2 6 = 0
.

( 2007-1)

104. 0 x x8 x5

1
1
0 .
+
x x4
( 1998-1)

105. a1 ; a2 ; : : : ; an , .
( 1969 3-2)

y = jx a1 j + jx a2 j + + jx an j;

106. .

x2R

(Towns 1985 JO3)

(x + y)3 = z
(y + z)3 = x
(z + x)3 = y

107. a .
(a3 + a2 + 3)2 > 4a3 (a 1)2

( 2000 -y8-7)

80

108. x .

( 2004-4)

(x 1)(x 2)(x 3)(x 4)(x 5)(x 6) = 720

109. x2 + ax + b x2 + bx + a x3 + px2 + qx + 72
= b .
. , a, b, p, q , a 6
.

( 1992 -7)

1
x g(x) = g(x), h(x) = h(x)
1 x + x2
( 1995 1-7)
f (x) = g(x) + h(x) .

110. f (x) =

x
111. (1) x 6
= 1 f ( x1
) = x f .
x
(2) x 6
= 1 g( x1
) = g(x) g

. (, .)
( 1998 -7)

112. 0 x 1, 0 y 1 x, y

y
x
+
1
1+y
1+x

( 1988-y7-1)

113. a < b < c ,


.

( 1988-y9-3)

1
1
1
+
+
=0
xa xb xc

2.1

114.

81

p
p
p
p
2 + 3 2 + 3 3 .
( 1964-3)

115. 1 x (1 + x + x2 )2 < 3(1 + x2 + x4 ) .


( 1971-1)

116. n r .
1

1
n(r1=n 1) r 1
r

117. a, b, c .

( 1974-2)

( 1990 4-y10-1)

p
p
p
p
ab(a + b) + bc(b + c) + ca(c + a) > (a + b)(b + c)(c + a)

118. a; b; : : : ; n 3 ,
.

( 1922-3)

1
1 1
+ + + < 3
a b
n

119. x = a y 2 , y = a x2 x, y a
.

( 1976-2)

82

120. cd = 1 a, b, c, d . [ab; (a + c)(b + d)]


.

( 1987-38)

121. .

( 1979-1)

x1 + 2x2 + 3x3 + + (n 1)xn1 + nxn = n


2x1 + 3x2 + 4x3 + + nxn1 + xn = n 1
3x1 + 4x2 + 5x3 + + xn1 + 2xn = n 2
..
.

(n 1)x1 + nx2 + x3 + + (n 3)xn1 + (n 2)xn = 2


nx1 + x2 + 2x3 + + (n 2)xn1 + (n 1)xn = 1

p
p
p
p
122. x, y x x y 14 x+ x . y y x 14 y+ y
.

( 1991-2)

123. x4 2ax2 + x + a2 a = 0 a
.

( 2000-7)

124. u v ax2 + bx + c = 0 (, ac 6
= 0). px2 + qx + 1 = 0
u=v v=u , q ? a, b, c
.

( 1998/1999 2)

2.1

83

125. a, b, c abc (a + b c)(b + c a)(c + a b) .


( 1982-2)

126. R , S 0 1 .

1
1
f (x) +
f
=1
x 2 S
2x
1x
f : S ! R .

( 2003-2)

127. :
ab + c + d = 3;

bc + d + a = 5;

, a, b, c, d .

128. c > 1 ,

cd + a + b = 2;

da + b + c = 6
( 2003/2004 1-1)

p
p
p
p
c + 1 c c c 1

( 1969-2)

129. 2 x 4, x y, 3 y 5 x, y ,
?

130. n

2 + xy

x+y
( 2005 1-J4)

p
n a, b a3 9ab + b3 = 0

. an .

(1991 )

84

131. a1 > a0 , a1 > 0, ar+2 = 3ar+1 2ar (r = 0; 1; : : : ; 98) a0 ; a1 ; : : : ;


a100 . a100 > 299 .

( 1962-3)

132. a, b, c
a2 + b2 + c2 = 1
, .

( 1910-1)

1
ab + bc + ca 1
2

133. f (x) + xf (1 x) = 1 + x f : R ! R .
( 1991-2-18)

134. 0 11 0 f
, f (2)2 + f (10)2 .
(1) f (0) = 0, f (6) = 1;
(2) x 0, 0 y; x + y 11 f (x + y) =

f (x) + f (y)
.
1 f (x)f (y)

( 2006 1-J19)

135. a + b + c = 6, a2 + b2 + c2 = 18, abc = 4 , .


(1) (a + b)2 + (b + c)2 + (c + a)2
(2) a2 b2 + b2 c2 + c2 a2

136. x2 (3m + 1)x + 8m = 0 2 : 3 , m


.

2.1

85

137. a, b, c a2 + b2 + c2 6
= 0 . x, y, z ax + by + cz = 0, bx + cy + az = 0,
cx + ay + bz = 0 x = y = z x + y + z = 0
.

138.

(1991 )

1
2
3
9
+ + + +
?
2! 3! 4!
10!

139. f (x) , f (1999) .


(i) f (3) = 5
(ii) f (x + 2) =

f (x) 1
f (x) + 1

(1999 )

140. f (x) = x3 x . f (x + a) = f (x) x jaj 2


.

( 1988-7)

141. .

( 1989-y8-1)

x+y+z =0
1 1
1
+ + =0
x y z

142. abc = 1 a + b + c >


.

1 1 1
+ + a b c . a > 1 > b
a b
c
( 1995-4)

86

143. 0 a, b, c abc = 1 a + b + c =

1 1 1
+ + , a, b, c
a b c

1 .

( 1988-y8-1)

144. f x (i), (ii) .


(i) f (10 + x) = f (10 x)
(ii) f (20 + x) = f (20 x)
f f (x) = f (x) .

( 1997-2)

145. a, b :
(i)

p
p
a + 1 > b.

(ii) x > 1 ax +

x
> b.
x1

( 1994/1995 1-5)

146. x[x[x[x]]] = 88 x . , [x] x


.

( 1998-1)

p
p
p
p
p
p
x + y + xy = x + y + xy + 2y x .
q
p
p
p
p
p
p
p
p
(2) 3 + 10 + 2 3 = 5 + 22 + 8 22 + 2 15 3 22 .

147. (1)

( 1990-1)

2.1

87

148. a 6
= c p(x) = x4 + ax3 + bx2 + cx + 1, q(x) = x4 + cx3 + bx2 + ax + 1 .
p(x) = 0 q(x) = 0 a, b, c ,
.

( 2000-1)

149. x2 y 2 = 0, (x k)2 + y 2 = 1 k
. .

150. x3 + ax + b = 0 a < 0 .

( 1981-1)

( 1992-1)

| xMO (http://cafe.naver.com/xmo) `MO ' .

88

2.2

1. abcd = 1 a, b, c, d , (1 + a)(1 + b)(1 + c)(1 + d) 16


.

( 1993-6)

2. n n 2 . .

1
1
1 1 1
1
1
1 + + +
>
+ + +
n+1
3
2n 1
n 2 4
2n

( 1998-3)

3. a, b, c . a + b + c abc a2 + b2 + c2 abc
.

( 1997-4)

4. n x1 ; x2 ; : : : ; xn n
2x1 x2 = 1
xk1 + 2xk xk+1 = 1

(k = 2; 3; : : : ; n 1)

xn1 + 2xn = 1
, n .

5. .

[m]n

( 1983-3)

, m n , n .

2.2

89


1
6. f : (0; 1) ! R f (x) = f
. x > 0
x
u

x+
2

1
x

= f (x)

u : [1; 1) ! R .

( 1989-C14)

7. a, b, c; p, q, r , x
ax2 + 2bx + c 0 px2 + 2qx + r 0
, x .
apx2 + bqx + cr 0

( 1918-3)

8. 4x2 40[x] + 51 = 0 . , [x] x


.

9. a, b, c, d .

( 1999-1)

( 2006-J6)

a+b+c+d
<1
(1 + a2 )(1 + b2 )(1 + c2 )(1 + d2 )

10. a, b, c a + b + c = 1 . .
(1 + a)(1 + b)(1 + c) 8(1 a)(1 b)(1 c)

( 1991 4-y11-3)

90

11. .
[x] + [y] + [x + y] [2x] + [2y]

12. az 3 +bz 2 +cz+d = 0 . ab > 0 bc > ad > 0


.

( 1992-8)

13. u1 ; u2 ; : : :
u1 = 1;

un =

1
u1 + + un1

(n > 1)

.
u1 + u2 + + uN > 1989
N .

( 1989-3)

14. a1 , a2 , : : : ; an . ai aj (i < j)
M . ,
M = a1 (a2 + a3 + + an ) + a2 (a3 + a4 + + an ) + + an1 an
. a1 , a2 , : : : ; an

2M
n(n1)

.
( 1972-2)

15. x2 + y 2 = 2 x, y ,
.

15x2
+ 4xy
2
( 2006 1-J11)

2.2

91

16. n .

n
n+1
n!
2

( 1986-2)

17. a, b, x, y ax + by = 3, ax2 + by 2 = 7, ax3 + by 3 = 16, ax4 + by 4 = 42


. ax5 + by 5 .

(AIME 1990-15)

18. 3x2 + y 2 , u2 + uv + v 2
. , . , x, y, u, v .
(IMTS R4-3)

19. b < c < d a .


( 1993 2)

(a + b + c + d)2 > 8(ac + bd)

20. x f (x) = f (398 x) = f (2158 x) = f (3214 x) .


f (0); f (1); f (2); : : : ; f (999) ?
(AIME 2000 1-12)

92

21. x n :
21 < x1 + x2 < 22
22 < x2 + x3 < 23
..
.
2n < xn + xn+1 < 2n+1

( 1990-4)

22. k k = a1 1!+a2 2!+ +am m!


. , 0 < am < m+1, 0 ai < i+1. 16!32!+48!64!+ +1968!1984!+2000! =

a1 1! + a2 2! + + an n! , a1 a2 + a3 a4 + + (1)j+1 aj

(AIME 2000 2-14)

23. x, y
2x2 15x + 26 y x2 8x + 20
, 4(x2 + y) .

( 2006 1-J7)

24. bxc , x . , dxe


, x . x 1 x 100
,
bxcdxe = x2
x ?

(IT 2006 1)

2.2

93

25. f .
f (x) = a0 + a1 x + a2 x2 + + an xn ;

0 ai a0

(i = 1; 2; : : : ; n)

b0 ; b1 ; ; b2n (f (x))2 ,
(f (x))2 = (a0 + a1 x + a2 x2 + + an xn )2
= b0 + b1 x + b2 x2 + + bn+1 xn+1 + + b2n x2n
. , .
bn+1

( 1974-3)

1
(f (1))2
2

26. u 0 < u < 1 ,


u1 = 1 + u; u2 =

1
1
+ u; : : : ; un+1 =
+ u;
u1
un

. n = 1; 2; 3; : : : un > 1 .

n1
( 1977-6)

27. (bc 1)x2 + (a b + c abc)x + ab 1 = 0


a, b, c 100a + 10b + c .
( 2005 1-S17)

28. .

( 1992-6)

1<

1
1
1
1
1
+
+
+ +
<1
1001 1002 1003
3001
3

94

29. a, b, c abc > 0 . 3


.

c
a
b
+
+
ab bc ca

+4

1 1 1
+ +
a b
c

> 0

(1998 )

30. S .
x (x y) = y;

(x; y 2 S)

(y x) x = y;

(x; y 2 S)

, . ,
.

(Putnam 1972)

31. f (x) , f (9) .


f (3) = 1;

(x2 x + 1)f (x2 ) = f (x)

( 2004 1-J16)

32. a, b, c, d, e 1 a < b < c < d < e .


1
1
1
15
1
+
+
+

[a; b] [b; c] [c; d] [d; e]


16
. , [m; n] m n .

( 1979-3)

33. x 2 R f : R ! R .
f (x)3 =

x
(x2 + 7x f (x) + 16 f (x)2 )
12

( 1987-3)

2.2

95

34. 0 f
.
(i) 0 x , f (x) = xf ( x1 ).
(ii) x 6
= y 0 (x; y) , f (x) + f (y) = 1 + f (x + y).
( 1991-4)

35. .

( 1992-4)

x2 +

x2
=3
(x + 1)2

36. a, b, c x, y, z , 3a + 2b c
?

( 2004 1-J3)

x2 + 4xy + 4y 2 + axz + byz + cz 2 = 0

37. a, b, c a b c . .
( 1997-14-6)

c2 b2
a2 c2
a2 b2
+
+
3a 4b + c
c
a
b

38. x 1 x 3 . x2 x . x
?

( 1995-2)

96

39. x, y, z, w n = 2; 4; 6; 8 :
x2
y2
z2
w2
+
+
+
=1
n2 12
n2 32
n2 52
n2 72
x2 + y 2 + z 2 + w2 .

40. a, b, c, p a +

1
b

=b+

1
c

=c+

(AIME 1984-15)

1
a

= p , abc + p = 0 .

, a, b, c .

(ML 161-1)

41. a1 ; a2 ; : : : ; a100 .
a1 a2 a100 0;

a1 + a2 100;

a3 + a4 + + a100 100

a21 + a22 + + a2100 ,


a1 ; a2 ; : : : ; a100 .

( 2000-5)

42. a, b, c
a + 2b + 3c = 35;
, a .

ab + bc + ca = 61
( 2003 1-J16)

43. a, b, c, d, e, f , g a + b + c + d + e + f + g = 1 .
M = maxfa + b + c; b + c + d; c + d + e; d + e + f; e + f + gg
M .

( 1998-17-10)

2.2

97

44. fn f1 (x) = x fn (x) =

p
fn1 (x)

1
4

(n 2 N, n 2).

(a) x fn (x) fn1 (x) .


(b) n , fn (x) = x x .

( 1994-4)

45. a1 ; a2 ; : : : ; a121 1000 . n


, m . [m n]
?

(AIME 1989-11)

46. F 2 . x; y; z 2 F
.
(1) x z = y z =) x = y ( )
(2) x (y z) 6
= (x y) z ( )

(Putnam 1984)

47. a1 = 1, a2 = 1,
an =

an2 an1
an2 + an1

fan g, a12 .

(n 3)
(1990 )

48. x f (f (x)) = x + 1 f : Z ! Z
.

( 1994 3b)

98

p
49. a b, (a b)2 8 ab . n = ab
,
p
x2 2([ n ] + 1)x + n = 0
. , r [r] r
.

( 2003-J2)

50. f : R ! R g : R ! R .
(1) s, t , 2f (s) g(s) = f (t) t.
(2) s , f (s)g(s) s + 1.

( 1999-3)

51. 1 n .

( 1938-2)

1
1
1
1
1
+
+
+ + 2
+ 2 >1
n n+1 n+2
n 1 n

52. x, y (x y) f : N0 ! R
. (N0 .)

(- 1979-4)

f (x + y) + f (x y) = f (3x)

53. x, y ,
0 .

