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1
A 13.2N force P is applied to the lever which controls the auger of a
snowblower. Determine the moment of P about A when α is equal to 30°.
SOLUTION
First note
( ) sin 13.2 N sin30 6.60 N
x
P P α = = ° =
( ) cos 13.2 N cos30 11.4315 N α = = ° =
y
P P
Noting that the direction of the moment of each force component about A
is counterclockwise,
/ / A B A y B A x
M x P y P = +
( )( ) ( )( ) 0.086 m 11.4315 N 0.122 m 6.60 N = +
1.78831 N m = ⋅
or 1.788 N m
A
= ⋅ M
W
PROBLEM 3.2
The force P is applied to the lever which controls the auger of a
snowblower. Determine the magnitude and the direction of the smallest
force P which has a 2.20 N m ⋅ counterclockwise moment about A.
SOLUTION
For P to be a minimum, it must be perpendicular to the line joining points
A and B.
( ) ( )
2 2
86 mm 122 mm 149.265 mm = + =
AB
r
1 1
122 mm
tan tan 54.819
86 mm
α θ
− −
   
= = = = °
 
\ . \ .
y
x
Then
min
=
A AB
M r P
or
min
=
A
AB
M
P
r
2.20 N m 1000 mm
149.265 mm 1 m
⋅  
=

\ .
14.7389 N =
min
14.74 N ∴ = P 54.8°
or
min
14.74 N = P 35.2° W
PROBLEM 3.3
A 13.1N force P is applied to the lever which controls the auger of a
snowblower. Determine the value of α knowing that the moment of P
about A is counterclockwise and has a magnitude of 1.95 N m. ⋅
SOLUTION
By definition
/
sinθ =
A B A
M r P
where ( ) 90 θ φ α = + ° −
and
1
122 mm
tan 54.819
86 mm
φ
−
 
= = °

\ .
Also ( ) ( )
2 2
/
86 mm 122 mm 149.265 mm = + =
B A
r
Then ( )( ) ( ) 1.95 N m 0.149265 m 13.1 N sin 54.819 90 α ⋅ = ° + ° −
or ( ) sin 144.819 0.99725 α ° − =
or 144.819 85.752 α ° − = °
and 144.819 94.248 α ° − = °
50.6 , 59.1 α ∴ = ° ° W
PROBLEM 3.4
A foot valve for a pneumatic system is hinged at B. Knowing that
α = 28°, determine the moment of the 4lb force about point B by
resolving the force into horizontal and vertical components.
SOLUTION
Note that 20 28 20 8 θ α = − ° = ° − ° = °
and ( ) 4 lb cos8 3.9611 lb = ° =
x
F
( ) 4 lb sin8 0.55669 lb = ° =
y
F
Also ( ) 6.5 in. cos 20 6.1080 in. = ° = x
( ) 6.5 in. sin 20 2.2231 in. = ° = y
Noting that the direction of the moment of each force component about B
is counterclockwise,
B y x
M xF yF = +
( )( ) ( )( ) 6.1080 in. 0.55669 lb 2.2231 in. 3.9611 lb = +
12.2062 lb in. = ⋅
or 12.21 lb in.
B
= ⋅ M
W
PROBLEM 3.5
A foot valve for a pneumatic system is hinged at B. Knowing that
α = 28°, determine the moment of the 4lb force about point B by
resolving the force into components along ABC and in a direction
perpendicular to ABC.
SOLUTION
First resolve the 4lb force into components P and Q, where
( ) 4.0 lb sin 28 1.87787 lb Q = ° =
Then
/
=
B A B
M r Q
( )( ) 6.5 in. 1.87787 lb =
12.2063 lb in. = ⋅
or 12.21 lb in.
B
= ⋅ M
W
PROBLEM 3.6
It is known that a vertical force of 800 N is required to remove the nail at
C from the board. As the nail first starts moving, determine (a) the
moment about B of the force exerted on the nail, (b) the magnitude of the
force P which creates the same moment about B if α = 10°, (c) the
smallest force P which creates the same moment about B.
SOLUTION
(a) Have
/
=
B C B N
M r F
( )( ) 0.1 m 800 N =
80.0 N m = ⋅
or 80.0 N m
B
= ⋅ M
W
(b) By definition
/
sinθ =
B A B
M r P
where ( ) 90 90 70 θ α = ° − ° − ° −
90 20 10 = ° − ° − °
60 = °
( ) 80.0 N m 0.45 m sin60 P ∴ ⋅ = °
205.28 N = P
or 205 N P =
W
(c) For P to be minimum, it must be perpendicular to the line joining
points A and B. Thus, P must be directed as shown.
Thus
min / min
= =
B A B
M dP r P
or ( )
min
80.0 N m 0.45 m ⋅ = P
min
177.778 N ∴ = P
or
min
177.8 N = P 20° W
PROBLEM 3.7
A sign is suspended from two chains AE and BF. Knowing that the
tension in BF is 45 lb, determine (a) the moment about A of the force
exert by the chain at B, (b) the smallest force applied at C which creates
the same moment about A.
SOLUTION
(a) Have
/ A B A BF
= M r T ×
Noting that the direction of the moment of each force component
about A is counterclockwise,
= +
A BFy BFx
M xT yT
( )( ) ( )( ) 6.5 ft 45 lb sin 60 4.4 ft 3.1 ft 45 lb cos60 = ° + − °
282.56 lb ft = ⋅
or 283 lb ft
A
= ⋅ M
W
(b) Have ( )
/
min
A C A C
= M r F ×
For
C
F to be minimum, it must be perpendicular to the
line joining points A and C.
( )
min
A C
M d F ∴ =
where ( ) ( )
2 2
/
6.5 ft 4.4 ft 7.8492 ft
C A
d r = = + =
( )( )
min
282.56 lb ft 7.8492 ft
C
F ∴ ⋅ =
( )
min
35.999 lb
C
F =
1
4.4 ft
tan 34.095
6.5 ft
φ
−
 
= = °

\ .
90 90 34.095 55.905 θ φ = ° − = ° − ° = °
or ( )
min
36.0 lb
C
= F 55.9° W
PROBLEM 3.8
A sign is suspended from two chains AE and BF. Knowing that the
tension in BF is 45 lb, determine (a) the moment about A of the force
exerted by the chain at B, (b) the magnitude and sense of the vertical
force applied at C which creates the same moment about A, (c) the
smallest force applied at B which creates the same moment about A.
SOLUTION
(a) Have
/ A B A BF
= M r T ×
Noting that the direction of the moment of each force component
about A is counterclockwise,
= +
A BFy BFx
M xT yT
( )( ) ( )( ) 6.5 ft 45 lb sin 60 4.4 ft 3.1 ft 45 lb cos60 = ° + − °
282.56 lb ft = ⋅
or 283 lb ft
A
= ⋅ M
W
(b) Have
/ A C A C
= M r F ×
or =
A C
M xF
282.56 lb ft
43.471 lb
6.5 ft
A
C
M
F
x
⋅
∴ = = =
or 43.5 lb
C
= F
W
(c) Have ( )
/
min
A B A B
= M r F ×
For
B
F to be minimum, it must be perpendicular to the line joining
points A and B.
( )
min
∴ =
A B
M d F
where ( ) ( )
2 2
6.5 ft 4.4 ft 3.1 ft 6.6287 ft d = + − =
( )
min
282.56 lb ft
42.627 lb
6.6287 ft
⋅
∴ = = =
A
B
M
F
d
and
1
6.5 ft
tan 78.690
4.4 ft 3.1 ft
θ
−
 
= = °

−
\ .
or ( )
min
42.6 lb =
B
F 78.7° W
PROBLEM 3.9
The tailgate of a car is supported by the hydraulic lift BC. If the lift exerts
a 125N force directed along its center line on the ball and socket at B,
determine the moment of the force about A.
SOLUTION
First note ( ) ( )
2 2
240 mm 46.6 mm
CB
d = +
244.48 mm =
Then
240 mm
cos
244.48 mm
θ =
46.6 mm
sin
244.48 mm
θ =
and cos sin
CB CB CB
F F θ θ = − F i j
( ) ( )
125 N
240 mm 46.6 mm
244.48 mm
= −
i j
Now
/ A B A CB
= M r F ×
where ( ) ( )
/
306 mm 240 mm 46.6 mm
B A
= − + r i j
( ) ( ) 306 mm 286.6 mm = − i j
Then ( ) ( ) ( )
125 N
306 mm 286.6 mm 240 46.6
244.48
A
= − −
M i j i j ×
( ) ( ) 27878 N mm 27.878 N m = ⋅ = ⋅ k k
or 27.9 N m
A
= ⋅ M
W
PROBLEM 3.10
The tailgate of a car is supported by the hydraulic lift BC. If the lift exerts
a 125N force directed along its center line on the ball and socket at B,
determine the moment of the force about A.
SOLUTION
First note ( ) ( )
2 2
344 mm 152.4 mm 376.25 mm
CB
d = + =
Then
344 mm
cos
376.25 mm
θ =
152.4 mm
sin
376.25 mm
θ =
and ( ) ( ) cos sin
CB CB CB
F F θ θ = − F i j
( ) ( )
125 N
344 mm 152.4 mm
376.25 mm
= +
i j
Now
/ A B A CB
= M r F ×
where ( ) ( )
/
410 mm 87.6 mm
B A
= − r i j
Then ( ) ( ) ( )
125 N
410 mm 87.6 mm 344 152.4
376.25
A
= − −
M i j i j ×
( ) 30770 N mm = ⋅ k
( ) 30.770 N m = ⋅ k
or 30.8 N m
A
= ⋅ M
W
PROBLEM 3.11
A winch puller AB is used to straighten a fence post. Knowing that the
tension in cable BC is 260 lb, length a is 8 in., length b is 35 in., and
length d is 76 in., determine the moment about D of the force exerted by
the cable at C by resolving that force into horizontal and vertical
components applied (a) at point C, (b) at point E.
SOLUTION
(a) Slope of line
35 in. 5
76 in. 8 in. 12
EC = =
+
Then ( )
12
13
ABx AB
T T =
( )
12
260 lb 240 lb
13
= =
and ( )
5
260 lb 100 lb
13
ABy
T = =
Then ( ) ( ) 35 in. 8 in.
D ABx ABy
M T T = −
( )( ) ( )( ) 240 lb 35 in. 100 lb 8 in. = −
7600 lb in. = ⋅
or 7600 lb in.
D
= ⋅ M
(b) Have ( ) ( )
D ABx ABy
M T y T x = +
( )( ) ( )( ) 240 lb 0 100 lb 76 in. = +
7600 lb in. = ⋅
or 7600 lb in.
D
= ⋅ M
PROBLEM 3.12
It is known that a force with a moment of 7840 lb in. ⋅ about D is required
to straighten the fence post CD. If 8 a = in., 35 b = in., and 112 d =
in., determine the tension that must be developed in the cable of winch
puller AB to create the required moment about point D.
SOLUTION
Slope of line
35 in. 7
112 in. 8 in. 24
EC = =
+
Then
24
25
ABx AB
T T =
and
7
25
ABy AB
T T =
Have ( ) ( )
D ABx ABy
M T y T x = +
( ) ( )
24 7
7840 lb in. 0 112 in.
25 25
AB AB
T T ∴ ⋅ = +
250 lb
AB
T =
or 250 lb
AB
T =
PROBLEM 3.13
It is known that a force with a moment of 1152 N m ⋅ about D is required
to straighten the fence post CD. If the capacity of the winch puller AB is
2880 N, determine the minimum value of distance d to create the
specified moment about point D knowing that 0.24 a = m and
1.05 b = m.
SOLUTION
The minimum value of d can be found based on the equation relating the moment of the force
AB
T about D:
( ) ( )
max D AB
y
M T d =
where 1152 N m
D
M = ⋅
( ) ( )
max max
sin 2880 N sin
AB AB
y
T T θ θ = =
Now
( ) ( )
2 2
1.05 m
sin
0.24 1.05 m d
θ =
+ +
( ) ( )
( )
2 2
1.05
1152 N m 2880 N
0.24 1.05
d
d
∴ ⋅ =
+ +
or ( ) ( )
2 2
0.24 1.05 2.625 d d + + =
or ( ) ( )
2 2
2
0.24 1.05 6.8906 d d + + =
or
2
5.8906 0.48 1.1601 0 d d − − =
Using the quadratic equation, the minimum values of d are 0.48639 m and −0.40490 m.
Since only the positive value applies here, 0.48639 m d =
or 486 mm d =
PROBLEM 3.14
A mechanic uses a piece of pipe AB as a lever when tightening an
alternator belt. When he pushes down at A, a force of 580 N is exerted on
the alternator B. Determine the moment of that force about bolt C if its
line of action passes through O.
SOLUTION
Have
/ C B C B
= M r F ×
Noting the direction of the moment of each force component about C is
clockwise,
C By Bx
M xF yF = +
where 144 mm 78 mm 66 mm x = − =
86 mm 108 mm 194 mm y = + =
and
( ) ( )
( )
2 2
78
580 N 389.65 N
78 86
Bx
F = =
+
( ) ( )
( )
2 2
86
580 N 429.62 N
78 86
By
F = =
+
( )( ) ( )( ) 66 mm 429.62 N 194 mm 389.65 N
C
M ∴ = +
103947 N mm = ⋅
103.947 N m = ⋅
or 103.9 N m
C
= ⋅ M
PROBLEM 3.15
Form the vector products B C × and , ′ B C × where , B B′ = and use the
results obtained to prove the identity
( ) ( )
1 1
2 2
sin cos sin sin . α β α β α β = + + −
SOLUTION
First note ( ) cos sin B β β = + B i j
( ) cos sin B β β ′ = − B i j
( ) cos sin C α α = + C i j
By definition ( ) sin BC α β = − B C × (1)
( ) sin BC α β ′ = + B C × (2)
Now ( ) ( ) cos sin cos sin B C β β α α = + + B C i j i j × ×
( ) cos sin sin cos BC β α β α = − k (3)
( ) ( ) cos sin cos sin B C β β α α = − + B C i j i j × ×
( ) cos sin sin cos BC β α β α = + k (4)
Equating magnitudes of B C × from Equations (1) and (3), (5)
( ) sin cos sin sin cos α β β α β α − = −
Similarly, equating magnitudes of ′ B C × from Equations (2) and (4),
( ) sin cos sin sin cos α β β α β α + = + (6)
Adding Equations (5) and (6)
( ) ( ) sin sin 2cos sin α β α β β α − + + =
( ) ( )
1 1
sin cos sin sin
2 2
α β α β α β ∴ = + + −
PROBLEM 3.16
A line passes through the points (420 mm, −150 mm) and (−140 mm,
180 mm). Determine the perpendicular distance d from the line to the
origin O of the system of coordinates.
SOLUTION
Have
/ AB O A
d = r λ ×
where
/
/
B A
AB
B A
=
r
r
λ
and ( ) ( )
/
140 mm 420 mm 180 mm 150 mm
B A
= − − + − −
r i j
( ) ( ) 560 mm 330 mm = − + i j
( ) ( )
2 2
/
560 330 mm 650 mm
B A
= − + = r
( ) ( )
( )
560 mm 330 mm 1
56 33
650 mm 65
AB
− +
∴ = = − +
i j
i j λ
( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
/
0 0 420 mm 150 mm
O A A A
x y = − + − = − + r i j i j
( ) ( ) ( )
1
56 33 420 mm 150 mm 84.0 mm
65
d ∴ = − − − + =
i j i j ×
84.0 mm d =
PROBLEM 3.17
A plane contains the vectors A and B. Determine the unit vector normal
to the plane when A and B are equal to, respectively, (a) 4i − 2j + 3k and
−2i + 6j − 5k, (b) 7i + j − 4k and −6i − 3k + 2k.
SOLUTION
(a) Have =
A B
A B
×
λ
×
where 4 2 3 = − + A i j k
2 6 5 = − + − B i j k
Then ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) 4 2 3 10 18 6 20 24 4 2 4 7 10
2 6 5
= − = − + − + + − = − + +
− −
i j k
A B i j k i j k ×
and ( ) ( ) ( )
2 2 2
2 4 7 10 2 165 = − + + = A B ×
( ) 2 4 7 10
2 165
− + +
∴ =
i j k
λ or ( )
1
4 7 10
165
= − + + i j k λ
(b) Have =
A B
A B
×
λ
×
where 7 4 = + − A i j k
6 3 2 = − − + B i j k
Then ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) 7 1 4 2 12 24 14 21 6 5 2 2 3
6 3 2
= − = − + − + − + = − + −
− −
i j k
A B i j k i j k ×
and ( ) ( ) ( )
2 2 2
5 2 2 3 5 17 = − + + − = A B ×
( ) 5 2 2 3
5 17
− + −
∴ =
i j k
λ or ( )
1
2 2 3
17
= − + − i j k λ
PROBLEM 3.18
The vectors P and Q are two adjacent sides of a parallelogram.
Determine the area of the parallelogram when (a) P = (8 in.)i + (2 in.)j −
(1 in.)k and Q = −(3 in.)i + (4 in.)j + (2 in.)k, (b) P = −(3 in.)i + (6 in.)j +
(4 in.)k and Q = (2 in.)i + (5 in.)j − (3 in.)k.
SOLUTION
(a) Have A = P Q ×
where ( ) ( ) ( ) 8 in. 2 in. 1 in. = + − P i j k
( ) ( ) ( ) 3 in. 4 in. 2 in. = − + + Q i j k
Then ( ) ( ) ( )
2 2
8 2 1 in 4 4 3 16 32 6 in
3 4 2
= − = + + − + +
−
i j k
P Q i j k ×
( ) ( ) ( )
2 2 2
8 in 13 in 38 in = − + i j k
( ) ( ) ( )
2 2 2
2 2
8 13 38 in 40.951 in Α ∴ = + − + = or
2
41.0 in A =
(b) Have A = P Q ×
where ( ) ( ) ( ) 3 in. 6 in. 4 in. = − + + P i j k
( ) ( ) ( ) 2 in. 5 in. 3 in. = + − Q i j k
Then ( ) ( ) ( )
2 2
3 6 4 in 18 20 8 9 15 12 in
2 5 3
= − = − − + − + − −
−
i j k
P Q i j k ×
( ) ( ) ( )
2 2 2
38 in 1 in 27 in = − − − i j k
( ) ( ) ( )
2 2 2
2 2
38 1 27 in 46.626 in Α ∴ = − + − + − = or
2
46.6 in A =
PROBLEM 3.19
Determine the moment about the origin O of the force F = −(5 N)i − (2
N)j + (3 N)k which acts at a point A. Assume that the position vector of
A is (a) r = (4 m)i − (2 m)j − (1 m)k, (b) r = −(8 m)i + (3 m)j + (4 m)k,
(c) r = (7.5 m)i + (3 m)j − (4.5 m)k.
SOLUTION
(a) Have
O
= M r F ×
where ( ) ( ) ( ) 5 N 2 N 3 N = − − + F i j k
( ) ( ) ( ) 4 m 2 m 1 m = − − r i j k
( ) ( ) ( ) 4 2 1 N m 6 2 5 12 8 10 N m
5 2 3
O
∴ = − − ⋅ = − − + − + − − ⋅
− −
i j k
M i j k
( ) 8 7 18 N m = − − − ⋅ i j k
or ( ) ( ) ( ) 8 N m 7 N m 18 N m
O
= − ⋅ − ⋅ − ⋅ M i j k
(b) Have
O
= M r F ×
where ( ) ( ) ( ) 5 N 2 N 3 N = − − + F i j k
( ) ( ) ( ) 8 m 3 m 4 m = − + − r i j k
( ) ( ) ( ) 8 3 4 N m 9 8 20 24 16 15 N m
5 2 3
O
∴ = − ⋅ = + + − + + + ⋅
− −
i j k
M i j k
( ) 17 4 31 N m = + + ⋅ i j k
or ( ) ( ) ( ) 17 N m 4 N m 31 N m
O
= ⋅ + ⋅ + ⋅ M i j k
(c) Have
O
= M r F ×
where ( ) ( ) ( ) 5 N 2 N 3 N = − − + F i j k
( ) ( ) ( ) 7.5 m 3 m 4.5 m = + − r i j k
PROBLEM 3.19 CONTINUED
( ) ( ) ( ) 7.5 3 4.5 N m 9 9 22.5 22.5 15 15 N m
5 2 3
O
∴ = − ⋅ = − + − + − + ⋅
− −
i j k
M i j k
or 0
O
= M
This answer is expected since r and F are proportional
2
.
3
−  
=

\ .
F r Therefore, vector F has a line of action
passing through the origin at O.
PROBLEM 3.20
Determine the moment about the origin O of the force F = −(1.5 lb)i +
(3 lb)j − (2 lb)k which acts at a point A. Assume that the position vector
of A is (a) r = (2.5 ft)i − (1 ft)j + (2 ft)k, (b) r = (4.5 ft)i − (9 ft)j +
(6 ft)k, (c) r = (4 ft)i − (1 ft)j + (7 ft)k.
SOLUTION
(a) Have
O
= M r F ×
where ( ) ( ) ( ) 1.5 lb 3 lb 2 lb = − + + F i j k
( ) ( ) ( ) 2.5 ft 1 ft 2 ft = − + r i j k
Then ( ) ( ) ( ) 2.5 1 2 lb ft 2 6 3 5 7.5 1.5 lb ft
1.5 3 2
O
= − ⋅ = − + − + + − ⋅
− −
i j k
M i j k
or ( ) ( ) ( ) 4 lb ft 2 lb ft 6 lb ft
O
= − ⋅ + ⋅ + ⋅ M i j k
(b) Have
O
= M r F ×
where ( ) ( ) ( ) 1.5 lb 3 lb 2 lb = − + − F i j k
( ) ( ) ( ) 4.5 ft 9 ft 6 ft = − + r i j k
Then ( ) ( ) ( ) 4.5 9 6 lb ft 18 18 9 9 13.5 13.5 lb ft
1.5 3 2
O
= − ⋅ = − + − + + − ⋅
− −
i j k
M i j k
or 0
O
= M
This answer is expected since r and F are proportional
1
.
3
−  
=

