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TEST DATE: __________

Regents Biology Homework Packet Unit 5: Energy in a Cell Photosynthesis & Cellular Respiration
Use your Biology by Miller & Levine textbook to complete and help with the following homework assignments. (1) Read the assigned pages, (2) Define the vocabulary, and (3) Answer the questions. Neatness counts. Number the definitions. Write the page and number of the questions. Do your work in ink or even type the homework. Staple the definitions and questions to the HW packet. The homework assignment is due the day before the test. We will use the HW packet as a test review. The completed and corrected HW packet will be collected on the day of the test. Late homework assignments receive no credit (0). If the assignment is not turned in by the last day of the quarter the zero grade (0) will change to -5.

Ch 8: Photosynthesis Read pgs. 224 247 p. 226 Vocab (4) p. 230 Vocab (7) p. 235 Vocab (4) p. 228 #1a, 1b p. 234 # 2b, 3a, 4 p.241 #3a Regents Review pgs. 244 247 #1 24

Ch 9: Cellular Respiration and Fermentation Read pgs. 248 271 p. 250 Vocab (4) p. 254 Vocab (4) p. 262 Vocab (1) p. 253 #2b, 3a p. 260 #1a, 4a, 5 p. 265 #1b, 2a Regents Review pgs. 268 271 #1 24

ATP ADP Cycle

1. What is the structural difference between ATP and ADP?

2. In which structure, ATP or ADP, is more energy stored? Where and Why?

3. Write an equation showing the conversion reactions of ATP and ADP. Indicate which side of the equation has lower energy and which has higher energy.

4. Describe what takes place in the process of converting ADP to ATP.

5. Describe what takes place in the process of converting ATP to ADP.

6. Why are these reactions considered part of a cycle?

Cellular Respiration

Using the previous diagram answer the following questions. 1. What is the source of energy for the first step of glycolysis?

2. In glycolysis, what substance is broken down? What is the end product?

3. In glycolysis, what is the ration of glucose molecules to the net number of ATP molecules formed at the end of the process? Explain that ratio.

4. Which process is anaerobic? Which process is aerobic?

5. Where does the break down of pyruvic acid occur?

6. What is the end product of the break down of pyruvic acid?

7. How is pyruvic acid break down related to the citric acid cycle?

8. As citric acid breaks down, what substance is released?

9. What is the part of aerobic cellular respiration that follows the citric acid cycle? What is produced during that process?

Concept Map

Cellular Respiration

makes

for

1st step is

Glycolysis
happens in

produces

Anaerobic Respiration

Aerobic Respiration
happens in

produces

produces

produces

1. Write in a brief description for the bubbles with underlined words. 2. Choose a word or phrase to fill in the other bubbles. Word Bank: cells cytoplasm energy mitochondria 36 ATP, CO2, and H2O 2 ATP, CO2, Alcohol

pyruvic acid 2 ATP and Lactic Acid

Photosynthesis: The light and the dark of it

Using the previous diagram answer the following questions. 1. Describe what happens to electrons when sunlight strikes chlorophyll.

2. Explain what happens to the hydrogen ions freed in the light reactions.

3. What is the splitting of water called during photosynthesis?

4. What is the function of the electron transport chain?

5. What is the importance of the oxygen produced during the light reactions? Where does the oxygen come from?

6. When does carbon fixation occur?

7. What is the final product of the Calvin Cycle? What kinds of substance are formed from it?

8. What is the source of energy for converting PGA into PGAL?

Photosynthesis and Cellular Respiration

1. In what organelles do photosynthesis and respiration take place?

2. Trace the path of oxygen, water, and carbon dioxide through the organelles.

3. Which organelle requires direct solar energy to function?

4. In what ways are photosynthesis and respiration alike?

5. What is the immediate source of energy used by mitochondria? How is it obtained?

6. Which two cycles are linked in the production and utilization of carbon dioxide? Where do these cycles occur?

7. Explain how the equations for photosynthesis and aerobic respiration compare.

8. Why are these two processes considered a cycle for life?

Write the best answer on the blank. ___ 1. One immediate cause of a decrease in the rate of photosynthesis is a reduction in the availability of (1.) carbon dioxide (2.) carbon monoxide (3.) hydrogen (4.) nitrogen ___ 2. Green plants usually do not excrete large amounts of CO2 because they use CO2 in the process of (1.) photosynthesis (2.) hydrolysis (3.) anaerobic respiration (4.) transpiration ___ 3. In an investigation, equal amounts of water were added to each of four test tubes. An aquatic plant was added to two of these test tubes. The four test tubes were each fitted with a stopper containing a pipette to measure the amount of gas released. The test tubes were then paired so that one tube in each pair contained a plant. One pair was placed 1 meter from a light source, and the other pair was placed 2 meters from the same light source. The investigator was most likely attempting to determine the effect on photosynthesis of different (1.) wavelengths of light (2.) intensities of light (3.) mineral concentrations (4.) amounts of carbon dioxide ___ 4. One leaf on a bean plant was covered on both sides with transparent Vaseline. After 24 hours in the light, this leaf and a leaf that had not been covered with Vaseline were removed from the plant and boiled in water and then in alcohol. Both leaves were then placed in an iodine solution. Which concept was most likely being tested by these procedures? (1.) Light is necessary for photosynthesis. (2.) Chlorophyll is involved in photosynthesis. (3.) Gas exchange is necessary for photosynthesis. (4.) Epidermal cells are involved in photosynthesis. ___ 5. Respiration and photosynthesis have the least effect on the cycling of (1.) carbon (2.) hydrogen (3.) oxygen (4.) nitrogen ___ 6. Which material cycle relies least on the processes of photosynthesis, transpiration, evaporation, respiration, and condensation? (1.) oxygen cycle (2.) carbon cycle (3.) water cycle (4.) nitrogen cycle ___ 7. In the material cycle shown, which processes are represented by letters A and B?