2.2

99

54. n k a1 ; a2 ; : : : ; an . a1 ! a2 ! an ! <
k! . , n! 1 n .
( 1937-1)

55. a, b, c , :

( 1999-5)

b
c
a
+
+
3
c+ab a+bc b+ca

`'
n1
. fa; b; c; : : : g S n .

56. n (n > 2)

.
(a) .
(b) a + b > c . (a, b, c )
S
(c) a + b
(Towns 1992 JA1)
.
n1

57. f : R+ ! R .
x; y > 0

(- 1978-1)

f (x + y) = f (x2 + y 2 )

58. m1 ; m2 ; : : : ; mk S . .
k
X
i=1

mi +

1
mi

k
S
+
S
k

( 1980-2)

100

59. .

(Towns 1988 JA3)

(x3 + x4 + x5 )5 = 3x1
(x4 + x5 + x1 )5 = 3x2
(x5 + x1 + x2 )5 = 3x3
(x1 + x2 + x3 )5 = 3x4
(x2 + x3 + x4 )5 = 3x5

60. A, B, C .
A4 + B 4 + C 4 2(A2 B 2 + B 2 C 2 + C 2 A2 )
(a) A, B, C .
(b) A2 + B 2 + C 2 2(AB + BC + CA) .
(c) (b) ?

(Towns 1987 J5)

61. a, b, c , p + q + r = 0 . a2 pq + b2 qr + c2 rp 0
.

(Towns 1988 SA2)

62. fn (k) = k + 1 (k = 1; 2; 3; : : : ; n 1), fn (n) = 1 . n 2


, an , bn , cn , dn n
fn (x) = an + bn x + cn jx dn j
.

(IMTS R10-3)

2.2

101

63. a, b, c, d a b c d a + b + c + d 1 . a2 + 3b2 +
5c2 + 7d2 1 .

(Towns 1989 SO1)

p
p
p
64. f (x) = x4 + 17x3 + 80x2 + 203x + 125 . f (3 3 ) = g(3 3 ) f (5 5 ) =
p
g(5 5 ) g(x) . (IMTS R11-5)

65. x2 12 [x2 2] = 2 + 3[ 12 x2 3] .
( 1996 -y9-6)

66. (xn ), (yn ), (zn ) .


xn+1 = yn +

1
;
xn

yn+1 = zn +

1
;
yn

zn+1 = xn +

1
zn

(n 0)

, x0 , y0 , z0 .
.

67. n 2 .
.

(- 1981-6)

p
3
n3 + 2n2 + n
( 2004-8)

102

68. x1 x2 x3 xn fxn gn1 n


.
x1
x4
x9
x 2
+
+
+ + n 1
1
2
3
n
k .

( 2000-3)

x2
x3
xk
x1
+
+
+ +
3
1
2
3
k

69. x (2x 1)20 (ax + b)20 = (x2 + px + q)10 p; q; a; b


.

( 1963-12)

70. c , ffn g .
f1 = 1;

f2 = c;

fn+1 = 2fn fn1 + 2 (n 2)

k , r .
fk fk+1 = fr

(IMO-SL 1984, )

71. ab + cd = 2pq a, b, c, d, p, q . ac p2 > 0 bd q 2 .


( 1990 4-y9-2)

72. a2 x2 + ax + 1 7a2 = 0 a
.

( 1990 4-y9-5)

2.2

73.

103

p
p
3
2 + 3 4 ,
.

(IMTS R12-4)

74. x, y, z .

x y
;
y
x

y z
;
z
y

z
x


x z

.
( 1997-5)

75. x > y 0 .
x+

( 1979 2-2)

4
3
(x y)(y + 1)2

76. .
x3 5

( 1992 4-y9-1)

y2
6
= ;
x
y

y3 5

x2
6
=
y
x

77. a, b, c, d .
a + b + c + d = 3;
, .

a2 + b2 + c2 + d2 = 45
(IMTS R18-4)

b5
c5
d5
a5
+
+
+
(a b)(a c)(a d) (b a)(b c)(b d) (c a)(c b)(c d) (d a)(d b)(d c)

104

78. a; b; c 0 a + b + c 3 . .

( 1989 4-y10-4)

a
b
c
3
1
1
1
+
+

+
+
1 + a2
1 + b2
1 + c2
2
1+a 1+b 1+c

79. Milo Mindbender . ,


, . (, 85.49
85, 85.50 86 .) 2
. 75 , 1 .
83 , 2 .
?

80.

(IMTS R13-1)

x2 + y 2
x2 y 2
+
= k k .
x2 y 2
x2 + y 2
E(x; y) =

81. x1 + + xn

1
2

x8 + y 8
x8 y 8
8
8
8
x y
x + y8

( 1997-2)

x1 ; x2 ; : : : ; xn .
(1 x1 )(1 x2 ) (1 xn )

1
2

( 1966 3-3)

82. x, y .
x3 + y 3 + (x + y)3 + 30xy = 2000
x + y = 10 .

( 2000-1)

2.2

105

83. a, b, c .
1
1
1
27
+
+

b(a + b) c(b + c) a(c + a)


2(a + b + c)2

84. x, y 0 .
p
2 2
x+y
p

x2 xy + y 2
x2 + y 2

( 2002-4)

( 2004-1)

85. a1 , a2 , b1 , b2 , c1 , c2 a1 a2 > 0, a1 c1 b21 , a2 c2 b22 .


(a1 + a2 )(c1 + c2 ) (b1 + b2 )2 .

( 1939-1)

86. 4x4 ax3 + bx2 cx + 5 = 0 r1 ; r2 ; r3 ; r4


. .

( 1985-3)

r2
r3
r4
r1
+
+
+
=1
2
4
5
8

87. a2 + b2 = c2 x2 + y 2 = z 2 a; b; c x; y; z .
(a + x)2 + (b + y)2 (c + z)2
.

(IMTS R15-4)

106

88. x, y y > 3 .
x2 + y 4 = 2[(x 6)2 + (y + 1)2 ]
, x2 + y 4 = 1994 .

( 1994-1)

89. a1 ; a2 ; : : : ; a1996 .
( 1996 -y10-6)

2a1 + 2a2 + + 2a1996 1995 + 2a1 +a2 ++a1996

90. f .
(i) .
(ii) x 6
=
(iii)

2
3

2
3

f (x) .

x .

1
2x
498x f (x) = f
2
3x 2

( 1992-6)

91. , f
p
f ( 5753 ) .
( 1993-2)
f (xy) = xf (y) + f (x)y
f (x + y) = f (x1993 ) + f (y 1993 )

2.2

107

92. n
p
p
p
f (n) = b2 n c b n 1 + n + 1 c
, f (n) = 1 n . (, bxc x
.)

( 1993-4)

93. .
a c
a b
+ > +
b
c
c a
a, b, c .
( 1991 4-y9-3)

94. P (x) n 3 .
P (x1 ) = P (x2 ) = = P (xm ) = 1
x1 ; : : : ; xm (m 3) , P
.

( 1986-2)

95. x 6
= 1, y 6
= 1, x 6
= y x; y; z .
zx y 2
yz x2
=
1x
1y
x + y + z .

96. .

( 1985-4)

( 1996 -y11-1)

1
1
2
2
2
1
+
+ +
=1+
+
+ +
666 667
1996
234 567
1994 1995 1996

108

97. a1 = an = 0 k = 2; 3; : : : ; n 1 ak1 + ak+1 2ak


a1 ; a2 ; : : : ; an (n 3) . 0 .
( 1967 3-1)

98. f : N ! N .
(a) n; m 2 N , f (n + m) = f (n)f (m).
(b) f (f (x)) = f (x)2 .
( 1997 -y11-5)

99. f : R+ ! R (R+ ).
(i) x; y 2 R+ f (xy) = f (x)f ( y3 ) + f (y)f ( x3 )
(ii) f (1) =

1
2

( 1995-8)

100. a, b, c :
( 1995-5)

a2 + b2 + c2 >

p
3 maxfja2 b2 j; jb2 c2 j; jc2 a2 jg

101. p(x) = xn + an1 xn1 + + a1 x + a0 , (p(x))2


. p(x) ?
.

(IMTS R43-3)

2.2

109

102. x a(x) > 0 b(x)2 4a(x)c(x) < 0 a, b, c

f (x) = a(x)x2 + b(x)x + c(x) x f (x) > 0


.

103. n .

n
(n + 1)(n + 2)
nn (n!)2
6

( 1995-6)

104. 2 n a b
.

( 1993-1)

an = a + 1;

b2n = b + 3a

105. a1 ; a2 ; : : : ; an+1
n .

( 1985-4)

q
an+1 x2 2x a21 + a22 + + a2n+1 + a1 + a2 + + an = 0

106. x; y; z > 1 , .
1 + y2
1 + z2
1 + x2
+
+
2
1 + y + z2
1 + z + x2
1 + x + y2

( 2003-4)

110

107. a1 =

1
2

, n > 1
an =

an1
2nan1 + 1

. a1 + a2 + + a1998 .

( 1998 -y11-5)

108. f : N ! N , f (2) = a > 2, m, n f (mn) =


f (m)f (n) . a .

( 1987-3)

109. w, a, b, c , x, y, z
.
x

+y

+z

=1

xa2 + yb2 + zc2 = w2


xa3 + yb3 + zc3 = w3
xa4 + yb4 + zc4 = w4
w a, b, c .

( 1994-9)

110. a, b, c a; c 6
= 0 . ax2 + bx + c = 0 r ax2 +

bx + c = 0 s , r s a2 x2 + bx + c = 0

( 2000 -y9-1)

111. a, b, c a + b + c > 0, bc + ca + ab > 0, abc > 0 . a; b; c > 0


.

(Towns 1985 SO3)

2.2

111

112. A1 = f1g, A2 = f2; 3; 4g, A3 = f5; 6; 7; 8; 9g, ... . bn An


. .
2000
2000
2000
+
+ +
b2 1 b3 1
b2000 1

( 2000 -y7-3)

113. x1 = 12 , xk+1 = x2k + xk .


1
1
1
+
+ +
x1 + 1 x2 + 1
x100 + 1
.

(Towns 1985 J6)

114. n a1 ; a2 ; : : : ; an , 0, k ,
. a1 + 2a2 + 3a3 + + nan 0 ,
ai 0 .

115. n a, b, c .

( 1966-2)

( 1975-3)

an + bn + cn abn1 + bcn1 + can1

116. (x; y) 6
= (0; 0) ,
f (x; y) =
.

x2 xy + y 2
2x2 + y 2
( 2002-40 )

112

117. .

( 1992-3)

2x1 5x2 + 3x3 0


2x2 5x3 + 3x4 0
..
.

2x23 5x24 + 3x25 0


2x24 5x25 + 3x1 0
2x25 5x1 + 3x2 0

118. 0 0 a, b, c
: (1) a a = 1, (2) a (b c) = (a b)c (a b c ). x 36 = 216
.

( 1993-4)

1
. f (x1 ) = x2 , f (x2 ) = x3 ,
ax + b
f (x3 ) = x1 x1 , x2 , x3 , a b ?

119. a, b f (x) =

( 1993-6)

120. x p(x 1) + p(x + 1) = 2p(x) + 2 p(x)


.

( 2003-4)

121. x + y = 2 x, y .
x2 y 2 (x2 + y 2 ) 2

( 2000-6)

2.2

113

122. 0 x1 ; x2 ; x3 ; x4 ; x5 : x1 +
x3 = 2tx2 , x2 + x4 = 2tx3 , x3 + x5 = 2tx4 . t ?

123. a; b 0 a = b .

( 1974-5)

( 2004-5)

p
p p
2
a(a + b)3 + b a2 + b2 3(a2 + b2 )

124. f (1) = 1 , x, y f : R ! R
.

( 2006-5)

f (xy + f (x)) = xf (y) + f (x)

125. a, b, c , .
r
ab
ca
+ bc
a2 + b2 + c2
a+b+c
a + b
( 2007-7)

c
3
3
3

126. a, b, c a > 0 . ax2 + bx + c = 0 (0; 1)


. a 5 , a = 5
.

( 1979-5)

114

127. x, y f : R ! R .
f (x + y) f (x y) = f (x)f (y)

( 1992/1993 1-4)

128. 0 a b c ,
.

( 1988-2)

a3 c3
abc
3

ab bc
+
c
a

129. x f : R ! R .
( 1993 3-5)

f (x) = f (x);
f (x + 1) = f (x) + 1;

1
f (x)
(x 6
= 0)
f
= 2
x
x

130. a, b, x, y a + b + x + y < 2 . a + b2 = x + y 2 a2 + b = x2 + y
, a = x b = y .

( 1995-3)

131. A, B, C .
max(A2 B; B 2 C; C 2 A) max(A2 A; B 2 B; C 2 C)
, max(x; y; z) x, y, z .

( 1991-y9-1)

2.2

115

132. a, b, c , .
1 1 1
1
1
1
+ +
+
+
a b
c
a+bc b+ca c+ab

( 1993/1994 1-3)

133. a, b, c, d .

( 1988-y9-E3)

64
1 1 4 16
+ + +

a b
c
d
a+b+c+d

134. 0 1 X, Y , Z .

( 1989-y9-E5)

2(X 3 + Y 3 + Z 3 ) (X 2 Y + Y 2 Z + Z 2 X) 3

135. x + y + z =

1
2

x; y; z 0 .

( 1988-y8-6a)

1
1x 1y 1z

1+x 1+y 1+z


3

136. a , fan g : a1 = a,

8
1
1
>
<
= 0 )
(an 6
an
an
an+1 = 2
>
:0
(an = 0 )
fan g .

( 1978 3-5)

116

137. x, y, z 1 .

1

4

( 1961-2)

(1 x)y;

(1 y)z;

(1 z)x

138. x f : R ! R .
xf (x) = [x]f (fxg) + fxgf ([x])
, [x] fxg x .

( 1999 -y10-5)

139. x P .
P (P (P (P (P (x))))) = x28 P (P (x))

140. n 2 .

(- 2005-2)

( 1994/1995 1-2)

x1 jx1 j = x2 jx2 j + (x1 1)jx1 1j;


x2 jx2 j = x3 jx3 j + (x2 1)jx2 1j;
..
.

xn jxn j = x1 jx1 j + (xn 1)jxn 1j

141. (x; y; z) .

( 2001-2)

x(1 y 2 )(1 z 2 ) + y(1 z 2 )(1 x2 ) + z(1 x2 )(1 y 2 ) = 4xyz = 4(x + y + z)

2.2

117

142. fxn g .
x1 =

1
;
2

xn =

2n 3
xn1
2n

(n 2)

n 2 N x1 + x2 + + xn < 1 .
( 1994/1995 1-12)

143. a; b; c; d a + b = 1 . c + d = 1
n [na] + [nb] = [nc] + [nd] .
( 1995 2-3)

144. x = y = z = 1 .
x + y2 + z3 = 3
y + z 2 + x3 = 3
z + x2 + y 3 = 3

( 1986-4)

145. x3 + mx n = 0 nx3 2m2 x2 5mnx 2m3 n2 = 0


, ,
n .