\ .
F r
Therefore, vector F has a line of action passing through the origin at O.
(c) Have
O
= M r F ×
where ( ) ( ) ( ) 1.5 lb 3 lb 2 lb = − − − F i j k
( ) ( ) ( ) 4 ft 1 ft 7 ft = − + r i j k
Then ( ) ( ) ( ) 4 1 7 lb ft 2 21 10.5 8 12 1.5 lb ft
1.5 3 2
O
= − ⋅ = − + − + + − ⋅
− −
i j k
M i j k
or ( ) ( ) ( ) 19 lb ft 2.5 lb ft 10.5 lb ft
O
= − ⋅ − ⋅ + ⋅ M i j k
PROBLEM 3.21
Before the trunk of a large tree is felled, cables AB and BC are attached as
shown. Knowing that the tension in cables AB and BC are 777 N and
990 N, respectively, determine the moment about O of the resultant force
exerted on the tree by the cables at B.
SOLUTION
Have
/ O B O B
= M r F ×
where ( )
/
8.4 m
B O
= r j
B AB BC
= + F T T
( ) ( ) ( )
( ) ( ) ( )
( )
2 2 2
0.9 m 8.4 m 7.2 m
777 N
0.9 8.4 7.2 m
AB BA AB
T
− − +
= =
+ +
i j k
T λ
( ) ( ) ( )
( ) ( ) ( )
( )
2 2 2
5.1 m 8.4 m 1.2 m
990 N
5.1 8.4 1.2 m
BC BC BC
T
− +
= =
+ +
i j k
T λ
PROBLEM 3.21 CONTINUED
( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) 63.0 N 588 N 504 N 510 N 840 N 120 N
B
∴ = − − + + − +
F i j k i j k
( ) ( ) ( ) 447 N 1428 N 624 N = − + i j k
and ( ) ( ) 0 8.4 0 N m 5241.6 N m 3754.8 N m
447 1428 624
O
= ⋅ = ⋅ − ⋅
−
i j k
M i k
or ( ) ( ) 5.24 kN m 3.75 kN m
O
= ⋅ − ⋅ M i k
PROBLEM 3.22
Before a telephone cable is strung, rope BAC is tied to a stake at B and is
passed over a pulley at A. Knowing that portion AC of the rope lies in a
plane parallel to the xy plane and that the tension T in the rope is 124 N,
determine the moment about O of the resultant force exerted on the
pulley by the rope.
SOLUTION
Have
/ O AO
= M r R ×
where ( ) ( ) ( )
/
0 m 9 m 1 m
AO
= + + r i j k
1 2
= + R T T
( ) ( )
1
124 N cos10 124 N sin10 = − ° − °
T i j
( ) ( ) 122.116 N 21.532 N = − − i j
( ) ( ) ( )
( ) ( ) ( )
( )
2 2
2 2 2
1.5 m 9 m 1.8 m
124 N
1.5 m 9 m 1.8 m
T
− +
= =
+ +
i j k
T λ
( ) ( ) ( ) 20 N 120 N 24 N = − + i j k
( ) ( ) ( ) 102.116 N 141.532 N 24 N ∴ = − − + R i j k
0 9 1 N m
102.116 141.532 24
O
= ⋅
− −
i j k
M
( ) ( ) ( ) 357.523 N m 102.116 N m 919.044 N m = ⋅ − ⋅ + ⋅ i j k
or ( ) ( ) ( ) 358 N m 102.1 N m 919 N m
O
= ⋅ − ⋅ + ⋅ M i j k
PROBLEM 3.23
An 8lb force is applied to a wrench to tighten a showerhead. Knowing
that the centerline of the wrench is parallel to the x axis, determine the
moment of the force about A.
SOLUTION
Have
/ A C A
= M r F ×
where ( ) ( ) ( )
/
8.5 in. 2.0 in. 5.5 in.
C A
= − + r i j k
( ) 8cos 45 sin12 lb
x
F = − ° °
( ) 8sin 45 lb
y
F = − °
( ) 8cos 45 cos12 lb
z
F = − ° °
( ) ( ) ( ) 1.17613 lb 5.6569 lb 5.5332 lb ∴ = − − − F i j k
and 8.5 2.0 5.5 lb in.
1.17613 5.6569 5.5332
A
= − ⋅
− − −
i j k
M
( ) ( ) ( ) 42.179 lb in. 40.563 lb in. 50.436 lb in. = ⋅ + ⋅ − ⋅ i j k
or ( ) ( ) ( ) 42.2 lb in. 40.6 lb in. 50.4 lb in.
A
= ⋅ + ⋅ − ⋅ M i j k
PROBLEM 3.24
A wooden board AB, which is used as a temporary prop to support a
small roof, exerts at point A of the roof a 228 N force directed along BA.
Determine the moment about C of that force.
SOLUTION
Have
/ C AC BA
= M r F ×
where ( ) ( ) ( )
/
0.96 m 0.12 m 0.72 m
AC
= − + r i j k
and
BA BA BA
F = F λ
( ) ( ) ( )
( ) ( ) ( )
( )
2 2 2
0.1 m 1.8 m 0.6 m
228 N
0.1 1.8 0.6 m
− + −
=
+ +
i j k
( ) ( ) ( ) 12.0 N 216 N 72 N = − + − i j k
0.96 0.12 0.72 N m
12.0 216 72
C
∴ = − ⋅
− −
i j k
M
( ) ( ) ( ) 146.88 N m 60.480 N m 205.92 N m = − ⋅ + ⋅ + ⋅ i j k
or ( ) ( ) ( ) 146.9 N m 60.5 N m 206 N m
C
= − ⋅ + ⋅ + ⋅ M i j k
PROBLEM 3.25
The ramp ABCD is supported by cables at corners C and D. The tension
in each of the cables is 360 lb. Determine the moment about A of the
force exerted by (a) the cable at D, (b) the cable at C.
SOLUTION
(a) Have
/ A E A DE
= M r T ×
where ( )
/
92 in.
E A
= r j
DE DE DE
T = T λ
( ) ( ) ( )
( ) ( ) ( )
( )
2 2 2
24 in. 132 in. 120 in.
360 lb
24 132 120 in.
+ −
=
+ +
i j k
( ) ( ) ( ) 48 lb 264 lb 240 lb = + − i j k
( ) ( ) 0 92 0 lb in. 22, 080 lb in. 4416 lb in
48 264 240
A
∴ = ⋅ = − ⋅ − ⋅
−
i j k
M i k
or ( ) ( ) 1840 lb ft 368 lb ft
A
= − ⋅ − ⋅ M i k
(b) Have
/ A G A CG
= M r T ×
where ( ) ( )
/
108 in. 92 in.
G A
= + r i j
( ) ( ) ( )
( ) ( ) ( )
( )
2 2 2
24 in. 132 in. 120 in.
360 lb
24 132 120 in.
CG CG CG
T
− + −
= =
+ +
i j k
T λ
( ) ( ) ( ) 48 lb 264 lb 240 lb = − + − i j k
108 92 0 lb in.
48 264 240
A
∴ = ⋅
− −
i j k
M
( ) ( ) ( ) 22, 080 lb in. 25, 920 lb in. 32, 928 lb in. = − ⋅ + ⋅ + ⋅ i j k
or ( ) ( ) ( ) 1840 lb ft 2160 lb ft 2740 lb ft
A
= − ⋅ + ⋅ + ⋅ M i j k
PROBLEM 3.26
The arms AB and BC of a desk lamp lie in a vertical plane that forms an
angle of
o
30 with the xy plane. To reposition the light, a force of
magnitude 8 N is applied at C as shown. Determine the moment of the
force about O knowing that 450 = AB mm, 325 = BC mm, and line
CD is parallel to the z axis.
SOLUTION
Have
/ O C O C
= M r F ×
where
( ) ( )
/
cos30
C O xz xz
x
r AB BC = + °
( ) 0.450 m sin 45 0.31820 m
xz
AB = ° =
( ) 0.325 m sin50 0.24896 m
xz
BC = ° =
( ) ( ) ( )
/
0.150 m 0.450 m cos 45
C O y y y
y
r OA AB BC = + − = + °
( ) 0.325 m cos50 0.25929 m − ° =
( ) ( )
/
sin30
C O xz xz
z
r AB BC = + °
( ) 0.31820 m 0.24896 m sin30 0.28358 m = + ° =
or ( ) ( ) ( )
/
0.49118 m 0.25929 m 0.28358 m
C O
= + + r i j k
( ) ( ) 8 N cos 45 sin 20 1.93476 N
C
x
F = − ° ° = −
( ) ( ) 8 N sin 45 5.6569 N
C
y
F = − ° = −
( ) ( ) 8 N cos 45 cos 20 5.3157 N
C
z
F = ° ° =
or ( ) ( ) ( ) 1.93476 N 5.6569 N 5.3157 N
C
= − − + F i j k
0.49118 0.25929 0.28358 N m
1.93476 5.6569 5.3157
O
∴ = ⋅
− −
i j k
M
( ) ( ) ( ) 2.9825 N m 3.1596 N m 2.2769 N m = ⋅ − ⋅ − ⋅ i j k
or ( ) ( ) ( ) 2.98 N m 3.16 N m 2.28 N m
O
= ⋅ − ⋅ − ⋅ M i j k
PROBLEM 3.27
In Problem 3.21, determine the perpendicular distance from point O to
cable AB.
Problem 3.21: Before the trunk of a large tree is felled, cables AB and
BC are attached as shown. Knowing that the tension in cables AB and BC
are 777 N and 990 N, respectively, determine the moment about O of the
resultant force exerted on the tree by the cables at B.
SOLUTION
Have 
O BA
T d = M 
where perpendicular distance from O to line . d AB =
Now
/ O B O BA
= Μ r T ×
and ( )
/
8.4 m
B O
= r j
( ) ( ) ( )
( ) ( ) ( )
( )
2 2 2
0.9 m 8.4 m 7.2 m
777 N
0.9 8.4 7.2 m
BA BA AB
T
− − +
= =
+ +
i j k
T λ
( ) ( ) ( ) 63.0 N 588 N 504 N = − − + i j k
( ) ( ) 0 8.4 0 N m 4233.6 N m 529.2 N m
63.0 588 504
O
∴ = ⋅ = ⋅ + ⋅
− −
i j k
M i k
and ( ) ( )
2 2
  4233.6 529.2 4266.5 N m
O
= + = ⋅ M
( ) 4266.5 N m 777 N d ∴ ⋅ =
or 5.4911m d =
or 5.49 m d =
PROBLEM 3.28
In Problem 3.21, determine the perpendicular distance from point O to
cable BC.
Problem 3.21: Before the trunk of a large tree is felled, cables AB and
BC are attached as shown. Knowing that the tension in cables AB and BC
are 777 N and 990 N, respectively, determine the moment about O of the
resultant force exerted on the tree by the cables at B.
SOLUTION
Have  
O BC
T d = M
where perpendicular distance from to line . d O BC =
/ O B O BC
= M r T ×
/
8.4 m
B O
= r j
( ) ( ) ( )
( ) ( ) ( )
( )
2 2 2
5.1m 8.4 m 1.2 m
990 N
5.1 8.4 1.2 m
BC BC BC
T
− +
= =
+ +
i j k
T λ
( ) ( ) ( ) 510 N 840 N 120 N = − + i j k
( ) ( ) 0 8.4 0 1008 N m 4284 N m
510 840 120
O
∴ = = ⋅ − ⋅
−
i j k
M i k
and ( ) ( )
2 2
  1008 4284 4401.0 N m
O
= + = ⋅ M
( ) 4401.0 N m 990 N d ∴ ⋅ =
4.4454 m d =
or 4.45 m d =
PROBLEM 3.29
In Problem 3.24, determine the perpendicular distance from point D to a
line drawn through points A and B.
Problem 3.24: A wooden board AB, which is used as a temporary prop to
support a small roof, exerts at point A of the roof a 228 N force directed
along BA. Determine the moment about C of that force.
SOLUTION
Have  
D BA
F d = M
where perpendicular distance from to line . d D AB =
/ D A D BA
= M r F ×
( ) ( )
/
0.12 m 0.72 m
A D
= − + r j k
( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
( ) ( ) ( )
( )
2 2 2
0.1m 1.8 m 0.6 m
228 N
0.1 1.8 0.6 m
BA BA BA
F
− + −
= =
+ +
i j k
F λ
( ) ( ) ( ) 12.0 N 216 N 72 N = − + − i j k
0 0.12 0.72 N m
12.0 216 72
D
∴ = − ⋅
− −
i j k
M
( ) ( ) ( ) 146.88 N m 8.64 N m 1.44 N m = − ⋅ − ⋅ − ⋅ i j k
and ( ) ( ) ( )
2 2 2
  146.88 8.64 1.44 147.141 N m
D
= + + = ⋅ M
( ) 147.141 N m 228 N d ∴ ⋅ =
0.64536 m d =
or 0.645 m d =
PROBLEM 3.30
In Problem 3.24, determine the perpendicular distance from point C to a
line drawn through points A and B.
Problem 3.24: A wooden board AB, which is used as a temporary prop to
support a small roof, exerts at point A of the roof a 228 N force directed
along BA. Determine the moment about C of that force.
SOLUTION
Have  
C BA
F d = M
where perpendicular distance from to line . d C AB =
/ C AC BA
= M r F ×
( ) ( ) ( )
/
0.96 m 0.12 m 0.72 m
AC
= − + r i j k
( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
( ) ( ) ( )
( )
2 2 2
0.1m 1.8 m 0.6
228 N
0.1 1.8 0.6 m
BA BA BA
F
− + −
= =
+ +
i j k
F λ
( ) ( ) ( ) 12.0 N 216 N 72 N = − + − i j k
0.96 0.12 0.72 N m
12.0 216 72
C
∴ = − ⋅
− −
i j k
M
( ) ( ) ( ) 146.88 N m 60.48 N m 205.92 N m = − ⋅ − ⋅ + ⋅ i j k
and ( ) ( ) ( )
2 2 2
  146.88 60.48 205.92 260.07 N m
C
= + + = ⋅ M
( ) 260.07 N m 228 N d ∴ ⋅ =
1.14064 m d =
or 1.141m d =
PROBLEM 3.31
In Problem 3.25, determine the perpendicular distance from point A to
portion DE of cable DEF.
Problem 3.25: The ramp ABCD is supported by cables at corners C
and D. The tension in each of the cables is 360 lb. Determine the moment
about A of the force exerted by (a) the cable at D, (b) the cable at C.
SOLUTION
Have
A DE
T d = M
where perpendicular distance from to line . d A DE =
/ A E A DE
= M r T ×
( )
/
92 in.
E A
= r j
( ) ( ) ( )
( ) ( ) ( )
( )
2 2 2
24 in. 132 in. 120 in.
360 lb
24 132 120 in.
DE DE DE
T
+ −
= =
+ +
i j k
T λ
( ) ( ) ( ) 48 lb 264 lb 240 lb = + − i j k
0 92 0 N m
48 264 240
A
∴ = ⋅
−
i j k
M
( ) ( ) 22, 080 lb in. 4416 lb in. = − ⋅ − ⋅ i k
PROBLEM 3.31 CONTINUED
and ( ) ( )
2 2
22, 080 4416 22, 517 lb in.
A
= + = ⋅ M
( ) 22, 517 lb in. 360 lb d ∴ ⋅ =
62.548 in. d =
or 5.21ft d = W
PROBLEM 3.32
In Problem 3.25, determine the perpendicular distance from point A to a
line drawn through points C and G.
Problem 3.25: The ramp ABCD is supported by cables at corners C
and D. The tension in each of the cables is 360 lb. Determine the moment
about A of the force exerted by (a) the cable at D, (b) the cable at C.
SOLUTION
Have
A CG
T d = M
where perpendicular distance from to line . d A CG =
/ A G A CG
= M r T ×
( ) ( )
/
108 in. 92 in.
G A
= + r i j
CG CG CG
T = T λ
( ) ( ) ( )
( ) ( ) ( )
( )
2 2 2
24 in. 132 in. 120 in.
360 lb
24 132 120 in.
− + −
=
+ +
i j k
( ) ( ) ( ) 48 lb 264 lb 240 lb = − + − i j k
108 92 0 lb in.
48 264 240
A
∴ = ⋅
− −
i j k
M
( ) ( ) ( ) 22, 080 lb in. 25, 920 lb in. 32, 928 lb in. = − ⋅ + ⋅ + ⋅ i j k
and ( ) ( ) ( )
2 2 2
22, 080 25, 920 32, 928 47, 367 lb in.
A
= + + = ⋅ M
( ) 47, 367 lb in. 360 lb d ∴ ⋅ =
131.575 in. d = or 10.96 ft d = W
PROBLEM 3.33
In Problem 3.25, determine the perpendicular distance from point B to a
line drawn through points D and E.
Problem 3.25: The ramp ABCD is supported by cables at corners C
and D. The tension in each of the cables is 360 lb. Determine the moment
about A of the force exerted by (a) the cable at D, (b) the cable at C.
SOLUTION
Have
B DE
T d = M
where perpendicular distance from to line . d B DE =
/ B E B DE
= M r T ×
( ) ( )
/
108 in. 92 in.
E B
= − + r i j
( ) ( ) ( )
( ) ( ) ( )
( )
2 2 2
24 in. 132 in. 120 in.
360 lb
24 132 120 in.
DE DE DE
T
+ −
= =
+ +
i j k
T λ
( ) ( ) ( ) 48 lb 264 lb 240 lb = + − i j k
108 92 0 lb in.
48 264 240
B
∴ = − ⋅
−
i j k
M
( ) ( ) ( ) 22, 080 lb in. 25, 920 lb in. 32, 928 lb in. = − ⋅ − ⋅ − ⋅ i j k
and ( ) ( ) ( )
2 2 2
22, 080 25, 920 32, 928 47, 367 lb in.
B
= + + = ⋅ M
( ) 47, 367 lb in. 360 lb d ∴ ⋅ =
131.575 in. d =
or 10.96 ft d = W
PROBLEM 3.34
Determine the value of a which minimizes the perpendicular distance
from point C to a section of pipeline that passes through points A and B.
SOLUTION
Assuming a force F acts along AB,
( )
/ C AC
F d = = M r F ×
where
perpendicular distance from to line d C AB =
( ) ( ) ( )
( ) ( ) ( )
2 2 2
8 m 7 m 9 m
8 7 9 m
AB
F F
+ −
= =
+ +
i j k
F λ
( ) ( ) ( ) 0.57437 0.50257 0.64616 F = + − i j k
( ) ( ) ( )
/
1m 2.8 m 3 m
AC
a = − − − r i j k
1 2.8 3
0.57437 0.50257 0.64616
C
a F ∴ = − −
−
i j k
M
( ) ( ) 0.30154 0.50257 2.3693 0.57437 a a = + + −
i j
 2.1108 F + k
Since ( )
2
2 2
/ /
or
C AC AC
dF = × = M r F r F ×
( ) ( ) ( )
2 2 2
2
0.30154 0.50257 2.3693 0.57437 2.1108 a a d ∴ + + − + =
Setting
( )
2
0
d
d
da
= to find a to minimize d
( )( ) 2 0.50257 0.30154 0.50257a +
( )( ) 2 0.57437 2.3693 0.57437 0 a + − − =
Solving 2.0761m a =
or 2.08 m a = W
PROBLEM 3.35
Given the vectors P = 7i − 2j + 5k, Q = −3i − 4j + 6k, and S = 8i +
j − 9k, compute the scalar products , P Q ⋅ , P S ⋅ and . Q S ⋅
SOLUTION
( ) ( ) 7 2 5 3 4 6 = − + − − + P Q i j k i j k ⋅ ⋅
( )( ) ( )( ) ( )( ) 7 3 2 4 5 6 = − + − − +
17 =
or 17 = P Q ⋅ W
( ) ( ) 7 2 5 8 9 = − + + − P S i j k i j k ⋅ ⋅
( )( ) ( )( ) ( )( ) 7 8 2 1 5 9 = + − + −
9 =
or 9 = P S ⋅ W
( ) ( ) 3 4 6 8 9 = − − + + − Q S i j k i j k ⋅ ⋅
( )( ) ( )( ) ( )( ) 3 8 4 1 6 9 = − + − + −
82 = −
or 82 = − Q S ⋅ W
PROBLEM 3.36
Form the scalar products B C ⋅ and , ′ B C ⋅ where , B B′ = and use the
results obtained to prove the identity
( ) ( )
1 1
2 2
cos cos cos cos . α β α β α β = + + −
SOLUTION
By definition
( ) cos BC α β = − B C ⋅
where ( ) ( ) cos sin B β β = +
B i j
( ) ( ) cos sin C α α = +
C i j
( )( ) ( )( ) ( ) cos cos sin sin cos B C B C BC β α β α α β ∴ + = −
or ( ) cos cos sin sin cos β α β α α β + = − (1)
By definition
( ) cos BC α β ′ = + B C ⋅
where ( ) ( ) cos sin β β ′ = −
B i j
( )( ) ( )( ) ( ) cos cos sin sin cos B C B C BC β α β α α β ∴ + − = +
or ( ) cos cos sin sin cos β α β α α β − = + (2)
Adding Equations (1) and (2),
( ) ( ) 2cos cos cos cos β α α β α β = − + +
or ( ) ( )
1 1
cos cos cos cos
2 2
α β α β α β = + + − W
PROBLEM 3.37
Consider the volleyball net shown. Determine the angle formed by guy
wires AB and AC.
SOLUTION
First note
( ) ( ) ( )
2 2 2
/
1.95 m 2.4 m 0.6 m
B A
AB = = − + − + r
3.15 m =
( ) ( ) ( )
2 2 2
/
0 m 2.4 m 1.8 m
C A
AC = = + − + r
3.0 m =
and
( ) ( ) ( )
/
1.95 m 2.40 m 0.6 m
B A
= − − + r i j k
( ) ( )
/
2.40 m 1.80 m
C A
= − + r j k
By definition
/ / / /
cos
B A C A B A C A
θ = r r r r ⋅
or ( ) ( ) ( )( ) 1.95 2.40 0.6 2.40 1.80 3.15 3.0 cosθ − − + − + = i j k j k ⋅
( )( ) ( )( ) ( )( ) 1.95 0 2.40 2.40 0.6 1.8 9.45cosθ − + − − + =
cos 0.72381 θ ∴ =
and 43.630 θ = °
or 43.6 θ = ° W
PROBLEM 3.38
Consider the volleyball net shown. Determine the angle formed by guy
wires AC and AD.
SOLUTION
First note
( ) ( )
2 2
/
2.4 1.8 m 3 m
C A
AC = = − + = r
( ) ( ) ( )
2 2 2
/
1.2 2.4 0.3 m 2.7 m
D A
AD = = + − + = r
and ( ) ( )
/
2.4 m 1.8 m
C A
= − + r j k
( ) ( ) ( )
/
1.2 m 2.4 m 0.3 m
D A
= − + r i j k
By definition
/ / / /
cos
C A D A C A D A
θ = r r r r ⋅
or ( ) ( ) ( )( ) 2.4 1.8 1.2 2.4 0.3 3 2.7 cosθ − + − + = j k i j k ⋅
( )( ) ( )( ) ( )( ) 0 1.2 2.4 2.4 1.8 0.3 8.1cosθ + − − + =
and
6.3
cos 0.77778
8.1
θ = =
38.942 θ = °
or 38.9 θ = ° W
PROBLEM 3.39
Steel framing members AB, BC, and CD are joined at B and C and are
braced using cables EF and EG. Knowing that E is at the midpoint of BC
and that the tension in cable EF is 330 N, determine (a) the angle
between EF and member BC, (b) the projection on BC of the force
exerted by cable EF at point E.
SOLUTION
(a) By definition ( )( ) 1 1 cos
BC EF
θ = λ ⋅ λ
where
( ) ( ) ( )
( ) ( ) ( )
( )
2 2 2
16 m 4.5 m 12 m 1
16 4.5 12
20.5
16 4.5 12 m
BC
− −
= = − −
+ +
i j k
i j k λ
( ) ( ) ( )
( ) ( ) ( )
( )
2 2 2
7 m 6 m 6 m 1
7 6 6
11.0
7 6 6 m
EF
− − +
= = − − +
+ +
i j k
i j k λ
( ) ( ) 16 4.5 12 7 6 6
cos
20.5 11.0
θ
− − − − +
∴ =
i j k i j k
⋅
( )( ) ( )( ) ( )( ) ( )( ) 16 7 4.5 6 12 6 20.5 11.0 cosθ − + − − + − =
and
1
157
cos 134.125
225.5
θ
−
−  
= = °

\ .
or 134.1 θ = ° W
(b) By definition ( ) cos
EF EF
BC
T T θ =
( ) 330 N cos134.125 = °
229.26 N = −
or ( ) 230 N
EF
BC
T = − W
PROBLEM 3.40
Steel framing members AB, BC, and CD are joined at B and C and are
braced using cables EF and EG. Knowing that E is at the midpoint of BC
and that the tension in cable EG is 445 N, determine (a) the angle
between EG and member BC, (b) the projection on BC of the force
exerted by cable EG at point E.
SOLUTION
(a) By definition ( )( ) 1 1 cos
BC EG
θ = λ ⋅ λ
where
( ) ( ) ( )
( ) ( ) ( )
2 2 2
16 m 4.5 m 12 m 16 4.5 12
20.5
16 m 4.5 12 m
BC
− − − −
= =
+ +
i j k i j k
λ
0.78049 0.21951 0.58537 = − − i j k
( ) ( ) ( )
( ) ( ) ( )
2 2 2
8 m 6 m 4.875 m 8 6 4.875
11.125
8 6 4.875 m
EG
− + − +
= =
+ +
i j k i j k
λ
0.71910 0.53933 0.43820 = − + i j k
( ) ( )( ) ( )( )
( )( )
16 8 4.5 6 12 4.875
cos
20.5 11.25
BC EG
θ
+ − − + −
∴ = = λ ⋅ λ
and
1
96.5
cos 64.967
228.06
θ
−
 
= = °

\ .
or 65.0 θ = ° W
(b) By definition ( ) cos
EG EG
BC
T T θ =
( ) 445 N cos64.967 = °
188.295 N =
or ( ) 188.3 N
EG
BC
T = W
PROBLEM 3.41
Slider P can move along rod OA. An elastic cord PC is attached to the
slider and to the vertical member BC. Knowing that the distance from O
to P is 0.12 m and the tension in the cord is 30 N, determine (a) the angle
between the elastic cord and the rod OA, (b) the projection on OA of the
force exerted by cord PC at point P.
SOLUTION
(a) By definition ( )( ) 1 1 cos
OA PC
θ = λ ⋅ λ
where
( ) ( ) ( )
( ) ( ) ( )
2 2 2
0.24 m 0.24 m 0.12 m
0.24 0.24 0.12 m
OA
+ −
=
+ +
i j k
λ
2 2 1
3 3 3
= + − i j k
Knowing that
/
  0.36 m
AO OA
L = = r and that P is located 0.12 mfrom O, it follows that the coordinates
of P are
1
3
the coordinates of A.
( ) 0.08 m, 0.08 m, 0.040 m P ∴ −
Then
( ) ( ) ( )
( ) ( ) ( )
2 2 2
0.10 m 0.22 m 0.28 m
0.10 0.22 0.28 m
PC
+ +
=
+ +
i j k
λ
0.27037 0.59481 0.75703 = + + i j k
( )
2 2 1
0.27037 0.59481 0.75703 cos
3 3 3
θ
 
∴ + − + + =

\ .
i j k i j k ⋅
and ( )
1
cos 0.32445 71.068 θ
−
= = °
or 71.1 θ = ° W
(b) ( ) ( ) cos 30 N cos 71.068
PC PC
OA
T T θ = = °
( ) 9.7334 N
PC
OA
T =
or ( ) 9.73 N
PC
OA
T = W
PROBLEM 3.42
Slider P can move along rod OA. An elastic cord PC is attached to the
slider and to the vertical member BC. Determine the distance from O to P
for which cord PC and rod OA are perpendicular.
SOLUTION
The requirement that member OA and the elastic cord PC be perpendicular implies that
0
OA PC
= λ ⋅ λ or
/
0
OA C P
= r λ ⋅
where
( ) ( ) ( )
( ) ( ) ( )
2 2 2
0.24 m 0.24 m 0.12 m
0.24 0.24 0.12 m
OA
+ −
=
+ +
i j k
λ
2 2 1
3 3 3
= + − i j k
Letting the coordinates of P be ( ) , , , P x y z we have
( ) ( ) ( )
/
0.18 0.30 0.24 m
C P
x y z = − + − + −
r i j k
( ) ( ) ( )
2 2 1
0.18 0.30 0.24 0
3 3 3
x y z
 
∴ + − − + − + − =

\ .
i j k i j k ⋅ (1)
Since ( )
/
2 2 ,
3
OP
P O OA OP
d
d = = + − r i j k λ
Then
,
2 2 1
,
3 3 3
OP OP OP
x d y d z d
−
= = = (2)
Substituting the expressions for x, y, and z from Equation (2) into Equation (1),
( )
1 2 2 1
2 2 0.18 0.30 0.24 0
3 3 3 3
OP OP OP
d d d
     
