# Speed, Velocity, and Acceleration

Negative acceleration : decelaration or retardation Uniform accelaration : steady accelaration Motion graphs Distance-time graph

15 10 5 0 1 2 3 4

120 100 80 60 40 20 0 1 2 3 4 5 Acceleratin g Stopping

80 60 40 20 0 1 2 3 4 5 Steady Speed

100 50 0 1 2 3 4

Gradient = acceleration The area under the line = distance travelled Example= Area = width x length Area = 60 x 5 = 300 m

Steady/uniform acceleration : no air resistance Non-uniform acceleration : air resistance Free fall Downwards

If stone is trown downwards Upwards

If stone is trown upwards General equation

Forces in Balance Force (F) is measured by a spring balance Force has unit of Newton (N)

If there is no external force acting, an object will if stationary, remain stationary, if moving, keep moving with a steady speed in a straight line (Newton’s Law I)

Terminal velocity : a maximum velocity an object can reach. A Skydiver without parachute has bigger terminal velocity than a skydiver with parachute Force, mass, and acceleration Inertia : when an object resist a change in velocity, the more mass it has, the more resistance it has Resultant force =

This means the object moves to the right with force 5N

Resultant Force =

This means the object moves to the right with force 10N. Resultant Force =

This means the object moves to the left with force 2N. Resultant force =

This means that the object stops.

The more mass and the more acceleration it has, the more force is needed. (Newton’s Law II)