( 1995-5)

146. a, b . ax + b[x] = ay + b[y] x 6


= y
a, b .

( 1985-5)

118

ax + b
= 0, f (f (0)) 6
= 0 . F (x) =
f f (0) 6
cx + d
f ( f (x) ) (f n ), F (0) = 0 x

147. f (x) =

F (x) = x .

( 1990-5)

148. a, b, c, d .

( 1987-y8-3)

(1 + ab)2 + (1 + cd)2 + (ac)2 + (bd)2 1

149. f (0) = 0 , x f (2x + 1) = 3f (x) + 5 ,


f .

( 1993-5)

150. x + y + z + t = 0 x2 + y 2 + z 2 + t2 = 1 x, y, z, t
.

(- 1996-4)

1 xy + yz + zt + tx 0

| xMO (http://cafe.naver.com/xmo) `MO ' .

3.1

1. A, B, C . BC, CA, AB M , N , K .
AM , BN , CK .

2. ABCD D AB, BC P , Q , B AD,


CD R, S . \P SR = \SP Q P R = QS
.

( 2003-7)

3. ABCD .
(1)
(2) AB CD .
(3) BC DA .

( 1972-4)

120

4. ABC . BE = EF = F C AB, BC E,
F .

5. ABC \A BC
.

6. ABCD 1 . AB, BC, CD, DA


A , B , C , D , AA = BB = CC = DD = 1=n .
AA CC BB DD 1=1985 .
n .

(AIME 1985-4)

7. K, L, M , N , ()
. KLM N .

( 1906-2)

8. AB < AC ABC S . A BC S P
. X AC , BX S Q . BX = CX
P Q S .

( 2002/2003 1-2)

= S) ,
9. C1 , C2 S . S C1 C2 A( 6
S C2 C1 B( 6
= S) . A, B, S C3
= S), Q( 6
= S) . P S = QS
. S C3 C1 , C2 P ( 6
.

( 2003-2)

3.1

121

10. ABC BC D . AD \CEA


E \ACE = \B . \A AB = AC
.

( 2003-6)

11. ABC O DE, F K, M N AB, AC, BC


. , F M AB , E K BC , D N AC
.
AF
BE
CN
+
+
AB
BC
CA
.

( 2003-J2)

12. 5, 6, 7 ABC
. AP , BQ, CR
. ?

( 2004 1-J10)

13. QB P A P A . P B QA R
. O , P ORS S .
SP = SQ .

( 2003-2)

14. AB = 12 . A 8 B 6
P . P Q,
R , QP = P R . QP 2 .

(AIME 1983-14)

122

15. P ABCD , A, B, C
R . P R
.

( 1907-2)

16. AB = BC ABC 3. A
O BC P AP =
AB ?

21
4

( 2004 1-S6)

17.
. ?
( 1989 )

18. A, B, C BC AD = DC D
, D BC E AB + BE = CE
.

19. 5 1 2
.

(a) .
(b) A B .
( 2004-J1)

3.1

123

20. A, B, C , A ( )
B C .

21. A, B, C, D , AB, BC, CD, DA


P , Q, R, S . P R QS
.

( 1975-5)

22. .
.

( 1990/1991)

23. Q , P1 P2 P3 P8 8
. Q P1 P5 , P2 P6 , P3 P7 , P4 P8 Q
.

( 1911-2 )

24. 1 A B , A

, B .
A [ B .

( 1994-3)

25. ,
. .
1 , .

(AIME 2001 2-6)

124

26. AB \CAB = 22 AC . B
, AC . AC P
AB M , \CM B ?

( 2004 1-S10)

27. P .
P , l .

28. ABCD . AB, BC, CD, DA A , B , C , D


, A C B D P . P D AA , P A BB , P B CC , P C DD
a, b, c, d , a + c = b + d .
( 1993 1a)

29. ABC \A 20 , DAC \D


100 . , D AC B . AB = BC + CD
.

( 1996-1)

30. AB = 13, BC = 15, CA = 17 ABC . D, E, F AB, BC,


CA , AD=AB = p, BE=BC = q, CF=CA = r p + q + r = 2=3
p2 + q 2 + r2 = 2=5 . j4DEF j=j4ABCj .

(AIME 2001 1-9)

3.1

125

31. A B k . l k A B k
. k k
.

( 1914-1)

32. P , Q, R . P , Q, R
.

33. ABCD ABEF . AE BF


O . AB = 4 :
() B DOC DAF
() AC BF
,
.

( 2005y8-2)

34. ABC X, Y , Z BC, CA, AB AX, BY , CZ


ABC D . DY AZ, DZBX, DXCY
.

( 1989-C11 )

35. K AB C , C K N
. \ACN AN , BN P , Q ,
P N = QN .

( 1994 1b)

p
36. 6 2 ABCD ,
p
12 2 EF . BCF ADE ,
ABCDEF .

(AIME 1983-11)

126

37. A B .
A B
B A
C A
D B
E A
F A
G A

M AB .

( 2005-J2)

38. ABC B C . BC, CA, AB


a, b, c , b2 + c2 a .
( 1992/1993)

39. a a
.

!
!
40. ABC . BC D, BA E
AE = BD . CE = DE .

3.1

127

41. a, b, c a b c .
?

a2 + b2

c2

( 1996/1997 1)

42. ABCD P , Q , P Q AB . X, Y
AB A, X, Y , B , Z, W CD C, Z, W ,
D . AXP W D, XP QY , BY QZC, W P QZ
. BC = 19, P Q = 87, XY = Y B + BC + CZ = W Z = W D + DA + AX
AB ?

(AIME 1987-6)

43. P ABC , P A, P B, P C BC, CA, AB D,


E, F . P D = P E = P F = 3 P A+P B +P C = 43 , P AP B P C
.

(AIME 1988-12)

44. ABCD AB . AC BD
S , S AB T . ST CT D
.

( 2003-7)

45. O ABCD , .
AOC .
(Towns 1981 J3)

46. ABC 6 D, E, F , G, H, J .
A; H; J; B; D; E; C; F; G . CF = 1, F G = 13,
GA = 2, HJ = 7 DE .

128

47. C P . P C C
. .

( 1991-3)

48. ABC D, E, F .
DEF ? (1) (2) (3)
(4) (5) .

( 1997/1998 1)

49. A(8; 5), B(15; 19), C(1; 7) A


ax + 2y + c = 0 . a c .

(AIME 1990-7)

50. 1 A B
?

( 2000/2001 2)

p
p
51. ABCD AB = 13 3, AD = 12 3 O .
4OBC , OA OD
. .

(AIME 1990-14)

52.
p
. 3 3
. ,
. .
(IT 2006 1)

3.1

129

53. ABCD . AB CD
P , AD BC Q . , 4P BC
4QAB B R . P , Q, R
.

54. ABC BC = 4, AC = 2, AB = 3 A B C A B = 1 .
\BAC + \B A C = 180 \ABC = \A B C , ABC S,
S
( 2006 1-J13)
A B C S .
.
S

55. ABC \ACB AB D . ABC


BCD . , AC 2 = AD AB
.

( 2005 y7-4)

56. ABCD .
P .

57.
. x .

( 2003 2)

130

58. ABCD , P A +
P B + P C + P D P .

( 1993-7-6)

59. AB CD ABCD, AB = 92, BC = 50, CD = 19, DA = 70


. P AB , P AD BC
. AP .

(AIME 1992-9)

60. AB = 1995, BC = 1994, CA = 1993 ABC . CX


. ACX BCX CX
.

(AIME 1993-15)

61. O AD ABC (B, C, D O ). D


AO E \AEB = \ACO .

(1993 )

AP
62. ABCD AB, BC, CD, DA P , Q, R, S ,
=
PB
BQ
CR
DS
=
=
= k . P QRS ABCD
QC
RD
SA
(IMTS R3-3)
52 % , k .

63. ABC AB M . \ABC AC


D . M D ? BD AB = 3BC .
( 2005 y7-2)

3.1

131

64. ABC B, C BP , CQ . , A
BP , CQ H, K . KH BC
.

( 1989-2)

65. O AC BD X , AC = BD = 78,
OA = 42, OX = 18 . CXD
.

(AIME 1995-14)

66. ABC BC, CA, AB D, E, F . P , Q, R


EF , F D, DE , AP R, BQP , CRQ .
4P QR 1 , 4ABC .

(AIME 1998-12)

67. M 4 3 . M M
. M M
, ?
( 1998/1999 2)

68. AB = 8, BC = 6, BD = 10, \A = \D, \ABD = \C ABCD .


CD .

(AIME 2001 2-13)

69. 1 ABCD-A1 B1 C1 D1 . BC E
, CDD1 C1 M . AEM
.

( 1998-2)

132

70. ABCD AB = 5, BC =

p
p
50, CD = 4, AD = 3 AC = 5, BD = 58

. X, Y BD AC XY 2 .
(2000 . 2)

71. AB = 6, AC = 8 4ABC \BAC BC D


AD = AB . C AD M , AM
.

( 1990-1-1)

72. ABC S R, r
. r(2R + r) = S .

73. 1
. 43=99 , .
(AIME 1999-4)

74. P Q x P Q = 8 . A(0; 6), B(16; 10)


ABQP , P Q M x- .
( 1998/1999 1)

3.1

133

p
75. AB k DC, BC ? AB, AC ? BD ABCD . AB = 11, AD =
p
1001 , BC .
(AIME 2000 2-8)

QB
RC
PA
! ! !
=
=
=a
76. 4P QR P Q, QR, RP
PQ
QR
RP
A, B, C . 4ABC 4P QR 61 a
?

(1991 )

77. AB = 5, BC = 6, CA = 7 4ABC P . P
, . AB
AB .

(1995 )

78. 90, 120, 150 . ,


,
.
.

(AIME 2001 2-7)

79. O C . AB , BM B
. E BM F . AE
BM D , BF = F D .

(1995 )

80. ABC r . r 1=4 ,


1=2 .

( 1925-3)

134

81. a
. .
( 1990/1991)

82. A, B, C AB = AC . BC
E , AE D . AD AE E
.

( 1997 2b)

83. k1 , k2 P . P k1 , k2 A1 , A2
, P k1 , k2 B1 , B2
. P A1 B1 P A2 B2 .

( 1933-3)

84. 1 ABCDE . M
. M r1 ,
r2 , : : : , M
r1 r2 r3 r4 r5 .
(a) r3 M .
(b) r3 M .

( 1962-8)

85. (6; 0), (0; 12), (16; 0)


, (0; 0), (5; 0)
.

( 1996/1997 1 )

3.1

135

86. a, b , y = (x a)2 y = b2 x2
p
y- 12 7 , a + b
. (, a < b .)

( 2005 1-J13)

87. a 1995 c (a 1995 c).


,
. (a; c) ,
?

(AIME 1995-11)

88. J , 9
. 1. A .
( 2000/2001 2)

89. O A, B, C, D, E . AOC, BOD, COE, DOA,


EOB B, C, D, E, A (
) . 5 a, b, c, d, e ,
1 1 1 1 1
(IT 2006 1)
+ + + + .
a b
c d e

136

90. .
1 . ,
.
( ).
?

(AIME 2001 2-12)

91. , .
( 1942-1)

92. 1 2 , A, B . B 2
1 C . AB = BC .

(Towns 1991 JO1)

93. A, B . .
AB .

(Towns 1991 SO1)

94. ABC O, H, BC O D .
AHDO .

95. ABCD BC DA M , N . AC
M N , ABC ACD .
(Towns 1988 JO2)

96. ABCD M . \M AC = \M CD = x , \ABM


?

(Towns 1988 JA2)

3.1

137

97. AM 4ABC . 4ABM 4ACM


2 ?

(Towns 1989 JO2)

98. ABCD .
.

(Towns 1989 SO2)

99. ABCDE AD CE O . BO
DE .

(Towns 1991 JA2)

100. , , 6
, 5 (,
). .
(Towns 1988 SA1)

101. 4ABC N . 4ABN , 4ACN , 4BCN


.

(Towns 1988 SO2)

102. 1, r, r . (,
, , )
r .

103. 4, 7, 10 .

(Towns 1991 JO2)

(IMTS R8-1)

138

104. 4ABC \C AB D, K .
CA CB = CK CD .

105. , 7 x (0 < x <


1) .

x 1 5 . .
(IMTS R8-2)

106. M , N . M , N A .
AM AN B C . A
BC .

( 1986-1)

107. p : 1 p, q : 1 q, r : 1 r .
. , 1 .

108. ,
.

(IMTS R11-4)

109. ABC . C \B \A
D . C \A \B
E . , DE k AB CA = CB .
( 1963-9)

3.1

139

110. S ABC , ABS, BCS, CAS


. S ABC .

( 1936-2)

111. ABCD, E AD F B CE .
ABF .

( 1997 -y7-6)

112. ABC AB = AC \BAC = 30 . BC A A ;


CA B B ; AB C C . A B C
.

( 1998-4)

113. BE CF ABC O , . O
KL . , K AB , L AC . , KM ? BE
LN ? CF BE CF M , N . F M k EN
.

( 2001-1)

114. ABC , A, B, C D, E, F
. H , .

( 1993-6)

AH
BH
CH
+
+
=2
AD
BE
CF

115. AB CD O \AOC = 60 . AC + BD 1
.

( 1993 -y9-2)

140

116. A, B, C, D , A D C , B D C
. A B D C
.

( 1994 4-y9-2)

117. ABC BC B; K; L; C K, L ,
BC KL = BK CL AL \KAC . AL ? AB
.

( 1995-1)

118. D ABC BC , DC = 2BD . \ABC = 45 ,


\ADC = 60 , ABC .
( 1980 1-3)

119. ABC P M N AC, AB .


AN P M 4ABC .
( 1987-2)

120. ABCD AB CD AC BD .
: (1) AD BC AB CD (2) AD + BC AB + CD

( 1997-4)

121. k1 , k2 O1 , O2 .
k1 A, k2 B . O1 O2 k1 , k2 C, D .
(a) A, B, C, D .
(b) AC BD .

( 1996 -y11-3)

3.1

141

122. ABC BC BM = M N = N C M , N .
AC AB, AM , AN D, E, F .
EF = 3DE .

( 1994-1)

123. ABC BM ( ) AN = BC N .
AN BC K , BK = KN .
( 1999 -y7-4)

124. P ABC BC . P AB, AC


D, K , AD AK 2M D = M B
2N K = N C M N . M C = N B .
( 1999 -y7-8)

125. \A ABC , AD A .
BC M , N . \M AN
.

( 1999 -y8/9-8)

126. S1 S2 F . S1 A
S2 B . AB S2 C S1 D,
E . A, F , C .

( 1994 -y9-2)

= CB . CH , CL
127. ABC \C = 90 CA 6

= \XBC
. CL C X \XAC 6

= \Y BC
. CH C Y \Y AC 6
.