+ − − + − + + =
  
\ . \ . \ .
i j k i j k ⋅
or 3 0.36 0.60 0.24 0.72
OP
d = + − =
0.24 m
OP
d ∴ =
or 240 mm
OP
d = W
PROBLEM 3.43
Determine the volume of the parallelepiped of Figure 3.25 when
(a) P = −(7 in.)i − (1 in.)j + (2 in.)k, Q = (3 in.)i − (2 in.)j + (4 in.)k, and
S = −(5 in.)i + (6 in.)j − (1 in.)k, (b) P = (1 in.)i + (2 in.)j − (1 in.)k,
Q = −(8 in.)i − (1 in.)j + (9 in.)k, and S = (2 in.)i + (3 in.)j + (1 in.)k.
SOLUTION
Volume of a parallelepiped is found using the mixed triple product.
(a) ( ) Vol = P Q S ⋅ ×
( )
3 3
7 1 2
3 2 4 in 14 168 20 3 36 20 in
5 6 1
− −
= − = − + + − + −
− −
3
187 in =
3
or Volume 187 in = W
(b) ( ) Vol = P Q S ⋅ ×
( )
3 3
1 2 1
8 1 9 in 1 27 36 16 24 2 in
2 3 1
−
= − − = − − + + + −
3
46 in =
or
3
Volume 46 in = W
PROBLEM 3.44
Given the vectors P = 4i − 2j + P
z
k, Q = i + 3j − 5k, and S = −6i +
2j − k, determine the value of P
z
for which the three vectors are coplanar.
SOLUTION
For the vectors to all be in the same plane, the mixed triple product is zero.
( ) 0 = P Q S ⋅ ×
( )
4 2
1 3 5 12 40 60 2 2 18
6 2 1
z
z
P
O P
−
∴ = − = − + − − + +
− −
so that
34
1.70
20
z
P = =
or 1.700
z
P = W
PROBLEM 3.45
The 0.732 1.2m × lid ABCD of a storage bin is hinged along side AB
and is held open by looping cord DEC over a frictionless hook at E. If the
tension in the cord is 54 N, determine the moment about each of the
coordinate axes of the force exerted by the cord at D.
SOLUTION
First note ( ) ( )
2 2
0.732 0.132 m z = −
0.720 m =
Then ( ) ( ) ( )
2 2 2
0.360 0.720 0.720 m
DE
d = + +
1.08 m =
and ( ) ( ) ( )
/
0.360 m 0.720 m 0.720 m
E D
= + − r i j k
Have
( )
/
OE
DE E D
DE
T
d
= T r
( )
54 N
0.360 0.720 0.720
1.08
= + − i j k
( ) ( ) ( ) 18.0 N 36.0 N 36.0 N = + − i j k
Now
/ A D A DE
= M r T ×
where ( ) ( )
/
0.132 m 0.720 m
D A
= + r j k
Then 0 0.132 0.720 N m
18.0 36.0 36.0
A
= ⋅
−
i j k
M
PROBLEM 3.45 CONTINUED
( )( ) ( )( ) ( )( )
{
0.132 36.0 0.720 36.0 0.720 18.0 0
A
∴ = − − + −
M i j
( )( )
}
0 0.132 18.0 N m + − ⋅
k
or ( ) ( ) ( ) 30.7 N m 12.96 N m 2.38 N m
A
= − ⋅ + ⋅ − ⋅ M i j k
30.7 N m, 12.96 N m,
x y
M M ∴ = − ⋅ = ⋅ 2.38 N m
z
M = − ⋅
W
PROBLEM 3.46
The 0.732 1.2m × m lid ABCD of a storage bin is hinged along side AB
and is held open by looping cord DEC over a frictionless hook at E. If the
tension in the cord is 54 N, determine the moment about each of the
coordinate axes of the force exerted by the cord at C.
SOLUTION
First note ( ) ( )
2 2
0.732 0.132 m z = −
0.720 m =
Then ( ) ( ) ( )
2 2 2
0.840 0.720 0.720 m
CE
d = + +
1.32 m =
and ( )
/ E C
CE CE
CE
T
d
=
r
T
( ) ( ) ( )
( )
0.840 m 0.720 m 0.720 m
54 N
1.32 m
− + −
=
i j k
( ) ( ) ( ) 36.363 N 29.454 N 29.454 N = − + − i j k
Now
/ A E A CE
= M r T ×
where ( ) ( )
/
0.360 m 0.852 m
E A
= + r i j
Then 0.360 0.852 0 N m
34.363 29.454 29.454
A
= ⋅
− −
i j k
M
( ) ( ) ( ) 25.095 N m 10.6034 N m 39.881 N m = − ⋅ + ⋅ + ⋅ i j k
25.1 N m, 10.60 N m, 39.9 N m
x y z
M M M ∴ = − ⋅ = ⋅ = ⋅ W
PROBLEM 3.47
A fence consists of wooden posts and a steel cable fastened to each post
and anchored in the ground at A and D. Knowing that the sum of the
moments about the z axis of the forces exerted by the cable on the posts
at B and C is −66 N · m, determine the magnitude
CD
T when 56 N.
BA
T =
SOLUTION
Based on ( ) ( )  
z B BA C CD
y y
= +
M k r T k r T ⋅ × ⋅ ×
where
( ) 66 N m
z
= − ⋅ M k
( ) ( ) ( ) 1m
B C
y y
= = r r j
BA BA BA
T = T λ
( ) ( ) ( )
( )
1.5 m 1m 3 m
56 N
3.5 m
− +
=
i j k
( ) ( ) ( ) 24 N 16 N 48 N = − + i j k
CD CD CD
T = T λ
( ) ( ) ( ) 2 m 1m 2 m
3.0 m
CD
T
− −
=
i j k
( )
1
2 2
3
CD
T = − − i j k
( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
{ }
66 N m 1 m 24 N 16 N 48 N ∴ − ⋅ = − +
k j i j k ⋅ ×
( ) ( )
1
1m 2 2
3
CD
T
¦ ¹
+ − −
´ `
¹ )
k j i j k ⋅ ×
or
2
66 24
3
CD
T − = − −
( )
3
66 24 N
2
CD
T ∴ = −
or 63.0 N
CD
T = W
PROBLEM 3.48
A fence consists of wooden posts and a steel cable fastened to each post
and anchored in the ground at A and D. Knowing that the sum of the
moments about the y axis of the forces exerted by the cable on the posts
at B and C is 212 N · m, determine the magnitude of
BA
T when
33 N.
CD
T =
SOLUTION
Based on ( ) ( )  
y B BA C CD
z z
= +
M j r T r T ⋅ × ×
where
( ) 212 N m
y
= ⋅ M j
( ) ( ) 8 m
B
z
= r k
( ) ( ) 2 m
C
z
= r k
BA BA BA
T = T λ
( ) ( ) ( ) 1.5 m 1m 3 m
3.5 m
BA
T
− −
=
i j k
( ) 1.5 3
3.5
BA
T
= − + i j k
CD CD CD
T = T λ
( ) ( ) ( )
( )
2 m 1m 2 m
33 N
3.0 m
− −
=
i j k
( ) 22 11 22 N = − − i j k
( ) ( ) ( ) 212 N m 8 m 1.5 3
3.5
BA
T ¦ ¹
∴ ⋅ = − +
´ `
¹ )
j k i j k ⋅ ×
( ) ( ) 2 m 22 11 22 N + − −
j k i j k ⋅ ×
or
( )
( )
8 1.5
212 2 22
3.5
BA
T = +
168
18.6667
BA
T ∴ =
or 49.0 N
BA
T = W
PROBLEM 3.49
To lift a heavy crate, a man uses a block and tackle attached to the bottom
of an Ibeam at hook B. Knowing that the moments about the y and z axes
of the force exerted at B by portion AB of the rope are, respectively,
100 lb ft ⋅ and 400 lb ft − ⋅ , determine the distance a.
SOLUTION
Based on
/ O AO BA
= M r T ×
where
O x y z
M M M = + + M i j k
( ) ( ) 100 lb ft 400 lb ft
x
M = + ⋅ − ⋅ i j k
( ) ( )
/
6 ft 4 ft
AO
= + r i j
BA BA BA
T = T λ
( ) ( ) ( ) 6 ft 12 ft
BA
BA
a
T
d
− −
=
i j k
100 400 6 4 0
6 12
BA
x
BA
T
M
d
a
∴ + − =
− −
i j k
i j k
( ) ( ) ( ) 4 6 96
BA
BA
T
a a
d
= − + −
i j k
From coefficient: j 100 6
AB BA
d aT =
100
or
6
BA BA
T d
a
= (1)
From coefficient: k 400 96
AB BA
d T − = −
400
or
96
BA BA
T d = (2)
Equating Equations (1) and (2) yields
( )
( )
100 96
6 400
a =
or 4.00 ft a = W
PROBLEM 3.50
To lift a heavy crate, a man uses a block and tackle attached to the bottom
of an Ibeam at hook B. Knowing that the man applies a 200lb force to
end A of the rope and that the moment of that force about the y axis is
175 lb ft ⋅ , determine the distance a.
SOLUTION
Based on
( )
/
 
y AO BA
= M j r T ⋅ ×
where ( ) ( )
/
6 ft 4 ft
AO
= + r i j
/ A B
BA BA BA BA
BA
T T
d
= =
r
T λ
( ) ( ) ( )
( )
6 ft 12 ft
200 lb
BA
a
d
− −
=
i j k
( )
200
6 12
BA
a
d
= − − i j k
0 1 0
200
175 lb ft 6 4 0
6 12
BA
d
a
∴ ⋅ =
− −
( )
200
175 0 6
BA
a
d
= − −
where ( ) ( ) ( )
2 2 2
6 12 ft
BA
d a = + +
2
180 ft a = +
2
175 180 1200 a a ∴ + =
or
2
180 6.8571 a a + =
Squaring each side
2 2
180 47.020 a a + =
Solving 1.97771ft a =
or 1.978 ft a = W
PROBLEM 3.51
A force P is applied to the lever of an arbor press. Knowing that P lies in
a plane parallel to the yz plane and that 230 lb in.,
x
M = ⋅
200 lb in.,
y
M = − ⋅ and 35 lb in.,
z
M = − ⋅ determine the magnitude of P
and the values of φ and θ.
SOLUTION
Based on ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) cos 9 in. sin sin 9 in. cos
x
M P P φ θ φ θ = −
(1)
( )( ) cos 5 in.
y
M P φ = − (2)
( )( ) sin 5 in.
z
M P φ = − (3)
Then
( )
( )
sin (5) Equation (3)
:
Equation (2) cos (5)
z
y
P M
M P
φ
φ
−
=
−
or
35
tan 0.175 9.9262
200
φ φ
−
= = = °
−
or 9.93 φ = ° W
Substituting into Equation (2) φ
( ) 200 lb in. cos9.9262 (5 in.) P − ⋅ = − °
40.608 lb P =
or 40.6 lb P = W
Then, from Equation (1)
( ) ( ) 230 lb in. 40.608 lb cos9.9262 9 in. sinθ ⋅ = °
( ) ( ) 40.608 lb sin9.9262 9 in. cosθ − °
or 0.98503sin 0.172380cos 0.62932 θ θ − =
Solving numerically, 48.9 θ = ° W
PROBLEM 3.52
A force P is applied to the lever of an arbor press. Knowing that P lies in
a plane parallel to the yz plane and that 180 lb in.
y
M = − ⋅ and
30 lb in.,
z
M = − ⋅ determine the moment
x
M of P about the x axis when
60 . θ = °
SOLUTION
Based on ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) cos 9 in. sin sin 9 in. cos
x
M P P φ θ φ θ = −
(1)
( )( ) cos 5 in.
y
M P φ = − (2)
( )( ) sin 5 in.
z
M P φ = − (3)
Then
( )( )
( )( )
sin 5 Equation (3)
:
Equation (2) cos 5
z
y
P M
M P
φ
φ
−
=
−
or
30
tan
180
φ
−
=
−
9.4623 φ ∴ = °
From Equation (3),
( )( ) 30 lb in. sin9.4623 5 in. P − ⋅ = − °
36.497 lb P ∴ =
From Equation (1),
( )( )( ) 36.497 lb 9 in. cos9.4623 sin60 sin9.4623 cos 60
x
M = ° ° − ° °
253.60 lb in. = ⋅
or 254 lb in.
x
M = ⋅ W
PROBLEM 3.53
The triangular plate ABC is supported by ballandsocket joints at B and
D and is held in the position shown by cables AE and CF. If the force
exerted by cable AE at A is 220 lb, determine the moment of that force
about the line joining points D and B.
SOLUTION
Have
( )
/ DB DB A D AE
M = r T λ ⋅ ×
where
( ) ( ) 48 in. 14 in.
0.96 0.28
50 in.
DB
−
= = −
i j
i j λ
( ) ( )
/
4 in. 8 in.
A D
= − + r j k
( ) ( ) ( )
( )
36 in. 24 in. 8 in.
220 lb
44 in.
AE AE AE
T
− +
= =
i j k
T λ
( ) ( ) ( ) 180 lb 120 lb 40 lb = − + i j k
0.960 0.280 0
0 4 8 lb in.
180 120 40
DB
M
−
∴ = − ⋅
−
( ) ( )( ) ( )( ) ( ) ( ) 0.960 4 40 8 120 0.280 8 180 0 = − − − + − −
364.8 lb in. = ⋅
or 365 lb in.
DB
M = ⋅ W
PROBLEM 3.54
The triangular plate ABC is supported by ballandsocket joints at B and
D and is held in the position shown by cables AE and CF. If the force
exerted by cable CF at C is 132 lb, determine the moment of that force
about the line joining points D and B.
SOLUTION
Have
( )
/ DB DB C D CF
M = r T λ ⋅ ×
where
( ) ( ) 48 in. 14 in.
0.96 0.28
50 in.
DB
−
= = −
i j
i j λ
( ) ( )
/
8 in. 16 in.
C D
= − r j k
( ) ( ) ( )
( )
24 in. 36 in. 8 in.
132 lb
44 in.
CF CF CF
T
− −
= =
i j k
T λ
( ) ( ) ( ) 72 lb 108 lb 24 lb = − − i j k
0.96 0.28 0
0 8 16 lb in.
72 108 24
DB
M
−
∴ = − ⋅
− −
( )( ) ( )( ) ( ) ( )( ) 0.96 8 24 16 108 0.28 16 72 0 = − − − − + − − −
1520.64 lb in. = − ⋅
or 1521lb in.
DB
M = − ⋅ W
PROBLEM 3.55
A mast is mounted on the roof of a house using bracket ABCD and is
guyed by cables EF, EG, and EH. Knowing that the force exerted by
cable EF at E is 66 N, determine the moment of that force about the line
joining points D and I.
SOLUTION
Have
/ DI DI F I EF
M
=
r T λ ⋅ ×
where
( ) ( )
( ) ( )
( )
2 2
1.6 m 0.4 m 1
4
17
1.6 0.4 m
DI
−
= = −
+
i j
i j λ
( ) ( )
/
4.6 m 0.8 m 5.4 m
F I
= + = r k k
EF EF EF
T = T λ
( ) ( ) ( )
( )
1.2 m 3.6 m 5.4 m
66 N
6.6 m
− +
=
i j k
( ) ( ) ( ) 12 N 36 N 54 N = − + i j k
( ) ( ) ( ) 6 2 N 6 N 9 N = − +
i j k
( )( )
4 1 0
6 N 5.4 m
0 0 1
17
2 6 9
DI
M
−
∴ =
−
( ) ( ) 7.8582 0 24 2 0 = + + − −
172.879 N m = ⋅
or 172.9 N m
DI
M = ⋅ W
PROBLEM 3.56
A mast is mounted on the roof of a house using bracket ABCD and is
guyed by cables EF, EG, and EH. Knowing that the force exerted by
cable EG at E is 61.5 N, determine the moment of that force about the
line joining points D and I.
SOLUTION
Have
/ DI DI G I EG
M
=
r T λ ⋅ ×
where
( ) ( ) 1.6 m 0.4 m
0.4 17 m
DI
−
=
i j
λ
( )
1
4
17
= − i j
( ) ( )
/
10.9 m 0.8 m 11.7 m
G I
= − + = − r k k
EG EG EG
T = T λ
( ) ( ) ( )
( )
1.2 m 3.6 m 11.7 m
61.5 N
12.3 m
− −
=
i j k
( ) ( ) ( ) 5 1.2 N 3.6 N 11.7 N = − −
i j k
( )
4 1 0
5 N 11.7 m
0 0 1
17
1.2 3.6 11.7
DI
M
−
∴ = −
− −
( ) ( )( )( ) ( )( )( )
{ }
14.1883 N m 0 4 1 3.6 1 1 1.2 0 = ⋅ − − − + − − −
187.286 N m = − ⋅
or 187.3 N m
DI
M = − ⋅
PROBLEM 3.57
A rectangular tetrahedron has six edges of length a. A force P is directed
as shown along edge BC. Determine the moment of P about edge OA.
SOLUTION
Have
( )
/ OA OA C O
M = r P λ ⋅ ×
where
From triangle OBC
( )
2
x
a
OA =
( ) ( )
1
tan30
2 3 2 3
z x
a a
OA OA
 
= ° = =

\ .
Since ( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
2 2 2 2
z
x y
OA OA OA OA = + +
or ( )
2 2
2
2
2 2 3
y
a a
a OA
   
= + +
 
\ . \ .
( )
2 2
2
2
4 12 3
y
a a
OA a a ∴ = − − =
Then
/
2
2 3 2 3
AO
a a
a = + + r i j k
and
1 2 1
2 3 2 3
OA
= + + i j k λ
BC
P = P λ
( ) ( )
( )
sin30 cos30 a a
P
a
° − °
=
i k
( )
3
2
P
= − i k
/ C O
a = r i
PROBLEM 3.57 CONTINUED
( )
1 2 1
2 3 2 3
1 0 0
2
1 0 3
OA
P
M a
 
∴ =

\ .
−
( )
( )
2
1 3
2 3
aP
 
= − −


\ .
2
aP
=
2
OA
aP
M =
PROBLEM 3.58
A rectangular tetrahedron has six edges of length a. (a) Show that two
opposite edges, such as OA and BC, are perpendicular to each other. (b)
Use this property and the result obtained in Problem 3.57 to determine the
perpendicular distance between edges OA and BC.
SOLUTION
(a) For edge OA to be perpendicular to edge BC,
0 OA BC =
JJJG JJJG
⋅
where
From triangle OBC
( )
2
x
a
OA =
( ) ( )
1
tan30
2 3 2 3
z x
a a
OA OA
 
= ° = =

\ .
( )
2 2 3
y
a a
OA OA
   
∴ = + +
 
\ . \ .
i j k
JJJG
and ( ) ( ) sin30 cos30 BC a a = ° − ° i k
JJJG
3
2 2
a a
= − i k
( )
3
2
a
= − i k
Then ( )
( )
3 0
2 2 2 3
y
a a a
OA
 
+ + − =

\ .
i j k i k ⋅
or ( ) ( )
2 2
0 0
4 4
y
a a
OA + − =
0 OA BC ∴ =
JJJG JJJG
⋅
so that OA
JJJG
is perpendicular to . BC
JJJG
PROBLEM 3.58 CONTINUED
(b) Have ,
OA
M Pd = with P acting along BC and d the
perpendicular distance from to . OA BC
JJJG JJJG
From the results of Problem 3.57,
2
OA
Pa
M =
2
Pa
Pd ∴ =
or
2
a
d =
PROBLEM 3.59
The 8ftwide portion ABCD of an inclined, cantilevered walkway is
partially supported by members EF and GH. Knowing that the
compressive force exerted by member EF on the walkway at F is 5400 lb,
determine the moment of that force about edge AD.
SOLUTION
Having
( )
/ AD AD E A EF
M = r T λ ⋅ ×
where
( ) ( )
( ) ( )
( )
2 2
24 ft 3 ft 1
8
65
24 3 ft
AD
+
= = +
+
i j
i j λ
( ) ( )
/
7 ft 3 ft
E A
= − r i j
( ) ( )( ) ( )
( ) ( ) ( )
( )
8
24
2 2 2
8 ft 7 ft 3 ft 3 ft 8 ft
5400 lb
1 4 8 ft
EF EF EF
T
− + + +
= =
+ +
i j k
T λ
( ) ( ) ( ) 600 1 lb 4 lb 8 lb = + +
i j k
( )
8 1 0
600 600
7 3 0 lb ft 192 56 lb ft
65 65
1 4 8
AD
M ∴ = − ⋅ = − − ⋅
18, 456.4 lb ft = − ⋅ or 18.46 kip ft
AD
M = − ⋅
PROBLEM 3.60
The 8ftwide portion ABCD of an inclined, cantilevered walkway is
partially supported by members EF and GH. Knowing that the
compressive force exerted by member GH on the walkway at H is
4800 lb, determine the moment of that force about edge AD.
SOLUTION
Having
( )
/ AD AD G A GH
M = r T λ ⋅ ×
where
( ) ( )
( ) ( )
( )
2 2
24 ft 3 ft 1
8
65
24 3 ft
AD
+
= = +
+
i j
i j λ
( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
/
20 ft 6 ft 2 10 ft 3 ft
G A
= − = −
r i j i j
( ) ( )( ) ( )
( ) ( ) ( )
( )
16
24
2 2 2
16 ft 20 ft 6 ft 3 ft 8 ft
4800 lb
4 8 8 ft
GH GH GH
T
− + + +
= =
+ +
i j k
T λ
( ) ( ) ( ) 1600 1 lb 2 lb 2 lb = − + +
i j k
( )( )
( )
8 1 0
1600 lb 2 ft 3200 lb ft
10 3 0 48 20
65 65
1 2 2
AD
M
⋅
∴ = − = − −
−
26,989 lb ft = − ⋅ or 27.0 kip ft
AD
M = − ⋅
PROBLEM 3.61
Two forces F
1
and F
2
in space have the same magnitude F. Prove that the
moment of F
1
about the line of action of F
2
is equal to the moment of F
2
about the line of action of F
1
.
SOLUTION
First note that
1 1 1
F = F λ and
2 2 2
F = F λ
Let
1 2
moment of M = F about the line of action of
1
M
and
2 1
moment of M = F about the line of action of
2
M
Now, by definition
( ) ( )
1 1 / 2 1 / 2 2 B A B A
M F = = r F r λ ⋅ × λ ⋅ × λ
( ) ( )
2 2 / 1 2 / 1 1 A B A B
M F = = r F r λ ⋅ × λ ⋅ × λ
Since
1 2
F F F = = and
/ / A B B A
= − r r
( )
1 1 / 2 B A
M F = r λ ⋅ × λ
( )
2 2 / 1 B A
M F = −r λ ⋅ × λ
Using Equation (3.39)
( ) ( )
1 / 2 2 / 1 B A B A
= − r r λ ⋅ × λ λ ⋅ × λ
so that
( )
2 1 / 2 B A
M F = r λ ⋅ × λ
12 21
M M ∴ =
PROBLEM 3.62
In Problem 3.53, determine the perpendicular distance between cable AE
and the line joining points D and B.
Problem 3.53: The triangular plate ABC is supported by ballandsocket
joints at B and D and is held in the position shown by cables AE and CF.
If the force exerted by cable AE at A is 220 lb, determine the moment of
that force about the line joining points D and B.
SOLUTION
Have
( )
/ DB DB A D AE
M = r T λ ⋅ ×
where
( ) ( ) 48 in. 14 in.
0.96 0.28
50 in.
DB
−
= = −
i j
i j λ
( ) ( )
/
4 in. 8 in.
A D
= − + r j k
AE AE AE
T = T λ
( ) ( ) ( )
( )
36 in. 24 in. 8 in.
220 lb
44 in.
− +
=
i j k
( ) ( ) ( ) 180 lb 120 lb 40 lb = − + i j k
0.96 0.28 0
0 4 8 lb in.
180 120 40
DB
M
−
∴ = − ⋅
−
364.8 lb in. = ⋅
Only the perpendicular component of
AE
T contributes to the moment of
AE
T about line DB. The parallel component of
AE
T will be used to find
the perpendicular component.
PROBLEM 3.62 CONTINUED
Have
( )
parallel
AE DB AE
T = T λ ⋅
( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) 0.96 0.28 180 lb 120 lb 40 lb = − − +
i j i j k ⋅
( )( ) ( )( ) ( )( ) 0.96 180 0.28 120 0 40 lb = + − − +
( ) 172.8 33.6 lb = +
206.4 lb =
Since ( ) ( )
perpendicular parallel
AE AE AE
= + T T T
( ) ( ) ( )
2 2
perpendicular parallel
AE AE AE
T T T ∴ = −
( ) ( )
2 2
220 206.41 = −
76.151 lb =
Then ( ) ( )
perpendicular
DB AE
M T d =
( ) 364.8 lb in. 76.151 lb d ⋅ =
4.7905 in. d =
or 4.79 in. d =
PROBLEM 3.63
In Problem 3.54, determine the perpendicular distance between cable CF
and the line joining points D and B.
Problem 3.54: The triangular plate ABC is supported by ballandsocket
joints at B and D and is held in the position shown by cables AE and CF.
If the force exerted by cable CF at C is 132 lb, determine the moment of
that force about the line joining points D and B.
SOLUTION
Have ( ) ( )
/ DB DB C D CF
M = r T λ ⋅ ×
where
( ) ( ) 48 in. 14 in.
50 in.
DB
−
=
i j
λ
0.96 0.28 = − i j
( ) ( )
/
8 in. 16 in.
C D
= − r j k
CF CF CF
T = T λ
( ) ( ) ( )
( )
24 in. 36 in. 8 in.
132 lb
44 in.
− −
=
i j k
( ) ( ) ( ) 72 lb 108 lb 24 lb = − − i j k
0.96 0.28 0
0 8 16 lb in
72 108 24
DB
M
−
∴ = − ⋅
− −
1520.64 lb in. = − ⋅
Only the perpendicular component of
CF
T contributes to the moment of
CF
T about line DB. The parallel component of
CF
T will be used to
obtain the perpendicular component.
PROBLEM 3.63 CONTINUED
Have
( )
parallel
CF DB CF
T = T λ ⋅
( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) 0.96 0.28 72 lb 108 lb 24 lb = − − −
i j i j k ⋅
( )( ) ( )( ) ( )( ) 0.96 72 0.28 108 0 24 lb = + − − + −
99.36 lb =
Since ( ) ( )
perp. parallel
CF CF CF
= + T T T
( ) ( ) ( )
2 2
perp. parallel
CF CF CF
T T T ∴ = −
( ) ( )
2 2
132 99.36 = −
86.900 lb =
Then ( ) ( )
perp.
DB CF
M T d =
( ) 1520.64 lb in. 86.900 lb d − ⋅ =
17.4988 in. d =
or 17.50 in. d =
PROBLEM 3.64
In Problem 3.55, determine the perpendicular distance between cable EF
and the line joining points D and I.
Problem 3.55: A mast is mounted on the roof of a house using bracket
ABCD and is guyed by cables EF, EG, and EH. Knowing that the force
exerted by cable EF at E is 66 N, determine the moment of that force
about the line joining points D and I.
SOLUTION
Have
( )
/ DI DI F I EF
M = r T λ ⋅ ×
where
( ) ( )
( )
1.6 m 0.4 m 1
4
0.4 17 m 17
DI
−
= = −
i j
i j λ
( )
/
5.4 m
F I
= r k
( ) ( ) ( )
( )
1.2 m 3.6 m 5.4 m
66 N
6.6 m
EF EF EF
T
− +
= =
i j k
T λ
( ) ( ) ( ) 6 2 N 6 N 9 N = − +
i j k
( )( )
4 1 0
6 N 5.4 m
0 0 1 172.879 N m
17
2 6 9
DI
M
−
∴ = = ⋅
−
Only the perpendicular component of
EF
T contributes to the moment of
EF
T about line DI. The parallel component of
EF
T will be used to find
the perpendicular component.
Have
( )
parallel
EF DI EF
T = T λ ⋅
( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
1
4 12 N 36 N 54 N
17
= − − +
i j i j k ⋅
( )
1
48 36 N
17
= +
84
N
17
=
PROBLEM 3.64 CONTINUED
Since ( ) ( )
perp. parallel
EF EF EF
= + T T T
( ) ( ) ( )
2 2
perp. parallel
EF EF EF
T T T ∴ = −
( )
2
2 84
66
17
 
= −

\ .
62.777 N =
Then ( ) ( )
perp.
DI EF
M T d =
( )( ) 172.879 N m 62.777 N d ⋅ =
2.7539 m d =
or 2.75 m d =
PROBLEM 3.65
In Problem 3.56, determine the perpendicular distance between cable EG
and the line joining points D and I.
Problem 3.56: A mast is mounted on the roof of a house using bracket
ABCD and is guyed by cables EF, EG, and EH. Knowing that the force
exerted by cable EG at E is 61.5 N, determine the moment of that force
about the line joining points D and I.
SOLUTION
Have
/ DI DI G I EG
M
=
r T λ ⋅ ×
where
( ) ( )
( )
1.6 m 0.4 m 1
4
0.4 17 m 17
DI
−
= = −
i j
i j λ
( ) ( )
/
10.9 m 0.8 m 11.7 m
G I
= − + = − r k k
( ) ( ) ( )
( )
1.2 m 3.6 m 11.7 m
61.5 N
12.3 m
EG EG EG
T
− −
= =
i j k
T λ
( ) ( ) ( ) 5 1.2 N 3.6 N 11.7 N = − −
i j k
( )( )
4 1 0
5 N 11.7 m
0 0 1
17
1.2 3.6 11.7
DI
M
−
∴ = −
− −
187.286 N m = − ⋅
Only the perpendicular component of
EG
T contributes to the moment of
EG
T about line DI. The parallel component of
EG
T will be used to find
the perpendicular component.
Have
( ) parallel EG DI EG
T = T λ ⋅
( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
1
4 5 1.2 N 3.6 N 11.7 N
17
= − − −
i j i j k ⋅
( )
5
4.8 3.6 N
17
= +
42
N
17
=
PROBLEM 3.65 CONTINUED
Since ( ) ( )
perp. parallel
EF EG EG
= + T T T
( ) ( ) ( )
2 2
perp. parallel
EG EG EG
T T T ∴ = −
( )
2
2 42
61.5
17
 
= −

\ .
60.651 N =
Then ( ) ( )
perp.
DI EG
M T d =
( )( ) 187.286 N m 60.651 N d ⋅ =
3.0880 m d =
or 3.09 m d =
PROBLEM 3.66
In Problem 3.41, determine the perpendicular distance between post BC
and the line connecting points O and A.
Problem 3.41: Slider P can move along rod OA. An elastic cord PC is
attached to the slider and to the vertical member BC. Knowing that the
distance from O to P is 0.12 m and the tension in the cord is 30 N,
determine (a) the angle between the elastic cord and the rod OA, (b) the
projection on OA of the force exerted by cord PC at point P.
SOLUTION
Assume post BC is represented by a force of magnitude
BC
F
where
BC BC
F = F j
Have
( )
/ OA OA B O BC
M = r F λ ⋅ ×
where
( ) ( ) ( ) 0.24 m 0.24 m 0.12 m 2 2 1
0.36 m 3 3 3
OA
+ −
= = + −
i j k
i j k λ
( ) ( )
/
0.18 m 0.24 m
B O
= + r i k
( )
2 2 1
1
0.18 0 0.24 0.48 0.18 0.22
3 3
0 1 0
BC
OA BC BC
F
M F F
−
∴ = = − − = −
Only the perpendicular component of
BC
F contributes to the moment of
BC
F about line OA. The parallel
component will be found first so that the perpendicular component of
BC
F can be determined.
( ) parallel
2 2 1
3 3 3
OA BC BC BC
F F
 
= = + −

\ .
F i j k j λ ⋅ ⋅
2
3
BC
F =
Since ( ) ( )
parallel perp.
BC BC BC
= + F F F
( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
2
2 2 2
perp. parallel
2
3
BC
BC BC BC BC
F
F F F F
 