(1.) A-excretion, B-respiration (2.) A-respiration, B-photosynthesis (3.) A-photosynthesis, B-transpiration (4.) A-transpiration, B-excretion ___ 8. Which activity occurs in the process of photosynthesis? (1.) Chemical energy from organic molecules is converted into light energy. (2.) Light energy is converted into the chemical energy of organic molecules. (3.) Organic molecules are converted into inorganic food molecules. (4.) Organic molecules are obtained from the environment. ___ 9. Which process is a form of autotrophic nutrition? (1.) transport (2.) photosynthesis (3.) fermentation (4.) regulation ___ 10. Which organelle is correctly paired with its function? (1.) nucleus - provides carbohydrates for fermentation (2.) lysosome - packages cellular products (3.) centriole - synthesizes digestive enzymes (4.) chloroplast - serves as a site for photosynthesis

Select the reaction of photosynthesis that is most closely associated with the following statements in questions 11 -13 (1.) Photochemical reactions, only (2.) Carbon-fixation reactions, only (3.) Both the photochemical and the carbonfixation reactions (4.) Neither the photochemical nor the carbonfixation reactions ___ 11. Chlorophyll pigments absorb light energy. ___ 12. The reaction takes place in the chloroplast. ___ 13. Carbon dioxide from the air combines with hydrogen atoms. ___ 14. What does the process of photosynthesis produce? (1.) glucose, which is metabolized into more complex carbohydrates by dehydration synthesis (2.) protein, which is metabolized into less complex molecules by dehydration synthesis (3.) glycerol, which is metabolized into more complex carbohydrates by dehydration synthesis (4.) starch, which is metabolized into less complex molecules by dehydration synthesis ___ 15. Which of the following is the correct sequence of events in cellular respiration? (1.) glycolysis fermentation Krebs cycle (2.) Krebs cycle electron transport glycolysis (3.) glycolysis Krebs cycle electron transport (4.) Krebs cycle glycolysis electron transport ___ 16. Cellular respiration uses one molecule of glucose to produce (1.) 2 ATP molecules. (2.) 34 ATP molecules. (3.) 36 ATP molecules. (4.) 38 ATP molecules.

___ 17. Which process is represented by the arrow in the diagram?

(1.) fermentation (2.) hydrolysis of nutrients (3.) oxidation of glucose (4.) photosynthesis ___ 18. The diagram represents a cross section of a plant structure. Which letter indicates the region where most autotrophic nutrition takes place?

(1.) A (2.) B (3.) C

(4.) D

___ 19. Which of the following is NOT a stage of cellular respiration? (1.) fermentation (2.) electron transport (3.) glycolysis (4.) Krebs cycle ___ 20. Which of the following is released during cellular respiration? (1.) oxygen (2.) air (3.) energy (4.) lactic acid ___ 21. What is the correct equation for cellular respiration? (1.) 6O2 + C6H12O6 6CO2 + 6H2O + Energy (2.) 6O2 + C6H12O6 + Energy 6CO2 + 6H2O (3.) 6CO2 + 6H2O 6O2 + C6H12O6 + Energy (4.) 6CO2 + 6H2O + Energy 6O2 + C6H12O6

___ 22. Cellular respiration releases energy by breaking down (1.) food molecules. (2.) ATP. (3.) carbon dioxide. (4.) water. ___ 23. What are the reactants in the equation for cellular respiration? (1.) oxygen and lactic acid (2.) carbon dioxide and water (3.) glucose and oxygen (4.) water and glucose ___ 24. Which of these is a product of cellular respiration? (1.) oxygen (2) water (3.) glucose (4.) all of the above ___ 25. Which of these processes takes place in the cytoplasm of a cell? (1.) glycolysis (2.) electron transport (3.) Krebs cycle (4.) all of the above ___ 26. Glycolysis provides a cell with a net gain of (1.) 2 ATP molecules. (2.) 4 ATP molecules. (3.) 18 ATP molecules. (4.) 36 ATP molecules. ___ 27. The starting molecule for glycolysis is (1.) ADP. (2.) pyruvic acid. (3.) citric acid. (4.) glucose. ___ 28. Glycolysis requires (1.) an energy input. (2.) oxygen. (3.). hours to produce many ATP molecules. (4.) NADP+.