( 2001-2)

142

128. ABCD M . ABM , BCM , CDM , DAM


.

(Towns 1983 J1)

129. P 3, 4, 5 .
.

( 1998-2, 1993-5 )

130. CA = CB ABC AB ( AB C )
P . C P B D , P A + P B = 2 P D
.

( 2002-1)

131. S1 , S2 A, B S2 O S1 . S1 OC
S2 D (D O C ). D ABC
.

( 1990 4-y10-6)

132. ABC \B AC D \C AB
E . O OD = OE . \A = 60
ABC .

(Towns 1984 JO1)

133. ABCD AB k CD AB + CD = AD . AD AP = AB
P D = CD P .
(1) \BP C = 90 .
(2) BC Q , BAQ AD R .
B, P , R, C .

( 2004-5)

3.1

143

134. 4ABC \B = \C = 40 . \B AC D .
BD + DA = BC .

(Towns 1984 SO3)

135. , , O .
O
O .
.

(Towns 1985 JO1)

136. ABCD AB = BC = l, \ABC = 100 , \CDA = 130 . BD


?

(Towns 1985 SO1)

137. O AB CD . AE
OC , DE BC .

( 1995 -y9-2)

138. ABC BC, CA, AB D, E, F


CA
CD
=
;
CE
CB

AE
AB
=
;
AF
AC

BF
BC
=
BD
BA

. AD, BE, CF ABC .


( 2002-1)

139. ABCD AB, CD K, L , KL M


. 4AKM 4M LC AC
.

(Towns 1986 J4)

144

140. ABCDE , ABE, BCE, CDE, DAE P ,


Q, R, S . P QRS ABCD 2=9
.

( 2000-3)

141. ABC BC D , AC BE = 2AD


E . BE AD F \F AE = 60 . \F EA
.

( 2002-4)

142. P Q . P A A
. Q B B .
P BB QAA .

( 2003-4)

143. A B T . BC B T AB = AC
. \ABC AC D . D T ,
\ABC > 72 .

( 2004-7)

144. .
.
.

(Towns 1987 JO2)

145. A, B . A .
M , AM , BM
X, Y . XY .
( 1987-26)

3.1

145

146. O, O , A . B
, AB C, OBDO
D . CD B .
( 2006-2)

147. ABC O . \A BC D , D
AO AC P . AB = AP .

( 1995-4)

148. AB . P1 ; P2 ; : : : ; Pn
. C , CP1 P2 ; CP2 P3 ; : : : ; CPn1 Pn
C ?

( 1970 3-1)

149. O A , ,
P Q . P , Q p, q . A OA
l p, q K, L . AK = AL .
( 1993/1994 1-4)

150. AB ABCD AC BD .
ABC O , OB CD E . BC 2 = CD CE
.

( 1998-4)

| xMO (http://cafe.naver.com/xmo) `MO ' .

146

3.2

1. ( ) 2 .

.

(IMTS R13-5)

2. O O AB . XY
, AX BY P .

( 1973-6)

3. M N O A , BC O AD Q .
, P P B ? BC M N .
(1) \CAN = 27 , \ACQ = 33 , \P BO .
(2) P Q AC = AQ2 + BQ CQ .

(1995 )

4. , .
( 1993-6-16)

5. ABC AC BC
AA C C BB C C . A C B C P
, CP AB AP BP
.
jABP P j = jAA C Cj + jBB C Cj
. , jSj S .

( 4.1.2)

3.2

147

6. ABC , A B AC, BC D, E .
AB DE F BD CF M . M F = M C ,
M B M D = M C 2 .

( 2003-4)

7. O \A < \B ABC . P
\A = \P BA = 180 \P CB
. P B O B D , A
O CD Q . , CQ : AB =
AQ2 : AD2 .

( 2003-J3)

8. ABCD AC e A, B, C, D
a, b, c, d . a + c = b + d < e . A, C
B, D
.

( 1961-2)

9. A, B, C, D ,
\ABC = \BCD = \CDA = \DAB =
A, B, C, D .

2
( 1976-6)

10. ` 4ABC G . A, B, C ` X,
Z, Y . CY = AX + BZ . , ` AC, BC .
( 1993-7-11)

148

11. x, y , x+y 4
xy 4 , .
(ML 147-3)

12. ABC BC M , P R AB AC
. AM P R Q P R , P R BC
.

( 1991-7)

13. l P . ,
, P Q l Q .

14. C O L . L P
O K . C K K
T , T .

( 1962-2)

15. O O A . OP A
O P .

( 1977-2)

3.2

149

16. A, B, C . k2 k3 A , k3
k1 B , k1 k2 C k1 , k2 , k3 .
( 1924-3)

17. M AB = BC ABC AC . P
, N BM . P M C K ,
AN K .

( 1991-3-12)

18. \B = \C , \A > 60 ABC O . A


O ` , ` P \BP A = \BAC
. P C O E , BE `
F , AF = F P . , E 6
= C.

( 2002 1-S3)

19. ABC H, AC M . M \AHC


l . l .
( 2005-5)

20. A, B, C x; y- , AB, BC, CA X, Y , Z


. , \CP Z = \Y XZ BC P . AP BC
.

( 1991-3)

150

21. AB BC A B
ABC .

( 1962-6)

22. k ABC BC, CA, AB A1 , A2 ; B1 , B2 ; C1 , C2 .


A1 , B1 , C1 BC, CA, AB M . A2 ,
B2 , C2 BC, CA, AB .
( 1914-3)

23. AB, CD 2, 1 AC +BD = AD+BC


.

( 1994-9-4)

24. . O1 , O2 , O3 , r1 , r2 , r3 .
.
(1) P .
(2) Oi (i = 1; 2; 3), P P Oi .
.

(ML 141-1)

25. ABC I, AI ABC D,


BI P . CI = 2AI AB = P D . , D 6
= A.
( 2002-J7)

3.2

151

26. , , .

27. \C = 2\B ABC . BD = CD AC = AD


D . \A = 3\BAD .

( 2003-3)

28.
.
.

( 1993-1)

29. ` A, B, C, D .
( ) A B , (
) C D .

( 1898-3)

AD
30. ABC AB, AC D, E .
+
DB
AE
( 1995/1996 1-4)
= 1 .
EC

31. 4ABC AB = AC . \B AC D
, BC = BD + AD . \A .

( 1996-4)

152

32. AB = AC ABC AB, AC P , Q 4ABC


. P Q 4ABC .
( 4.2.3)

33. ABC BC AB, AC D, E .


CD F , ADE G . BF G
.

( 2004-4)

34. AB = AC ABC BC D . \ABC


AD A M , N , CN AB
E EM==BN .

(1991 )

35. \A = 90 ABC . \B \C AC, AB


D, E , BD CE O , 4BOC
BEDC .

36. O1 , O2 S1 , S2 A, B . O1 , O2 , A
S1 , S2 , AB D, E, C . CD = CB = CE .
( 1995 4-y9-6)

3.2

153

37. P . , P
P Q, R . P QR
.

( 1949-2)

38. ABC \P BC = \P CA < \P AB P .


BP ABC E , CE AP E
F . AP EF ABP P
.

( 1996 3-2)

39. ABC I D, E, F BC, CA, AB


. AD P . M EF ,
P , I, M , D .

( 1990-2)

40. \A = 2\C 4ABC . BC x AC, AB b, c


.

(1994 )

41. ABCD
\AOB + \COD = 180
O . \OBC = \ODC .

( 1997-4)

154

42. L, M
.

3
M
>
L
4
( 1993-9)

43. .
, (
) . 3
.

(IMTS R1-4)

44. ABCD , ` AB, CD, AD, BC (


) M , N , P , Q . M , N , P , Q
AB p , .
, ?

( 1897-3)

45. M , N , P . M , N
P . .
( 1991-6)

46. N \BAC . P O AB AN \AN P =


90 = \AP O . Q N P Q AB,
AC E, F . \OQE = 90 QE = QF .
(IMO 1994-2)

3.2

155

47. ABCD M . AD k BC, AB ? AD


. R 4DCM
.

( 4.1.3)

48. X, Y , Z . X , BC Y , BZ
ABC .

( 1991-1)

49. ABC \BAC ABC


M , CM AB P . P AM AC
X, P AC AM Y , P BC
M B Z . X, Y , Z
. (, \B \C .)

( 2005-J5)

50. ABC \BAC = 40 \ABC = 60 . D E AC


AB , \CBD = 40 \BCE = 70 . F BD
CE . AF BC .

( 1998-4)

51. ABCDE BC, CD, DE


( AC DE )
ABCDE .

( 1995-10-21, 1972-5 )

156

52. P Q ABC \BAC ( )


P Q BC , \ABP + \ACQ = . \BAP = \CAQ
.

( 1995-10-42)

53. O P O A, B , P
O C, D . , A P B ,
C P D . AD BC L , P A
BL P E = DL P D E . P L DE M
, M DE .

( 2005-S5)

54. ABCD . AB CD BC = AD . AC,


BD E . ABE, BCE, CDE, DAE
r1 ; r2 ; r3 ; r4 . 1=r1 + 1=r3 = 1=r2 + 1=r4 .

( 1964-15)

55. AB = 36, AC = 72, \B = 90 ABC .


P , A, B, C P
. P
.

(AIME 1994-15)

56. ABC AB, AC D, E . \ACB \ABC


DE X Y , BC Z .
XY Z , \A 60 .

( 2005-1)

3.2

57. r . A B AB <

157

p
3 r . B

AB C . P ABP
. , CP Q
. P Q = r .

( 2002-4)

58. O . O
P , Q . P Q .

( 1995-11-4)

59. r1 < r2 < r 1 , 2 , . 1 2 A, B


, . AB 1 2
r1 + r2 = r .

( 1999-3)

60. .
( 4.2.4)

61. ABCD AB O
p
ABCD AD, DC, CB E, F , G . F C = 2,
AO = 3AE AE a . 4a2 .

( 2006 1-J17)

158

62. ABC . B AC P , Q
, C AB R, S . P ,
Q, R, S .

( 1992-6)

63. A, B, C O . A, B O P
. C O AB Q . .
P Q2 = P B 2 + QC 2

( 2002/2003 1-3)

64. \ABC + \ABD = 180 AC DE = BC CE ABCD . , E


. 2(AB 2 + BC 2 ) = AC 2 + AD2 .

(ML 158-3, 2000-2 )

65. A, B, C, D AB < AD
BC > CD . BAD X ,
BCD Y . 6
6 . 6 6 4 , BD
.

( 2004-3)

66. ABCD . P \P AB = \P CB
(, ). \AP B = \DP C .
( 1976-1)

3.2

159

67. ABC AC = BC . M AC , z AB
C . B, C, M z C, Q
. ABC m = CQ .
( 2004-2)

68. O A, B, C, D, E, F . BD
CF . , CF , BE, AD . B AC
M , D CE N , AE M N
.

( 2006-J3)

69. AB B C D B
. AC, AD E, F . , CF , DE
G, H . AG = AH .

( 2003-2)

70. ABC C AB ` . \A
BC D ` E . \B AC F
` G . DE = F G CA = CB .

( 1991-8)

71. ABCDEF . AB EF A , BC AF
B , AB CD C . .
AB BC CD = AA BB CC

( 1992/1993 1-3)

160

72. ABC P P ABC . P


ABC
ABC .

( 1993-4)

73. ABCD .
ABCD P , Q, R, S
. ABCD P QRS
.

( 1997-15-6)

74. \A = 2\B ABC , C A AB


.

( 1991-4)

75. O P O B, C (,
P B < P C). P O O Q, D (, P Q < P D) Q
BC O A . ,
BD2 = AD CP P A O .

( 2006-J7)

76. AB CD ABCD . AD, BC


P , Q , \AP B = \CP D \AQB = \CQD .
P , Q .

( 1994 -y9-7)

3.2

161

77. ABC BC, CA, AB P , Q, R . , 4BP C


4ACQ 4RBA P , Q , R R P Q
.

78. ABCDEF . ACE BDF


.

( 1958-3)

79. \ACB = 120 4ABC . O, R

. 4ABC H . AOBH

O O .

( 1998-16-14)

80. 4ABC D A BC , E B AC
, F C AB . BE X, CF
Y 4DXY .
4DXY 4ABC .

( 1998-17-18)

81. ABC , P BC , Q CA CQ=QA = 2


, R AB AR=RB = 2 . ABC
P , Q, R , ABC
.

( 1995-9)

162

82. ABC M D, E, F . DEF


M .

(Towns 1987 SA5)

83. 4ABC \A, \B BC, AC D, E .


C AD, BE F , G , AB k F G .
(1995 )

84. ABCD E CD P BC F
AE BD . P A2 + P F 2 + P E 2 BP : P C .
(1998 )

85. ABC A , B , C BC, CA, AB , AA , BB , CC


BO
CO
AO BO CO
AO
+
+
= 92 ,

.
O .
AO BO CO
AO BO CO
(AIME 1992-14)

86. P . P
D, d .
(a) D 2d .
(b) .

( 1943-2)

3.2

163

87. AB X|A B |
. tA , tB , tX A, B, X . AX tB
Z , BX tA Y . , Y Z,
tX , AB .

( 1974-5)

88. S P S A, B . AB
M , AM S ABP C
. AC P M G , P M S ABP
D . BD AC , G ABP .
( 2007-6)

89. AB c, r, BC CA AB
rC , ABC .
( 1900-2)

90. ABCD \M DN = 45 AB, BC M , N


. M N R , AC M D, N D
P , Q , RP = RQ .

( 1999-3)

91. BC k AD ABCD AC = BC + AD 60
. AB = CD .

(Towns 1992 JO2)

164

92. ABCD AB, BC E F BE = BF


. BN BCE . \DN F = 90 .
(- 1979-1)

93. AC ABC . AC
. AC
.

(Towns 1987 J4)

94. ABC AC AB BC
K . BK .

(Towns 1988 JA2)

95. 4ABC M () .
.
.

(Towns 1987 S4)

96. 45 .
a : b : a .
, a : b : a ,
.
.
(Towns 1990 JA2)

3.2

165

97. ABCD AB, BC, CD, DA A B C D A B ,


B C , C D , D A . AB k CD B C k D A ,
.

(Towns 1990 JA4)

98. K, L . C AK, BL
ABC .

(Towns 1991 SO2)

99. A . A
. B, C , ABC
.

( 1989 4-y9-3)

100. k1 , k2 , k3 . (
) A, B , AB A, B
. A 2 k1 , B 2 k2 , C 2 k3 , D 2 k1 A B, B C, C D
. AD k1 .