= − = −

\ .
0.74536
BC
F =
Then ( ) ( )
perp.
OA BC
M F d =
( ) 0.22 0.74536
BC BC
F F d =
0.29516 m d =
or 295 mm d =
PROBLEM 3.67
In Problem 3.45, determine the perpendicular distance between cord DE
and the y axis.
Problem 3.45: The 0.732 1.2 × m lid ABCD of a storage bin is hinged
along side AB and is held open by looping cord DEC over a frictionless
hook at E. If the tension in the cord is 54 N, determine the moment about
each of the coordinate axes of the force exerted by the cord at D.
SOLUTION
First note
( ) ( )
2 2
0.732 0.132 m z = −
0.720 m =
Have
( )
/ y D A DE
M = j r T ⋅ ×
where ( )
/
0.132 0.720 m
D A
= + r j k
DE DE DE
T = T λ
( ) ( ) ( )
( )
0.360 m 0.732 m 0.720 m
54 N
1.08 m
+ −
=
i j k
( ) ( ) ( ) 18 N 36 N 36 N = + − i j k
0 1 0
0 0.132 0.720 12.96 N m
18 36 36
y
M ∴ = = ⋅
−
Only the perpendicular component of
DE
T contributes to the moment of
DE
T about the yaxis. The parallel component will be found first so that
the perpendicular component of
DE
T can be determined.
( ) parallel
36 N
DE DE
T = = j T ⋅
PROBLEM 3.67 CONTINUED
Since ( ) ( ) ( )
parallel perp.
DE DE DE
= + T T T
( ) ( ) ( )
2 2
perp. parallel
DE DE DE
T T T = −
( ) ( )
2 2
54 36 40.249 N = − =
Then ( ) ( )
perp.
y DE
M T d =
( )( ) 12.96 N m 40.249 N d ⋅ =
0.32199 m d =
or 322 mm d =
PROBLEM 3.68
A plate in the shape of a parallelogram is acted upon by two couples.
Determine (a) the moment of the couple formed by the two 21N forces,
(b) the perpendicular distance between the 12N forces if the resultant of
the two couples is zero, (c) the value of α if the resultant couple is
1.8 N m ⋅ clockwise and d is 1.05 m.
SOLUTION
(a) Have
1 1 1
M d F =
where
1
0.4 m d =
1
21 N F =
( )( )
1
0.4 m 21 N 8.4 N m M ∴ = = ⋅
1
or 8.40 N m = ⋅ M
(b) Have
1 2
0 + = M M
or ( )
2
8.40 N m 12 N 0 d ⋅ − =
2
0.700 m d ∴ =
(c) Have
total 1 2
= + M M M
or ( )( )( ) 1.8 N m 8.40 N m 1.05 m sin 12 N α ⋅ = ⋅ −
sin 0.52381 α ∴ =
and 31.588 α = °
or 31.6 α = °
PROBLEM 3.69
A couple M of magnitude 10 lb ft ⋅ is applied to the handle of a
screwdriver to tighten a screw into a block of wood. Determine the
magnitudes of the two smallest horizontal forces that are equivalent to M
if they are applied (a) at corners A and D, (b) at corners B and C,
(c) anywhere on the block.
SOLUTION
(a) Have M Pd =
or ( )
1 ft
10 lb ft 10 in.
12 in.
P
 
⋅ =

\ .
12 lb P ∴ =
min
or 12.00 lb P =
(b) ( ) ( )
2 2
BC
d BE EC = +
( ) ( )
2 2
10 in. 6 in. 11.6619 in. = + =
Have M Pd =
( )
1 ft
10 lb ft 11.6619 in.
12 in.
P
 
⋅ =

\ .
10.2899 lb P = or 10.29 lb P =
(c) ( ) ( )
2 2
AC
d AD DC = +
( ) ( )
2 2
10 in. 16 in. 2 89 in. = + =
Have
AC
M Pd =
( )
1 ft
10 lb ft 2 89 in.
12 in.
P
 
⋅ =

\ .
6.3600 lb P = or 6.36 lb P =
PROBLEM 3.70
Two 60mmdiameter pegs are mounted on a steel plate at A and C, and
two rods are attached to the plate at B and D. A cord is passed around the
pegs and pulled as shown, while the rods exert on the plate 10N forces as
indicated. (a) Determine the resulting couple acting on the plate when T =
36 N. (b) If only the cord is used, in what direction should it be pulled to
create the same couple with the minimum tension in the cord?
(c) Determine the value of that minimum tension.
SOLUTION
(a) Have ( ) M Fd = Σ
( )( ) ( )( ) 36 N 0.345 m 10 N 0.380 m = −
8.62 N m = ⋅
8.62 N m = ⋅ M
(b)
Have 8.62 N m M Td = = ⋅
For T to be minimum, d must be maximum.
min
T ∴ must be perpendicular to line AC
0.380 m
tan 1.33333
0.285 m
θ = =
and 53.130 θ = °
or 53.1 θ = °
(c) Have
min max
M T d =
where 8.62 N m M = ⋅
( ) ( ) ( )
2 2
max
0.380 0.285 2 0.030 m 0.535 m d
= + + =
( )
min
8.62 N m 0.535 m T ∴ ⋅ =
min
16.1121 N T =
min
or 16.11 N T =
PROBLEM 3.71
The steel plate shown will support six 50mmdiameter idler rollers
mounted on the plate as shown. Two flat belts pass around the rollers, and
rollers A and D will be adjusted so that the tension in each belt is 45 N.
Determine (a) the resultant couple acting on the plate if a = 0.2 m, (b) the
value of a so that the resultant couple acting on the plate is 54 N m ⋅
clockwise.
SOLUTION
(a) Note when
/
0.2 m,
C F
a = r is perpendicular to the inclined 45 N
forces.
Have
( ) M Fd = Σ
( ) ( ) 45 N 0.2 m 2 0.025 m a = − + +
( ) ( ) 45 N 2 2 2 0.025 m a
− +
For 0.2 m, a =
( )( ) 45 N 0.450 m 0.61569 m M = − +
47.956 N m = − ⋅
or 48.0 N m = ⋅ M
(b) 54.0 N m = ⋅ M
Moment of couple due to horizontal forces at and M A D =
Moment of forcecouple systems at and about . C F C +
( ) 54.0 N m 45 N 0.2 m 2 0.025 m a − ⋅ = − + +
( ) ( ) 0.2 m 2
C F x y
M M F a F a + + + + +
where ( )( ) 45 N 0.025 m 1.125 N m
C
M = − = − ⋅
1.125 N m
F C
M M = = − ⋅
PROBLEM 3.71 CONTINUED
45
N
2
x
F
−
=
45
N
2
y
F
−
=
( ) 54.0 N m 45 N 0.25 m 1.125 N m 1.125 N m a ∴ − ⋅ = − + − ⋅ − ⋅
( ) ( )
45 N 45 N
0.2 m 2
2 2
a a
−
+ −
0.20 2
1.20 0.25 0.025 0.025
2 2 2
a a
a = + + + + + +
3.1213 0.75858 a =
0.24303 m a =
or 243 mm a =
PROBLEM 3.72
The shafts of an angle drive are acted upon by the two couples shown.
Replace the two couples with a single equivalent couple, specifying its
magnitude and the direction of its axis.
SOLUTION
Based on
1 2
= + M M M
where
( )
1
8 N m = − ⋅ M j
( )
2
6 N m = − ⋅ M k
( ) ( ) 8 N m 6 N m ∴ = − ⋅ − ⋅ M j k
and ( ) ( )
2 2
8 6 10 N m = + = ⋅ M
or 10.00 N m M = ⋅
( ) ( ) 8 N m 6 N m
0.8 0.6
10 N m
− ⋅ − ⋅
= = = − −
⋅
j k M
j k
M
λ
or ( )( ) 10 N m 0.8 0.6 = = ⋅ − − M M j k λ
cos 0
x
θ = 90
x
θ ∴ = °
cos 0.8 143.130
y y
θ θ = − ∴ = °
cos 0.6 126.870
z z
θ θ = − ∴ = °
or 90.0 , 143.1 , 126.9
x y z
θ θ θ = ° = ° = °
PROBLEM 3.73
Knowing that P = 0, replace the two remaining couples with a single
equivalent couple, specifying its magnitude and the direction of its axis.
SOLUTION
Have
1 2
= + M M M
where
1 / 1 C B C
= M r P ×
( ) ( )
/
0.96 m 0.40 m
C B
= − r i j
( )
1
100 N
C
= − P k
( ) ( )
1
0.96 0.40 0 40 N m 96 N m
0 0 100
∴ = − = ⋅ + ⋅
−
i j k
M i j
Also,
2 / 2 D A E
= M r P ×
( ) ( )
/
0.20 m 0.55 m
D A
= − r j k
2 2 E ED E
P = P λ
( ) ( )
( ) ( )
( )
2 2
0.48 m 0.55 m
146 N
0.48 0.55 m
− +
=
+
i k
( ) ( ) 96 N 110 N = − + i k
2
0 0.20 0.55 N m
96 0 110
∴ = − ⋅
−
i j k
M
( ) ( ) ( ) 22.0 N m 52.8 N m 19.2 N m = ⋅ + ⋅ + ⋅ i j k
PROBLEM 3.73 CONTINUED
and ( ) ( ) ( ) 40 N m 96 N m 22.0 N m = ⋅ + ⋅ + ⋅
M i j i
( ) ( ) 52.8 N m 19.2 N m + ⋅ + ⋅
j k
( ) ( ) ( ) 62.0 N m 148.8 N m 19.2 N m = ⋅ + ⋅ + ⋅ i j k
( ) ( ) ( )
2 2 2
2 2 2
62.0 148.8 19.2
x y z
M M M = + + = + + M
162.339 N m = ⋅
or 162.3 N m M = ⋅
62.0 148.8 19.2
162.339
+ +
= =
M i j k
M
λ
0.38192 0.91660 0.118271 = + + i j k
cos 0.38192 67.547
x x
θ θ = ∴ = °
or 67.5
x
θ = °
cos 0.91660 23.566
y y
θ θ = ∴ = °
or 23.6
y
θ = °
cos 0.118271 83.208
z z
θ θ = ∴ = °
or 83.2
z
θ = °
PROBLEM 3.74
Knowing that P = 0, replace the two remaining couples with a single
equivalent couple, specifying its magnitude and the direction of its axis.
SOLUTION
Have
4 7
= + M M M
where
4 / 4 G C G
= M r F ×
( )
/
10 in.
G C
= − r i
( )
4
4 lb
G
= F k
( ) ( ) ( )
4
10 in. 4 lb 40 lb in. ∴ = − = ⋅ M i k j ×
Also,
7 / 7 D F D
= M r F ×
( ) ( )
/
5 in. 3 in.
D F
= − + r i j
7 7 D ED D
F = F λ
( ) ( ) ( )
( ) ( ) ( )
( )
2 2 2
5 in. 3 in. 7 in.
7 lb
5 3 7 in.
− + +
=
+ +
i j k
( )
7 lb
5 3 7
83
= − + + i j k
( )
7
7 lb in. 7 lb in.
5 3 0 21 35 0
83 83
5 3 7
⋅ ⋅
∴ = − = + +
−
i j k
M i j k
( ) 0.76835 21 35 lb in. = + ⋅ i j
PROBLEM 3.74 CONTINUED
and ( ) ( ) 40 lb in. 0.76835 21 35 lb in. = ⋅ + + ⋅
M j i j
( ) ( ) 16.1353 lb in. 66.892 lb in. = ⋅ + ⋅ i j
( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
2
2 2 2
16.1353 66.892
x y
M M = + = + M
68.811 lb in. = ⋅
or 68.8 lb in. M = ⋅
( ) ( ) 16.1353 lb in. 66.892 lb in.
68.811 lb in.
⋅ + ⋅
= =
⋅
i j M
M
λ
0.23449 0.97212 = + i j
cos 0.23449 76.438
x x
θ θ = ∴ = °
or 76.4
x
θ = °
cos 0.97212 13.5615
y y
θ θ = ∴ = °
or 13.56
y
θ = °
cos 0.0
z
θ = 90
z
θ ∴ = °
or 90.0
z
θ = °
PROBLEM 3.75
Knowing that P = 5 lb, replace the three couples with a single equivalent
couple, specifying its magnitude and the direction of its axis.
SOLUTION
Have
4 7 5
= + + M M M M
where
( )
4 / 4
10 0 0 lb in. 40 lb in.
0 0 4
G C G
= = − ⋅ = ⋅
i j k
M r F j ×
( )
7 / 7
7
5 3 0 lb in. 0.76835 21 35 lb in.
83
5 3 7
D F D
 
= = − ⋅ = + ⋅

\ .
−
i j k
M r F i j ×
(See Solution to Problem 3.74.)
( ) ( )
5 / 5
10 6 7 lb in. 35 lb in. 50 lb in.
0 5 0
C A C
= = − ⋅ = − ⋅ + ⋅
i j k
M r F i k ×
( ) ( ) ( ) 16.1353 35 40 26.892 50 lb in. ∴ = − + + + ⋅
M i j k
( ) ( ) ( ) 18.8647 lb in. 66.892 lb in. 50 lb in. = − ⋅ + ⋅ + ⋅ i j k
( ) ( ) ( )
2 2 2
2 2 2
18.8647 66.892 50 85.618 lb in.
x y z
M M M = + + = + + = ⋅ M
or 85.6 lb in. M = ⋅
18.8647 66.892 50
0.22034 0.78129 0.58399
85.618
− + +
= = = − + +
M i j k
i j k
M
λ
cos 0.22034
x
θ = − 102.729
x
θ ∴ = ° or 102.7
x
θ = °
cos 0.78129 38.621
y y
θ θ = ∴ = ° or 38.6
y
θ = °
cos 0.58399 54.268
z z
θ θ = ∴ = ° or 54.3
z
θ = °
PROBLEM 3.76
Knowing that P = 210 N, replace the three couples with a single
equivalent couple, specifying its magnitude and the direction of its axis.
SOLUTION
Have
1 2 P
= + + M M M M
where ( ) ( )
1 / 1
0.96 0.40 0 40 N m 96 N m
0 0 100
C B C
= = − = ⋅ + ⋅
−
i j k
M r P i j ×
( ) ( ) ( )
2 / 2
0 0.20 0.55 22.0 N m 52.8 N m 19.2 N m
96 0 110
D A E
= = − = ⋅ + ⋅ + ⋅
−
i j k
M r P i j k ×
(See Solution to Problem 3.73.)
( ) ( )
/
0.48 0.20 1.10 231 N m 100.8 N m
0 210 0
P E A E
= = − = ⋅ + ⋅
i j k
M r P i k ×
( ) ( ) ( ) 40 22 231 96 52.8 19.2 100.8 N m ∴ = + + + + + + ⋅
M i j k
( ) ( ) ( ) 293 N m 148.8 N m 120 N m = ⋅ + ⋅ + ⋅ i j k
( ) ( ) ( )
2 2 2
2 2 2
293 148.8 120 349.84 N m
x y z
M M M = + + = + + = ⋅ M
or 350 N m M = ⋅
293 148.8 120
0.83752 0.42533 0.34301
349.84
+ +
= = = + +
M i j k
i j k
M
λ
cos 0.83752 33.121
x x
θ θ = ∴ = ° or 33.1
x
θ = °
cos 0.42533 64.828
y y
θ θ = ∴ = ° or 64.8
y
θ = °
cos 0.34301 69.940
z z
θ θ = ∴ = ° or 69.9
z
θ = °
PROBLEM 3.77
In a manufacturing operation, three holes are drilled simultaneously in a
workpiece. Knowing that the holes are perpendicular to the surfaces of
the workpiece, replace the couples applied to the drills with a single
equivalent couple, specifying its magnitude and the direction of its axis.
SOLUTION
Have
1 2 3
= + + M M M M
where ( )( )
1
1.1 lb ft cos 25 sin 25 = − ⋅ ° + ° M j k
( )
2
1.1 lb ft = − ⋅ M j
( )( )
3
1.3 lb ft cos 20 sin 20 = − ⋅ ° − ° M j k
( ) ( ) 0.99694 1.1 1.22160 0.46488 0.44463 ∴ = − − − + − + M j k
( ) ( ) 3.3185 lb ft 0.020254 lb ft = − ⋅ − ⋅ j k
and ( ) ( ) ( )
2 2 2
2 2 2
0 3.3185 0.020254
x y z
M M M = + + = + + M
3.3186 lb ft = ⋅
or 3.32 lb ft M = ⋅
( ) 0 3.3185 0.020254
3.3186
− −
= =
i j k M
M
λ
0.99997 0.0061032 = − − j k
cos 0
x
θ = 90
x
θ ∴ = ° or 90.0
x
θ = °
cos 0.99997
y
θ = − 179.555
y
θ ∴ = ° or 179.6
y
θ = °
cos 0.0061032 90.349
z z
θ θ = − ∴ = ° or 90.3
z
θ = °
PROBLEM 3.78
The tension in the cable attached to the end C of an adjustable boom ABC
is 1000 N. Replace the force exerted by the cable at C with an equivalent
forcecouple system (a) at A, (b) at B.
SOLUTION
(a) Based on : 1000 N
A
F F T Σ = =
or 1000 N
A
= F 20°
( )( ) : sin50
A A A
M M T d Σ = °
( ) ( ) 1000 N sin50 2.25 m = °
1723.60 N m = ⋅
or 1724 N m
A
= ⋅ M
(b) Based on : 1000 N
B
F F T Σ = =
or 1000 N
B
= F 20°
( )( ) : sin50
B B B
M M T d Σ = °
( ) ( ) 1000 N sin50 1.25 m = °
957.56 N m = ⋅
or 958 N m
B
= ⋅ M
PROBLEM 3.79
The 20lb horizontal force P acts on a bell crank as shown. (a) Replace P
with an equivalent forcecouple system at B. (b) Find the two vertical
forces at C and D which are equivalent to the couple found in part a.
SOLUTION
(a) Based on : 20 lb
B
F P P Σ = =
or 20 lb
B
= P
:
B B
M M Pd Σ =
( ) 20 lb 5 in. =
100 lb in. = ⋅
or 100 lb in.
B
= ⋅ M
(b) If the two vertical forces are to be equivalent to ,
B
M they must be a
couple. Further, the sense of the moment of this couple must be
counterclockwise.
Then, with
C
P and
D
P acting as shown,
:
D C
M M P d Σ =
( ) 100 lb in. 4 in.
C
P ⋅ =
25 lb
C
P ∴ =
or 25 lb
C
= P
: 0
y D C
F P P Σ = −
25 lb
D
P ∴ =
or 25 lb
D
= P
PROBLEM 3.80
A 700N force P is applied at point A of a structural member. Replace P
with (a) an equivalent forcecouple system at C, (b) an equivalent system
consisting of a vertical force at B and a second force at D.
SOLUTION
(a) Based on : 700 N
C
F P P Σ = =
or 700 N
C
= P 60°
:
C C x Cy y Cx
M M P d P d Σ = − +
where ( ) 700 N cos60 350 N
x
P = ° =
( ) 700 N sin60 606.22 N
y
P = ° =
1.6 m
Cx
d =
1.1 m
Cy
d =
( )( ) ( )( ) 350 N 1.1 m 606.22 N 1.6 m
C
M ∴ = − +
385 N m 969.95 N m = − ⋅ + ⋅
584.95 N m = ⋅
or 585 N m
C
= ⋅ M
(b) Based on : cos60
x Dx
F P P Σ = °
( ) 700 N cos60 = °
350 N =
( )( ) ( ) : cos 60
D DA B DB
M P d P d Σ ° =
( ) ( ) ( ) 700 N cos60 0.6 m 2.4 m
B
P ° =
87.5 N
B
P =
or 87.5 N
B
= P
PROBLEM 3.80 CONTINUED
: sin60
y B Dy
F P P P Σ ° = +
( ) 700 N sin60 87.5 N
Dy
P ° = +
518.72 N
Dy
P =
( ) ( )
2
2
D Dx Dy
P P P = +
( ) ( )
2 2
350 518.72 625.76 N = + =
1 1
518.72
tan tan 55.991
350
Dy
Dx
P
P
θ
− −
 