___ 29. Which of the following is NOT a product of glycolysis? (1.) NADH (2.) pyruvic acid (3.) ATP (4.) glucose ___ 30. Lactic acid fermentation occurs in (1.) bread dough. (2.) any environment containing oxygen. (3.) muscle cells. (4.) mitochondria. ___ 31. The two main types of fermentation are called (1.) alcoholic and aerobic. (2.) aerobic and anaerobic. (3.) alcoholic and lactic acid. (4.) lactic acid and anaerobic. ___ 32. One cause of muscle soreness is (1.) alcoholic fermentation. (2.) glycolysis. (3.) lactic acid fermentation. (4.) the Krebs cycle. ___ 33. Which process is used to produce beer and wine? (1.) lactic acid fermentation (2.) glycolysis (3.) alcoholic fermentation (4.) the Krebs cycle ___ 34. During lactic acid fermentation, (1.) NAD+ is regenerated allowing glycolysis to continue. (2.) glucose is split into three pyruvic acid molecules. (3.) oxygen is required. (4.) 3 ATP molecules are produced. ___ 35. The conversion of pyruvic acid into lactic acid requires (1.) alcohol. (2.) oxygen. (3.) ATP. (4.) NADH.

___ 36. In the presence of oxygen, glycolysis is followed by (1.) lactic acid fermentation. (2.) alcoholic fermentation. (3.) photosynthesis. (4.) the Krebs cycle. ___ 37. Cellular respiration is called an aerobic process because it requires (1.) light. (2.) exercise. (3.) oxygen. (4.) glucose. ___ 38. Which organism is NOT likely to carry out cellular respiration? (1.) tree (2.) mushroom (3.) anaerobic bacterium (4.) tiger ___ 39. The Krebs cycle does not occur if (1.) oxygen is present. (2.) fermentation occurs. (3.) glycolysis occurs. (4.) carbon dioxide is present. ___ 40. The electron transport chain can be found in (1.) prokaryotes. (2.) animals. (3.) plants. (4.) all of the above ___ 41. In eukaryotes, electron transport occurs in the (1.) mitochondria. (2.) chloroplasts. (3.) cell membrane. (4.) cytoplasm. ___ 42. Which of the following passes highenergy electrons into the electron transport chain? (1.) NADH and FADH2 (2.) ATP and ADP (3.) citric acid (4.) acetyl CoA

___ 43. The energy of the electrons passing along the electron transport chain are used to make (1.) lactic acid. (2.) citric acid. (3.) alcohol. (4.) ATP. ___ 44. Breathing heavily after running a race is your body's way of (1.) making more citric acid. (2.) repaying an oxygen debt. (3.) restarting glycolysis. (4.) recharging the electron transport chain. ___ 45. When the body needs to exercise for longer than 90 seconds, it generates ATP by carrying out (1.) lactic acid fermentation. (2.) alcoholic fermentation. (3.) cellular respiration. (4.) glycolysis. ___ 46. Which process does NOT release energy from glucose? (1.) glycolysis (2.) photosynthesis (3.) fermentation (4.) cellular respiration ___ 47. Photosynthesis is to chloroplasts as cellular respiration is to (1.) chloroplasts. (2.) cytoplasm. (3.) mitochondria. (4.) nucleus. ___ 48. How are cellular respiration and photosynthesis almost opposite processes? (1.) Photosynthesis releases energy and cellular respiration stores energy. (2.) Photosynthesis removes carbon dioxide from the atmosphere and cellular respiration puts it back. (3.) Photosynthesis removes oxygen from the atmosphere and cellular respiration puts it back. (4.) all of the above

___ 49. Unlike photosynthesis, cellular respiration occurs in (1.) animal cells only. (2.) plant cells only. (3.) all but plant cells. (4.) all eukaryotic cells.

Complete each sentence or statement. 50. The three main stages of cellular respiration are _____________________, the Krebs cycle, and ________________________. 51. Without oxygen, a cell can extract a net gain of only ____________________ molecules of ATP from each glucose molecule. 52. Glycolysis converts glucose into two molecules of _________________________. 53. The body gets rid of lactic acid in a chemical pathway that requires ____________________. 54. A high level of lactic acid in the blood is a sign that ______________________________ has occurred. 55. If all autotrophs on Earth suddenly stopped carrying out _________________________, cellular respiration would soon stop too. 56. Photosynthesis occurs only in plants, algae, and some bacteria. In contrast, ______________________________ occurs in all eukaryotic cells.

Short Answer 57. What is cellular respiration?

58. List the three main stages of cellular respiration in order. Where does each stage take place in the cell?

59. Give two examples of fermentation.

ATP, Chloroplast, CO2, glucose, glycolysis, Hydrogen, H2O, Light Dependent Reactions, Light Independent Reactions(Calvin Cycle), mitochondria, pyruvic acid(pyruvate), Oxygen, Thylakoid, 34-36ATP