( 1996 -y9-7, 1950-2 )

101. ABC BC = a, CA = b, AB = c , D E AC
AB . BD CE , b2 + c2 = 5a2
.

( 2001-2)

166

102. ABC , A BC
. BC P , Q , AP AQ
K, L . K, L .

( 1984-2)

103. B1 , B2 , B3 4A1 A2 A3 A2 A3 , A3 A1 , A1 A2 ,
. Ai Bi
.

(- 1980-5)

104. S1 , S2 A, B S1 O S2 . S1 AC
S2 D . OD BC .

( 1990 4-y9-7)

105. l1 l2 , AB , P , Q, R, S
AB C AB l1 , l2 .

P R P S AB C .
(IMTS R12-5)

106. ABCD 8 8 .
p, q, r, s ,
p + r = q + s . ABCD .
(BW 2002 1-3)

3.2

167

107. AB = BC, AD = DC ABCD


AB, BC, AD K, M , N . AC M N P
, A, K, P , N .

( 1992 4-y9-3)

108. ABC BC BB1 = CC1 , \BAB1 = \CAC1 B1 ,


C1 . ABC .

( 1992 4-y9-7)

109. ABC AB BC M , N . AN , CM O
AO = CO . (1) AM = CN ABC ? (2)
BM = BN ABC ?

( 1993 4-y9-3)

110. C1 C2 A B . B A
C0 . C0 C1 C2 ,
.

(IMTS R15-5)

111. ABC , BC AC AC, BC M , N


. O ABC , .
(a) A, B, M , N , O k .
(b) k M N C .

( 1996 -y10-7)

168

112. ABC I . AB CA N , M ,
BI CI N M K L , AI +BI +CI > BC +KL
.

( 1997-3)

113. ABC O R . AO, BO,


CO D, E, F . .

( 1985-6)

1
1
2
1
+
+
=
AD BE
CF
R

114. A C ABCD . B BDC


= D . D BDA
C1 6
A1 6
= B . A1 BC1 D .
( 1997 -y8-3)

115. AB = BC \BCD = \EAB = 90 ABCDE .


X AX BE , CX BD . BX
DE .

( 1992-3)

116. AB B D . BD
. AD H . \ABG
G , EH ED = EZ 2 BG
EZ (E AD , Z ). ZH T B
T . \ABG = 3\T BG .

( 1992-5)

3.2

169

117. ACB ABC . C AB D ,


AB M . AC EM = BM E
, BC DE F . BE = BF \CBE = 2\ABC
.

( 1993-1)

118. 8 A1 , A2 , B1 , B2 , C1 , C2 , D1 , D2 .
A1 B2 = B1 C2 = C1 D2 = D1 A2 , A1 A2 , B1 B2 , C1 C2 , D1 D2
.

( 1993 -y9-6)

119. ABCDEF AD, BE, CF


. .

( 1966 3-5)

120. A, B, C . ABD, BCE,


CAF , AC D E F
.
. , AC .
( 1994-2)

121. E ABCD AC A, C . N , M
AB, BC A, C , AE = N E, CE = M E .
AM CN K , K, E, D .
( 1993 4-y9-7)

170

122. AC > AB ABC A D


. D O DO AC E . BE
AD , AO BD .

( 2000-5)

123. D, E ABC AC, CB . C DE, EA, AB,


BD .

( 1989 4-y10-3)

124. ABCD . BC, CD


M , N . AM N
.

( 1980 2-2)

125. ,
.

( 1987-3)

126. ABCD AB E , CD F . AF ED
G, EC F B H . GH AD, BC
L, M . DL = BM .

( 1994-8)

3.2

171

127. A, B, C, D . AE BF
, . C BF G , D
AE H . GF = HE .

( 1995-3)

128. ABCD P Q AD BC
BQ
AB
AP
=
=
PD
QC
CD
. P Q AB, CD .
( 1987-6)

129. ABCDE AE = AD, AB = AC \CAD \AEB \ABE


. CD ABE AM .
(Towns 1984 JO2)

130. ABCD AC BD , E .
E AB, BC, CD, DA
.

( 1993-2)

131. k ABC . A BC P
. AP M , k BM R
. P R k S , AP CS
.

( 2005-2)

172

132. .
.

(BW 1977 1-4)

133. O1 , O2 A, B .
AB . BO1 BO2
B1 , B2 . B1 B2 M . M1 , M2 O1 , O2
\AO1 M1 = \AO2 M2 . , B1 AM1 , B
AM2 . \M M1 B = \M M2 B .

( 2002-2)

134. . T . T
a, b C, D , A, B .
A, B, C, D .

( 1998 -y11-3)

135. ABC AB, BC D, E . DE


K M . BK BM AC T P ,
T P 13 AC .

( 1990 4-y11-6)

136. ABC BC F . AB AC , D E
ABD ACE . DEF
.

( 1996-4, Towns 1991 JA4 )

3.2

173

137. ABCDEF
AB k CF;

CD k BE;

EF k AD

. ACE BDF .

(Towns 1984 SO1)

138. :
1 10 ,
A, B, C .

4ABC S, S1 , S2 , S3
( ), S1 + S2 + S3 S .
.

(Towns 1985 J3)

139. ABCD . \BAD BC, CD


K, L . C, K, L B, C, D
.

(Towns 1986 S5)

140. ABC AB AC C1 , C2 . C2
AB F , C1 AC E . , BE C2
P , CF C1 Q . AP = AQ .
( 2000-5)

174

141. AD k BC AB ? AD ABCD .
R M . 4DCM ?
(Towns 1986 S1)

142. \A = 60 ABC . B C
.

(Towns 1987 JA4)

143. ABC AD BE . [BDE] [DEA] [EAB] [ABD]


, . , [XY Z] XY Z
.

( 2002-2)

144. P Q ABC AB AC , AP = CQ
. P , Q . AP Q
ABC .

( 2006-2)

145. P C Q l . R P , Q, R
C . P , Q, R l
V , V R .
( 2007-3)

3.2

175

146. EF ABC BC , AB,


AC P , Q . EP F Q K A BC
.

( 2000-3, )

147. ABCD . A B R , B
C R . E ,
E . ADE R
.

( 1987-2)

148. ABC C AB D . ABC


F , .

1
1
2F

AB
AD BD

(- 2004-2)

149. A, B , AB . P
= A; B), ABP .
(, P 6
( 2006-3)

150. E ABCD AB , F , G EF AG
BC, CD . F G .
( 1960-3)

| xMO (http://cafe.naver.com/xmo) `MO ' .

176

4.1

1. (8 8) ,
.
?
( 1997-7)

2. 1 n 1 n
2n . n .
( 1988-6)

3. M . A, B, C
. 1 p1 , 2 p2 , 3
p3 . p1 > p2 > p3 > 0 p1 , p2 , p3 . A 22,
B 9, C 9. B 100 . M
2 ?

( 1986-2)

178

4. n(A) A , kAk A . kAk + 2kBk = kA [ Bk


, n(A) = 2000 n(A \ B)

( 1.1.1)

5. 24 . 2 22 .
1 24 `n' ,
n . n
.
?

( 1990/1991)

6. 5 N 5N . 1; 2; : : : ; N ,
N + 1; : : : ; 2N ,
. ,
1; 2; 3; 4; 5, 6; 7; 8; 9; 10,
. i Pi
, P1 ; P2 ; : : : ; P5 . Pi xi , yi
, x1 = y2 , x2 = y1 , x3 = y4 , x4 = y5 , x5 = y3 .
N .

(AIME 2001 1-11)

7. A n(A) 1000, A f0; 1; 2; 3; : : : ; 1997g . A 2k

(k 0 ) a + b 2k (k 0 ) A

a, b .

( 1997-8)

8. 1 64 , 8 ,
5 ? (
.)

( 1990-E3)

4.1

179

9. 2 3 5 7
?

( 1.1.3)

10. 5 .
,
.
,
. ,
.
?

( 1992-2)

11. .
2005 ,
.

( 2005 1-J15)

12. 10 ,
. 10 9
f82; 83; 84; 85; 87; 89; 90; 91; 92g . 10 .
( 1993-7)

13. 5 ,
, .
12 .
.

(AIME 1999-13 )

180

14. . x1 !
x2 ! ! xn ! x1
.

( 1991-2-29)

15. 1; 2; 3; : : : ; 9 9 ,
. , .
( 3.3.2)

16. 1, 9, 8, 1 .
. 1, 2, 3, 4 ?
( 1981 1-3a)

17. 12 16 .

.
`' .
`' .
.

( 1961-1)

18. p (p > 0).


,
. .
2p1 .

( 1972-8)

4.1

181

19. 500 20. 1


500 20 C1 ; C2 ; : : : ; C20 ,
Ci (i + 10) . j
dj , ? (,
, .)
d1 + d2 + + d500

( 2003 1-J9)

20. A B ?
(2000 . 2)

21. 1 100 10 10 1 .
105 ? 106 ?
( 2005-2)

22. 7 7 .
? ,
.

(AIME 1996-7)

23. n , n n + 2 t(n)
. , t(199) = j19 3j = 16 . t(n) 2000
?

(AIME 1999-5)

182

24. | } .
|}|}|}|}|}
, |
, } . ?
n ?
.

( 5.1.1)

25. 45 0; 1; : : : ; 9 , i 6
= j
fi; jg , i, j ?

( 1963-11)

26. 1972
?

( )

27. fak g k 1 ak a2k + a2k+1 .


() n , fak g n 0 .
() 0
.

( 2005 y9-4)

28. 8 7 .
, 1, 0.5,
0 . 7 8 ,
8 . 8
? ?

( 1976-3)

4.1

183

29. 4 10 19 94 .
(, 4 10 19 )
?

(AIME 1994-11)

30. . , ,
p, q, r .
,
12 , 14 .
. (
), p, q, r .
(1) q ?
(2) , ?

(IT 2006 1)

31. 3 . A 1=6, B
1=2, C 2=3. A B
A 2=3, A, B, C 1=12.
1=12, B C A C
. A , B 9,
?

(2000 . 2)

32. .
, .
?

( 2000-1)

33. .
2 .
( 1991-2-33)

184

34. 1 ABCD A
. ,
, 13
. 7 A ?
(AIME 1985-12)

35. . .
( 1999/2000 1)

1
x

36. 4 4 1 2 . 3 3
4 , 4
. 16 .

( 2005-3)

37. 900 , 100 999 .



.
?
( 1994/1995)

38. 1 1000000 ,
( 33 52 + 23 )
?

( 2001-4)

4.1

185

39. 65 .
, , , .
.
.

( 1990-1)

40. .
1, 12 , 0 . 10
S . S
. ?

(AIME 1985-14)

41. 2 12 .
,
, ,
.
?

( 1991-3-32)

42. x1 ; x2 ; x3 ; : : : ; x40 . x1 x2
x2 < x1 . ,
. 39 40
,
. , x20 30
.

(AIME 1987-13)

43. . d
, 1 , d
?

(IMTS R13-3)

186

44. 1, 2, 3 a, b, c . 2
3 3 1
. c ?

(1999 )

45.
.
B E .
A C .
F G .
D A .
G E .
H ? .
( 1995-1)

46. N = f1; 2; : : : ; ng X Y N X, Y
.

47. m n , m + n 1991 .
, 12 . m

(AIME 1991-13)

48. 4 4 ,
.
33
23
0

17 ()
()

() () .

(IT 2006 1)

4.1

187

49. 1 ,
.

p
2

( 1969-9)

50. ,

. ,
.

( 1996-12-19)

51. 1 126 8 .
x, y .
1<

y
2
x

( 1996-13-26)

52. G 11 . G
. G G
G . G
.

( 1997-14-19)

53. A = fa; b; cg f : A ! A , f (f (x)) = f (x)


?

( 1996/1997 1)

54. S 6 . S S
( ) ?

(AIME 1993-8)

188

55. 32 . V
T P . 100P + 10T + V
? V + F = E + 2 (, F , E
).

(AIME 1993-10)

56. 1 100 100 .


, 100 50
, 50 50
. , 6 3 , 1 3 2 4 6 5 3
2 6 1 2 3 4 6 5 .
1 100 .
(IT 2006 1)

57. `' .
( ).
,
. ,
. .
( 1991-2-34)

58. (1) 2 n .
, , 2n 1
. ,
. ? (2) n
.

( 1997-14-21)

59. 20 20 . x
y .
, x + y ?

(IT 2006 1)

4.1

189

60. ,
. ,
, 2
. 4
.
( 2001-5)

61. 1 g, 2 g, : : : ; n g
. , 1 g 3 g n = 4 . , 2 g
1 g 3 g . (1)
3 n . (2) 4 n
.

(IT 2006 1)

62. 3 3 .
++
+
++

+++
.
.
+++
, .
(IT 2006 1)

(1)

+
++
+

(2)

+++
+++
+++

(3)

++

++

(4)

(5)

+
++
++

63. 1 30, 10 .
,
. ? (
, .)
(IT 2006 1)

190

64. . ,
. ,
S .
S a . a .

(IT 2006 1)

65. .
. (A ! B ! C ! A
.)
(BW 1974 1-4)

66. 4 4,
3 .
. 8 .

(Towns 1988 JO4)

67. ,

. ( .)

(Towns 1988 SO3)

68. (a) 18 ,
. , .
.
,
?
(b) 20 ?

(Towns 1988 JO3 )

4.1

191

69. 123 . 102 .



. ?
(Towns 1991 JO4)

70. 10 : M 5
10 , N 10
. M N ?

(Towns 1988 SO3)

71. 1; 2; : : : ; n , k (1 k n)
k 1, k + 1 ?

(Towns 1988 SA3)

72. 1989 , 10
. .

(Towns 1989 JO3)

73. 10 . 5 .
.

(Towns 1989 SO1)

74. 9 9 . ,
.
. ?

( 1989 4-y9-2)

192

75. \ " ()
. 4 4 16
?

(Towns 1991 JO2)

76. 32 . .
, . 4
. ? , ,
.

(Towns 1991 JA1)

77. 1 12 .
1 .
.

( 1989 4-y8-3)

78. 20 .
1 20 .

.
.

( 1989 4-y8-7)

79. ABCDEF O . 7 A, C,
E , . 7
(
, ).
(a) B, D, F .
(b) B, D .
( 1989 4-y9-5)

4.1

193

80. 1 n2 nn . n+1
( ) .
(Towns 1990 SO1)

81. 25 3 . ,
.
6 . ?
( 1990 4-y9-1)

82. 1993 1993 .


2 ,
(1) 2 , .
(2) 2 , , .
, ?
(IMTS R10-4)

83. f1; 2; : : : ; 10g fa1 ; a2 ; : : : ; a5 g fb1 ; b2 ; : : : ; b5 g . a1 < a2 <


a3 < a4 < a5 b1 > b2 > b3 > b4 > b5 ,
(1) faj ; bj g (1 j 5) 6 .
(2)

5
X
i=1

jai bi j = 25 .

( 2002-4)

84. . ,
1 .
. n
? , 4 (1,4,3,5,2,5,3,4,1,4,3,5,2,5,3,4)
.

( 1963-13)

194

85. n 5 . fn + 1; n + 2; : : : ; n + 30g
8 .