 
= = = °


\ .
\ .
or 626 N
D
P = 56.0°
PROBLEM 3.81
A landscaper tries to plumb a tree by applying a 240N force as shown.
Two helpers then attempt to plumb the same tree, with one pulling at B
and the other pushing with a parallel force at C. Determine these two
forces so that they are equivalent to the single 240N force shown in the
figure.
SOLUTION
Based on
( ) : 240 N cos30 cos cos
x B C
F F F α α Σ − ° = − −
or ( ) ( ) cos 240 N cos30
B C
F F α − + = − ° (1)
( ) : 240 N sin30 sin sin
y B C
F F F α α Σ ° = +
or ( ) ( ) sin 240 N sin30
B C
F F α + = ° (2)
From
( )
Equation (2)
: tan tan30
Equation 1
α = °
30 α ∴ = °
Based on
( ) ( ) ( ) ( )( ) : 240 N cos 30 20 0.25 m cos10 0.60 m
C B
M F Σ ° − ° = °
100 N
B
F ∴ =
or 100.0 N
B
= F 30°
From Equation (1), ( ) 100 N cos30 240cos30
C
F − + ° = − °
140 N
C
F =
or 140.0 N
C
= F 30°
PROBLEM 3.82
A landscaper tries to plumb a tree by applying a 240N force as shown.
(a) Replace that force with an equivalent forcecouple system at C. (b)
Two helpers attempt to plumb the same tree, with one applying a
horizontal force at C and the other pulling at B. Determine these two
forces if they are to be equivalent to the single force of part a.
SOLUTION
(a) Based on ( ) : 240 N cos30 cos30
x C
F F Σ − ° = − °
240 N
C
F ∴ =
or 240 N
C
= F 30°
( ) ( ) : 240 N cos10 0.25 m
C A C A
M d M d Σ ° = =
59.088 N m
C
M ∴ = ⋅
or 59.1 N m
C
= ⋅ M
(b) Based on ( ) : 240 N sin30 sin
y B
F F α Σ ° =
or sin 120
B
F α = (1)
( ) ( ) ( ) : 59.088 N m 240 N cos10 cos 20
B C C C
M d F d Σ ⋅ − ° = − °
( ) ( ) ( ) 59.088 N m 240 N cos10 0.60 m 0.60 m cos 20
C
F ⋅ − ° = − °
0.56382 82.724
C
F =
146.722 N
C
F =
or 146.7 N
C
= F
and ( ) : 240 N cos30 146.722 N cos
x B
F F α Σ − ° = − −
cos 61.124
B
F α = (2)
From
Equation (1)
:
Equation (2)
120
tan 1.96323
61.124
α = =
63.007 α = ° or 63.0 α = °
From Equation (1),
120
134.670 N
sin63.007
B
F = =
°
or 134.7 N
B
= F 63.0°
PROBLEM 3.83
A dirigible is tethered by a cable attached to its cabin at B. If the tension
in the cable is 250 lb, replace the force exerted by the cable at B with an
equivalent system formed by two parallel forces applied at A and C.
SOLUTION
Require the equivalent forces acting at A and C be parallel and at an angle
ofα with the vertical.
Then for equivalence,
( ) : 250 lb sin30 sin sin
x A B
F F F α α Σ ° = + (1)
( ) : 250 lb cos30 cos cos
y A B
F F F α α Σ − ° = − − (2)
Dividing Equation (1) by Equation (2),
( )
( )
( )
( )
250 lb sin30 sin
250 lb cos30 cos
A B
A B
F F
F F
α
α
° +
=
− ° − +
Simplifying yields 30 α = °
Based on
( ) ( ) ( )( ) : 250 lb cos30 12 ft cos30 32 ft
C A
M F Σ ° = °
93.75 lb
A
F ∴ =
or 93.8 lb
A
= F 60°
Based on
( ) ( ) ( )( ) : 250 lb cos30 20 ft cos30 32 ft
A C
M F Σ − ° = °
156.25 lb
C
F ∴ =
or 156.3 lb
C
= F 60°
PROBLEM 3.84
Three workers trying to move a 3 3 4ft × × crate apply to the crate the
three horizontal forces shown. (a) If 60 lb, P = replace the three forces
with an equivalent forcecouple system at A. (b) Replace the forcecouple
system of part a with a single force, and determine where it should be
applied to side AB. (c) Determine the magnitude of P so that the three
forces can be replaced with a single equivalent force applied at B.
SOLUTION
(a)
(b)
(c)
(a) Based on
: 50 lb 50 lb 60 lb
z A
F F Σ − + + =
60 lb
A
F =
( ) or 60.0 lb
A
= F k
Based on
( )( ) ( )( ) : 50 lb 2 ft 50 lb 0.6 ft
A A
M M Σ − =
70 lb ft
A
M = ⋅
( ) or 70.0 lb ft
A
= ⋅ M j
(b) Based on
: 50 lb 50 lb 60 lb
z
F F Σ − + + =
60 lb F =
( ) or 60.0 lb = F k
Based on
( ) : 70 lb ft 60 lb
A
M x Σ ⋅ =
1.16667 ft x =
or 1.167 ft from along x A AB =
(c) Based on
( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) : 50 lb 1 ft 50 lb 2.4 ft 3 ft 0
B
M P R Σ − + − =
70
23.333 lb
3
P = =
or 23.3 lb P =
PROBLEM 3.85
A force and a couple are applied to a beam. (a) Replace this system with
a single force F applied at point G, and determine the distance d.
(b) Solve part a assuming that the directions of the two 600N forces are
reversed.
SOLUTION
(a)
Have
:
y C D E
F F F F F Σ + + =
800 N 600 N 600 N F = − + −
800 N F = − or 800 N = F
Have
( ) ( ) : 1.5 m 2 m 0
G C D
M F d F Σ − − =
( )( ) ( )( ) 800 N 1.5 m 600 N 2 m 0 d − − =
1200 1200
800
d
+
=
3 m d = or 3.00 m d =
(b)
Changing directions of the two 600 N forces only changes sign of the couple.
800 N F ∴ = − or 800 N = F
and
( ) ( ) : 1.5 m 2 m 0
G C D
M F d F Σ − + =
( )( ) ( )( ) 800 N 1.5 m 600 N 2 m d − +
1200 1200
0
800
d
−
= =
or 0 d =
PROBLEM 3.86
Three cables attached to a disk exert on it the forces shown. (a) Replace
the three forces with an equivalent forcecouple system at A.
(b) Determine the single force which is equivalent to the forcecouple
system obtained in part a, and specify its point of application on a line
drawn through points A and D.
SOLUTION
(a) Have :
B C D A
Σ + + = F F F F F
Since
B D
= − F F
110 N
A C
∴ = = F F 20°
or 110.0 N
A
= F 20.0°
Have ( ) ( ) ( ) :
A BT CT DT A
M F r F r F r M Σ − − + =
( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) 140 N sin15 0.2 m 110 N sin 25 0.2 m 140 N sin 45 0.2 m
A
M − ° − ° + ° =
3.2545 N m
A
M = ⋅
or 3.25 N m
A
= ⋅ M
(b) Have :
A E
Σ = F F F or 110.0 N
E
= F 20.0°
[ ]( ) : cos 20
A E
M M F a Σ = °
( ) ( ) 3.2545 N m 110 N cos 20 a ∴ ⋅ = °
0.031485 m a =
or 31.5 mm below a A =
PROBLEM 3.87
While tapping a hole, a machinist applies the horizontal forces shown to
the handle of the tap wrench. Show that these forces are equivalent to a
single force, and specify, if possible, the point of application of the single
force on the handle.
SOLUTION
Since the forces at A and B are parallel, the force at B can be replaced with the sum of two forces with one of
the forces equal in magnitude to the force at A except with an opposite sense, resulting in a forcecouple.
Have 26.5 N 2.5 N,
B
F = + where the 26.5 N force be part of the couple. Combining the two parallel forces,
( ) ( )
couple
26.5 N 0.080 m 0.070 m cos 25 M = + °
3.60 N m = ⋅
couple
and, 3.60 N m = ⋅ M
A single equivalent force will be located in the negative zdirection.
Based on ( ) ( ) : 3.60 N m 2.5 N cos 25
B
M a Σ − ⋅ = °
1.590 m a = −
( )( ) 2.5 N cos 25 sin 25 ′ = ° + ° F i j
and is applied on an extension of handle BD
at a distance of 1.590 m to the right of B
PROBLEM 3.88
A rectangular plate is acted upon by the force and couple shown. This
system is to be replaced with a single equivalent force. (a) For 40 , α = °
specify the magnitude and the line of action of the equivalent force.
(b) Specify the value of α if the line of action of the equivalent force is
to intersect line CD 12 in. to the right of D.
SOLUTION
(a) Have ( ) ( ) : 3 lb sin40 3 lb sin40
x x
F F Σ − ° + ° =
0
x
F ∴ =
Have ( ) ( ) : 3 lb cos40 10 lb 3 lb cos40
y y
F F Σ − ° − + ° =
10 lb
y
F ∴ = −
or 10.00 lb F =
Note: The two 3lb forces form a couple
and
/ / /
:
A C A C B A B X A
Σ + = M r P r P r F × × ×
3 16 10 0 160 1 0 0 10 0 0
sin 40 cos 40 0 0 1 0 0 1 0
d − + =
° ° − −
i j k i j k i j k
( ) ( ) : 3 16 cos 40 10 3sin 40 160 10d ° − − ° − = − k
36.770 19.2836 160 10d + − = −
10.3946 in. d ∴ =
or 10.00 lb = F at 10.39 in. right of A or at 5.61 in. left of B
(b) From part (a), 10.00 lb = F
Have ( )
/ /
: 12 in.
A C A C B A B
Σ + = M r P r P i F × × ×
3 16 10 0 160 1 0 0 120 1 0 0
sin cos 0 0 1 0 0 1 0 α α
− + =
− −
i j k i j k i j k
: 48cos 30sin 160 120 α α + − = − k
24cos 20 15sin α α = −
PROBLEM 3.88 CONTINUED
Squaring both sides of the equation, and
using the identity
2 2
cos 1 sin , α α = − results in
2
sin 0.74906sin 0.21973 0 α α − − =
Using quadratic formula
sin 0.97453 sin = 0.22547 α α = −
so that
77.0 and 13.03 α α = ° = − °
PROBLEM 3.89
A hexagonal plate is acted upon by the force P and the couple shown.
Determine the magnitude and the direction of the smallest force P for
which this system can be replaced with a single force at E.
SOLUTION
Since the minimum value of P acting at B is realized when
min
P is
perpendicular to a line connecting B and E, 30 α = °
Then,
/ min /
: 0
E B E D A D
Σ + = M r P r P × ×
where
( ) ( )
/
0.30 m 2 0.30 m cos30
B E
= − + °
r i j
( ) ( ) 0.30 m 0.51962 m = − + i j
( )
/
0.30 m 2 0.3 m sin30
D A
= + °
r i
( ) 0.60 m = i
( ) 450 N
D
= P j
( ) ( )
min min
cos30 sin30 P = ° + °
P i j
min
0.30 0.51962 0 0.60 0 0 N m 0
0.86603 0.50 0 0 450 0
P ∴ − + ⋅ =
i j k i j k
( ) ( )
min
0.15 m 0.45 m 270 N m 0 P − − + ⋅ = k k
min
450 N P ∴ =
min
or 450 N = P 30°
PROBLEM 3.90
An eccentric, compressive 270lb force P is applied to the end of a
cantilever beam. Replace P with an equivalent forcecouple system at G.
SOLUTION
Have
( ) : 270 lb Σ − = F i F
( ) 270 lb ∴ = − F i
Also, have
/
:
G AG
Σ = M r P M ×
270 0 4 2.4 lb in.
1 0 0
− − ⋅ =
−
i j k
M
( ) ( )( ) ( )( ) 270 lb in. 2.4 1 4 1 ∴ = ⋅ − − − − −
M j k
( ) ( ) or 648 lb in. 1080 lb in. = ⋅ − ⋅ M j k
PROBLEM 3.91
Two workers use blocks and tackles attached to the bottom of an Ibeam
to lift a large cylindrical tank. Knowing that the tension in rope AB is
324 N, replace the force exerted at A by rope AB with an equivalent
forcecouple system at E.
SOLUTION
Have :
AB
Σ = F T F
where
AB AB AB
T = T λ
( ) ( ) ( )
( )
0.75 m 6.0 m 3.0 m
324 N
6.75 m
− +
=
i j k
( ) 36 N 8 4
AB
∴ = − + T i j k
so that ( ) ( ) ( ) 36.0 N 288 N 144.0 N = − + F i j k
Have
/
:
E A E AB
Σ = M r T M ×
or ( )( ) 7.5 m 36 N 0 1 0
1 8 4
=
−
i j k
M
( )( ) 270 N m 4 ∴ = ⋅ − M i k
( ) ( ) or 1080 N m 270 N m = ⋅ − ⋅ M i k
PROBLEM 3.92
Two workers use blocks and tackles attached to the bottom of an Ibeam
to lift a large cylindrical tank. Knowing that the tension in rope CD is
366 N, replace the force exerted at C by rope CD with an equivalent
forcecouple system at O.
SOLUTION
Have :
CD
Σ = F T F
where
CD CD CD
T = T λ
( ) ( ) ( )
( )
0.3 m 5.6 m 2.4 m
366 N
6.1 m
− − +
=
i j k
( )( ) 6.0 N 3 56 24
CD
∴ = − − + T i j k
so that ( ) ( ) ( ) 18.00 N 336 N 144.0 N = − − + F i j k
Have
/
:
O C O CD
Σ = M r T M ×
or ( )( ) 7.5 m 6 N 0 1 0
3 56 24
=
− −
i j k
M
( )( ) 45 N m 24 3 ∴ = ⋅ + M i k
( ) ( ) or 1080 N m 135.0 N m = ⋅ + ⋅ M i k
PROBLEM 3.93
To keep a door closed, a wooden stick is wedged between the floor and
the doorknob. The stick exerts at B a 45lb force directed along line AB.
Replace that force with an equivalent forcecouple system at C.
SOLUTION
Have
:
AB C
Σ = F P F
where
AB AB AB
P = P λ
( ) ( ) ( )
( )
2.0 in. 38 in. 24 in.
45 lb
44.989 in.
+ −
=
i j k
( ) ( ) ( ) or 2.00 lb 38.0 lb 24.0 lb
C
= + − F i j k
Have
/
:
C B C AB C
Σ = M r P M ×
2 29.5 33 0 lb in.
1 19 12
C
= − ⋅
−
i j k
M
( ) ( )( ) ( )( ) {
2 lb in. 33 12 29.5 12 = ⋅ − − − − i j
( )( ) ( )( )
}
29.5 19 33 1 + − −
k
( ) ( ) ( ) or 792 lb in. 708 lb in. 1187 lb in.
C
= ⋅ + ⋅ + ⋅ M i j k
PROBLEM 3.94
A 25lb force acting in a vertical plane parallel to the yz plane is applied
to the 8in.long horizontal handle AB of a socket wrench. Replace the
force with an equivalent forcecouple system at the origin O of the
coordinate system.
SOLUTION
Have
:
B
Σ = F P F
where
( ) ( ) 25 lb sin20 cos20
B
= − ° + °
P j k
( ) ( ) 8.5505 lb 23.492 lb = − + j k
( ) ( ) or 8.55 lb 23.5 lb = − + F j k
Have
/
:
O B O B O
Σ = M r P M ×
where
( ) ( ) ( )
/
8cos30 15 8sin30 in.
B O
= ° + − °
r i j k
( ) ( ) ( ) 6.9282 in. 15 in. 4 in. = + − i j k
6.9282 15 4 lb in.
0 8.5505 23.492
O
∴ − ⋅ =
−
i j k
M
( ) ( ) ( ) 318.18 162.757 59.240 lb in.
O
= − − ⋅
M i j k
( ) ( ) ( ) or 318 lb in. 162.8 lb in. 59.2 lb in.
O
= ⋅ − ⋅ − ⋅ M i j k
PROBLEM 3.95
A 315N force F and 70N · m couple M are applied to corner A of the
block shown. Replace the given forcecouple system with an equivalent
forcecouple system at corner D.
SOLUTION
Have
:
D
Σ = F F F
AI
F = λ
( ) ( ) ( )
( )
0.360 m 0.120 m 0.180 m
315 N
0.420 m
− +
=
i j k
( )( ) 750 N 0.360 0.120 0.180 = − + i j k
( ) ( ) ( ) or 270 N 90.0 N 135.0 N
D
= − + F i j k
Have
/
:
D I D D
Σ + = M M r F M ×
where
AC
M = M λ
( ) ( )
( )
0.240 m 0.180 m
70.0 N m
0.300 m
−
= ⋅
i k
( )( ) 70.0 N m 0.800 0.600 = ⋅ − i k
( )
/
0.360 m
I D
= r k
( )( ) ( ) 70.0 N m 0.8 0.6 0 0 0.36 750 N m
0.36 0.12 0.18
D
∴ = ⋅ − + ⋅
−
i j k
M i k
( ) ( ) 56.0 N m 42.0 N m = ⋅ − ⋅ i k ( ) ( ) 32.4 N m 97.2 N m + ⋅ + ⋅
i j
( ) ( ) ( ) or 88.4 N m 97.2 N m 42.0 N m
D
= ⋅ + ⋅ − ⋅ M i j k
PROBLEM 3.96
The handpiece of a miniature industrial grinder weighs 2.4 N, and its
center of gravity is located on the y axis. The head of the handpiece is
offset in the xz plane in such a way that line BC forms an angle of 25°
with the x direction. Show that the weight of the handpiece and the two
couples
1
M and
2
M can be replaced with a single equivalent force.
Further assuming that
1
0.068 N m M = ⋅ and
2
0.065 N m, M = ⋅
determine (a) the magnitude and the direction of the equivalent force,
(b) the point where its line of action intersects the xz plane.
SOLUTION
First assume that the given force W and couples
1
M and
2
M act at the
origin.
Now W = −
j
W
and ( ) ( )
1 2 2 1 2
cos 25 sin 25 M M M = + = − ° + − ° M M M i k
Note that since W and M are perpendicular, it follows that they can be
replaced with a single equivalent force.
(a) Have ( ) or 2.4 N F W = = − = −
j
W F j
( ) or 2.40 N = − F j
(b) Assume that the line of action of F passes through point P (x, 0, z).
Then for equivalence
/ P O
= × M r F
where
/ P O
x z = + r i k
( ) ( )
2 1 2
cos25 sin25 M M M ∴ − ° + − ° i k
( ) ( ) 0
0 0
x z Wz Wx
W
= = −
−
i j k
i k
PROBLEM 3.96 CONTINUED
Equating the i and k coefficients,
1 2
cos25 sin25
and
z
M M M
z x
W W
− ° − °  
= = −

\ .
(b) For
1 2
2.4 N, 0.068 N m, 0.065 N m W M M = = ⋅ = ⋅
0.068 0.065sin25
0.0168874 m
2.4
x
− °
= = −
−
or 16.89 mm x = −
0.065cos25
0.024546 m
2.4
z
− °
= = −
or 24.5 mm z = −
PROBLEM 3.97
A 20lb force
1
F and a 40 lb ft ⋅ couple
1
M are applied to corner E of the
bent plate shown. If
1
F and
1
M are to be replaced with an equivalent
forcecouple system ( )
2 2
, F M at corner B and if ( )
2
0,
z
M = determine
(a) the distance d, (b)
2
F and
2
. M
SOLUTION
(a) Have
2
: 0
Bz z
M M Σ =
( )
/ 1 1
0
H B z
M + = k r F ⋅ × (1)
where ( ) ( )
/
31 in. 2 in.
H B
= − r i j
1 1 EH
F = F λ
( ) ( ) ( )
( )
6 in. 6 in. 7 in.
20 lb
11.0 in.
+ −
=
i j k
( )
20 lb
6 6 7
11.0
= + − i j k
1 1 z
M = k M ⋅
1 1 EJ
M = M λ
( ) ( )
( )
2
3 in. 7 in.
480 lb in.
58 in.
d
d
− + −
= ⋅
+
i j k
Then from Equation (1),
( )( )
2
0 0 1
7 480 lb in. 20 lb in.
31 2 0 0
11.0
58
6 6 7
d
− ⋅ ⋅
− + =
+
−
PROBLEM 3.97 CONTINUED
Solving for d, Equation (1) reduces to
( )
2
20 lb in. 3360 lb in.
186 12 0
11.0
58 d
⋅ ⋅
+ − =
+
From which 5.3955 in. d =
or 5.40 in. d =
(b) ( )
2 1
20 lb
6 6 7
11.0
= = + − F F i j k
( ) 10.9091 10.9091 12.7273 lb = + − i j k
( ) ( ) ( )
2
or 10.91 lb 10.91 lb 12.73 lb = + − F i j k
2 / 1 1 H B
= + M r F M ×
( )
( )
5.3955 3 7 20 lb in.
31 2 0 480 lb in.
11.0 9.3333
6 6 7
− + − ⋅
= − + ⋅
−
i j k
i j k
( ) 25.455 394.55 360 lb in. = + + ⋅ i j k
( ) 277.48 154.285 360 lb in. + − + − ⋅ i j k
( ) ( )
2
252.03 lb in. 548.84 lb in. = − ⋅ + ⋅ M i j
( ) ( )
2
or 21.0 lb ft 45.7 lb ft = − ⋅ + ⋅ M i j
PROBLEM 3.98
A 4ftlong beam is subjected to a variety of loadings. (a) Replace each
loading with an equivalent forcecouple system at end A of the beam.
(b) Which of the loadings are equivalent?
SOLUTION
(a)
(a) Have : 200 lb 100 lb
y a
F R Σ − − =
or 300 lb
a
= R
and ( )( ) : 900 lb ft 100 lb 4 ft
A a
M M Σ ⋅ − =
or 500 lb ft
a
= ⋅ M
(b) Have : 300 lb
y b
F R Σ − =
or 300 lb
b
= R
and : 450 lb ft
A b
M M Σ − ⋅ =
or 450 lb ft
b
= ⋅ M
(c) Have : 150 lb 450 lb
y c
F R Σ − =
or 300 lb
c
= R
and ( )( ) : 2250 lb ft 450 lb 4 ft
A c
M M Σ ⋅ − =
or 450 lb ft
c
= ⋅ M
(d) Have : 200 lb 400 lb
y d
F R Σ − + =
or 200 lb
d
= R
and ( )( ) : 400 lb 4 ft 1150 lb ft
A d
M M Σ − ⋅ =
or 450 lb ft
d
= ⋅ M
(e) Have : 200 lb 100 lb
y e
F R Σ − − =
or 300 lb
e
= R
and ( )( ) : 100 lb ft 200 lb ft 100 lb 4 ft
A e
M M Σ ⋅ + ⋅ − =
or 100 lb ft
e
= ⋅ M
(b)
PROBLEM 3.98 CONTINUED
(f) Have : 400 lb 100 lb
y f
F R Σ − + =
or 300 lb
f
= R
and ( )( ) : 150 lb ft 150 lb ft 100 lb 4 ft
A f
M M Σ − ⋅ + ⋅ + =
or 400 lb ft
f
= ⋅ M
(g) Have : 100 lb 400 lb
y g
F R Σ − − =
or 500 lb
g
= R
and ( )( ) : 100 lb ft 2000 lb ft 400 lb 4 ft
A g
M M Σ ⋅ + ⋅ − =
or 500 lb ft
g
= ⋅ M
(h) Have : 150 lb 150 lb
y h
F R Σ − − =
or 300 lb
h
= R
and ( )( ) : 1200 lb ft 150 lb ft 150 lb 4 ft
A h
M M Σ ⋅ − ⋅ − =
or 450 lb ft
h
= ⋅ M
Therefore, loadings (c) and (h) are equivalent
PROBLEM 3.99
A 4ftlong beam is loaded as shown. Determine the loading of Problem
3.98 which is equivalent to this loading.
SOLUTION
Have : 100 lb 200 lb
y
R Σ − − = F
or 300 lb = R
and ( )( ) : 200 lb ft 1400 lb ft 200 lb 4 ft
A
M M Σ − ⋅ + ⋅ − =
or 400 lb ft = ⋅ M
Equivalent to case (f) of Problem 3.98
Problem 3.98 Equivalent forcecouples at A
case
R M
( ) a 300 lb 500 lb ft ⋅
( ) b 300 lb 450 lb ft ⋅
( ) c 300 lb 450 lb ft ⋅
( ) d 200 lb 450 lb ft ⋅
( ) e 300 lb 100 lb ft ⋅
( ) f 300 lb 400 lb ft ⋅
( ) g 500 lb 500 lb ft ⋅
( ) h 300 lb 450 lb ft ⋅
PROBLEM 3.100
Determine the single equivalent force and the distance from point A to its
line of action for the beam and loading of (a) Problem 3.98b,
(b) Problem 3.98d, (c) Problem 3.98e.
Problem 3.98: A 4ftlong beam is subjected to a variety of loadings.
(a) Replace each loading with an equivalent forcecouple system at end A
of the beam. (b) Which of the loadings are equivalent?
SOLUTION
(a)
(b)
(c)
For equivalent single force at distance d from A
Have : 300 lb
y
F R Σ − =
or 300 lb = R
and ( )( ) : 300 lb 450 lb ft 0
C
M d Σ − ⋅ =
or 1.500 ft d =
Have : 200 lb 400 lb
y
F R Σ − + =
or 200 lb = R
and ( )( ) ( )( ) : 200 lb 400 lb 4 1150 lb ft 0
C
M d d Σ + − − ⋅ =
or 2.25 ft d =
Have : 200 lb 100 lb
y
F R Σ − − =
or 300 lb = R
and ( )( ) ( )( ) : 100 lb ft 200 lb 100 lb 4 200 lb ft 0
C
M d d Σ ⋅ + − − + ⋅ =
or 0.333 ft d =
PROBLEM 3.101
Five separate forcecouple systems act at the corners of a metal block,
which has been machined into the shape shown. Determine which of
these systems is equivalent to a force ( ) 10 N = F j and a couple of
moment ( ) ( ) 6 N m 4 N m = ⋅ + ⋅ M i k located at point A.
SOLUTION
The equivalent forcecouple system at A for each of the five forcecouple
systems will be determined. Each will then be compared to the given
forcecouple system to determine if they are equivalent.
Forcecouple system at B
Have ( ) : 10 N Σ = F j F
or ( ) 10 N = F j
and
( )
/
:
A B B A
Σ Σ + = M M r F M ×
( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) 4 N m 2 N m 0.2 m 10 N ⋅ + ⋅ + = i k i j M ×
( ) ( ) 4 N m 4 N m = ⋅ + ⋅ M i k
Comparing to given forcecouple system at A,
Is Not Equivalent
Forcecouple system at C
Have ( ) : 10 N Σ = F j F
or ( ) 10 N = F j
and
( )
/
:
A C C A
Σ + = M M r F M ×
( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) 8.5 N m 0.2 m 0.25 m 10 N ⋅ + + =
i i k j M ×
( ) ( ) 6 N m 2.0 N m = ⋅ + ⋅ M i k
Comparing to given forcecouple system at A,
Is Not Equivalent
PROBLEM 3.101 CONTINUED
Forcecouple system at E
Have ( ) : 10 N Σ = F j F
or ( ) 10 N = F j
and
( )
/
:
A E E A
M Σ + = M r F M ×
( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) 6 N m 0.4 m 0.08 m 10 N ⋅ + − =
i i j j M ×
( ) ( ) 6 N m 4 N m = ⋅ + ⋅ M i k
Comparing to given forcecouple system at A,
Is Equivalent
Forcecouple system at G
Have ( ) ( ) : 10 N 10 N Σ + = F i j F
or ( ) ( ) 10 N 10 N = + F i j
F has two force components
forcecouple system at G ∴
Is Not Equivalent
Forcecouple system at I
Have ( ) : 10 N Σ = F j F
or ( ) 10 N = F j
and
( )
/
:
A I I A
Σ Σ + = M M r F M ×
( ) ( ) 10 N m 2 N m ⋅ − ⋅ i k
( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) 0.4 m 0.2 m 0.4 m 10 N + − + =
i j k j M ×
or ( ) ( ) 6 N m 2 N m = ⋅ + ⋅ M i k
Comparing to given forcecouple system at A,
Is Not Equivalent
PROBLEM 3.102
The masses of two children sitting at ends A and B of a seesaw are 38 kg
and 29 kg, respectively. Where should a third child sit so that the
resultant of the weights of the three children will pass through C if she
has a mass of (a) 27 kg, (b) 24 kg.
SOLUTION
First ( ) 38 kg
A A
W m g g = =
( ) 29 kg
B B
W m g g = =
(a) ( ) 27 kg
C C
W m g g = =
For resultant weight to act at C, 0
C
M Σ =
Then ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) 38 kg 2 m 27 kg 29 kg 2 m 0 g g d g − − =
76 58
0.66667 m
27
d
−
∴ = =
or 0.667 m d =
(b) ( ) 24 kg
C C
W m g g = =
For resultant weight to act at C, 0
C
M Σ =
Then ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) 38 kg 2 m 24 kg 29 kg 2 m 0 g g d g − − =
76 58
0.75 m
24
d
−
∴ = =
or 0.750 m d =
PROBLEM 3.103
Three stage lights are mounted on a pipe as shown. The mass of each
light is 1.8 kg
A B
m m = = and 1.6 kg
C
m = . (a) If 0.75 d = m,
determine the distance from D to the line of action of the resultant of the
weights of the three lights. (b) Determine the value of d so that the
resultant of the weights passes through the midpoint of the pipe.
SOLUTION
First ( ) 1.8 kg
A B A
W W m g g = = =
( ) 1.6 kg
C C
W m g g = =
(a) 0.75 m d =
Have
A B C
R W W W = + +
( ) 1.8 1.8 1.6 kg R g = + +
or ( ) 5.2 N g = R
Have
( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) : 1.8 0.3 m 1.8 1.3 m 1.6 2.05 m 5.2
D
M g g g g D Σ − − − = −
1.18462 m D ∴ =
or 1.185 m D =
(b) 1.25 m
2
L
D = =
Have
( )( ) ( )( ) ( )( ) : 1.8 0.3 m 1.8 1.3 m 1.6 1.3 m
D
M g g g d Σ − − − +
( )( ) 5.2 1.25 m g = −
0.9625 m d ∴ =
or 0.963 m d =
PROBLEM 3.104
Three hikers are shown crossing a footbridge. Knowing that the weights
of the hikers at points C, D, and E are 800 N, 700 N, and 540 N,
respectively, determine (a) the horizontal distance from A to the line of
action of the resultant of the three weights when 1.1 m, a = (b) the value
of a so that the loads on the bridge supports at A and B are equal.
SOLUTION
(a)
(b)
(a) 1.1 m a =
Have :
C D E
F W W W R Σ − − − =
800 N 700 N 540 N R ∴ = − − −
2040 N R =
or 2040 N = R
Have
( )( ) ( )( ) ( )( ) : 800 N 1.5 m 700 N 2.6 m 540 N 4.25 m
A
M Σ − − −
( ) R d = −
( ) 5315 N m 2040 N d ∴ − ⋅ = −
and 2.6054 m d =
or 2.61 m to the right of d A =
(b) For equal reaction forces at A and B, the resultant, , R must act at the
center of the span.
From
2
A
L
M R
 
Σ = −

\ .
( )( ) ( )( ) ( )( ) 800 N 1.5 m 700 N 1.5 m 540 N 1.5 m 2.5 a a ∴ − − + − +
( )( ) 2040 N 3 m = −
3060 2050 6120 a + =
and 1.49268 m a =
or 1.493 m a =
PROBLEM 3.105
Gear C is rigidly attached to arm AB. If the forces and couple shown can
be reduced to a single equivalent force at A, determine the equivalent
force and the magnitude of the couple M.
SOLUTION
For equivalence
( ) ( ) : 90 N sin30 125 N cos40
x x
F R Σ − ° + ° =
or 50.756 N
x
R =
( ) ( ) : 90 N cos30 200 N 125 N sin40
y y
F R Σ − ° − − ° =
or 358.29 N
y
R = −
Then ( ) ( )
2 2
50.756 358.29 361.87 N R = + − =
and
358.29
tan 7.0591 81.937
50.756
y
x
R
R
θ θ
−
= = = − ∴ = − °
or 362 N = R
81.9°
Also
( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) : 90 N sin35 0.6 m 200 N cos 25 0.85 m 125 N sin65 1.25 m 0
A
M M Σ − ° − ° − ° =
326.66 N m M ∴ = ⋅
or 327 N m M = ⋅
PROBLEM 3.106
To test the strength of a 25 20in. × suitcase, forces are applied as shown.
If 18 lb, P = (a) determine the resultant of the applied forces, (b) locate
the two points where the line of action of the resultant intersects the edge
of the suitcase.
SOLUTION
(a) 18 lb P =
Have ( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
42 lb
: 20 lb + 3 2 18 lb 36 lb
13
x y
R R Σ − − + + + = + F i i j j i i j
( ) ( ) 18.9461 lb 41.297 lb
x y
R R ∴ − + = + i j i j
or ( ) ( ) 18.95 lb 41.3 lb = − + R i j
( ) ( )
2 2
2 2
18.9461 41.297 45.436 lb
x y
R R R = + = + =
1 1
41.297
tan tan 65.355
18.9461
y
x
x
R
R
θ
− −
 
 
= = = − °


−
\ .
\ .
or 45.4 lb = R 65.4°
(b) Have
B B
Σ = M M
( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
42 lb
4 in. 20 lb 21 in. 3 2 12 in. 36 lb 3 in. 18 lb
13
B
= − + − + + +
M j i i i j j i i j × × × ×
( ) 191.246 lb in.
B
∴ = ⋅ M k
PROBLEM 3.106 CONTINUED
Since
B B
= M r R ×
( ) ( ) 191.246 lb in. 0 41.297 18.9461
18.9461 41.297 0
x y x y ∴ ⋅ = = +
−
i j k
k k
For
191.246
0, 4.6310 in.
41.297
y x = = = or 4.63 in. x =
For
191.246
0, 10.0942 in.
18.9461
x y = = = or 10.09 in. y =
PROBLEM 3.107
Solve Problem 3.106 assuming that 28 lb. P =
Problem 3.106: To test the strength of a 25 20in. × suitcase, forces are
applied as shown. If 18 lb, P = (a) determine the resultant of the applied
forces, (b) locate the two points where the line of action of the resultant
intersects the edge of the suitcase.
SOLUTION
(a) P = 28 lb
Have ( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
42
: 20 lb 3 2 28 lb 36 lb
13
x y
R R Σ − + − + + + = + F i i j j i i j
( ) ( ) 18.9461 lb 51.297 lb
x y
R R ∴ − + = + i j i j
or ( ) ( ) 18.95 lb 51.3 lb = − + R i j
( ) ( )
2 2
2 2
18.9461 51.297 54.684 lb
x y
R R R = + = + =
1 1
51.297
tan tan 69.729
18.9461
y
x
x
R
R
θ
− −
 