(IMTS R11-2)

86. 3 3 3 ,
?

(Towns 1989 JO4)

87. 99 99 . ,

. .
,
?

( 1992 4-y9-2)

88. .
, , ,
.
.

( 1981 4-1)

89. 1997 . 41
100 .

( 1997 -y7-5)

90. 8 8 . ,
. 64
?

( 1930-2)

4.1

195

91. 11 .
, .
, , ,
. `' , `
' . .
. 61 , 2
.

(IMTS R20-3)

92. 100 , 66 .
. [A B
B A .]

( 1967 3-2)

93. 100 , 67 .
4 .

( 1967 3-4)

94. 1 2 .
10 ( 0 9 ) ,
? (
, 812-877-2917 , 812-872-2917
, 812-872-2917 812-877-2917
.)

(IMTS R22-3)

95. 1999 1999 ,


. 1000 1000
.

( 1999 -y8/9-6)

196

96. 16 . .
?
( 1994 4-y9-8)

97. A f1; 2; : : : ; 100g 50 . A


100 A .
( 1996-7)

98. . 100, 200,


300 .
( ).
.
?

( 1994 -y9-3)

99. , 1995
?

( 1995 4-y9-2)

100. N N 4(N 1) . 4(N 1)


( ) .

. .
.
(a) N = 3
(b) N = 4
(c) N = 5

(Towns 1984 JO3)

4.1

197

101. n2 .
. n n
,
. n + 2
.

( 1995-1)

102. n n2 .
,

. ?

( 1987-7)

103. N n , (a) , (b)


5 . n 6 . ,
6 .

( 1996-4)

104. (a) 0 9 10
3, 4, 5 ? ( 0 6
0, 3, 6, 2, 5, 1, 4 .)
(b) 0 13 14 ?

( 1967-4)

105. N N N 2 (`(knight)' ) .
( )
?
(a) N = 3 .
(b) N = 8 .

(Towns 1983 J5)

198

106. . `'
( )
. 6 ,
? ,
.

(Towns 1984 JO5)

107. (1) 2 5 ,
.
(2) 2, 3, 5 ,
. ,
.

( 1998-8)

108. n 4 n .
. ,
,
.
.

( 2004-4)

109. 5 ,
.

( 1968 3-2)

110. 3 .
27 , :
,
.
, ?
( 1981 1-4)

4.1

199

111. 10000 100 100 1 3


.
(1) 2 2 1 3
.
(2) 2 2
.

112. n n .

( 1999-4)

( 1969 3-6)

113. f1; 2; : : : ; N g .
, ?

(Towns 1986 J4)

114. .
. , [12,3,5] 12 + 5 = 17
[12,20,5] , 3 + 5 = 8 [4,3,5]
. [1993,199,19]
?

(Towns 1993 SO4)

115. 64 2000 .
.
( 2000 -y8-5)

116. 68 . 100
.

(Towns 1985 JO2)

200

117. l , 3 3 9
. .
.

?

(Towns 1984 JO2)

118. a, b, c, d, e, f , g
. ,
.
(i) :
a ! bc;

b ! cd;

c ! de;

d ! ef;

e ! f g;

f ! ga;

g ! ab

(ii) .
, df d ! f .
.

( 2007-4)

119. 15 n n
.

( 2000-2)

120. 8 . ,
. , A B, C, D , B C, D , C D
A, B, C, D .

(Towns 1985 J1)

4.1

201

121. . A
B . B
C (C A ).
.

( 2001-7)

122. 6 10 .
. ,
. .
, .
?

(Towns 1986 J3)

123. 1
. `' .
n f (n) . f (1), f (2),
f (3), f (4) , .

( 1979-5)

2n < f (n) 4 3n1

124. 12 n(n + 1) :

..
.

..
.

..
.

..
.

k Mk .
M1 < M2 < M3 < < Mn
.

( 1990-2)

202

125. 1; 2; : : : ; 9
. n(> 1) , n 10
.

( 1972-3)

126. A, B 2001 . A B .
A .
. .
.

( 2001-1)

127. 8 8 9 3 3 . , ,
. (a)
3 3 ? (b) ?
(Towns 1987 JA3)

128. n . i = 1; 2; : : : ; n , i
i . n n
. n . , n , i
.

129. n ,

( 1961-3)

1 1 1
1
+ + = (a; b; c)
a
b
c
n

( 1967-3 )

130. 2003 .
. ,
.

( 2003-1)

4.1

203

131. 3n . 1 n
, i i i + 1; : : : ; n; 1; 2; : : : ; i
1; i . 1 n ,
.
n ? n ,
.

( 2002-6)

132. m n .

. m; n > 1 .

( 1972-2)

133. ,
.
.

( 1987-16)

134. 8 8 .
. , ,
?

( 1987-25)

135. A B 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 2005 N
. A , B ,
A, B , . N 9 A
. ?

( 2005-7)

204

136. 10 10 , .
, ( )
.
. 20
. 10
, .
, .

( 2005-4)

137. 3 3 2 2 1 .
9 0, ?
( 1988-1)

10 18 12
6

13

138. 8 8 4
.
(,
).

( 1991-4)

139. A B jAj + jBj > n 1 f1; 2; : : : ; n 1g . a + b = n


a 2 A b 2 B .

( 1953-1)

140. , 7
`' .
.

( 1986-3)

4.1

205

141. N , n N n
n .

142. fa; b; cg n a .
( 1996-4)

143. n ,
. ,
n 2 .

( 1992-4)

144. n fa1 ; a2 ; : : : ; an g .
. n(n + 1)=2
() .

( 1963-8)

145. 1 100 .
2 .
( 1999 -y10-3)

146. r 7 1 . r

1
2

.
(Towns 1987 SA2)

206

147. 1 1 . ,
. 14
.

( 1991-1)

148. a1 ; a2 ; a3 ; a4 ; a5 ; a6 ; a7 b1 ; b2 ; b3 ; b4 ; b5 ; b6 ; b7 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7
. ja1 b1 j, ja2 b2 j, ja3 b3 j, ja4 b4 j, ja5 b5 j, ja6 b6 j, ja7 b7 j
.

( 1980-2)

149. .
2 , 0 , . 26 ,
20 , .
( 2001-2)

150. kn (k, n ). (k 1)n


. k + 1 . (, A B B A
.)

( 1995/1996 1-3)

| xMO (http://cafe.naver.com/xmo) `MO ' .

4.2

4.2

207

1. (a) 4 7 .



(
) .
(b) 4 6 .
( 1976-1)

2. A n
(: 7323658 2 3 6 = 62 ). n .
(1994 )

3. A B 2n .
. A
, . B
,
. A A B
.

( 2003/2004 1-3)

4. n 2 k .
1; 2; 3; : : : ; n . k
26 .
(n; k) .

( 1990-1)

208

5. 6 (A B B A
). 3 .
, 6 3
2 . , 3
.

( 1.1.2)

6. 11 , 6 6
. , 11 .

( 2003-J4)

7. ,
, 6 (3 2 2 3) 2
. 9 11
?

( 1998-7)

8. 9 36
. 9 3
. 6
.

( 1976-8)

4.2

209

9. 5cm 10 2cm
.

( 1991-2-41)

10. 2m , m
, m- .
(1) 2m 1 m- .
(2) , n m-
km (n) . km (n) . (, m n < 2m)
(ML 144-1, 1991-11 )

11. 1001 1000 , 1002


1001 , 2003 .
2003 . ,
.

( 2002-J8)

12. N , f : N ! N ?
, .
(1) f (2000) = 1999 ,
(2) p , f (p); f (2p); f (3p); : : : ; f (kp); : : :
,
(3) n f (f (n)) = 1 .
(1998 . / )

210

13. K5
.
?

( 5.3.2)

14. 3n 3n (n 1).

(a) .
(b) , B ?

( 1995-10-46)

15. 1 9 .
. 15 .
.

(ML 136-4)

16. 1 8 ,
. ?
( 2002-J3)

4.2

211

17. 4 . , ,
.
,
.
.

( 2004-7)

18. 10 . 10
. ,
2 .
( 1989-1)

19. (a; b; c; d) (ab; bc; cd; da) .


. a = b = c = d = 1
.

( 1961-5a)

20. n . n + 1
, .
( 1996-13-27)

21. 1 8 .
,
21 .
( 2005 y8-4)

212

22. (a) , 20 10
. 2 .
(b) , n ,
m . 2
n m ?

( 1993-1)

23. ,
6 . 11
12 . (, .)

( 2005-J4)

24. knight's tour, ( `' )


. 4 4 knight's tour
.

( 1997-14-12)

25. v e + f = 2 .
(, v, e, f , , .) ,

ve+f =0
. , .

.

(KAIST . 2000)

4.2

213

26. n 94.
, . n
.

( 2000-7)

27. 3 3 , ,
m . m 3
,

2m
3

1 .

( 1989-2)

28. n . 1; 2; : : : ; n a+c = b+d


n(n 2)(2n 5)

fa; b; c; dg .
24
( 1989-4)
.

29. (knight) () . ,
8 . 7 7
?
( 1997-14-20)

30. k G 1; 2; 3; : : : ; k ,
2 G 1
.

( 1997-15-22)

214

31. m n , ,

5 . mn .
(IT 2006 1)

32. f1; 2; 3; 4; 5; 6; 7; 8g 3 ,
.
?

( 2003-6)

33. X f1; 2; 3; : : : ; 1989g . X 4 7


, X ?

(AIME 1989-13)

34. n , ,
.
v , ( )
f ,
f =v+1
.

(KAIST . 2000)

35. N . .
3 . \
." N ?

( 1998-16-28)

4.2

215

36. 1 m < n 40 780 [m; n] D .


, [a; b] [c; d] b = c
. [m; n] [m; n] [n; m] .
?

(AIME 1998-15)

37. A B 32 . A
, 1
. ,
?

(IMTS R3-5)

38. 1 16 4 4 .
8 n . n
?

(IT 2006 1)

39. 5, 2 .
`' . 1
1, 2 2, 1
` ' . ?

( 2006 1-J20)

40. 29 .
. . \
." .
10 . , 10 ?

( 1998-16-30)

216

41. 3 . 1
2 .

( 1.2.2)

42. .
. ,
(
, ,
). ,
. 12
? 10 ? ,
?

(- 1981-4)

43. , 0; 1; 2; : : : ; 9 a1 ; a2 ; : : : ; a99 .
an = 1 an+1 6
= 2;

an = 3 an+1 6
=4

, ak = al , ak+1 = al+1 k; l 2 f1; 2; ; 98g


.

( 1996 2-4)

44. n(> 1) . (
).
. n 1
.

( 1961-8)

4.2

217

45. cm .
2001 ( )
?

( 2001-6b)

46. p 2 ,
: ,
,
. , ,
3 .
.
,
. ,
p .

( , 1999-18-5)

47. fak gk1 k 1 ak a2k + a2k+1


.
() n 1 , fak g n 0
.
() 0
.

( 2005 y9-4)

218

48. A 16 . A
1994 . A
.

( 1994-5)

1 1 1 1
, , , , : : : . k 5
2 3 4 5
( 1996-3)
, k .

49. 1,

50. .
, ,
. ,
, 1/100.
.

(ML 165-1)

51. 2, 3, : : : ; 102
a1 ; a2 ; : : : ; a101
. k ak k
.

(Towns 1980 J3)

52. ABCD . A, B, C, D
?

( 1989/1990)

4.2

219

53. X f1; 2; 3; : : : ; 15g , X


. X .

(AIME 1986-12)

54.
. f4; 5; 6; : : : ; ng 10
, n 13 .

(AIME 2001 2-5)

55. . K7
?

Kn n (
) .

( 1992-4-21)

56. 1 18 (
).
, .
0.01
.

(Towns 1980 J5/S5)

220

57. n .

. n 4 .

(BW 1973 1-4)

58. n . 1 2n
. 2n
, 1 2n .
( 1996 3)

59. n m . A = (0; 0), B = (n; 0), C = (n; m), D =


(n 1; m), E = (n 1; 1), F = (0; 1) ABCDEF n + m 1
.
A C .

(- 1979-7)

60. p n = 2p . f1; 2; : : : ; ng
x 2 A x 2x 2
= A A
.

( 1991-4)

61. P Q n n , P Q .
P .
, . ( , E5
E6 F5, D4 .) n
Q .

(BW 1971 1-4)

4.2

221

62. 2000 .
.
. 100
.
(Towns 1987 J6)

63. n 2 N , A f1; 2; : : : ; ng .
B; C 2 A (B [ C) n (B \ C)
, A ? , X n Y .
( 1986-1)

64. 1
. ,
?

(Towns 1988 JA6)

65. A < B (A; B) . `


' `' . A, A + D, A + 2D
, (A; A + D), (A; A + 2D), (A + D; A + 2D)
?

(Towns 1987 S5)

66. .
.
( ). .
, ?
(Towns 1989 JA2)

222

67. ( ) 23
(23 ).
` ' . ?

(Towns 1988 SO4)

68. 3 3 3
, ?

(Towns 1989 SO4)

69. y = ax2 + bx + c 100 ,


?

(Towns 1990 JA1)

70. 30 . 15 15 . 5
5 10 .

(Towns 1991 JO3)

71. N , a + b + c = N (a; b; c)
. , .
K(N ) , .
N
1
6
2N
(b) K(N ) <
9
(a) K(N ) >

(Towns 1989 JA4)

4.2

223

72. 1988
?

(Towns 1988 JA5)

73. 8 8 ?
(a) ( ) ,
(b) .

(Towns 1988 SA1)

74. 100 . K , 6 7, 8
(k k 1 k )

?

(Towns 1989 JA1)

75. A B N . A
. B
1 . B 4
2 A . A, B
. 3 .
(1) B ( ) (
) .
(2) B ( 1 A ) .
(3) B ,
.
A, B A
?

( 1961-10)

224

76. . m
n . m n m + n

.

n(A) = 3, n(B) = 2, A = f1; 5; 3g, B = f2; 7g

( 1962-14)

3
2
5
7
6
7
6
6 17
5
4
2 1

77. A1 A2 A3 A4 A5 A6 . ,
Aj Ak Am (1 j < k < m 6) .
= k) Rk ,
k = 1; 2; : : : ; 6 Ak Aj (j 6
.

( 1984-4)
6
X

(2Rk 7)2 54

k=1

78. Patera 20 Green


Planes Red Planes . .
(i) ,
.
.
(ii) Patera Red Planes ( )
S, B .
Patera ,
Green Planes .

( 1987-3)

4.2

225

79. (a) 14 .
,
.
? (
.)
(b) 13 (a) .

(Towns 1988 JA4)

80. 1 2n \rhombic" .
n = 4 , rhombic 2n 1
.

666 rhombic 2n- n ?


(IMTS R11-3)

81. n n (n 3).
( , ) .
n
.

( 1990 4-y9-3)

82. 12 1990 . 498


, 11
.