 
= = = − °


−
\ .
\ .
or 54.7 lb = R 69.7°
(b) Have
B B
Σ = M M
( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
42 lb
4 in. 20 lb 21 in. 3 2 12 in. 36 lb 3 in. 28 lb
13
B
= − + − + + +
M j i i i j j i i j × × × ×
( ) 221.246 lb in.
B
∴ = ⋅ M k
PROBLEM 3.107 CONTINUED
Since
B B
= M r R ×
( ) ( ) 221.246 lb in. 0 51.297 18.9461
18.9461 51.297 0
x y x y ∴ ⋅ = = +
−
i j k
k k
For
221.246
0, 4.3130 in.
51.297
y x = = = or 4.31 in. x =
For
221.246
0, 11.6776 in.
18.9461
x y = = = or 11.68 in. y =
PROBLEM 3.108
As four holes are punched simultaneously in a piece of aluminum sheet
metal, the punches exert on the piece the forces shown. Knowing that the
forces are perpendicular to the surfaces of the piece, determine (a) the
resultant of the applied forces when 45 α = ° and the point of
intersection of the line of action of that resultant with a line drawn
through points A and B, (b) the value of α so that the line of action of the
resultant passes through fold EF.
SOLUTION
Position the origin for the coordinate system along the centerline of the
sheet metal at the intersection with line EF.
(a) Have Σ = F R
( ) 2.6 5.25 10.5 cos 45 sin 45 3.2 kN = − − − ° + ° −
R j j i j i
( ) ( ) 10.6246 kN 15.2746 kN ∴ = − − R i j
( ) ( )
2 2
2 2
10.6246 15.2746
x y
R R R = + = +
18.6064 kN =
1 1
15.2746
tan tan 55.179
10.6246
y
x
R
R
θ
− −
 
−  
= = = °


−
\ .
\ .
or 18.61 kN = R 55.2°
Have
EF EF
M M = Σ
where
( )( ) ( )( ) 2.6 kN 90 mm 5.25 kN 40 mm
EF
M = +
( )( ) ( ) ( ) 10.5 kN 20 mm 3.2 kN 40 mm sin 45 40 mm − − ° +
15.4903 N m
EF
M ∴ = ⋅
To obtain distance d left of EF,
Have ( ) 15.2746 kN
EF y
M dR d = = −
3
3
15.4903 N m
1.01412 10 m
15.2746 10 N
d
−
−
⋅
∴ = = − ×
− ×
or 1.014 mm left of d EF =
PROBLEM 3.108 CONTINUED
(b) Have 0
EF
M =
( )( ) ( )( ) 0 2.6 kN 90 mm 5.25 kN 40 mm
EF
M = = +
( )( ) 10.5 kN 20 mm −
( ) ( ) 3.2 kN 40 mm sin 40 mm α − +
( ) 128 N m sin 106 N m α ∴ ⋅ = ⋅
sin 0.828125 α =
55.907 α = °
or 55.9 α = °
PROBLEM 3.109
As four holes are punched simultaneously in a piece of aluminum sheet
metal, the punches exert on the piece the forces shown. Knowing that the
forces are perpendicular to the surfaces of the piece, determine (a) the
value of α so that the resultant of the applied forces is parallel to the
10.5 N force, (b) the corresponding resultant of the applied forces and the
point of intersection of its line of action with a line drawn through points
A and B.
SOLUTION
(a) For the resultant force, R, to be parallel to the 10.5 kN force,
α φ =
tan tan
y
x
R
R
α φ ∴ = =
where
( ) 3.2 kN 10.5 kN sin
x
R α = − −
( ) 2.6 kN 5.25 kN 10.5 kN cos
y
R α = − − −
3.2 10.5 sin
tan
7.85 10.5cos
α
α
α
+
∴ =
+
and
3.2
tan 0.40764
7.85
α = =
22.178 α = ° or 22.2 α = °
(b) From 22.178 α = °
( ) 3.2 kN 10.5 kN sin 22.178 7.1636 kN
x
R = − − ° = −
( ) 7.85 kN 10.5 kN cos 22.178 17.5732 kN
y
R = − − ° = −
( ) ( )
2 2
2 2
7.1636 17.5732 18.9770 kN
x y
R R R = + = + =
or 18.98 kN = R 67.8°
Then
EF EF
M M = Σ
where
( )( ) ( )( ) ( )( ) 2.6 kN 90 mm 5.25 kN 40 mm 10.5 kN 20 mm
EF
M = + −
( ) ( ) 3.2 kN 40 mm sin 22.178 40 mm − ° +
57.682 N m = ⋅
PROBLEM 3.109 CONTINUED
To obtain distance d left of EF,
Have ( ) 17.5732
EF y
M dR d = = −
3
3
57.682 N m
3.2824 10 m
17.5732 10 N
d
−
⋅
∴ = = − ×
− ×
or 3.28 mm left of d EF =
PROBLEM 3.110
A truss supports the loading shown. Determine the equivalent force
acting on the truss and the point of intersection of its line of action with a
line through points A and G.
SOLUTION
Have = Σ R F
( )( ) ( ) 240 N cos70 sin 70 160 N = ° − ° − R i j j
( )( ) ( ) 300 N cos 40 sin 40 180 N + − ° − ° − i j j
( ) ( ) 147.728 N 758.36 N ∴ = − − R i j
( ) ( )
2 2
2 2
147.728 758.36
x y
R R R = + = +
772.62 N =
1 1
758.36
tan tan 78.977
147.728
y
x
R
R
θ
− −
 
−  
= = = °


−
\ .
\ .
or 773 N = R 79.0°
Have
A y
M dR Σ =
where
 ( )  ( ) 240 Ncos 70 6 m 240 Nsin 70 4 m
A
M Σ = − ° − °
( )( )  ( ) 160 N 12 m 300 Ncos 40 6 m − + °
 ( ) ( )( ) 300 Nsin 40 20 m 180 N 8 m − ° −
7232.5 N m = − ⋅
7232.5 N m
9.5370 m
758.36 N
d
− ⋅
∴ = =
−
or 9.54 m to the right of d A =
PROBLEM 3.111 CONTINUED
(c) From
/ B D B
= M r R ×
( ) ( )
1 1
23.211 lb in. cos50 sin50 d d − ⋅ = − ° + ° k i j
( ) ( ) 0.83022 lb 1.21394 lb × − +
i j
( ) ( )
1 1
23.211 lb in. 0.78028 0.63599 d d − ⋅ = − − k k
1
23.211
16.3889 in.
1.41627
d ∴ = =
or
1
16.39 in. from along line d B AB =
or 1.389 in. above and to the left of A
PROBLEM 3.112
Three forces and a couple act on crank ABC. Determine the value of d so
that the given system of forces is equivalent to zero at (a) point B, (b)
point D.
SOLUTION
Based on 0
x
F Σ =
cos 3 lb 0 P α − =
cos 3 lb P α ∴ = (1)
and 0
y
F Σ =
sin 2 lb 0 P α − =
sin 2 lb P α ∴ = (2)
Dividing Equation (2) by Equation (1),
2
tan
3
α =
33.690 α ∴ = °
Substituting into Equation (1),
3 lb
3.6056 lb
cos33.690
P = =
°
or 3.61 lb = P 33.7°
(a) Based on 0
B
M Σ =
( ) ( ) 3.6056 lb cos33.690 6 in. sin50 d − ° + °
( ) ( ) 3.6056 lb sin33.690 6 in. cos50 d − ° + °
( ) ( ) ( )( ) 3 lb 6 in. sin50 2 lb 6 in. 50 lb in. 0 + ° − + ⋅ =
3.5838 30.286 d − = −
8.4509 in. d ∴ =
or 8.45 in. d =
PROBLEM 3.112 CONTINUED
(b) Based on 0
D
M Σ =
( ) ( ) 3.6056 lb cos33.690 6 in. sin50 d − ° + °
( ) ( ) 3.6056 lb sin33.690 6 in. cos50 6 in. d − ° + ° +
( ) ( ) 3 lb 6 in. sin50 50 lb in. 0 + ° + ⋅ =
3.5838 30.286 d − = −
8.4509 in. d ∴ =
or 8.45 in. d =
This result is expected, since 0 = R and 0
R
B
= M for
8.45 in. d = implies that 0 and 0 = = R M at any other point for
the value of d found in part a.
PROBLEM 3.113
Pulleys A and B are mounted on bracket CDEF. The tension on each side
of the two belts is as shown. Replace the four forces with a single
equivalent force, and determine where its line of action intersects the
bottom edge of the bracket.
SOLUTION
Equivalent forcecouple at A due to belts on pulley A
Have : 120 N 160 N
A
R Σ − − = F
280 N
A
∴ = R
Have ( ) : 40 N 0.02 m
A A
M Σ − = M
0.8 N m
A
∴ = ⋅ M
Equivalent forcecouple at B due to belts on pulley B
Have ( ) : 210 N 150 N Σ + F 25
B
° = R
360 N
B
∴ = R 25°
Have ( ) : 60 N 0.015 m
B B
M Σ − = M
0.9 N m
B
∴ = ⋅ M
Equivalent forcecouple at F
Have ( ) ( )( ) : 280 N 360 N cos 25 sin 25
F
Σ = − + ° + ° F R j i j
( ) ( ) 326.27 N 127.857 N = − i j
( ) ( )
2 2
2 2
326.27 127.857 350.43 N
F Fx Fy
R R R R = = + = + =
1 1
127.857
tan tan 21.399
326.27
Fy
Fx
R
R
θ
− −
 
−  
= = = − °


\ .
\ .
or 350 N
F
= = R R 21.4°
PROBLEM 3.113 CONTINUED
Have
( )( ) : 280 N 0.06 m 0.80 N m
F F
M Σ = − − ⋅ M
( ) ( ) 360 N cos 25 0.010 m − °
( ) ( ) 360 N sin 25 0.120 m 0.90 N m + ° − ⋅
( ) 3.5056 N m
F
= − ⋅ M k
To determine where a single resultant force will intersect line FE,
F y
M dR =
3.5056 N m
0.027418 m 27.418 mm
127.857 N
F
y
M
d
R
− ⋅
∴ = = = =
−
or 27.4 mm d =
PROBLEM 3.114
As follower AB rolls along the surface of member C, it exerts a constant
force F perpendicular to the surface. (a) Replace F with an equivalent
forcecouple system at the point D obtained by drawing the perpendicular
from the point of contact to the x axis (b) For 1 m a = and 2 m, b =
determine the value of x for which the moment of the equivalent force
couple system at D is maximum.
SOLUTION
(a) The slope of any tangent to the surface of member C is
2
2 2
2
1
dy d x b
b x
dx dx a a
 
−
= − = 

\ .
Since the force F is perpendicular to the surface,
1
2
1
tan
2
dy a
dx b x
α
−
   
= − =
 
\ . \ .
For equivalence
: F Σ = F R
( )( ) : cos
D A D
M F y M α Σ =
where
( )
( )
2
2
2
2
2
2
cos , 1
2
A
bx x
y b
a
a bx
α
 
= = −


\ .
+
3
2
2
4 2 2
2
4
D
x
x Fb
a
M
a b x
 
−


\ .
∴ =
+
Therefore, the equivalent forcecouple system at D is
F = R
2
1
tan
2
a
bx
−
 


\ .
3
2
2
4 2 2
2
a 4
x
Fb x
a
b x
 
−


\ .
=
+
M
PROBLEM 3.114 CONTINUED
(b) To maximize M, the value of x must satisfy 0
dM
dx
=
where, for 1 m, 2 m a b = =
( )
3
2
8
1 16
F x x
M
x
−
=
+
( ) ( )
( )
( )
( )
1
2 2 3 2
2
2
1
1 16 1 3 32 1 16
2
8 0
1 16
x x x x x x
dM
F
dx
x
−
+ − − − +
∴ = =
+
( )( ) ( )
2 2 3
1 16 1 3 16 0 x x x x x + − − − =
or
4 2
32 3 1 0 x x + − =
( )( )
( )
2 2 2
3 9 4 32 1
0.136011 m and 0.22976 m
2 32
x
− ± − −
= = −
Using the positive value of
2
, x
0.36880 m x =
or 369 mm x =
PROBLEM 3.115
As plastic bushings are inserted into a 3in.diameter cylindrical sheet
metal container, the insertion tool exerts the forces shown on the
enclosure. Each of the forces is parallel to one of the coordinate axes.
Replace these forces with an equivalent forcecouple system at C.
SOLUTION
For equivalence
:
A B C D C
Σ + + + = F F F F F R
( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) 5 lb 3 lb 4 lb 7 lb
C
= − − − − R j j k i
( ) ( ) ( ) 7 lb 8 lb 4 lb
C
∴ = − − − R i j k
Also for equivalence
/ / /
:
C A C A B C B D C D C ′ ′ ′
Σ + + = M r F r F r F M × × ×
or
0 0 1.5 in. 1 in. 0 1.5 in. 0 1.5 in. 1.5 in.
0 5 lb 0 0 3 lb 0 7 lb 0 0
C
= − + − +
− −
i j k i j k i j k
M
( ) ( ) ( ) 7.50 lb in. 0 0 4.50 lb in. + 3.0 lb in. 0 = − ⋅ − + − ⋅ − ⋅ −
i i k
( ) ( ) 10.5 lb in. 0 0 10.5 lb in. + ⋅ − + + ⋅
j k
( ) ( ) ( ) or 12.0 lb in. 10.5 lb in. 7.5 lb in.
C
= − ⋅ + ⋅ + ⋅ M i j k
PROBLEM 3.116
Two 300mmdiameter pulleys are mounted on line shaft AD. The belts B
and C lie in vertical planes parallel to the yz plane. Replace the belt forces
shown with an equivalent forcecouple system at A.
SOLUTION
Equivalent forcecouple at each pulley
Pulley B
( )( ) 290 N cos 20 sin 20 430 N
B
= − ° + ° − R j k j
( ) ( ) 702.51 N 99.186 N = − + j k
( )( ) 430 N 290 N 0.15 m
B
= − − M i
( ) 21 N m = − ⋅ i
Pulley C
( )( ) 310 N 480 N sin10 cos10
C
= + − ° − ° R j k
( ) ( ) 137.182 N 778.00 N = − − j k
( )( ) 480 N 310 N 0.15 m
C
= − M i
( ) 25.5 N m = ⋅ i
Then ( ) ( ) 839.69 N 678.81 N
B C
= + = − − R R R j k
or ( ) ( ) 840 N 679 N = − − R j k
/ / A B C B A B C A C
= + + + M M M r R r R × ×
( ) ( ) 21 N m 25.5 N m 0.45 0 0 N m
0 702.51 99.186
= − ⋅ + ⋅ + ⋅
−
i j k
i i
0.90 0 0 N m
0 137.182 778.00
+ ⋅
− −
i j k
( ) ( ) ( ) 4.5 N m 655.57 N m 439.59 N m = ⋅ + ⋅ − ⋅ i j k
( ) ( ) ( ) or 4.50 N m + 656 N m 440 N m
A
= ⋅ ⋅ − ⋅ M i j k
PROBLEM 3.117
A mechanic uses a crowfoot wrench to loosen a bolt at C. The mechanic
holds the socket wrench handle at points A and B and applies forces at
these points. Knowing that these forces are equivalent to a forcecouple
system at C consisting of the force ( ) ( ) 40 N 20 N = − + C i k and the
couple ( ) 40 N m
C
= ⋅ M i , determine the forces applied at A and B when
10
z
A = N.
SOLUTION
Have : Σ + = F A B C
or : 40 N
x x x
F A B + = −
( ) 40 N
x x
B A ∴ = − + (1)
: 0
y y y
F A B Σ + =
or
y y
A B = − (2)
: 10 N 20 N
z z
F B Σ + =
or 10 N
z
B = (3)
Have
/ /
:
C B C AC C
Σ + = M r B r A M × ×
( ) 0.2 0 0.05 0.2 0 0.2 N m 40 N m
10 10
x y x y
B B A A
∴ − + ⋅ = ⋅
i j k i j k
i
or
( ) ( ) 0.05 0.2 0.05 2 0.2 2
y x x x
B A B A − + − − + − i j
( ) ( ) 0.2 0.2 40 N m
y y
B A + + = ⋅ k i
From  coefficient 0.05 0.2 40 N m
y y
B A − = ⋅ i (4)
 coefficient 0.05 0.2 4 N m
x x
B A − + = ⋅ j (5)
 coefficient 0.2 0.2 0
y y
B A + = k (6)
PROBLEM 3.117 CONTINUED
From Equations (2) and (4):
( )
0.05 0.2 40
y y
B B − − =
160 N, 160 N
y y
B A = = −
From Equations (1) and (5): ( ) 0.05 40 0.2 4
x x
A A − − − + =
8 N
x
A =
From Equation (1): ( ) 8 40 48 N
x
B = − + = −
( ) ( ) ( ) 8 N 160 N 10 N ∴ = − + A i j k
( ) ( ) ( ) 48 N 160 N 10 N = − + + B i j k
PROBLEM 3.118
While using a pencil sharpener, a student applies the forces and couple
shown. (a) Determine the forces exerted at B and C knowing that these
forces and the couple are equivalent to a forcecouple system at A
consisting of the force ( ) ( ) 3.9 lb 1.1 lb
y
R = + − R i j k and the couple
( ) ( ) 1.5 lb ft 1.1 lb ft .
R
A x
M = + ⋅ − ⋅ M i j k . (b) Find the corresponding
values of
y
R and .
x
M
SOLUTION
Have : Σ + = F B C R
: 3.9 lb or 3.9 lb
x x x x x
F B C B C Σ + = = − (1)
:
y y y
F C R Σ = (2)
: 1.1 lb
z z
F C Σ = − (3)
Have
/ /
:
R
A B A C A B A
Σ + + = M r B r C M M × ×
( ) ( ) ( )
1 1
0 4.5 4 0 2.0 2 lb ft 1.5 lb ft 1.1 lb ft
12 12
0 0 1.1
x
x x y
x M
B C C
∴ + + ⋅ = + ⋅ − ⋅
−
i j k i j k
i i j k
( ) ( ) ( )
2 0.166667 0.375 0.166667 0.36667 0.33333
y x x y
C B C C − + + + + i j k
( ) ( ) 1.5 1.1
x
M = + − i j k
From  coefficient 2 0.166667
y x
C M − = i (4)
 coefficient 0.375 0.166667 0.36667 1.5
x x
B C + + = j (5)
 coefficient 0.33333 1.1 or 3.3 lb
y y
C C = − = − k (6)
(a) From Equations (1) and (5):
( ) 0.375 3.9 0.166667 1.13333
x x
C C − + =
0.32917
1.58000 lb
0.20833
x
C = =
From Equation (1): 3.9 1.58000 2.32 lb
x
B = − =
( ) 2.32 lb ∴ = B i
( ) ( ) ( ) 1.580 lb 3.30 lb 1.1 lb = − − C i j k
(b) From Equation (2): 3.30 lb
y y
R C = = − ( ) or 3.30 lb
y
= − R j
From Equation (4): ( ) 0.166667 3.30 2.0 2.5500 lb ft
x
M = − − + = ⋅
( ) or 2.55 lb ft
x
= ⋅ M i
PROBLEM 3.119
A portion of the flue for a furnace is attached to the ceiling at A. While
supporting the free end of the flue at F, a worker pushes in at E and pulls
out at F to align end E with the furnace. Knowing that the 10lb force at
F lies in a plane parallel to the yz plane, determine (a) the angle α the
force at F should form with the horizontal if duct AB is not to tend to
rotate about the vertical, (b) the forcecouple system at B equivalent to
the given force system when this condition is satisfied.
SOLUTION
(a) Duct AB will not have a tendency to rotate about the vertical or yaxis if:
( )
/ /
0
R R
By B F B F E B E
M = Σ = + = j M j r F r F ⋅ ⋅ × ×
where
( ) ( ) ( )
/
45 in. 23 in. 28 in.
F B
= − + r i j k
( ) ( ) ( )
/
54 in. 34 in. 28 in.
E B
= − + r i j k
( ) ( ) 10 lb sin cos
F
α α = +
F j k
( ) 5 lb
E
= − F k
( ) ( )( ) 10 lb 45 in. 23 in. 28 in. 5 lb 2 in. 27 17 14
0 sin cos 0 0 1
R
B
α α
∴ Σ = − + −
−
i j k i j k
M
( ) ( ) ( ) 230cos 280sin 170 450cos 270 450sin lb in. α α α α = − − + − − + ⋅
i j k
Thus, 450cos 270 0
R
By
M α = − + =
cos 0.60 α =
53.130 α = °
or 53.1 α = °
PROBLEM 3.119 CONTINUED
(b)
E F
= + R F F
where
( ) 5 lb
E
= − F k
( )( ) ( ) ( ) 10 lb sin53.130 cos53.130 8 lb 6 lb
F
= ° + ° = + F j k j k
( ) ( ) 8 lb 1 lb ∴ = + R j k
and ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) 230 0.6 280 0.8 170 450 0.6 270 450 0.8
R
B
= Σ = − + − − − +
M M i j k
( ) ( ) ( ) 192 lb in. 0 360 lb in. = − ⋅ − + ⋅ i j k
( ) ( ) or 192 lb in. 360 lb in. = − ⋅ + ⋅ M i k
PROBLEM 3.120
A portion of the flue for a furnace is attached to the ceiling at A. While
supporting the free end of the flue at F, a worker pushes in at E and pulls
out at F to align end E with the furnace. Knowing that the 10lb force at
F lies in a plane parallel to the yz plane and that α = 60°, (a) replace the
given force system with an equivalent forcecouple system at C, (b)
determine whether duct CD will tend to rotate clockwise or
counterclockwise relative to elbow C, as viewed from D to C.
SOLUTION
(a) Have
F E
= Σ = + R F F F
where ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) 10 lb sin60 cos 60 8.6603 lb 5.0 lb
F
= ° + ° = +
F j k j k
( ) 5 lb
E
= − F k
( ) 8.6603 lb ∴ = R j ( ) or 8.66 lb = R j
Have ( )
/ /
R
C F C F E C E
= Σ = + M r F r F r F × × ×
where ( ) ( )
/
9 in. 2 in.
F C
= − r i j
( ) ( )
/
18 in. 13 in.
E C
= − r i j
9 2 0 lb in. 18 13 0 lb in.
0 8.6603 5.0 0 0 5
R
C
∴ = − ⋅ + − ⋅
−
i j k i j k
M
( ) ( ) ( ) 55 lb in. 45 lb in. 77.942 lb in. = ⋅ + ⋅ + ⋅ i j k
( ) ( ) ( ) or 55.0 lb in. 45.0 lb in. 77.9 lb in.
R
C
= ⋅ + ⋅ + ⋅ M i j k
(b) To determine which direction duct section CD has a tendency to turn, have
R R
CD DC C
M = M λ ⋅
where
( ) ( )
( )
18 in. 4 in. 1
9 2
2 85 in. 85
DC
− +
= = − +
i j
i j λ
Then ( ) ( )
1
9 2 55 45 77.942 lb in.
85
R
CD
M = − + + + ⋅ i j i j k ⋅
( ) 53.690 9.7619 lb in. = − + ⋅
43.928 lb in. = − ⋅
Since 0,
R
DC C
< M λ ⋅ duct DC tends to rotate clockwise relative to elbow C as viewed from D to C.
PROBLEM 3.121
The headandmotor assembly of a radial drill press was originally
positioned with arm AB parallel to the z axis and the axis of the chuck
and bit parallel to the y axis. The assembly was then rotated
o
25 about
the y axis and
o
20 about the centerline of the horizontal arm AB, bringing
it into the position shown. The drilling process was started by switching
on the motor and rotating the handle to bring the bit into contact with the
workpiece. Replace the force and couple exerted by the drill press with an
equivalent forcecouple system at the center O of the base of the vertical
column.
SOLUTION
Have = R F
( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) 44 N sin 20 cos 25 cos 20 sin 20 sin 25 = ° ° − ° − ° °
i j k
( ) ( ) ( ) 13.6389 N 41.346 N 6.3599 N = − − i j k
( ) ( ) ( ) or 13.64 N 41.3 N 6.36 N = − − R i j k
Have
/ O B O C
= + M r F M ×
where
( ) ( ) ( )
/
0.280 m sin 25 0.300 m 0.280 m cos 25
B O
= ° + + °
r i j k
( ) ( ) ( ) 0.118333 m 0.300 m 0.25377 m = + + i j k
( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) 7.2 N m sin 20 cos 25 cos 20 sin 20 sin 25
C
= ⋅ ° ° − ° − ° °
M i j k
( ) ( ) ( ) 2.2318 N m 6.7658 N m 1.04072 N m = ⋅ − ⋅ − ⋅ i j k
0.118333 0.300 0.25377 N m
13.6389 41.346 6.3599
O
∴ = ⋅
− −
i j k
M
( ) 2.2318 6.7658 1.04072 N m + − − ⋅ i j k
( ) ( ) ( ) 10.8162 N m 2.5521 N m 10.0250 N m = ⋅ − ⋅ − ⋅ i j k
( ) ( ) ( ) or 10.82 N m 2.55 N m 10.03 N m
O
= ⋅ − ⋅ − ⋅ M i j k
PROBLEM 3.122
While a sagging porch is leveled and repaired, a screw jack is used to
support the front of the porch. As the jack is expanded, it exerts on the
porch the forcecouple system shown, where 300 N R = and
37.5 N m. M = ⋅ Replace this forcecouple system with an equivalent
forcecouple system at C.
SOLUTION
From ( )
( ) ( ) ( ) 0.2 m 1.4 m 0.5 m
300 N 300 N
1.50 m
C AB
− + −
= = =
i j k
R R λ
( ) ( ) ( ) 40.0 N 280 N 100 N
C
= − + − R i j k
From
/ C AC
= + M r R M ×
where
( ) ( )
/
2.6 m 0.5 m
AC
= + r i k
( ) ( )
( ) ( ) ( ) 0.2 m 1.4 m 0.5 m
37.5 N m 37.5 N m
1.50 m
BA
− +
= ⋅ = ⋅
i j k
M λ
( ) ( ) ( ) 5.0 N m 35.0 N m 12.5 N m = ⋅ − ⋅ + ⋅ i j k
( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) 10 N m 2.6 0 0.5 5.0 N m 35.0 N m 12.5 N m
4 28 10
C
∴ = ⋅ + ⋅ − ⋅ + ⋅
− −
i j k
M i j k
( ) ( ) ( ) 140 5 N m 20 260 35 N m 728 12.5 N m = − + ⋅ + − + − ⋅ + + ⋅
i j k
( ) ( ) ( ) or 135.0 N m 205 N m 741 N m
C
= − ⋅ + ⋅ + ⋅ M i j k
PROBLEM 3.123
Three children are standing on a 15 15ft × raft. If the weights of the
children at points A, B, and C are 85 lb, 60 lb, and 90 lb, respectively,
determine the magnitude and the point of application of the resultant of
the three weights.
SOLUTION
Have :
A B C
Σ + + = F F F F R
( ) ( ) ( ) 85 lb 60 lb 90 lb − − − = j j j R
( ) 235 lb − = j R or 235 lb R =
Have ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) :
x A A B B C C D
M F z F z F z R z Σ + + =
( )( ) ( )( ) ( )( ) ( )( ) 85 lb 9 ft 60 lb 1.5 ft 90 lb 14.25 ft 235 lb
D
z + + =
9.0957 ft
D
z ∴ = or 9.10 ft
D
z =
Have ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) :
z A A B B C C D
M F x F x F x R x Σ + + =
( )( ) ( )( ) ( )( ) ( )( ) 85 lb 3 ft 60 lb 4.5 ft 90 lb 14.25 ft 235 lb
D
x + + =
7.6915 ft
D
x ∴ = or 7.69 ft
D
x =
PROBLEM 3.124
Three children are standing on a 15 15ft × raft. The weights of the
children at points A, B, and C are 85 lb, 60 lb, and 90 lb, respectively. If a
fourth child of weight 95 lb climbs onto the raft, determine where she
should stand if the other children remain in the positions shown and the
line of action of the resultant of the four weights is to pass through the
center of the raft.
SOLUTION
Have :
A B C D
Σ + + + = F F F F F R
( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) 85 lb 60 lb 90 lb 95 lb − − − − = j j j j R
( ) 330 lb ∴ = − R j
Have ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) :
x A A B B C C D D H
M F z F z F z F z R z Σ + + + =
( )( ) ( )( ) ( )( ) ( )( ) ( )( ) 85 lb 9 ft 60 lb 1.5 ft 90 lb 14.25 ft 95 lb 330 lb 7.5 ft
D
z + + + =
3.5523 ft
D
z ∴ = or 3.55 ft
D
z =
Have ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) :
z A A B B C C D D H
M F x F x F x F x R x Σ + + + =
( )( ) ( )( ) ( )( ) ( )( ) ( )( ) 85 lb 3 ft 60 lb 4.5 ft 90 lb 14.25 ft 95 lb 330 lb 7.5 ft
D
x + + + =
7.0263 ft
D
x ∴ = or 7.03 ft
D
x =
PROBLEM 3.125
The forces shown are the resultant downward loads on sections of the flat
roof of a building because of accumulated snow. Determine the
magnitude and the point of application of the resultant of these four
loads.
SOLUTION
Have :
A B C D
Σ + + + = F F F F F R
( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) 580 kN 2350 kN 330 kN 140 kN − − − − = j j j j R
( ) 3400 kN ∴ = − R j 3400 kN R =
Have ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) :
x A A B B C C D D E
M F z F z F z F z R z Σ + + + =
( )( ) ( )( ) ( )( ) ( )( ) ( )( ) 580 kN 8 m 2350 kN 16 m 330 kN 6 m 140 kN 33.5 m 3400 kN
E
z + + + =
14.3853 m
E
z ∴ = or 14.39 m
E
z =
Have ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) :
z A A B B C C D D E
M F x F x F x F x R x Σ + + + =
( )( ) ( )( ) ( )( ) ( )( ) ( )( ) 580 kN 10 m 2350 kN 32 m 330 kN 54 m 140 kN 32 m 3400 kN
E
x + + + =
30.382 m
E
x ∴ = or 30.4 m
E
x =
PROBLEM 3.126
The forces shown are the resultant downward loads on sections of the flat
roof of a building because of accumulated snow. If the snow represented
by the 580kN force is shoveled so that the this load acts at E, determine
a and b knowing that the point of application of the resultant of the four
loads is then at B.
SOLUTION
Have :
B C D E
Σ + + + = F F F F F R
( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) 2350 kN 330 kN 140 kN 580 kN − − − − = j j j j R
( ) 3400 kN ∴ = − R j
Have ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) :
x B B C C D D E E B
M F z F z F z F z R z Σ + + + =
( )( ) ( )( ) ( )( ) ( )( ) ( )( ) 2350 kN 16 m 330 kN 6 m 140 kN 33.5 m 580 kN 3400 kN 16 m b + + + =
17.4655 m b ∴ = or 17.47 m b =
Have ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) :
z B B C C D D E E B
M F x F x F x F x R x Σ + + + =
( )( ) ( )( ) ( )( ) ( )( ) ( )( ) 2350 kN 32 m 330 kN 54 m 140 kN 32 m 580 kN 3400 kN 32 m a + + + =
19.4828 m a ∴ = or 19.48 m a =
PROBLEM 3.127
A group of students loads a 2 4m × flatbed trailer with two
0.6 0.6 0.6m × × boxes and one 0.6 0.6 1.2m × × box. Each of the
boxes at the rear of the trailer is positioned so that it is aligned with both
the back and a side of the trailer. Determine the smallest load the students
should place in a second 0.6 0.6 1.2m × × box and where on the trailer
they should secure it, without any part of the box overhanging the sides
of the trailer, if each box is uniformly loaded and the line of action of the
resultant of the weights of the four boxes is to pass through the point of
intersection of the centerlines of the trailer and the axle. (Hint: Keep in
mind that the box may be placed either on its side or on its end.)
SOLUTION
For the smallest weight on the trailer so that the resultant force of the four weights acts over the axle at the
intersection with the center line of the trailer, the added 0.6 0.6 1.2m × × box should be placed adjacent to
one of the edges of the trailer with the 0.6 0.6m × side on the bottom. The edges to be considered are based
on the location of the resultant for the three given weights.
Have ( ) ( ) ( ) : 200 N 400 N 180 N Σ − − − = F j j j R
( ) 780 N ∴ = − R j
Have ( )( ) ( )( ) ( )( ) ( )( ) : 200 N 0.3 m 400 N 1.7 m 180 N 1.7 m 780 N
z
M x Σ + + =
1.34103 m x ∴ =
Have ( )( ) ( )( ) ( )( ) ( )( ) : 200 N 0.3 m 400 N 0.6 m 180 N 2.4 m 780 N
x
M z Σ + + =
0.93846 m z ∴ =
From the statement of the problem, it is known that the resultant of R from the original loading and the
lightest load W passes through G, the point of intersection of the two center lines. Thus, 0.
G
Σ = M
Further, since the lightest load W is to be as small as possible, the fourth box should be placed as far from G
as possible without the box overhanging the trailer. These two requirements imply
( ) ( ) 0.3 m 1 m 1.8 m 3.7 m x z ≤ ≤ ≤ ≤
PROBLEM 3.127 CONTINUED
Let 0.3 m, x = ( )( ) ( )( ) ( )( ) ( ) : 200 N 0.7 m 400 N 0.7 m 180 N 0.7 m 0.7 m 0
Gz
M W Σ − − + =
380 N W ∴ =
( )( ) ( )( ) ( )( ) ( )( ) : 200 N 1.5 m 400 N 1.2 m 180 N 0.6 m 380 N 1.8 m 0
Gx
M z Σ − − + + − =
3.5684 m 3.7 m acceptable z ∴ = < ∴
Let 3.7 m, z = ( )( ) ( )( ) ( )( ) ( ) : 200 N 1.5 m 400 N 1.2 m 180 N 0.6 m 1.7 m 0
Gx
M W Σ − − + + =
395.29 N 380 N W ∴ = >
Since the weight W found for 0.3 m x = is less than W found for 3.7 m, 0.3 m z x = = results in the
smallest weight W.
( ) or 380 N at 0.3 m, 0, 3.57 m W =
PROBLEM 3.128
Solve Problem 3.127 if the students want to place as much weight as
possible in the fourth box and that at least one side of the box must
coincide with a side of the trailer.
Problem 3.127: A group of students loads a 2 4m × flatbed trailer with
two 0.6 0.6 0.6m × × boxes and one 0.6 0.6 1.2m × × box. Each of the
boxes at the rear of the trailer is positioned so that it is aligned with both
the back and a side of the trailer. Determine the smallest load the students
should place in a second 0.6 0.6 1.2m × × box and where on the trailer
they should secure it, without any part of the box overhanging the sides
of the trailer, if each box is uniformly loaded and the line of action of the
resultant of the weights of the four boxes is to pass through the point of
intersection of the centerlines of the trailer and the axle. (Hint: Keep in
mind that the box may be placed either on its side or on its end.)
SOLUTION
For the largest additional weight on the trailer with the box having at least one side coinsiding with the side of
the trailer, the box must be as close as possible to point G. For 0.6 m, x = with a small side of the box
touching the zaxis, satisfies this condition.
Let 0.6 m, x = ( )( ) ( )( ) ( )( ) ( ) : 200 N 0.7 m 400 N 0.7 m 180 N 0.7 m 0.4 m 0
Gz
M W Σ − − + =
665 N W ∴ =
and ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) : 200 N 1.5 m 400 N 1.2 m 180 N 0.6 m 665 N 1.8 m 0
GX
M z Σ − − + + − =
( ) 2.8105 m 2 m 4 m acceptable z z ∴ = < < ∴
( ) or 665 N at 0.6 m, 0, 2.81 m W =
PROBLEM 3.129
A block of wood is acted upon by three forces of the same magnitude P
and having the directions shown. Replace the three forces with an
equivalent wrench and determine (a) the magnitude and direction of the
resultant R, (b) the pitch of the wrench, (c) the point where the axis of the
wrench intersects the xy plane.
SOLUTION
First, reduce the given force system to a forcecouple at the origin.
Have : P P P Σ − − = F i i k R
P ∴ = − R k
Have ( ) ( ) ( ) : 3 3 3
R
O O
P a P a P a a Σ − − + − + = M k j i j M
( ) 3
R
O
Pa ∴ = − − M i k
Then let vectors ( )
1
, R M represent the components of the wrench, where their directions are the same.
(a) P = − R k or Magnitude of P = R
Direction of : 90 , 90 , 180
x y z
θ θ θ = ° = ° = − ° R
(b) Have
1
R
R O
M = M λ ⋅
( ) 3 Pa = − − −
k i k ⋅
3Pa =
and pitch
1
3
3
M Pa
p a
R P
= = = or 3 p a =
PROBLEM 3.129 CONTINUED
(c) Have
1 2
R
O
= + M M M
( ) ( )
2 1
3 3
R
O
Pa Pa Pa ∴ = − = − − − − = − M M M i k k i
Require
2 / QO
= M r R ×
( ) ( ) Pa x y P Px Py − = + − = − i i j k j i ×
From : or Pa Py y a − = − = i
: 0 x = j
∴ The axis of the wrench is parallel to the zaxis and intersects the xy plane at 0, x y a = =
PROBLEM 3.130
A piece of sheet metal is bent into the shape shown and is acted upon by
three forces. Replace the three forces with an equivalent wrench and
determine (a) the magnitude and direction of the resultant R, (b) the pitch
of the wrench, (c) the point where the axis of the wrench intersects the
yz plane.
SOLUTION
First, reduce the given force system to a forcecouple system at the origin.
Have ( ) ( ) ( ) : 2P P P Σ − + = F i j j R
( ) 2P ∴ = R i
Have ( ) :
R
O O O
Σ Σ = M r F M ×
( ) 2 2 2.5 0 0 4 1.5 5 6
2 1 0 0 1 0
R
O
Pa Pa = + = − + −
−
i j k i j k
M i j k
(a) 2P = R i or Magnitude of 2P = R
Direction of : 0 , 90 , 90
x y z
θ θ θ = ° = − ° = ° R
(b) Have
1
R
R O R
M
R
= =
R
M λ ⋅ λ
( ) 1.5 5 6 Pa Pa Pa = − + − i i j k ⋅
1.5Pa = −
and pitch
1
1.5
0.75
2
M Pa
p a
R P
−
= = = − or 0.75 p a = −
PROBLEM 3.130 CONTINUED
(c) Have
1 2
R
O
= + M M M
( ) ( )
2 1
5 6
R
O
Pa Pa ∴ = − = − M M M j k
Require
2 / QO
= M r R ×
( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) 5 6 2 2 2 Pa Pa y z P Py Pz − = + = − + j k j k i k j ×
From : 5 2 Pa Pz = i
2.5 z a ∴ =
From : 6 2 Pa Py − = − k
3 y a ∴ =
∴ The axis of the wrench is parallel to the xaxis and intersects the yzplane at 3 , 2.5 y a z a = =
PROBLEM 3.131
The forces and couples shown are applied to two screws as a piece of
sheet metal is fastened to a block of wood. Reduce the forces and the
couples to an equivalent wrench and determine (a) the resultant force R,
(b) the pitch of the wrench, (c) the point where the axis of the wrench
intersects the xz plane.
SOLUTION
First, reduce the given force system to a forcecouple at the origin.
Have ( ) ( ) : 10 N 11 N Σ − − = F j j R
( ) 21 N ∴ = − R j
Have ( ) :
R
O O C O
Σ Σ + Σ = M r F M M ×
( ) 0 0 0.5 N m 0 0 0.375 N m 12 N m
0 10 0 0 11 0
R
O
= ⋅ + − ⋅ − ⋅
− −
i j k i j k
M j
( ) ( ) 0.875 N m 12 N m = ⋅ − ⋅ i j
(a) ( ) 21 N = − R j ( ) or 21 N = − R j
(b) Have
1
R
R O R
M
R
= =
R
M λ ⋅ λ
( ) ( ) ( ) 0.875 N m 12 N m = − −
j i j ⋅ ⋅ ⋅
( )
1
12 N m and 12 N m = ⋅ = − ⋅ M j
and pitch
1
12 N m
0.57143 m
21 N
M
p
R
⋅
= = = or 0.571 m p =
PROBLEM 3.131 CONTINUED
(c) Have
1 2
R
O
= + M M M
( )
2 1
0.875 N m
R
O
∴ = − = ⋅ M M M i
Require
2 / QO
= M r R ×
( ) ( ) ( ) 0.875 N m 21 N x z ∴ ⋅ = + −
i i k j ×
( ) ( ) 0.875 21 21 x z = − + i k i
From i: 0.875 21z =
0.041667 m z ∴ =
From k: 0 21x = −
0 z ∴ =
∴ The axis of the wrench is parallel to the yaxis and intersects the xzplane at 0, 41.7 mm x z = =
PROBLEM 3.132
The forces and couples shown are applied to two screws as a piece of
sheet metal is fastened to a block of wood. Reduce the forces and the
couples to an equivalent wrench and determine (a) the resultant force R,
(b) the pitch of the wrench, (c) the point where the axis of the wrench
intersects the xz plane.
SOLUTION
First, reduce the given force system to a forcecouple system.
Have ( ) ( ) : 6 lb 4.5 lb 7.5 lb R Σ − − = = F i j R
Have ( ) :
R
O O C O
Σ ∑ + ∑ = M r F M M ×
( ) ( ) ( ) 6 lb 8 in. 160 lb in. 72 lb in.
R
O
= − − ⋅ − ⋅ M j i j
( ) ( ) 160 lb in. 120 lb in. = − ⋅ − ⋅ i j
200 lb in.
R
O
M = ⋅
(a) ( ) ( ) 6 lb 4.5 lb = − − R i j
(b) Have
1
R
R O
M
R
= =
R
M λ ⋅ λ
( ) ( ) ( ) 0.8 0.6 160 lb in. 120 lb in. = − − − ⋅ − ⋅
i j i j ⋅
200 lb in. = ⋅
and ( )
1
200 lb in. 0.8 0.6 = ⋅ − − M i j
Pitch
1
200 lb in.
26.667 in.
7.50 lb
M
p
R
⋅
= = =
or 26.7 in. p =
(c) From above note that
1
R
O
= M M
Therefore, the axis of the wrench goes through the origin. The line
of action of the wrench lies in the xy plane with a slope of
3
4
dy
dx
=
PROBLEM 3.133
Two bolts A and B are tightened by applying the forces and couple
shown. Replace the two wrenches with a single equivalent wrench and
determine (a) the resultant R, (b) the pitch of the single equivalent
wrench, (c) the point where the axis of the wrench intersects the xz plane.
SOLUTION
First, reduce the given force system to a forcecouple at the origin.
Have ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) : 20 lb 21 lb 21 lb 20 lb 29 lb R Σ − − = − − = = F k j j k R
and ( ) :
R
O O C O
Σ ∑ + ∑ = M r F M M ×
( ) ( ) ( ) 20 lb 4 in. 4 3 0 21 lb 4 in. 6 0 1 300 320 lb in.
0 0 1 0 1 0
R
O
+ + − − ⋅ =
− −
i j k i j k
j k M
( ) ( ) ( ) 156 lb in. 20 lb in. 824 lb in.
R
O
∴ = − ⋅ + ⋅ − ⋅ M i j k
(a) ( ) ( ) 21 lb 20 lb = − − R j k
(b) Have
1
R
R O R
M
R
= =
R
M λ ⋅ λ
( ) ( ) ( )
21 20
156 lb in. 20 lb in. 824 lb in.
29
− −
= − − ⋅ + ⋅ − ⋅
j k
i j k ⋅
553.80 lb in. = ⋅
PROBLEM 3.133 CONTINUED
and ( ) ( )
1 1
401.03 lb in. 381.93 lb in.
R
M = = − ⋅ − ⋅ M j k λ
Then pitch
1
553.80 lb in.
19.0964 in.
29 lb
M
p
R
⋅
= = = or 19.10 in. p =
(c) Have
1 2
R
O
= + M M M
( ) ( )
2 1
156 20 824 401.03 381.93 lb in.
R
O
∴ = − = − + − − − − ⋅
M M M i j k j k
( ) ( ) ( ) 156.0 lb in. 421.03 lb in. 442.07 lb in. = − ⋅ + ⋅ − ⋅ i j k
Require
2 / QO
= M r R ×
( ) ( ) ( ) 156 421.03 442.07 21 20 x z − + − = + − − i j k i k j k ×
( ) ( ) ( ) 21 20 21 z x x = + − i j k
From i: 156 21z − =
7.4286 in. z ∴ = −
or 7.43 in. z = −
From k: 442.07 21x − = −
21.051 in. x ∴ =
or 21.1 in. x =
∴ The axis of the wrench intersects the xzplane at
21.1 in., 7.43 in. x z = = −
PROBLEM 3.134
Two bolts A and B are tightened by applying the forces and couple
shown. Replace the two wrenches with a single equivalent wrench and
determine (a) the resultant R, (b) the pitch of the single equivalent
wrench, (c) the point where the axis of the wrench intersects the xz plane.
SOLUTION
First reduce the given force system to a forcecouple at the origin at B.
(a) Have ( ) ( )
8 15
: 79.2 lb 51 lb
17 17
 
Σ − − + =

\ .
F k i j R
( ) ( ) ( ) 24.0 lb 45.0 lb 79.2 lb ∴ = − − − R i j k
and 94.2 lb R =
Have
/
:
R
B A B A A B B
Σ + + = M r F M M M ×
( )
8 15
0 20 0 660 714 1584 660 42 8 15
17 17
0 0 79.2
R
B
 
= − − − + = − − +

\ .
−
i j k
M k i j i k i j
( ) ( ) ( ) 1248 lb in. 630 lb in. 660 lb in.
R
B
∴ = ⋅ − ⋅ − ⋅ M i j k
(b) Have
1
R
R O R
M
R
= =
R
M λ ⋅ λ
( ) ( ) ( )
24.0 45.0 79.2
1248 lb in. 630 lb in. 660 lb in.
94.2
− − −
= ⋅ − ⋅ − ⋅
i j k
i j k ⋅
537.89 lb in. = ⋅
PROBLEM 3.134 CONTINUED
and
1 1 R
M = M λ
( ) ( ) ( ) 137.044 lb in. 256.96 lb in. 452.24 lb in. = − ⋅ − ⋅ − ⋅ i j k
Then pitch
1
537.89 lb in.
5.7101 in.
94.2 lb
M
p
R
⋅
= = = or 5.71 in. p =
(c) Have
1 2
R
B
= + M M M
( ) ( )
2 1
1248 630 660 137.044 256.96 452.24
R
B
∴ = − = − − − − − − M M M i j k i j k
( ) ( ) ( ) 1385.04 lb in. 373.04 lb in. 207.76 lb in. = ⋅ − ⋅ − ⋅ i j k
Require
2 / Q B
= M r R ×
1385.04 373.04 207.76 0
24 45 79.2
x z − − =
− − −
i j k
i j k
( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) 45 24 79.2 45 z z x x = − + − i j j k
From i: 1385.04 45 30.779 in. z z = ∴ =
From k: 207.76 45 4.6169 in. x x − = − ∴ =
∴ The axis of the wrench intersects the xzplane at
4.62 in., 30.8 in. x z = =
PROBLEM 3.135
A flagpole is guyed by three cables. If the tensions in the cables have the
same magnitude P, replace the forces exerted on the pole with an
equivalent wrench and determine (a) the resultant force R, (b) the pitch of
the wrench, (c) the point where the axis of the wrench intersects the xz
plane.
SOLUTION
(a) First reduce the given force system to a forcecouple at the origin.
Have :
BA DC DE
P P P Σ + + = F R λ λ λ
4 3 3 4 9 4 12
5 5 5 5 25 5 25
P
−      
= − + − + − +
  
\ . \ . \ .
R j k i j i j k
( )
3
2 20
25
P
∴ = − − R i j k
( ) ( ) ( )
2 2 2 3 27 5
2 20 1
25 25
P
R P = + + =
Have ( ) :
R
O O
P Σ Σ = M r M ×
( ) ( ) ( )
4 3 3 4 9 4 12
24 20 20
5 5 5 5 25 5 25
R
O
P P P P P P P
a a a
− −      
− + − + − + =
  
\ . \ . \ .
j j k j i j j i j k M × × ×
( )
24
5
R
O
Pa
∴ = − − M i k
(b) Have
1
R
R O
M = M λ ⋅
where ( ) ( )
3 25 1
2 20 2 20
25 27 5 9 5
R
P
R P
= = − − = − −
R
i j k i j k λ
PROBLEM 3.135 CONTINUED
Then ( ) ( )
1
1 24 8
2 20
5 9 5 15 5
Pa Pa
M
−
= − − − − = i j k i k ⋅
and pitch
1
8 25 8
81 15 5 27 5
M Pa a
p
R P
− −  
= = =

\ .
or 0.0988 p a = −
(c) ( ) ( )
1 1
8 1 8
2 20 2 20
675 15 5 9 5
R
Pa Pa
M
−  
= = − − = − + +

\ .
M i j k i j k λ
Then ( ) ( ) ( )
2 1
24 8 8
2 20 403 20 406
5 675 675
R
O
Pa Pa Pa
= − = − − − − + + = − − − M M M i k i j k i j k
Require
2 / QO
= M r R ×
( ) ( ) ( )
8 3
403 20 406 2 20
675 25
Pa P
x z
   
− − − = + − −
 
\ . \ .
i j k i k i j k ×
( )
3
20 2 20
25
P
z x z x
 
= + + −

\ .
i j k
From i: ( )
3
8 403 20
675 25
Pa P
z
 
− =

\ .
1.99012 z a ∴ = −
From k: ( )
3
8 406 20 2.0049
675 25
Pa P
x x a
 
− = − ∴ =

\ .
∴ The axis of the wrench intersects the xzplane at
2.00 , 1.990 x a z a = = −
PROBLEM 3.136
Determine whether the forceandcouple system shown can be reduced to
a single equivalent force R. If it can, determine R and the point where the
line of action of R intersects the yz plane. If it cannot be so reduced,
replace the given system with an equivalent wrench and determine its
resultant, its pitch, and the point where its axis intersects the yz plane.
SOLUTION
First, reduce the given force system to a forcecouple at D.
Have :
DA ED DA DA ED ED
F F Σ + = + = F F F R λ λ
where
( ) ( ) ( ) 0.300 m 0.225 m 0.200 m
136 N
0.425 m
DA
− + +
=
i j k
F
( ) ( ) ( ) 96 N 72 N 64 N = − + + i j k
( ) ( )
( ) ( )
0.150 m 0.200 m
120 N 72 N 96 N
0.250 m
ED
− −
= = − −
i k
F i k
( ) ( ) ( ) 168 N 72 N 32 N ∴ = − + − R i j k
Have :
R
D A D
Σ = M M M
or ( )
( ) ( ) ( )
( )
0.150 m 0.150 m 0.450 m 16 N m
16 N m 3
0.150 11 m 11
R
D
− − + ⋅
= ⋅ = − − +
i j k
M i j k
PROBLEM 3.136 CONTINUED
The forcecouple at D can be replaced by a single force if R is perpendicular to .
R
D
M To be perpendicular,
0.
R
D
= R M ⋅
Have ( ) ( )
16
168 72 32 3
11
R
D
= − + − − − + R M i j k i j k ⋅ ⋅
( )
128
21 9 12
11
= − −
0 =
∴ Forcecouple can be reduced to a single equivalent force.
To determine the coordinates where the equivalent single force intersects the yzplane,
/
R
D Q D
= M r R ×
where ( ) ( ) ( )
/
0 0.300 m 0.075 m 0 m
Q D
y z = − + − + −
r i j k
( ) ( ) ( )
16 N m
3 8 N 0.3 0.075 m
11
21 9 4
y z
⋅
∴ − − + = − −
− −
i j k
i j k
or
( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
{ }
16 N m
3 8 N 4 0.075 9 21 1.2 2.7 21 0.075 m
11
y z z y
⋅
− − + = − − − + − − + − + −
i j k i j k
From j: ( )
16
8 21 1.2
11
z
−
= − − 0.028427 m 28.4 mm z ∴ = − = −
From k: ( )
48
8 2.7 21 0.075 0.28972 m 290 mm
11
y y = − + − ∴ = =
∴ line of action of R intersects the yzplane at
290 mm, 28.4 mm y z = = −
PROBLEM 3.137
Determine whether the forceandcouple system shown can be reduced to
a single equivalent force R. If it can, determine R and the point where the
line of action of R intersects the yz plane. If it cannot be so reduced,
replace the given system with an equivalent wrench and determine its
resultant, its pitch, and the point where its axis intersects the yz plane.
SOLUTION
First, reduce the given force system to a forcecouple at the origin.
Have :
A G
Σ + = F F F R
( )
( ) ( ) ( )
( ) ( ) ( )
4 in. 6 in. 12 in.
10 lb 14 lb 4 lb 6 lb 2 lb
14 in.
+ −
∴ = + = + −
i j k
R k i j k
and 56 lb R =
Have ( ) :
R
O O C O
Σ ∑ + ∑ = M r F M M ×
( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
{ }
12 in. 10 lb 16 in. 4 lb 6 lb 12 lb
R
O
= + + −
M j k i i j k × ×
( )
( ) ( )
( )
( ) ( ) ( ) 16 in. 12 in. 4 in. 12 in. 6 in.
84 lb in. 120 lb in.
20 in. 14 in.
− − +
+ ⋅ + ⋅
i j i j k
( ) ( ) ( )
0
221.49 lb in. 38.743 lb in. 147.429 lb in.
R
∴ = ⋅ + ⋅ + ⋅ M i j k
( ) ( ) ( ) 18.4572 lb ft 3.2286 lb ft 12.2858 lb ft = ⋅ + ⋅ + ⋅ i j k
PROBLEM 3.137 CONTINUED
The forcecouple at O can be replaced by a single force if the direction of R is perpendicular to .
R
O
M
To be perpendicular 0
R
O
= R M ⋅
Have ( ) ( ) 4 6 2 18.4572 3.2286 12.2858 0?
R
O
= + − + + = R M i j k i j k ⋅ ⋅
73.829 19.3716 24.572 = + −
0 ≠
∴ System cannot be reduced to a single equivalent force.
To reduce to an equivalent wrench, the moment component along the line of action of P is found.
1
R
R O R
M
R
= =
R
M λ ⋅ λ
( )
( )
4 6 2
18.4572 3.2286 12.2858
56
+ −
= + +
i j k
i j k ⋅
9.1709 lb ft = ⋅
and ( )( )
1 1
9.1709 lb ft 0.53452 0.80178 0.26726
R
M = = ⋅ + − M i j k λ
And pitch
1
9.1709 lb ft
1.22551 ft
56 lb
M
p
R
⋅
= = =
or 1.226 ft p =
Have
( ) ( )( )
2 1
18.4572 3.2286 12.2858 9.1709 0.53452 0.80178 0.26726
R
O
= − = + + − + − M M M i j k i j k
( ) ( ) ( ) 13.5552 lb ft 4.1244 lb ft 14.7368 lb ft = ⋅ − ⋅ + ⋅ i j k
Require
2 / Q O
= M r R ×
( ) ( ) ( ) 13.5552 4.1244 14.7368 4 6 2 y z − + = + + − i j k j k i j k ×
( ) ( ) ( ) 2 6 4 4 y z z y = − + + − i j k
From j: 4.1244 4z − = or 1.0311 ft z = −
From k: 14.7368 4 or 3.6842 ft y y = − = −
∴ line of action of the wrench intersects the yz plane at
3.68 ft, 1.031 ft y z = − =
PROBLEM 3.138
Replace the wrench shown with an equivalent system consisting of two
forces perpendicular to the y axis and applied respectively at A and B.
SOLUTION
Express the forces at A and B as
x z
A A = + A i k
x z
B B = + B i k
Then, for equivalence to the given force system
: 0
x x x
F A B Σ + = (1)
:
z z z
F A B R Σ + = (2)
( ) ( ) : 0
x z z
M A a B a b Σ + + = (3)
( ) ( ) :
z x x
M A a B a b M Σ − − + = (4)
From Equation (1),
x x
B A = −
Substitute into Equation (4)
( ) ( )
x x
A a A a b M − + + =
and
x x
M M
A B
b b
∴ = = −
From Equation (2),
z z
B R A = −
and Equation (3), ( )( ) 0
z z
A a R A a b + − + =
1
z
a
A R
b
 