( 1990 4-y9-4)

226

83. n ,
.
. k
, k ?

( 1993 4-y9-4)

84. 8 8 16 , 2, 2
. 16 8 () 8 ,
1 .

( 1933-2)

85. ,
m, n (0; 0), (0; m), (n; 0), (n; m) .
.
( 1934-3)

86. () ,
.
.

( 1935-3)

87. n .
A1 ; A2 ; : : : ; An , A1 A2 An
. n .

( 2003-2)

4.2

227

88. ( ) .
:
(i) .
(ii) d :
d .
(Putnam 1951-A5)

89. .
( ) . 14
.

(Towns 1994 JO4)

90. , ,
?

( 1993 -y9-7)

91. 32 , 8
. ( )
.
?

( 1994 4-y9-4)

92. M = f1; 2; : : : ; 2ng (n 2) k M1 ; M2 ; : : : ; Mk


. , k 3 + 1 n . k + 1 2j1 ; 2j2 ; : : : ; 2jk+1 Mj ,

2j1 1; : : : ; 2jk+1 1 Mr (1 j; r k)
.

( 1979 4-6)

228

93. 1 fan g . ak > k


k 100 .

(Towns 1982 J3)

94. 0 1 m n .
1 .
( 1994-4)

95. a b . a
. , .
1. b .
2. aaa aaa b
.
3. bbb bbb
.
4. .
, 4 aa , 4 aaaa . , 2
ba , 1 bab . , 1 babb ,
4 babbbabb . 3 baabb .
baabaabaa .

(IMTS R44-1)

96. 7 K 3
?
(a) .
(b) .
( 1980 2-3)

4.2

229

97. 11 11 1; 2; 3; : : : ; 121 .
?
( 1995 4-y9-8)

98. P n . P P
n 2 ( ) . P
P .

(IMTS R24-5)

a
99. ( ) ,
b
a
b
(a b )

. 0 < r < 1
a+b
a+b
r ()
p
? , ()
q
(BW 1976 1-3)
.

100.
. . , A
B B A .

( 1997 -y9-7)

101. 1000
. 501
.

(BW 1971 2-4)

230

102. K M . .
(a) 2M 2K .
(b) M K , M=2 K=2 .
(c) 5M 5K .

(Towns 1983 JO4)

103. , , ,
, .
. f1; 2; : : : ; ng
A(n) . A(1) = 2 A(2) = 3 .
A(20) , .

( 1994 1-5)

104. 3 , ?
(i) ;
(ii) ,
.

( 1996-2)

105. (n 1)2 , n 1
. ,
( ),
. ?

( 1992 4-y9-4)

4.2

231

106. 12 , 12 .
, ,
?

( 1995 4-y9-4)

107. 15 15 15
. 10 cm
.
, 10 cm
.

(Towns 1984 JA2)

108. 1 9
. 987654321 ` ' .
(a) .
(b) .

(Towns 1983 S2)

109. (a) 20 20 . d
, ( ) d
. d , (
) d . ( d ,
d , d
.)
(b) 21 21 .

(Towns 1984 SO5)

232

110. 2 n , A = f1; 2; : : : ; ng . M A
, M 42 . M
S(n) . S(n) = 1997 n ?
( 1997 -y11-4)

111. (a) 10 . 5
. ?
(b) 20 . 10
.
(Towns 1982 J4)

112. 5 9(5 9) .
. ,
.
.
(i) , , , .
(ii)
.
(iii)
.
(iv) .
.
33 . ,
32
.

( 1996-10)

4.2

233

113. N 1415 2001 . N


1 .
( 2001-4)

114. n > 2 , n a1 ; : : : ; an
= j) ( )
: ai + aj (i 6
. , .
( 1968 3-3)

115. n > 3 , . n
k .
(a) k

n
2

, k

.
(b) k >

n
2

k ,

( 1968 3-6)

116. S f1; 2; 3; : : : ; 1000g , S m, n


m + n S . S ?

( 1999-6)

117. A : 100
, A 10 .
( 1971 3-5)

234

118. . 40
2 30 .
1 51 . , 2
?

(Towns 1985 J4)

119. ,
. 120
.

.
,
. .
?

(Towns 1986 J3)

120. (\ ") 1001 .


, 1 .
(,
).
. .
500 500 .
. ?
(Towns 1986 J6)

4.2

235

121. n n 1 0 .
`-'(
) 1 .
?

(Towns 1992 JA1)

122. a1 ; a2 ; : : : ; a100 1901 2000 .


.
s1 = a1 ; s2 = a1 + a2 ; s3 = a1 + a2 + a3 ; : : : ; s100 = a1 + a2 + + a100
s1 ; : : : ; s100 3 a1 ; : : : ; a100
?

( 2000-2)

123. n 3 n Sn = f1; 2; : : : ; ng .
Sn A1 ; A2 ; : : : ; An .
Ai1 4 Ai2 4 4 Ait = ?
Sn fi1 ; i2 ; : : : ; it g . (,
A, B A 4 B = (A [ B) (A \ B) .)

( 2004-J2)

124. 10000 1 10000 .


5000 ,
. 5000 .
4 .

( 2001-6)

236

125. 1; 2; : : : ; n , ()
. n > 2 ?

( 2002-1)

126. f1; 2; : : : ; 1985g :


. (1 !)
(Towns 1985 SO2)

127. 64 8 8 . 4 4 4
,
?

( 1987-24)

128. fr1 ; r2 ; : : : ; rk g m
. k >

m
2

, ri + rj m

. , i, j .

( 1979 3-1)

129. 50
S . 25 . 25
S=2 .

( 1987-30)

4.2

237

130. n .
, .
, .
(a) .
(b) .
(c) ,
.
.

( 2006-5)

131. 6 .
() .
. (, P , Q, R, S
P ! Q ! R ! S ! P .)
( 2007-4)

132. A O .
. n
2n
(BW 1971 2-2)
.

n+1

133. 1 1 M N . 1 2 .
.
, (
). .
15 M N .

(Towns 1989 JA5)

238

134. 30 .
, .

( 1989-2)

135. f1; 2; : : : ; 3ng n + 2 , n 2n


.

( 1952-2)

136. .
.

(BW 1976 2-4)

137. . , .
.

( 1948-2)

138. 23 .
,
.
,
.
.
16
, .

( 1988-5)

4.2

239

139. .
1 . (an ), (bn ) n an
m bm .
, .

( 1993-3)

140. n n
?

( 1995-1)

141. A, B, C, D , A D
. A ,
.
(a) C ?
(b) n > 5 , n
?

( 1995-3)

142. 20 .
. A , B
A B . 1 10
.
(a) A B , B C A, B, C .
(b) 19 (a) ?

( 1995-2)

240

143. 100 . ,
.
(a) 10 ,
(b) 11

2
.
11

2
?
11
( 1990 4-y10-2)

144. 8 8 1; 2; 3; : : : ; 64 ( ).
100 2 2 .

( 1977-5)

145. Antonio Bernado . m n .


Antonio (i){(iii) .
(i) ,
(ii) ,
(iii) .
.
m, n , .
( 2004-4)

146. (1) 1 288 . AB


AD BC 1 S , 288
AD S ,
24 .
(2) (1), 18 .
( 1961-4 )

4.2

241

147. mn , . m n
(m; n > 1). ,
A . ,
B . ?
A < B;

A = B;

( 1963-1)

A>B

148. 8 . 24 ,
24 . ,
2 .
( 1990 4-y11-3)

149. ,
.
.

( 1960-1)

150. 3n .
n ,
?

( 1969-6)

| xMO (http://cafe.naver.com/xmo) `MO ' .

242

5.1

1. AB, A B C ,
QC
AC
Q . Q C
=
CB
CP
P . P . ( 1976-4)

2. . m n
, m + n . m n
. k = 1; 2; : : : ; m + n 1 ,
m + n k
.

( 1994 3-4)

3. . 10 cm ,
30 cm 70 cm ( )
. 25 cm . 55 cm 55 cm
.

(Towns 1992 JO3)

244

4. Randy: \ Rachel, ? ?"


Rachel: \ .
Jimmy ."
Randy: \, ! Jimmy .
. ,
."
Rachel: \. ."
Randy: \, x ...
, 0 55 ."
Rachel: \, !"
(1) Jimmy .
(2) Rachel .

( 2001-1)

5. n (a; b) n2
.

( 1962-1)

6. a, b, c S . .
p
3 2
S
(a + b2 + c2 )
12

7. 103 7
. 7 A A
. , .

(Towns 1992 JO4)

8. x4 + 3x3 + 6x2 + 9x + 12
.

( 1988-1)

5.1

245

9. IMO, 34 . ,

. 67
.
?

( 1989-D8)

10. 1 10
10 M .
() M .
() n (1 < n < 1010 ) :
a 2 M n a a .

( 2005 y8-1)

11. n 2 . n
n .

( 1908-2)

12. a, b, c .
2abc + 2ab + 2ac + 3bc + 2a + 3b + 3c = 998
c .

(IT 2006 1)

13. T , , T (
90 ) . A B
, A ,
A B , ?

246

14. ( )
1 : k . k
.

( 1993-1994)

15. 1 3
. 3 L .
(IT 2006 1)

16. ABCD
\CBD = 2\ADB;

\ABD = 2\CDB;

. AD = CD .

AB = CB
( 2000-4)

17.
.
(, [x[x]] .) a 10 2a
51 . 3a ?

(IT 2006 1)

18. x, y, z .
7x2 3y 2 + 4z 2 = 8
16x2 7y 2 + 9z 2 = 3
, x2 + y 2 + z 2 ?

(IMTS R10-1)

5.1

247

19. A B 3 3 . :
. .
. .
. ,
.
. , A , ,
1 . B , , 1
.
. 8 5 .
(1) 4 : 4 ? .
(2) .

( 1978-5)

20. .
, , \
."
. \ ."
, 30, 33, 41, 58, 66, 69 .
. ?
( 1990-7)

21. O AB CD H . AB
, AB CD . OH
, AB .

(AIME 1983-12)

22. n 7 7 . n
0 7 .
(KAIST Cyber 2005 )

248

23. ,
(000{999). 1000
. 000 999
. ?

0, 1, 6, 8, 9 0, 1, 9, 8, 6.

( 1993-7-30)

24. ( 2005.) ,

. 234
. , . ,
10 , .

( 2005-J1)

25. \B = \C = 90 AB = 12 ABCD . BC M
, AM ? DM . CD
.

( 1995/1996 1)

26. 12 , 8 , 6 26
. , , ,
. (
) ?

(AIME 1988-10)

27. n n . n 1 1.
1 n
.

( 1962-5)

5.1

249

28. x2 y 2 = 20002 (x; y) ?

29. .
22 + 32 + 42 + 142

= 152

42 + 52 + 62 + 382

= 392

62 + 72 + 82 + 742

= 752

82 + 92 + 102 + 1222

(AIME 2000 2-2)

( 2.4.2)

= 1232

30. ABCD 6 AB, AC, AD, BC, BD, CD


p
g, h . g h 2 .
( 1991-1)

31. 4 A, B, C, D n .
0; 1; 2; 3
0 3 4 n
.

( 2003-8 )

32. x , y, z x2 + y 2 = z 2 . y, z x
.

( 2000/2001 1)

250

33. 1; 2; : : : ; 99; 100 55 9


.

( 1989-1)

34. 2000 , , 3000000


. 3 .

(BW 1977 1-1)

35. ABCD AC BD O . AOB COD


S1 S2 ABCD S ,
.

p
p
p
S1 + S2 S

, AB CD .

( 1986-2)

36. 1; 2; : : : ; 9 9 .
.
.
.
`8 '
. ? ( , 1,
7, 8 6, 5, 9, 4, 3, 2 ,
6, 5, 9, 4, 3, 2 .)

(AIME 1988-15)

37. .
. , ,
, a; a + d; a + 2d; a + 3d; : : :
.

( 1963-10)

5.1

251

38. .
4 .

(Towns 1989 JO2)

39. f . x , f (x + 1) + f (x 1) =
p
3 f (x) f . , f ,
x f (x + p) = f (x) p ?
(IMTS R5-4)

40. 8 15 .
| 18 29| .
| n , n
| ? .
( 1974-6)

41. ? ,
?

( 1997/1998 1)

p
p
x= x
p
p
p p
x x= x+ x
p
p
p
p p p
x x x= x+ x+ x
p
p
p
p
p p p p
x x x x= x+ x+ x+ x
p
p
p
p
p
p p p p p
x x x x x= x+ x+ x+ x+ x

42. 2 . ,
. m,
M . ?

(Towns 1990 SO3)

252

43. 15 15 , , .
,
.

44. z > y > x 3 ,

( 2000-9)

1 1
1 1
+ = + x, y, z .
x y
2 z
(1995 )

45. a ,
x1 + 2x2 + 3x3 + + nxn = a

y1 + 2y2 + 3y3 + + nyn = a

n(n + 1)
2

. , ,
(x1 ; x2 ; : : : ; xn ) .

( 1904-2)

46. n 7 , n
. n .

( 2000-1)

47. 8 8 1, 1 31 ( ;
.

( 1997-14-7)

5.1

253

48. (a) 12 . (b) 5


.

( 1989 4-y8-6)

49. a, 187,
a=5, a=13 . , a ?
(KMC 2002 1)

50. a, b, c
a 2b + c = 0;

a2 + b2 + 3c2 + 2ab 4bc 4ca = 0

. a, b, c , 5. a + b + c
?

(1999 KAIST . 2)

51. , , .
? ,
.

(ML 165-2)

: 240 .
: .
: .
: .
: 11 .
: ! .

52. a; b > 0
?

2ab
. 620 m < n
a+b
(AIME 1996-8)

254

53. A, B, C, D , 1000 . 2a 3b 5c (a; b; c = 0; 1; : : : ;


9) . , A
B , B C , C D, D A
. A ,
( ) .
,
(
). , A ?
(AIME 1999-7)

54. 4ABC P j4P ABj j4P BCj 2j4P CAj


. , jXj X .

55. 1 n . p, q

(1995 )

p
n
n1
< <

n
q
n+1

, q .

( 2003 1 )

56. ?
hxi hxi
=
+1
10
11
, [t] t .

(Towns 1989 JA1)

57. I0 = f1; 1g , y In1


x2 2xy + y 2 4n = 0
x In . n In
.

( 1987-4)

5.1

255

58. 2001 1979 . ,


.

( 1979 2-3)

59. ABC AD BC , M AC
. DB DM < AB AM .

( 1996 -y7-3)

60. 2xy 5x + y = 55 x, y (x; y) .


(IMTS R20-1)

61.
.

.
(IT 2006 1)

(1)

(2)

(3)

(4)

(5)

62. ,
. .

( 1981 2-2)

256

63. m n m2 + mn + n2 9 . m, n 3
.

( 1958-2)

64. n 1 n (1 +

1
2

1
3

+ + n1 )

. .
n 20
.