∴ = +

\ .
PROBLEM 3.138 CONTINUED
and 1
z
a
B R R
b
 
= − +

\ .
z
a
B R
b
∴ = −
Then 1
M a
R
b b
   
= + +
 
\ . \ .
A i k
M a
R
b b
   
= − −
 
\ . \ .
B i k
PROBLEM 3.139
Show that, in general, a wrench can be replaced with two forces chosen in
such a way that one force passes through a given point while the other
force lies in a given plane.
SOLUTION
First, choose a coordinate system so that the xy plane coincides with the given plane. Also, position the
coordinate system so that the line of action of the wrench passes through the origin as shown in Figure a.
Since the orientation of the plane and the components (R, M) of the wrench are known, it follows that the
scalar components of R and M are known relative to the shown coordinate system.
A force system to be shown as equivalent is illustrated in Figure b. Let A be the force passing through the
given point P and B be the force that lies in the given plane. Let b be the xaxis intercept of B.
The known components of the wrench can be expressed as
and
x y z x y z
R R R M M M M = + + = + + R i j k i j k
while the unknown forces A and B can be expressed as
and
x y z x z
A A A B B = + + = + A i j k B i k
Since the position vector of point P is given, it follows that the scalar components (x, y, z) of the position
vector
P
r are also known.
Then, for equivalence of the two systems
:
x x x x
F R A B Σ = + (1)
:
y y y
F R A Σ = (2)
:
z z z z
F R A B Σ = + (3)
:
x x z y
M M yA zA Σ = − (4)
:
y y x z z
M M zA xA bB Σ = − − (5)
:
z z y x
M M xA yA Σ = − (6)
PROBLEM 3.139 CONTINUED
Based on the above six independent equations for the six unknowns
( )
, , , , , ,
x y z x z
A A A B B b there exists a
unique solution for A and B.
From Equation (2)
y y
A R =
Equation (6)
( )
1
x y z
A xR M
y
 
= −

\ .
Equation (1)
( )
1
x x y z
B R xR M
y
 
= − −

\ .
Equation (4)
( )
1
z x y
A M zR
y
 
= +

\ .
Equation (3)
( )
1
z z x y
B R M zR
y
 
= − +

\ .
Equation (5)
( )
( )
x y z
x z y
xM yM zM
b
M yR zR
+ +
=
− +
PROBLEM 3.140
Show that a wrench can be replaced with two perpendicular forces, one
of which is applied at a given point.
SOLUTION
First, observe that it is always possible to construct a line perpendicular to a given line so that the constructed
line also passes through a given point. Thus, it is possible to align one of the coordinate axes of a rectangular
coordinate system with the axis of the wrench while one of the other axes passes through the given point.
See Figures a and b.
Have and and are known. R M = = R j M j
The unknown forces A and B can be expressed as
and
x y z x y z
A A A B B B = + + = + + A i j k B i j k
The distance a is known. It is assumed that force B intersects the xz plane at (x, 0, z). Then for equivalence
: 0
x x x
F A B ∑ = + (1)
:
y y y
F R A B ∑ = + (2)
: 0
z z z
F A B ∑ = + (3)
: 0
x y
M zB ∑ = − (4)
:
y z z x
M M aA xB zB ∑ = − − + (5)
: 0
z y y
M aA xB ∑ = + (6)
Since A and B are made perpendicular,
0 or 0
x x y y z z
A B A B A B = + + = A B ⋅ (7)
There are eight unknowns: , , , , , , ,
x y z x y z
A A A B B B x z
But only seven independent equations. Therefore, there exists an infinite number of solutions.
PROBLEM 3.140 CONTINUED
Next consider Equation (4): 0
y
zB = −
If 0,
y
B = Equation (7) becomes 0
x x z z
A B A B + =
Using Equations (1) and (3) this equation becomes
2 2
0
x z
A A + =
Since the components of A must be real, a nontrivial solution is not possible. Thus, it is required that
0,
y
B ≠ so that from Equation (4), 0. z =
To obtain one possible solution, arbitrarily let 0.
x
A =
(Note: Setting , ,
y z
A A or
z
B equal to zero results in unacceptable solutions.)
The defining equations then become.
0
x
B = (1)′
y y
R A B = + (2)
0
z z
A B = + (3)
z z
M aA xB = − − (5)′
0
y y
aA xB = + (6)
0
y y z z
A B A B + = (7)′
Then Equation (2) can be written
y y
A R B = −
Equation (3) can be written
z z
B A = −
Equation (6) can be written
y
y
aA
x
B
= −
Substituting into Equation (5)′,
( )
y
z z
y
R B
M aA a A
B
 
−
= − − − − 

\ .
or
z y
M
A B
aR
= − (8)
Substituting into Equation (7)′,
( )
0
y y y y
M M
R B B B B
aR aR
  
− + − =
 
\ .\ .
PROBLEM 3.140 CONTINUED
or
2 3
2 2 2
y
a R
B
a R M
=
+
Then from Equations (2), (8), and (3)
2 3 2
2 2 2 2 2 2
y
a R RM
A R
a R M a R M
= − =
+ +
2 3 2
2 2 2 2 2 2
z
M a R aR M
A
aR a R M a R M
 
= − = −


+ +
\ .
2
2 2 2
z
aR M
B
a R M
=
+
In summary
( )
2 2 2
RM
M aR
a R M
= −
+
A j k
( )
2
2 2 2
aR
aR M
a R M
= +
+
B j k
Which shows that it is possible to replace a wrench with two perpendicular forces, one of which is applied at a
given point.
Lastly, if 0 and 0, R M > > it follows from the equations found for A and B that 0 and 0.
y y
A B > >
From Equation (6), 0 (assuming 0). x a < > Then, as a consequence of letting 0,
x
A = force A lies in a plane
parallel to the yz plane and to the right of the origin, while force B lies in a plane parallel to the yz plane but to
the left of the origin, as shown in the figure below.
PROBLEM 3.141
Show that a wrench can be replaced with two forces, one of which has a
prescribed line of action.
SOLUTION
First, choose a rectangular coordinate system where one axis coincides with the axis of the wrench and
another axis intersects the prescribed line of action ( ). AA′ Note that it has been assumed that the line of
action of force B intersects the xz plane at point ( ) , 0, . P x z Denoting the known direction of line AA′ by
A x y z
λ λ λ = + + i j k λ
it follows that force A can be expressed as
( )
A x y z
A A λ λ λ = = + + i j k λ A
Force B can be expressed as
x y z
B B B = + + B i j k
Next, observe that since the axis of the wrench and the prescribed line of action AA′ are known, it follows
that the distance a can be determined. In the following solution, it is assumed that a is known.
Then, for equivalence
: 0
x x x
F A B λ Σ = + (1)
:
y y y
F R A B λ Σ = + (2)
: 0
z z z
F A B λ Σ = + (3)
: 0
x y
M zB Σ = − (4)
:
y z x z
M M aA zB xB λ Σ = − + − (5)
: 0
z y y
M aA xB λ Σ = + (6)
Since there are six unknowns
( )
, , , , ,
x y z
A B B B x z and six independent equations, it will be possible to
obtain a solution.
PROBLEM 3.141 CONTINUED
Case 1: Let 0 z = to satisfy Equation (4)
Now Equation (2)
y y
A R B λ = −
Equation (3)
z z
B Aλ = −
Equation (6)
( )
y
y
y y
aA
a
x R B
B B
λ
 
= − = − − 

\ .
Substitution into Equation (5)
( )( )
z y z
y
a
M aA R B A
B
λ λ
 
= − − − − − 

\ .
1
y
z
M
A B
aR λ
 
∴ = −

\ .
Substitution into Equation (2)
1
y y y
z
M
R B B
aR
λ
λ
 
= − +

\ .
2
z
y
z y
aR
B
aR M
λ
λ λ
∴ =
−
Then
z y
y z
MR R
A
aR
aR M
M
λ λ
λ λ
= − =
−
−
x
x x
z y
MR
B A
aR M
λ
λ
λ λ
= − =
−
z
z z
z y
MR
B A
aR M
λ
λ
λ λ
= − =
−
In summary
A
y z
P
aR
M
λ λ
=
−
A λ
( )
x z z
z y
R
M aR M
aR M
λ λ λ
λ λ
= + +
−
B i j k
and
z
2
1 1
y
y z
aR M
R
x a a R
B aR
λ λ
λ
  −  
= − = −  


\ . \ .
or
y
z
M
x
R
λ
λ
=
Note that for this case, the lines of action of both A and B intersect the x axis.
PROBLEM 3.141 CONTINUED
Case 2: Let 0
y
B = to satisfy Equation (4)
Now Equation (2)
y
R
A
λ
=
Equation (1)
x
x
y
B R
λ
λ
 
= − 

\ .
Equation (3)
z
z
y
B R
λ
λ
 
= − 

\ .
Equation (6) 0 which requires 0
y
aA a λ = =
Substitution into Equation (5)
or
x z
z x y
y y
M
M z R x R x z
R
λ λ
λ λ λ
λ λ
   
 
= − − − − =  

 
\ .
\ . \ .
This last expression is the equation for the line of action of force B.
In summary
A
y
R
λ
 
= 

\ .
A λ
( )
x z
y
R
λ λ
λ
 
= − − 

\ .
B i k
Assuming that , , 0,
x y z
λ λ λ > the equivalent force system is as shown below.
Note that the component of A in the xz plane is parallel to B.
PROBLEM 3.142
A worker tries to move a rock by applying a 360N force to a steel bar as
shown. (a) Replace that force with an equivalent forcecouple system at
D. (b) Two workers attempt to move the same rock by applying a vertical
force at A and another force at D. Determine these two forces if they are
to be equivalent to the single force of part a.
SOLUTION
(a) Have ( ) ( ) ( ) : 360 N sin40 cos40 231.40 N 275.78 N Σ − ° − ° = − − = F i j i j F
or 360 N = F 50°
Have
/
:
D B D
Σ = M r R M ×
where ( ) ( )
/
0.65 m cos30 0.65 m sin30
B D
= − ° + °
r i j
( ) ( ) 0.56292 m 0.32500 m = − + i j
( ) 0.56292 0.32500 0 N m 155.240 75.206 N m
231.40 275.78 0
∴ = − ⋅ = + ⋅
− −
i j k
M k
( ) 230.45 N m = ⋅ k or 230 N m = ⋅ M
(b) Have
/
:
D A D A
Σ = M M r F ×
where ( ) ( )
/
1.05 m cos30 1.05 m sin30
A D
= − ° + °
r i j
( ) ( ) 0.90933 m 0.52500 m = − + i j
PROBLEM 3.142 CONTINUED
  0.90933 0.52500 0 N m 230.45 N m
0 1 0
A
F ∴ − ⋅ = ⋅
−
i j k
k
or ( ) 0.90933 230.45
A
F = k k
253.42 N
A
F ∴ = or 253 N
A
= F
Have :
A D
Σ = + F F F F
( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) 231.40 N 275.78 N 253.42 N cos sin
D
F θ θ − − = − + − − i j j i j
From : 231.40 N cos
D
F θ = i (1)
: 22.36 N sin
D
F θ = j (2)
Equation (2) divided by Equation (1)
tan 0.096629 θ =
5.5193 θ ∴ = ° or 5.52 θ = °
Substitution into Equation (1)
231.40
232.48 N
cos5.5193
D
F = =
°
or 232 N
D
= F 5.52°
PROBLEM 3.143
A worker tries to move a rock by applying a 360N force to a steel bar as
shown. If two workers attempt to move the same rock by applying a force
at A and a parallel force at C, determine these two forces so that they will
be equivalent to the single 360N force shown in the figure.
SOLUTION
Have :
A C
Σ = + F R F F
( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) 360 N sin 40 360 N cos 40 sin cos
A C A C
F F F F θ θ − ° − ° = − + − +
i j i j
From ( ) ( ) : 360 N sin 40 sin
A C
F F θ ° = + i (1)
( ) ( ) : 360 N cos 40 cos
A C
F F θ ° = + j (2)
Dividing Equation (1) by Equation (2),
tan40 tanθ ° =
40 θ ∴ = °
Substituting 40 θ = ° into Equation (1),
360 N
A C
F F + = (3)
Have
/ /
:
C B C AC A
Σ = M r R r F × ×
where ( )( ) ( ) ( )
/
0.35 m cos30 sin30 0.30311 m 0.175 m
B C
= − ° + ° = − + r i j i j
PROBLEM 3.143 CONTINUED
( )( ) ( ) ( ) 360 N sin40 cos 40 231.40 N 275.78 N = − ° − ° = − − R i j i j
( )( ) ( ) ( )
/
0.75 m cos30 sin30 0.64952 m 0.375 m
AC
= − ° + = − + r i j i j
( ) ( ) sin40 cos40 0.64279 0.76604
A A A
F F = − ° − ° = − − F i j i j
0.30311 0.175 0 N m 0.64952 0.375 0 N m
231.40 275.78 0 0.64279 0.76604 0
A
F ∴ − ⋅ = − ⋅
− − − −
i j k i j k
( ) 83.592 40.495 0.49756 0.24105
A
F + = +
168.002 N
A
F ∴ = or 168.0 N
A
F =
Substituting into Equation (3),
360 168.002 191.998 N
C
F = − = or 192.0 N
C
F =
or 168.0 N
A
= F 50°
192.0 N
C
= F 50°
PROBLEM 3.144
A force and a couple are applied as shown to the end of a cantilever
beam. (a) Replace this system with a single force F applied at point C,
and determine the distance d from C to a line drawn through points D and
E. (b) Solve part a if the directions of the two 360N forces are reversed.
SOLUTION
(a)
(b)
(a) Have ( ) ( ) ( ) : 360 N 360 N 600 N Σ = − − F F j j k
or ( ) 600 N = − F k
and ( )( ) ( )( ) : 360 N 0.15 m 600 N
D
M d Σ =
0.09 m d ∴ =
or 90.0 mm below d ED =
(b) Have from part a ( ) 600 N = − F k
and ( )( ) ( )( ) : 360 N 0.15 m 600 N
D
M d Σ − = −
0.09 m d ∴ =
or 90.0 mm above d ED =
PROBLEM 3.145
A crate of mass 80 kg is held in the position shown. Determine (a) the
moment produced by the weight W of the crate about E, (b) the smallest
force applied at B which creates a moment of equal magnitude and
opposite sense about E.
SOLUTION
(a) By definition
( )
2
80 kg 9.81 m/s 784.8 N W mg = = =
Have ( )( ) : 784.8 N 0.25 m
E E
M M Σ =
196.2 N m
E
∴ = ⋅ M
(b) For the force at B to be the smallest, resulting in a moment ( )
E
M
about E, the line of action of force
B
F must be perpendicular to the
line connecting E to B. The sense of
B
F must be such that the force
produces a counterclockwise moment about E.
Note: ( ) ( )
2 2
0.85 m 0.5 m 0.98615 m d = + =
Have ( ) : 196.2 N m 0.98615 m
E B
M F Σ ⋅ =
198.954 N
B
F ∴ =
and
1
0.85 m
tan 59.534
0.5 m
θ
−
 
= = °

\ .
or 199.0 N
B
= F 59.5°
PROBLEM 3.146
A crate of mass 80 kg is held in the position shown. Determine (a) the
moment produced by the weight W of the crate about E, (b) the smallest
force applied at A which creates a moment of equal magnitude and
opposite sense about E, (c) the magnitude, sense, and point of application
on the bottom of the crate of the smallest vertical force which creates a
moment of equal magnitude and opposite sense about E.
SOLUTION
(a) By definition
( )
2
80 kg 9.81 m/s 784.8 N W mg = = =
Have ( )( ) : 784.8 N 0.25 m
E E
M M Σ =
196.2 N m
E
∴ = ⋅ M
(b) For the force at A to be the smallest, resulting in a moment about E,
the line of action of force
A
F must be perpendicular to the line
connecting E to A. The sense of
A
F must be such that the force
produces a counterclockwise moment about E.
Note: ( ) ( )
2 2
0.35 m 0.5 m 0.61033 m d = + =
Have ( ) : 196.2 N m 0.61033 m
E A
M F Σ ⋅ =
321.47 N
A
F ∴ =
and
1
0.35 m
tan 34.992
0.5 m
θ
−
 
= = °

\ .
or 321 N
A
= F 35.0°
(c) The smallest force acting on the bottom of the crate resulting in a
moment about E will be located at the point on the bottom of the
crate farthest from E and acting perpendicular to line CED. The
sense of the force will be such as to produce a counterclockwise
moment about E. A force acting vertically upward at D satisfies
these conditions.
PROBLEM 3.146 CONTINUED
Have
/
:
E E D E D
Σ = M M r F ×
( ) ( ) ( ) 196.2 N m 0.85 m
D
F ⋅ = k i j ×
( ) ( ) 196.2 N m 0.85
D
F ⋅ = k k
230.82 N
D
F ∴ =
or 231 N
D
= F
PROBLEM 3.147
A farmer uses cables and winch pullers B and E to plumb one side of a
small barn. Knowing that the sum of the moments about the x axis of the
forces exerted by the cables on the barn at points A and D is equal to
4728 lb ft, ⋅ determine the magnitude of
DE
T when 255 lb.
AB
= T
SOLUTION
The moment about the xaxis due to the two cable forces can be found
using the zcomponents of each force acting at their intersection with the
xyplane (A and D). The xcomponents of the forces are parallel to the x
axis, and the ycomponents of the forces intersect the xaxis. Therefore,
neither the x or y components produce a moment about the xaxis.
Have ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) :
x AB A DE D x
z z
M T y T y M Σ + =
where ( ) ( )
AB AB AB AB
z
T T = = k T k ⋅ ⋅ λ
12 12
255 lb 180 lb
17
− − +  
= =

\ .
i j k
k ⋅
( ) ( )
DE DE DE DE
z
T T = = k T k ⋅ ⋅ λ
1.5 14 12
0.64865
18.5
DE DE
T T
− +  
= =

\ .
i j k
k ⋅
12 ft
A
y =
14 ft
D
y =
4728 lb ft
x
M = ⋅
( )( ) ( )( ) 180 lb 12 ft 0.64865 14 ft 4728 lb ft
DE
T ∴ + = ⋅
and 282.79 lb
DE
T =
or 283 lb
DE
T =
PROBLEM 3.148
Solve Problem 3.147 when the tension in cable AB is 306 lb.
Problem 3.147: A farmer uses cables and winch pullers B and E to
plumb one side of a small barn. Knowing that the sum of the moments
about the x axis of the forces exerted by the cables on the barn at points A
and D is equal to 4728 lb ft, ⋅ determine the magnitude of
DE
T when
255 lb.
AB
= T
SOLUTION
The moment about the xaxis due to the two cable forces can be found
using the z components of each force acting at the intersection with the xy
plane (A and D). The x components of the forces are parallel to the x axis,
and the y components of the forces intersect the x axis. Therefore, neither
the x or y components produce a moment about the x axis.
Have ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) :
x AB A DE D x
z z
M T y T y M Σ + =
where ( ) ( )
AB AB AB AB
z
T T = = k T k ⋅ ⋅ λ
12 12
306 lb 216 lb
17
− − +  
= =

\ .
i j k
k ⋅
( ) ( )
DE DE DE DE
z
T T = = k T k ⋅ ⋅ λ
1.5 14 12
0.64865
18.5
DE DE
T T
− +  
= =

\ .
i j k
k ⋅
12 ft
A
y =
14 ft
D
y =
4728 lb ft
x
M = ⋅
( )( ) ( )( ) 216 lb 12 ft 0.64865 14 ft 4728 lb ft
DE
T ∴ + = ⋅
and 235.21 lb
DE
T =
or 235 lb
DE
T =
PROBLEM 3.149
As an adjustable brace BC is used to bring a wall into plumb, the force
couple system shown is exerted on the wall. Replace this forcecouple
system with an equivalent forcecouple system at A knowing that
21.2 lb R = and 13.25 lb ft. M = ⋅
SOLUTION
Have :
A BC
Σ = = F R R Rλ
where
( ) ( ) ( ) 42 in. 96 in. 16 in.
106 in.
BC
− −
=
i j k
λ
( )
21.2 lb
42 96 16
106
A
∴ = − − R i j k
( ) ( ) ( ) or 8.40 lb 19.20 lb 3.20 lb
A
= − − R i j k
Have
/
:
A C A A
Σ + = M r R M M ×
where ( ) ( ) ( )
/
1
42 in. 48 in. 42 48 ft
12
C A
= + = + r i k i k
( ) ( ) 3.5 ft 4.0 ft = + i k
( ) ( ) ( ) 8.40 lb 19.20 lb 3.20 lb = − − R i j k
BC
M = − M λ
( )
42 96 16
13.25 lb ft
106
− + +
= ⋅
i j k
( ) ( ) ( ) 5.25 lb ft 12 lb ft 2 lb ft = − ⋅ + ⋅ + ⋅ i j k
PROBLEM 3.149 CONTINUED
Then ( ) 3.5 0 4.0 lb ft 5.25 12 2 lb ft
8.40 19.20 3.20
A
⋅ + − + + ⋅ =
− −
i j k
i j k M
( ) ( ) ( ) 71.55 lb ft 56.80 lb ft 65.20 lb ft
A
∴ = ⋅ + ⋅ − ⋅ M i j k
( ) ( ) ( ) or 71.6 lb ft 56.8 lb ft 65.2 lb ft
A
= ⋅ + ⋅ − ⋅ M i j k
PROBLEM 3.150
Two parallel 60N forces are applied to a lever as shown. Determine the
moment of the couple formed by the two forces (a) by resolving each
force into horizontal and vertical components and adding the moments of
the two resulting couples, (b) by using the perpendicular distance
between the two forces, (c) by summing the moments of the two forces
about point A.
SOLUTION
(a) Have
1 2
:
B x y
d C d C Σ − + = M M
where ( )
1
0.360 m sin55 0.29489 m d = ° =
( )
2
0.360 m cos55 0.20649 m d = ° =
( ) 60 N cos 20 56.382 N
x
C = ° =
( ) 60 N sin 20 20.521 N
y
C = ° =
( )( ) ( )( ) ( ) 0.29489 m 56.382 N 0.20649 m 20.521 N 12.3893 N m ∴ = − + = − ⋅ M k k k
or 12.39 N m = ⋅ M
(b) Have ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) 60 N 0.360 m sin 55 20 Fd = − = ° − ° −
M k k
( ) 12.3893 N m = − ⋅ k
or 12.39 N m = ⋅ M
PROBLEM 3.150 CONTINUED
(c) Have ( )
/ /
:
A A B A B C A C
Σ Σ = + = M r F r F r F M × × ×
( )( ) ( )( ) 0.520 m 60 N cos55 sin55 0 0.880 m 60 N cos55 sin55 0
cos 20 sin 20 0 cos 20 sin 20 0
M ∴ = ° ° + ° °
− ° − ° ° °
i j k i j k
( ) ( ) 17.8956 N m 30.285 N m 12.3892 N m = ⋅ − ⋅ = − ⋅ k k
or 12.39 N m = ⋅ M
PROBLEM 3.151
A 32lb motor is mounted on the floor. Find the resultant of the weight
and the forces exerted on the belt, and determine where the line of action
of the resultant intersects the floor.
SOLUTION
Have ( ) ( ) ( )( ) : 60 lb 32 lb 140 lb cos30 sin30 Σ − + ° + ° = F i j i j R
( ) ( ) 181.244 lb 38.0 lb ∴ = + R i j
or 185.2 lb = R 11.84°
Have :
O O y
M M xR Σ Σ =
( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) 140 lb cos 30 4 2cos 30 in. 140 lb sin 30 2 in. sin 30 ∴ − ° + ° − ° °
( )( ) ( ) 60 lb 2 in. 38.0 lb x − =
( )
1
694.97 70.0 120 in.
38.0
x = − − −
and 23.289 in. x = −
Or, resultant intersects the base (x axis) 23.3 in. to the left of the vertical centerline (y axis) of the motor.
PROBLEM 3.152
To loosen a frozen valve, a force F of magnitude 70 lb is applied to the
handle of the valve. Knowing that 25 , θ = ° 61 lb ft,
x
M = − ⋅ and
43 lb ft,
z
M = − ⋅ determine θ and d.
SOLUTION
Have
/
:
O AO O
Σ = M r F M ×
where ( ) ( ) ( )
/
4 in. 11 in.
AO
d = − + − r i j k
( ) cos cos sin cos sin F θ φ θ θ φ = − + F i j k
For 70 lb, 25 F θ = = °
( ) ( ) ( ) 70 lb 0.90631cos 0.42262 0.90631sin φ φ = − +
F i j k
( ) 70 lb 4 11 in.
0.90631cos 0.42262 0.90631sin
O
d
φ φ
∴ = − −
− −
i j k
M
( ) ( ) ( ) 70 lb 9.9694sin 0.42262 0.90631 cos 3.6252sin d d φ φ φ = − + − +
i j
( ) 1.69048 9.9694cos in. φ + −
k
and ( )( ) ( )( ) 70 lb 9.9694sin 0.42262 in. 61 lb ft 12 in./ft
x
M d φ = − = − ⋅ (1)
( )( ) 70 lb 0.90631 cos 3.6252sin in.
y
M d φ φ = − + (2)
( )( ) ( ) 70 lb 1.69048 9.9694cos in. 43 lb ft 12 in./ft
z
M φ = − = − ⋅ (3)
PROBLEM 3.152 CONTINUED
From Equation (3)
1
634.33
cos 24.636
697.86
φ
−
 
= = °

\ .
or 24.6 φ = °
From Equation (1)
1022.90
34.577 in.
29.583
d
 
= =

\ .
or 34.6 in. d =
PROBLEM 3.153
When a force F is applied to the handle of the valve shown, its moments
about the x and z axes are, respectively, 77 lb ft
x
M = − ⋅ and
81 lb ft.
z
M = − ⋅ For 27 in., d = determine the moment
y
M of F about
the y axis.
SOLUTION
Have
/
:
O AO O
Σ = M r F M ×
where ( ) ( ) ( )
/
4 in. 11 in. 27 in.
AO
= − + − r i j k
( ) cos cos sin cos sin F θ φ θ θ φ = − + F i j k
4 11 27 lb in.
cos cos sin cos sin
O
F
θ φ θ θ φ
∴ = − − ⋅
−
i j k
M
( ) ( ) 11cos sin 27sin 27cos cos 4cos sin F θ φ θ θ φ θ φ = − + − +
i j
( ) ( ) 4sin 11cos cos lb in. θ θ φ + − ⋅
k
and ( )( ) 11cos sin 27sin lb in.
x
M F θ φ θ = − ⋅ (1)
( )( ) 27cos cos 4cos sin lb in.
y
M F θ φ θ φ = − + ⋅ (2)
( )( ) 4sin 11cos cos lb in.
z
M F θ θ φ = − ⋅ (3)
Now, Equation (1)
1
cos sin 27sin
11
x
M
F
θ φ θ
 
= +

\ .
(4)
and Equation (3)
1
cos cos 4sin
11
z
M
F
θ φ θ
 
= −

\ .
(5)
Substituting Equations (4) and (5) into Equation (2),
1 1
27 4sin 4 27sin
11 11
z x
y
M M
M F
F F
θ θ
¦ ¹
¦ ¦    
= − − + +
´ `
 
\ . \ . ¦ ¦ ¹ )
or ( )
1
27 4
11
y z x
M M M = +
PROBLEM 3.153 CONTINUED
Noting that the ratios
27
11
and
4
11
are the ratios of lengths, have
( ) ( )
27 4
81 lb ft 77 lb ft 226.82 lb ft
11 11
y
M = − ⋅ + − ⋅ = ⋅
or 227 lb ft
y
M = − ⋅
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