(IT 2006 1)

(1) 2 2n
(2) 1 2n 1
1 1 1
1
1
(3) 1 + + +


2 3 4
2n 1 2n
1
1
1
(4) 1 + p + p + + p
n
2
3
1
1
1
1
1
p
(5) 1 p + p p + + p

2n 1
2
3
4
2n

65. ,
.

(IMTS R29-4)

66. 10
. ( , f114; 115; : : : ; 123g 119 121
.)

67. a, b, c ,
.

( 2000-9)

1
1
1
+
+

(b c)2
(c a)2
(a b)2
( 1976-3)

5.1

257

68. a, b, c , a2 + b2 + c2 < 2(bc + ca + ab) .


( 1998/1999 1)

69. .
, .

( 1997 -y7-2)

70. k . 1 k 1 ,
k .

(Towns 1989 JA4)

71. .
: (a)
, (b) . ,
.

( 1991-4)

72. 10 .
. .
27 .

(Towns 1992 JO1)

73. a2 + b2 = c2 + 3 (a; b; c) .

( 1996-2)

258

74. 2000 , n n 10
n + 1 .
.

( 2000 -y9-8)

75. ,
. .

( 1988-1)

76. ( )
.
?

(Towns 1988 JO1)

77. n 1998 .
E = 666n + 648n + (1)n+1 684n

( 1998 -y10-5)

78. , (
) .
, 1626 .
?

( 2004-J3/S3)

79. +
?
1 2 3 4 96 = 1996
, + ?

(IMTS R19-1)

5.1

259

80. a, b, n k 6
= b k b k j a k n
. a = bn .

( 1964-11)

81. 8 . .
1, 0, 0.5 .
2
. 3 7
?

( 1963-2)

82. 5 .

1, 2, 3, 4 5 .

(Towns 1985 JA4)

83. ,
.

84. m3 = n3 + n m, n .

( 1967 3-6)

( 1969-1)

85. .
a . , b .
a = b .

(Towns 1987 SO4)

260

86. M A = f1; 2; : : : ; 50g , M 7


. M ?

( 1997 -y7-4)

87. 4ABC A B
. .
(Towns 1986 J1)

88. p .

m
m+p
1
+ 2 =
m, n
n
p
n+p

( 1973-4)

89. , 40 , n
n n2 =2 , , , , , , , , ,
... . , ?
(AIME 1993-2)

90. A B .
. A, B .
A ?
B , 8 7.
A ,
.
B `' ` ' ?
.
A 8 .
: , n
?

( 1984-2)

5.1

261

91. ABC A ( )
BD, CE P . AB = AC ,
ADP E .

( 2007-2)

92. x y y z (
). z x.
x .

( 1995 -y9-1)

93. a, b, c . f (x) = ax2 bx + 2c f (1); f (5) > 0,


f (2); f (4) < 0 , a, b, c .

(2000 )

94. . 3
,
. , x318 x318, x138 x381 ,
x044 x404 x044 .
,
.
3
. 3
?

(IMTS R44-4)

95. r A, B . A B r
R S , AB M . ARM BSM
.

( 2002-3)

262

96. a, b, c .

( 1965-1)

a2 + b2 + c2 + 3 < ab + 3b + 2c

97. f (19x 96
x ) = 0 11 .
.
( 1996-15)

98. .
(xn ) . xn+1 xn
.

( 1995/1996 1-2)

99.
. ?

(Towns 1990 SO3a)

100. x3 3x + n = 0 n .

( 2002-4)

| xMO (http://cafe.naver.com/xmo) `MO ' .

5.2

5.2

263

1.
.

( 1969-10)

2. (x1 ; y1 ; z1 ) (x2 ; y2 ; z2 ) (m; n) , x1 m+y1 n+z1 x2 m+y2 n+z2


.
.

( 1950-3)

3. 5 . , 5
.

( 1963-1)

4. f : N ! N ?
f (f (1)) = 5; f (f (2)) = 6; f (f (3)) = 4; f (f (4)) = 3;

( 2004-6)

f (f (n)) = n + 2 (n 5)

5. 0 < a b c , .
( 3.3.1 )

ab bc ca ba cb ac

264

6. 120 . 7
.

( 1979 1-2)

7. 1, 3, 7, 9 ( ) .
7 .
( 1975 3-4)

8. 1 8 .
. 12 S 1/4
.

( 1987-47)

9. ABC D E AB AC . DF , EG
ADE , DEF DEG ABC
. ?

( 2001-3)

10. 1, 2, 3, 4 n . 4
3 an . n 6
, 123314 113424 114234 .
p, q an+1 = pan + q n , p q
.

( 1996/1997 1)

5.2

265

11.
?

( 1996 2-1)

12. 6 . ,
p
( 1966 3-6)
3 .

13. n p ,
x + py = n;

x + y = pz

(x; y; z) .
.

( 1905-1)

14. .
. .
.
.

( 1959-3)

15. 1 = a1 ; a2 ; : : : k > 1 .
ak < 1 + a1 + a2 + + ak1
ai .

( 1960-2)

266

16. ABC a, b, c . n.
S
.

( 1988-4)

S
a2 + b2 + c2

17. n 3, k 2 . 1; n; n2 ; n3 ; : : : ; nk1 ,
. (n; k) = (3; 5)
.
1 3 9 27 81
2 6 18 54
4 12 36
8 24
16
n, k , .
(IMTS R5-2)

18. ABC \BP A + \AQC = 90 P , Q . ,


BAP ACQ ( ) B,
A, P A, C, Q . N
(A 6
= N , , A A = N ), BC M ,
M N P , Q .

( 2005-J2/S2)

19. (a) 3k 1 = x3 (x; k) .


(b) 1 3 n , 3k 1 = xn (x; k)
.

( 1999-6)

5.2

267

20. 1 2 ?
.

( 1986-4)

21. m n
. p
. , `' ,
.
(m; n; p) .

22. f : (0; 1) ! R .
8
>
<x
(x )
f (x) =
>
: p+1 (x = p , (p; q) = 1 )
q
q
(7=8; 8=9) f .

( 1999-5)

( 1992-5)

23. a, b a, b ab
.

( 4.2.2)

24. 2 p(x) = ax2 + bx + c x


.

( 1902-1 )

268

25.
. .

( 1999-2)

26. ABCDEF AD, BE, CF


.
AB CD EF

=1
BC DE F A
.

( 1990-1-3)

27. ABCDEF GH .
: AB = CD = EF = GH BC = DE = F G = HA .
. AD, BE, CF , DG, EH, F A, GB, HC
. . 8
.
, 8 .
.
(Towns 1991 JA6)

28. n 1 4n . L ,
4n 2 , L .
( 1968-2)

5.2

269

1
(1 i; j n).
i+j1
n , n

29. n n i j
1 .

(Towns 1992 SA3)

30. (1) ABC , BC, CA, AB X, Y , Z


BX XC;

CY Y A;

AZ ZB

. , XY Z 4 ABC
.
(2) ABC , X, Y , Z BC, CA, AB , (1)
. AZY , BXZ, CY X
XY Z .

(Putnam 1973)

31. a, b, n, m 2 , an 1 bm + 1 . a, b, n, m
.

( 1999-4)

32.
.
.

(BW 1971 1-3)

33. 15 . kg. (
) 2
15 . .

(Towns 1990 JA3)

270

34. .

( 1987-1)

(a2 + b)(a + b2 ) = (a b)3

35. ABC BC, CA, AB P , Q, R . \BP C + \CQA +


\ARB = 180 4BP C, 4CQA, 4ARB
.

36. n m .
, .
(n 1)(n 2)
+ 1 (
2
) (n 2).
(n 1)(n 2)
(2) m =

2
( 1997-14-10)
.

(1) m

37. (a) x1 ; : : : ; xn 1; 0; 1 . xi xj (1 i < j n)


?
(b) xi 0 jxi j 1 (1 i n) (a)
?

( 1965-1)

38. a, b . a = b , a2 + b2 ab .
( 1997 -y7-7)

5.2

271

39. l (
) l . , l
. l ,
l .
( 1993 4-y9-6)

40. 12 , Anne, Beth, Carmen 300


.
. Anne
, Anne 100
. ,
.

( 2000-1)

41. 3x2 + 32y 2 (x; y ) . n


97n .

(IMTS R23-2)

42. k 2 a1 ; a2 ; : : : ; ak n = a1 + a2 +
+ ak = a1 a2 ak , n . [
10 = 5 + 2 + 1 + 1 + 1 = 5 2 1 1 1 10
.] , ,
.

( 1993-2)

p
43. a, b, c R R(b + c) = a bc
.

( 1997-4)

272

44. (a) l m ,
l + m d . , d l
m .
(b) l m n
, ?
( 1993-10, )

45. .
.

(IMTS R21-4)

46. , C0 ; C1 ; C2 .

C1 C2 A B , AB C0 C .
, C0 , C1 , BC , C0 , C2 , BC
.

(IMTS R20-5)

5.2

273

47. 6x3 = y 2 + 45 .

(KMC 2002 1)

48. Q1 1 .
(1) Q1 A B ,
?
(2) ?

49. (an ) n an =
.

( 1995-B7)

a2n1 + a2n+1
.
2
( 1985-5)

50. n 3 . k f : f1; 2; : : : ; ng !
f1; 2; : : : ; ng :
f (f (k)) = (f (k))3 6(f (k))2 + 12f (k) 6

( 2005 y10-4)

(k 1)

51. ABCD
. ,
ABCD .

( 1987-13)

274

52. h , an : a0 = 1
8
>
<an =2
(an )
an+1 =
>
:an + h ( )

, h = 27 a1 = 28, a2 = 14, a3 = 7, a4 = 34 . h
an = 1 n > 0 ?

( 2005-5)

53. A B . A,
B, k k 2 k 1 . , A, B,
AB, BAB, ABBAB, ... . , PP P P
? , BABBBABB BABB
.

(Towns 1988 JA7)

54. ABC A P . Q
R . .

( 1982-3)

AP + BQ + CR > AB + BC + CA

55. 6 , 6
( ).
. (
) . .
?
( 1969-3, Towns 1987 JA5)

5.2

275

56. 0 j < i 99 , 10i 10j 1001 ?


(AIME 2001 2-10)

57. .
4 1 1
1 .
. 1
. .

(BW 1974 2-4)

58. n n 1 1 .
?

59. p2 p + 1 p .

( 1990 4-y9-6)

( 2005-2)

60. 1; 12 ; 13 ; 14 ; : : : .
(1) 5 ?
(2) 5 ? ,
?

(Towns 1982 J5)

276

61. ,
, `' .
(1) 42 .
(2) 43 ?

(IMTS R35-4)

62. fan g, fbn g .


a1 = 3;

b1 = 100

an+1 = 3an ; bn+1 = 100bn


bm > a100 m .

( 1986-2)

63. 50 .
.
: (
) 130 .

( 2007-3)

64. 5
. ,
. .

(KMC 2000)

5.2

277

65. n ?:

p
p
p
p
n + m + n m

m (< n2 ) .

(IMTS R22-2)

66. a, b, c, d a2 + b2 + (a b)2 = c2 + d2 + (c d)2 . a4 + b4 +


(a b)4 = c4 + d4 + (c d)4 .

(IMTS R14-1)

67. A B . 1999 .
1 , .
1 . B ,
, .

68. R . R, 1, R +

1
2

( 1999-4)

, R R +

1
2

(). 2R 1 .
( 1988-4)

69. n , n d(n) .
d(n) =
n .

n
3
( 1990-7)

278

70. x () P (x) .
x1 xn+1 = xn + P (xn ) (xn )
?

(- 1982-4)

71. fxn g .
x1 = 2;

nxn = 2(2n 1)xn1

(n = 2; 3; : : : )

n xn .

( 1994-6)

72. [0; 1] A, B . B = A + a
a . (, A + a = fx + a j x 2 Ag .)
(- 1982-5)

73. ABCD 1 . P Q AB , R
CD . P QR .
( 1962-2)

74. ,
1010 . 10 .
( 1967-2b)

5.2

279

75. 16 , 16
?

( 1998-4)

76. M N m, n jm nj mn=25
. M 9 .

( 1986-6)

77. n n .

.

78. x

1
2

, jx n2 j

( 1994 -y9-4)

q
x

1
4

n .

79. .

( 1965-3)

(Towns 1986 J5)

280

80. ad bc = 1

a
b

>

p
q

>

c
d

a, b, c, d, p, q

.
(1) q b + d;
(2) q = b + d , p = a + c.

( 1969 3-3)

81. N . N > 1981


?

(- 1981-8)

82. ABCD M . S
.

(Towns 1988 SA6)

S AM CM + BM DM

83. n , x2 + x + = 0 n .
0 . 3n n
.
, .
,
?

( 1993 -y9-8)

5.2

281

84. A, B, C ` '
.

K , M .
, , .
. A, B, C ,
?

85. 2m n m, n

(Towns 1985 J2)

(n m)!

m!

n+1
2

n2m

.
( 1970-6)

86. N . n > 1 f (n) = f (f (n 1)) + f (f (n + 1))


f : N ! N ?

( 1990-3)

87. ABCD , AB = CD,


AC = BD, AD = BC .

( 2005 y8-3)

282

88. 1998 .
r
q
p
(x + (x:::(x + (x)):::)) = y
( 1964-6)

89. .
a b
, c .
,
? (
.)

( 1986-7)

90. 4ABC BC, AB D, E \CAD = \ADE = \B


. 4ABC, 4EBD, 4ADC p, q, r , 4(q + r) 5p
.

(1995 )

91. F0 = 0, F1 = 1, n 0 Fn+2 = Fn + Fn+1


. .
(1) \Fn+k Fn n 10 " k = 60
k < 60 .
(2) \Fn+t Fn n 100 " t = 300
t < 300 .

( 1996-6)

5.2

283

92. f : N ! N .
(i) a b f (ab) = f (a)f (b).
(ii) p q f (p + q) = f (p) + f (q).
f (2) = 2, f (3) = 3, f (1999) = 1999 .

( 1999-7)

93. AD B, C AB = CD . P
P A + P D P B + P C .

( 1966-2a)

94. A A (A ) I(A) A
F (A), F (A) = A I(A) .
(a) A :
F (A) + F (1=A) = 1
(b) A ?

(Towns 1985 JA2)

95. ( ) .
( ) \+1"
.
(+ , +).
?

(Towns 1984 SA3)

284

96. a, b, c . a + b + c = 1 , .
a2 + b2 + c2 + 4abc

1
2

( 1990-4)

97. n 3 B1 ; B2 ; : : : ; Bn ,
i = 1; 2; : : : ; n Bi Bi+1 (Bn+1 = B1 ).
B . B
?

(BW 1972 1-2)

98. 6 .
. 6
.

( 1970-2)

99. 1998 1998 .


(a) , 42
.
(b) , .
( 1998-y11-4)

100. 1 . 4
, 1=4
.

( 1992-2)

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